JUNE
1
1381 - Peasants' Revolt: Rebels in Essex kill three of Bampton's clerks and several of the Brentwood townsfolk who had agreed to act as jurors. Meanwhile, the revolt was rapidly growing as villagers spread the news across the region.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peasants'_Revolt
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wat_Tyler
partacus-educational.com/YALDchronology.htm
www.marxists.org/history/england/peasants-revolt/story.htm
morrisedition.lib.uiowa.edu/dreamJohnBallWrightHistoricalIntro.html
www.historic-uk.com/HistoryUK/HistoryofEngland/Wat-Tyler-the-Peasants-Revolt/]

1648 - Moscow Uprising [Московское восстание 1648] / Salt Riot [Соляной бунт]: One of the largest urban uprisings in the middle of the XVII century in Russia, the mass action of the lower and middle layers of the urban population, urban artisans, and serfs, provoked the government's replacement of different taxes with a universal salt tax for the purpose of replenishing the state treasury after the Time of Troubles (Смутное время).
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moscow_uprising_of_1648
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Соляной_бунт]

1649 - 'A declaration from the poor oppressed people of England, directed to all those that call themselves, or are called Lords of Manors, through this nation; That have begun to cut, or that through fear and covetousness, do intend to cut down the Woods and Trees that grow upon the Commons and Waste Land' is issued by the True Levellers, who had begun cultivating common land on St. George's Hill in the parish of Walton in Surrey on April 1, 1649. The text is an appeal that the landless poor should be free to cultivate the commons and waste lands in order to support themselves, amongst the promises implicit in the declaration of a free Commonwealth on May 19, 1649, when the Rump Parliament adopted 'An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth'.

[E] 1771 - A crowd of women was arrested while destroying the fences around Rewhay Common, England. Another group of women marched to Burton-on-Trent where they freed their comrades and carry them away in triumph.

[1831 - Merthyr Rising: Workers march on Merthyr.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Merthyr_Rising
libcom.org/library/1831-merthyr-tydfil-uprising
www.southwalespolicemuseum.org.uk/en/content/cms/history_of_the_force/the_merthyr_rising/the_merthyr_rising.aspx
www.hiraeth.wales/2013/06/03/bara-neu-waed-bread-or-blood-the-red-flag-is-raised-over-merthyr/
www.socialistparty.org.uk/articles/2464
www.alangeorge.co.uk/Dic_Penderyn.htm
democracyandclasstruggle.blogspot.co.uk/2013/05/merthyr-rising-1831-beginning.html]

1843 - After numerous problems and delays, Flora Tristan publishes her book 'Union Ouvrière' (The Workers' Union), an important early work of feminist theory. The manifesto, which puts forward the argument for the establishing an international working movement where women are able to play the role they deserve but are currently unable to so do, also states that the freedom of the working class cannot be established without delivering those same rights to all women. The initial print run was 3,000 and to publicise the book, spread her ideas and encourage the proletariat to create local committees of the Workers Union, she embarked on a 'tour de France' in April 1844, visiting apprentis-compagnons (labour movement branches) across the country. However, she never completed her tour, dying of typhus on November 14, 1844, in Bordeaux.
[www.estelnegre.org/anarcoefemerides/0106.html
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flora_Tristan
fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flora_Tristan
es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flora_Tristán
www.ohio.edu/chastain/rz/tristan.htm
www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/rschwart/hist255/at/tristan_text.html
www.womeninworldhistory.com/imow-Tristan.pdf
mujeres-riot.webcindario.com/Flora_Tristan.htm]

1848 - Engels and Marx become editors of the 'Neue Rhenische Zeitung: Organ der Demokratie' (New Rhenish Newspaper: Organ of Democracy) in Cologne.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neue_Rheinische_Zeitung
www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/subject/newspapers/neue-rheinische-zeitung.htm]

1857 - Washington Know-Nothing Riot: So named after the American Party, commonly known as the Know Nothing movement, an American political party that aimed to 'purify' American politics by limiting or ending the influence of Irish Catholics, Germans and other immigrants. The Washington riot took place when a band of American Party rowdies, including members of the Plug Uglies, Rip Raps, and Shiffler Fire Company from Philadelphia, travelled by train from Baltimore to Washington, D.C. to assist local party members in controlling the polls at a municipal election. After word of their arrival spread and rioting began at several polls, President James Buchanan called out United States Marines from the Navy Yard to quell the fighting.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Know-Nothing_Riot
exhibits.library.villanova.edu/chaos-in-the-streets-the-philadelphia-riots-of-1844/know-nothings/]

1867 - Jules Valles, French novelist, journalist, anarchist propagandist, launches the weekly magazine 'La Rue', involving artists and writers such as Émile Zola and Gustave Courbet before being suppressed.

1873 - Albert Laisant (d. 1928), French anarchist, Freemason and libertarian pedagogue, born. Son of Charles Ange Laisant (1841-1920). Author of the children's novel 'Magojana: le Maître du Secret' (Magojana: Master of the Secret; 1925). Introduced to anarchist ideas by Sébastien Faure, Albert turns the whole family into anarchists, including his father and his two sons, Maurice and Charles.

1876 - The first issue of the 'Chicagoer Arbeiter-Zeitung' (Chicago German Worker's Journal) is published.

1905 - Libertaire-Plage camp at Chatelaillon opens for the summer months (June 1 to Oct. 1).

[F] 1906 - Huelga y Masacre de Cananea [Cananea Strike & Massacre]: In Mexico a bloody copper miners' strike begins in Cananea, Sonora. The miners demand "Cinco pesos y ocho horas de trabajo!" (Five pesos and an eight hour day). [expand]
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Río_Blanco_strike
es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huelga_de_Cananea
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Río_Blanco_strike
es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huelga_de_Río_Blanco
www.weneverforget.org/we-never-forget-the-cananea-martyrs-of-june-1906/
groups.google.com/forum/#!topic/logiademasones/k2bnCBc9Q6o]

1907 - In Los Angeles, Ricardo Flores Magón, Librado Rivera and Antonio I. Villarreal, all on the run with bounties on their heads (25,000 dollars for Ricardo), clandestinely publish the premier issue of 'Revolución' in Los Angeles. Arrested without warrants on August 23rd, the paper was continued by other Mexican revolutionary anarchists, Praxedis G. Guerrero, Manuel Sarabia and Lazano Gutierrez de Lara, until January 1908 when US authorities arrest Gutierrez de Lara ad Sarabia and 'Revolución' is suppressed.
[sites.google.com/site/magonistaorg/1907-los-angeles]

1910 - 1,500 members of the International Association of Bridge and Structural Iron Workers in Los Angeles go out on strike to demand a $0.50 an hour minimum wage and overtime pay as part of the union's campaign to re-unionise the city. Ranged against it was the city's Merchants and Manufacturers' Association and the vehemently anti-union Harrison Gray Otis, publisher of the 'Los Angeles Times', who controlled and finance the M&M and used the 'Times' in his 20-year personal anti-union campaign. The M&M raised $350,000 (equivalent to $8.5 million today) to break the strike, whilst a superior court judge issued a series of injunctions which all but banned picketing. On July 15, the Los Angeles City Council unanimously enacted an ordinance banning picketing and "speaking in public streets in a loud or unusual tone", with a penalty of 50 days in jail or a $100 fine or both. Most union members refused to obey the injunctions or ordinance, and 472 strikers were arrested. The strike, however, proved effective: by September, 13 new unions had formed, increasing union membership in the city by almost 60 percent.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Association_of_Bridge,_Structural,_Ornamental_and_Reinforcing_Iron_Workers
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Los_Angeles_Times_bombing
www.kcet.org/shows/lost-la/red-flags-over-los-angeles-part-2-bombs-betrayal-and-the-election-of-1911
spartacus-educational.com/Ajohn_mcnamara.htm
libcom.org.libcom.org/files/Foner PS - A Martyr to His Cause - The Scenario of the First Labor Film in the United States_0.pdf]

1911 - The first issue of the monthly magazine 'La Vie Anarchiste' is published in Reims.

1913 - The first issue of the monthly newspaper 'Haro!' is published in Uccle-Bruxelles by the illustrator Albert Daenens, bringing together avant-garde artists and writers. Seven issues came out up til Jan. 1914 and reappears after the war, with the first issue dated July 5 1919 as a fortnightly.

1915 - Battle of Trinidad / Revolución Mexicana: Pancho Villa masses 19,500 horsemen and 6,000 cavalry against Alvaro Obregon's 9,400 cavalry and 14,500 infantry. Obregon loses right arm to shellfire. Hill succeeds him. Villa's forces are exhaust during repeated assaults. Villa has 8,000 causalities and retreats north, his days as a leader of a large northern army are over.
Venustiano Carranza now shifts his attention to the south to deal with Emiliano Zapata in Morelos and dispatches General Pablo Gonzalzez, known as the general who never won a battle . Despite using terror tactics, is unable to defeat Emiliano Zapata.

1919 - Rosa Luxemburg's corpse is found.

1919 - Revolución Mexicana: Alvaro Obregon announces he will run for president.

1921 - The first issue of 'Le Bulletin Libertaire' is published in Brussels.

1925 - Hong Kong General Strike [省港大罷工]: Martial law is declared in Shanghai as a General Strike begins, part of ongoing labour insurgency throughout all China's industrial cities.
[zh.wikipedia.org/zh-hant/省港大罷工
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canton–Hong_Kong_strike
baike.baidu.com/view/200614.htm
zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/五卅慘案
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/May_Thirtieth_Movement
baike.baidu.com/view/59626.htm]

[C] 1934 - The British Union of Fascists' office in Gateshead is wrecked, probably by Anti-Fascist League Greyshirts.
[afaarchive.files.wordpress.com/2012/02/heroes-or-villains.pdf]

1936 - Grève Générale en France: During a brief lull in the strike movement, only 10 factories are currently occupied by workers.

1938 - Attilio Bulzamini (d. 1890), Spanish anarchist militant, dies of typhoid. [see: Nov. 11]

[B] 1940 - Katerina Gogou (Κατερίνα Γώγου; d. 1993), Greek anarchist poet, author and actress, born. [expand]
[libcom.org/history/katerina-gogou-athens-anarchist-poetess-1940-1993
el.wikipedia.org/wiki/Κατερίνα_Γώγου
anarxikostrapezitis.blogspot.co.uk/2012/10/blog-post_3933.html
www.sarantakos.com/kibwtos/gogou.htm]

1962 - Novocherkassk Massacre [Новочеркасский Расстрел]: After already having had their wages lowered by 30 to 35 percent on January 1, 1962, the workers at the Novocherkassk Electric Locomotive Factory (NEVZ), the largest electro-locomotive plant in southern Russian city of Novocherkassk, are hit by a double whammy on the same day. Having already had the government announce that there would be a sharp "temporary" increase in the price of meat and dairy products (up to 35%), beginning on June 1st, an unexpected and severe attack on the standard of living of all working people in the USSR, and one which was bound to produce general discontent, the workers discover that they had now been ordered to increase production by 30 percent. The factory had already seen a three day stoppage that Spring over demands for better working conditions, especially in the insulation winding shop where 200 workers had suffered poisoning due to poor safety levels. Something had to give.
At 10:00, about 200 steel foundry workers stopped work and demanded higher prices for their work. At 11:00 they went to the plant, on the way they were joined by workers from other departments, as a result of the plant has gathered about 1000 people. [expand]
[www.struggle.ws/eastern/novocherkassk.html
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Novocherkassk_massacre
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Новочеркасский_расстрел
tragedy.narod.ru/rus.htm
www.novocherkassk.ru/history/novoch/1962.html
libcom.org/library/1962-novocherkassk-tragedy
www.spunk.org/texts/places/russia/sp000197.txt]

1963 - Mario Buda (b. 1884), Italian-born American anarchist and Galleanist associate of Sacco and Vanzetti, dies. Considered by some as the inventor of the car bomb when a car he owned was used in the September 16, 1920 Wall Street bombing. [see: Oct. 13]
[it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mario_Buda]

1968 - Helen Adams Keller (b. 1880), deaf-blind American author, lecturer, suffragette, pacifist, birth control advocate, and member of the Socialist Party of America and the Industrial Workers of the World, dies in her sleep at the age of 87. [see: Jun. 27]

1975 - A bomb explodes in the office of the deputy director of Corrections at the Washington State Department of Corrections in Olympia. The communique for the bombing publicly announced the existence of the George Jackson Brigade.

1977 - Native American activist Leonard Peltier sentenced in Fargo, North Dakota, to two consecutive life terms for the killing of two FBI agents, in one of the most corrupt trials in recent US history.

1977 - Émile Coulaudon aka Colonel Gaspard (b. 1907), French socialist, who was one of the principal leaders of the Résistance in Auvergne, dies. [see: Dec. 29]

[D] 1980 - In one of the most successful guerrilla actions against apartheid, two South African petroleum plants and the country's largest oil refinery are bombed.

1982 - The Revolutionary Cells Terrorist Group explodes bombs at four US military bases across West Germany.

1983 - Anna Seghers (Anna Reiling; b. 1900), German novelist, Communist and anti-fascist, whose novel 'Die Gefährten' (The Fellowship; 1932), a prophetic warning of the dangers of Fascism, led to her being arrested by the Gestapo, dies in Berlin. [see: Nov. 19]

[A] 1985 - Battle of the Beanfield when Wiltshire Police, trying to prevent the setting up of the 11th Stonehenge Free Festival, attack 'The Convoy'.

[CC] 2013 - The BNP try to hold a wreath laying event at the Cenotaph in London. A couple of hundred anti-fascists were prevented from overrunning the BNP's assembly point in Old Palace Yard by the cops and the fewer than 70 fash present were unable to move off. Meanwhile the UAF blocked the junction with Parliament Square. "For the next four hours the police tested the will of the crowd by rushing forward and using snatch squads. Over sixty arrests were made as anti-fascists were loaded into double decker buses specially commandeered for the occasion. However the line refused to budge and the fash stayed safely penned in." ['Schnews' 844] At 3pm, just as the cops seemed to be trying to create a corridor of vans to push the BNP along their march route, 4-500 badger-masked re-inforcements arrived from the 'Stop the Cull' demo which had just ended in St James' Park. "Two hours later the fash ... decided to throw in the towel and announced that they were not going to march. Victorious anti-fascists marched to the Cenotaph before retiring for a well deserved pint." [ibid] Those arrested, who appear to have been part of a pre-planned 'quota', were all bailed out of central London and given conditions not to participate in or organise 'protests'.
[www.schnews.org.uk/stories/Youre-Avin-a-Cenotaph!/]

2013 - Gezi Park protester Ethem Sarısülük (b. 1986) is shot in the head by police. After spending 14 days in intensive care, he dies on June 14.
[tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethem_Sarısülük]
2
[F] June 2: International Sex Workers Day.
German: Hurentag (Whore's Day)
Spanish-speaking countries: Día Internacional de la Trabajadora Sexual (International Day of the Sex Worker)
The event commemorates the occupation of Église Saint-Nizier in Lyon by more than a hundred prostitutes on June 2, 1975 to draw attention to their situation.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Whores'_Day
maggiemcneill.wordpress.com/2012/06/02/the-birth-of-a-movement/]

1381 - Peasants' Revolt: Chief Justice, Sir Robert Belknap, who was empowered to arrest and deal with the perpetrators, and his small party of soldiers are chase out of Brentwood.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peasants'_Revolt
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wat_Tyler
partacus-educational.com/YALDchronology.htm
www.marxists.org/history/england/peasants-revolt/story.htm
morrisedition.lib.uiowa.edu/dreamJohnBallWrightHistoricalIntro.html
www.historic-uk.com/HistoryUK/HistoryofEngland/Wat-Tyler-the-Peasants-Revolt/]

1740 - Donatien Alphonse François, Marquis de Sade (d. 1814), French aristocrat, revolutionary politician, philosopher and writer of novels, short stories, plays, dialogues and political tracts, born. Marie-Louise Berneri recognised de Sade as an outstanding utopian and anarchist thinker and especially praised his insistence that "there could be no equality as long as people had not thrown off the yoke of religion" - 'Journey Through Utopia' (1982).

[D] 1780 - Gordon Riots: A huge mob, estimated at 40,000 to 60,000 strong, assembles and marches on the Houses of Parliament as the anti-Catholic Gordon riots begin, during which every major prison in London is destroyed.

1786 - Philadelphia Journeymen Printers Strike: On May 31, 1786, printers in Philadelphia gathered and decided to strike until their employers went back to paying them $6 a week (45 shillings) having said that they were cutting the weekly wage to 35 shilling (about $4.33). The strike, which is widely accepted as the first time that a group of workers in America held out for a specific age and worked to maintain that wage, began on June 2 and ended on June 10, with the printers having successfully earned back their $6 a week wage.
[todayinlaborhistory.wordpress.com
www.proprocedure.com/labor_history/content1.php
archive.org/stream/historyoftypogra00tracrich/historyoftypogra00tracrich_djvu.txt]

[1831 - Merthyr Rising: The town is seized by workers, the Riot Act is read and troops sent for
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Merthyr_Rising
libcom.org/library/1831-merthyr-tydfil-uprising
www.southwalespolicemuseum.org.uk/en/content/cms/history_of_the_force/the_merthyr_rising/the_merthyr_rising.aspx
www.hiraeth.wales/2013/06/03/bara-neu-waed-bread-or-blood-the-red-flag-is-raised-over-merthyr/
www.socialistparty.org.uk/articles/2464
www.alangeorge.co.uk/Dic_Penderyn.htm
democracyandclasstruggle.blogspot.co.uk/2013/05/merthyr-rising-1831-beginning.html]

1858 - New Orleans Know-Nothing Riot: So named after the American Party, commonly known as the Know Nothing movement, an American political party that aimed to 'purify' American politics by limiting or ending the influence of Irish Catholics, Germans and other immigrants.
The New Orleans Know-Nothing group began as a local movement in 1858 to reduce what residents considered a high rate of crime and violence in the city, primarily among Irish and German immigrants, who were among the poorest classes. A secret Vigilance Committee was formed to monitor their activities, and in particular to prevent disruption of upcoming municipal elections.
On the night of June 2, 1858, armed men under the command of Capt. J. K. Duncan, who was an officer in the United States Army, marched to Jackson Square and occupied the court rooms in The Cabildo. For the next five days, a standoff existed between the Vigilance Committee and members of the Native American Party. On June 7, the elections were held and the Native American candidate, Gerard Stith, defeated the Democratic Party candidate, P.G.T. Beauregard. The Vigilance Committee disbanded with no further violence.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Know-Nothing_Riot
exhibits.library.villanova.edu/chaos-in-the-streets-the-philadelphia-riots-of-1844/know-nothings/]

1876 - Hristo Botev (Hristo Botyov Petkov; b. 1848), Bulgarian poet, writer, early anarchist, propagandist and revolutionary, dies. Having led a partisan army of 200 fighters into Bulgaria to overthrow Ottoman rule, he dies in battle. [see: Jan. 6]

1877 - The first issue of 'L'Avant-Garde', "Organe de la Fédération Française de l'Association Internationale des Travailleurs", changing in April 1878 to "Organe Collectiviste et Anarchiste", is published in La Chaux-de-Fonds by Paul Brousse.

1878 - A month after Maximilian Hoëdel tries to kill Kaiser Wilhelm I in Berlin, Karl Eduard Nobiling (b. 1848) German anarchist and doctor of philosophy, takes his turn, wounding Wilhelm I. Having failed, Nobiling turns his gun upon himself shooting himself in the head. Mortally wounded, he will die in prison on Sept. 10.

1886 - Johann Most is sentenced to one year in prison for inflammatory comments and inciting riots, he allegedly made at the Workingmen's Rifle Club of New York on May 11.

1886 - The date sometimes given for the birth of the Mexican feminist and writer Hermila Galindo Acosta aka Hermila Galindo de Topete (d. 1954). [see: May 29]

1888 - The first issue of the newspaper fortnightly anarcho-communist newspaper 'Tierra y Libertad' is published in Gracia, Barcelona.

1903 - Max Aub (Max Aub Mohrenwitz; d. 1972), Spanish-Mexican experimentalist novelist, playwright and literary critic, born in Paris to German parents who were forced to move to Spain at the start of WWI. Joined the PSOE in 1928. Friend of Picasso and Lorca. In 1937, he was appointed cultural attaché of Spain in Paris and managed the order and purchase of 'Guernica' from Picasso for the International Exposition. Two years later, whilst in France working on Malraux's film 'L'Espoir', he was denounced by the Franco regime and thrown into a Vichy concentration camp as a dangerous communist and "German Jew". He managed to escape and went into exile in Mexico, his home until his death. In Mexico he formed a working friendship with Luis Buñuel and in 1965 he founded the literary periodical 'Los Sesenta' (the Sixties). The author of nearly 100 novels and plays, the centrepiece of his oeuvre is the 'El Laberinto Mágico' (The Magic Labyrinth) Spanish Civil War series of six novels - 'Campo Cerrado' (Field of Honour; 1943), 'Campo de Sangre' (Field of Blood; 1945), 'Campo Abierto' (Outfield; 1951), 'Campo del Moro' (Field of the Moros; 1963), 'Campo Francés' (French Field; 1965) and 'Campo de los Almendros' (Field of Almond; 1968). Two of his other major novels were 'Las Buenas Intenciones' (The Best of Intentions; 1954) and 'La Calle de Valverde' (Valverde Street; 1961). 'Jusep Torres Campalans' (1958) is his fictional account of a Catalan anarchist Cubist painter loosely based on Picasso.
[es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Max_Aub
www.hispanicexile.bham.ac.uk/people/41
www.article11.info/?Premices-a-la-guerre-d-Espagne-l
www.albavolunteer.org/2010/03/max-aub%E2%80%99s-civil-war-in-english/]

1905 - [O.S. May 20] Ivanovo Soviet [Иваново-Вознесенский Депутатов] / Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The Soviet decided to create a workers' militia (рабочую милицию) to protect the city, a decision duly notifies to Vladimir (Владимира) and the governor I.M. Leontev (И.М.Леонтьев).
[ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Иваново-Вознесенский_общегородской_совет_рабочих_депутатов
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Иваново-Вознесенские_стачки
wiki.ivanovoweb.ru/index.php/Первый_общегородской_Совет_рабочих_депутатов
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revolution_of_1905#Ivanovo_Soviet
libcom.org/library/soviets-their-origin-development-functions-andreu-nin
www.johndclare.net/Rempel_Soviet.htm
en.internationalism.org/ir/123_1905
cnparm.home.texas.net/Nat/Rus/Rus02.htm]

1906 - Spanish anarchist Mateo Morral, who on May 31st tried to assassinate King Alphonse XIII, is spotted by police and shoots himself. The government uses Morral's attempt as a pretext to imprison Francisco Ferrer and shut down The Modern School.

[FF] 1908 - Grève de Draveil-Villeneuve-Saint-Georges: At Vigneux-sur-Seine, there are clashes between striking workers from the local sandpits and blacklegs protected by police. Later in the day police surround a hotel where the stike committee is meeting, demanding that a worker who had earlier punched a cop surrender to them. Prevented from entering the premises, the police open fire, killing 2 strikers, Émile Goebellina (17 year old labourer) and Pierre Le Foll (48 year old carpenter), and wounding 9 others. At the funerals of Le Foll on June 4, and of Goebellina on June 5, and following a call on the 6th by the Fédération du Bâtiment (Builders Federation) to avenge the murdered comrades, squadrons of cavalry patrol the streets of Vigneux, Draveil and Villeneuve-St-Georges . This fails to prevent further incidents occurring in which anarchists show their solidarity with these precarious workers. In particular, individualist anarchists grouped around Libertad, gather on Sunday, June 7th in a show strength at the cemetery of Villeneuve-St-Georges.
On July 30, 1908, and with the strike continuing and spreading, the Président du Conseil Georges Clemenceau orders the arrest of key CGT officials, precipitating a massacre at a demonstration in Vigneux. [see: Nov. 18]
[fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grève_de_Draveil-Villeneuve-Saint-Georges
www.persee.fr/doc/ahess_0395-2649_1969_num_24_2_422071_t1_0538_0000_2
rebellion-sre.fr/syndicalisme-revolutionnaire-a-pied-doeuvre-greves-de-draveil-meru/
www.vigneuxhistoire.com/greve.html
vindrisi.free.fr/VIGNEUX/GREVES/1908/PDF/GREVES_D.PDF
www.alternativelibertaire.org/?Juillet-1908-Draveil-Villeneuve-la
aujourdhui.pagesperso-orange.fr/draveil/pages/pagesgreves/chronologie.html]

1911 - Rebelión de Baja California / Revolución Mexicana: Arch-opportunist Richard 'Daredevil Dick' Wells Ferris [stooge to Welsh soldier of fortune Caryl ap Rhys Pryce and alleged spy] held a meeting and declared himself the new president of the Republic of Baja California. He advised the rebels to haul down the Red Flag and abandon socialism, anarchism "and every other ism you have got into." He then created his own flag.
Ferris was not a Magonista and had done none of the fighting. He was merely an opportunist, and the Wobblies were not pleased. The ruling Junta of the PLM declared him persona non grata and had his flag burned.
[es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Independentismo_bajacaliforniano]

1911 - Emily Rosdolsky (Emily Meder; d. 2001), Austrian Trotskyist, anti-Stalinist, and activist in the anti-fascist, trade union and feminist movements, born.
[de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emily_Rosdolsky]

1913 - Futurist painter and anarchist Luigi Russolo introduces a prototype of his intonarumori noise machine to a completely unprepared audience at the Teatro Storchi in Modena. Preceded by a rather solemn lecture by introduction, which is interrupted by jeers and shouting.

1915 - Revolución Mexicana: US President Wilson threatens intervention if unrest in Mexico continues.

1916 - IWW's Mesabi Range Strike. A precursor to the infamous labour deportations, in Bisbee, Arizona in July, 1917 - with workers rounded up, forced into cattle cars, and dumped in the desert.

1919 - Luigi Bertoni and Italian anarchists, implicated in the 'Plot of Zurich', appear in court today, after being held in detention the past 13 months. The so-called 'plot' was a political pretext to arrest Bertoni, publisher of 'Le Réveil Communiste Anarchiste', and others opposing WWI. A countrywide protest movement agitated for their release.

[C] 1925 - Gueorgui Cheitanov (b. 1896), Bulgarian anarchist militant, is executed, along with his companion Mariola Sirakova and others, by the fascist government during a crackdown on leftists following a Communist bombing in Sofia. [see: Feb. 14]

[E] 1925 - Mariola Sirakova (b. 1904), Bulgarian student-actress and anarchist militant, is executed, along with her companion Gueorgui Cheitanov (b. 1896), and others, by the fascist government during a crackdown on leftists following a Communist bombing in Sofia. [expand]
[libcom.org/history/sirakova-mariola-1904-1925
ita.anarchopedia.org/Mariola_Sirakova
ita.anarchopedia.org/Georgi_Sheitanov]

1936 - Grève Générale en France: 66 factories are now under occupation noon; up to 150 that night. They include the Pillot shoe factory, the Say refineries, Dunlop tyres and Gaumont studios.

1936 - Grève Générale en Belgique: Amongst many trade unionists the murder of Albert Pot and Theofiel Grijp was the final straw. With wages were lagging behind the price increases, and with many feeling that the 24-hour strike on the day of their burial was not enough, the trade union leadership feared that they would be bypassed by the rank and file if they did not take action. With tempers rising [in one incident spilling over into fist fights in the UBOT/BTB premises at the Paardenmarkt], rank and file pressure from below, the socialist Union Belge des Ouvriers du Transport / Belgische Transportarbeidersbond leadership decided to call a major meeting in the Sportpaleis (Sport Palace) for June 2 to launch a call for a new strike with as a core requirement, a 40-week week, wage increase, a minimum wage of 32 francs per day and six days of paid leave. owever, as the trade union leaders acknowledged later, the strike broke out "over the head of the leadership" that very day when Antwerp's dockers spontaneously downed tool. At 17:00, the dockers began occupying several ships, demanding an increase of 14 francs a day. Soon boat repairers, diamond workers and transport workers had joined them. A day later, 10,000 workers went to the Sportpaleis to listen to the speeches of the "Communist agitators", as several newspapers designate them. The trade unions hesitate, the Social Democrats call for calm.
But the strike is snowballing and continues to grow.
[www.lcr-lagauche.be/cm/index.php?view=article&id=606:la-greve-de-1936-en-belgique&option=com_content&Itemid=53
romaincourcelles.wordpress.com/2011/07/09/belgique-dans-solidaire-comment-les-travailleurs-belges-ont-fo-nde-la-securite-sociale/
deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/50989/215.pdf;jsessionid=D3720CF399E8FCE653807B8C873C5DAF?sequence=1
solidaire.org/articles/1936-les-travailleurs-la-conquete-du-temps
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_strikes_in_Belgium
nvdatabase.swarthmore.edu/content/belgian-workers-strike-minimum-wage-paid-vacations-40-hour-work-week-and-union-rights-1936
www.larevuetoudi.org/en/story/belgian-walloon-general-strikes
mocliege.be/IMG/pdf/reg059_dossier.pdf
www.skynet.be/actu-sports/dossier/1621328/les-plus-grandes-greves-de-l-histoire-en-belgique/1621331/2-juin-1936]

1944 - Benoît Broutchoux (b. 1879), French anarchist, adherent of neo-Malthusian ideas and a 'free love' advocate, dies. [see: Nov. 7]

1962 - Novocherkassk Massacre [Новочеркасский Расстрел]: 7,000 Russian workers march to protest wage cuts and price increases. Twenty-six people were killed and and 87 wounded when Soviet troops fired on the mass protest against working conditions and rising prices in the southern city of Novocherkassk. [expand]
[www.struggle.ws/eastern/novocherkassk.html
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Novocherkassk_massacre
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Новочеркасский_расстрел
tragedy.narod.ru/rus.htm
www.novocherkassk.ru/history/novoch/1962.html
libcom.org/library/1962-novocherkassk-tragedy
www.spunk.org/texts/places/russia/sp000197.txt]

[A] 1967 - Student Benno Ohnesorg shot dead by German policeman and Stasi agent Karl-Heinz Kurras. In 2012 Der Spiegel revealed that the shot was not fired in self-defence, as previously claimed.

1970 - Giuseppe Ungaretti (b. 1888), Italian modernist poet, journalist, essayist, critic and academic, dies. A one-time anarchist sympathiser who later became an active fascist. [see: Feb. 10]

1970 - Lucia Sanchez Saornil (b. 1895), Spanish poet, painter and militant anarchist-feminist, dies. A founder of the famed Mujeres Libres. [see: Dec. 13]

1972 - Western Airlines Flight 701 from Los Angeles to Seattle is hijacked by Willie Roger Holder, an African American Vietnam veteran, and his stripper girlfriend and small-time weed dealer Catherine Marie Kerkow. Broke and out of jobs, they had hatched their hijack plan, 'Operation Sisyphus', to raise some money and emulate the revolutionaries, such as the Black Panthers and Weathermen, that they both admired despite being non-political themselves.
On board Flight 701, the hijackers claimed they had a bomb in an attaché case and demanded $3 million in ransom, later reduced to $500,000. After allowing half the passengers to get off in San Francisco and the other half to get off in New York on a re-fueling stop, they flew on to Algeria [they had initially planned to fly to North Vietnam and ask for political asylum there], in what remains the longest-distance hijacking in American history. Arriving in Algiers the following day, they requested political asylum, and also asked to be met at the airport by Eldridge Cleaver, who had been granted asylum there after escaping an attempted-murder charge in the US. More interested in the ransom money, the Panthers' International Section in Algiers being desperately in need of cash, Cleaver met them and Holder and Kerkow were eventually allowed to leave in the Panthers’ custody. The group hailed them as revolutionary heroes until they learned that the country’s president, unconvinced that the couple were political refugees, announced that he was sending $488,000 of the ransom money back to the US.
The pair joined the International Section of the Black Panther Party but grew bored with the revolutionary life, eventually securing fake passports under the names Leavy Forte and Janice Ann Forte and, after Kerkow had made a number of undetected trips to France, they decided to leave Algeria for good and set up in paris in a flat there. Arrested on January 25, 1975, at the request of the FBI, on April 15, 1975, a French court refused a US extradition request for the pair on grounds the hijacking was a political act. In July 1986, French authorities moved to deport Holder to the US after he completed his sentence for 1984 assault charges. Kerkow was never extradited, and her whereabouts and status remain unknown.
[nypost.com/2013/06/16/what-do-i-wear-to-a-hijacking/
liveitoutloud.com/post/2013/06/23/Fly-the-friendly-skies.aspx
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Wright_(fugitive)
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Western_Airlines#Accidents_and_incidents
news.nationalpost.com/full-comment/brendan-i-koerner-the-golden-age-of-skyjacking
news.google.com/newspapers?id=TIZPAAAAIBAJ&sjid=iQUEAAAAIBAJ&pg=6061,4443636&hl=en
www.nytimes.com/1986/07/27/nyregion/ex-black-panther-extradited-to-us.html
www.fbi.gov/wanted/dt/catherine-marie-kerkow/view]

[EE] 1975 - Facing heavy repression locally and potential new legislation that could include a prison sentence among other penalties, sex workers in Lyon occupied Saint-Nizier church, demanding an end to fines and police harassment. A banner was displayed stating: "Nos Enfants ne Veulent Pas Que Leur Mères Aillent en Prison" (Our children don’t want their mothers in prison). Surprisingly, the movement made all the newspapers' headlines and was reported internationally. Sex workers received important support from the local population who brought them food and clothes. The abolitionists were also supporting them hoping that the mobilisation could raise awareness and eventually help stop prostitution. In many other cities, sex workers imitated the movement and churches were occupied in Paris, Marseille, Grenoble, Saint Etienne and Montpellier. The government finally decided to act and the sex workers were brutally expelled from the churches by the police on the morning of June 10. Ulla, the movement leader was outed with her real name and photographs published in the press. The Interior Minister accused them of being manipulated by pimps while the Women Rights Minister claimed she was not competent on the issue. The government refused any form of negotiation and instead ordered a report which was ignored once published in December 1975.
The protests led to the creation of International Sex Workers Day, which takes pace every year on June 2.
[www.persee.fr/doc/rfsoc_0035-2969_1999_num_40_3_5186
www.persee.fr/doc/rfsoc_0035-2969_2001_sup_42_1_5416
libcom.org/history/unlikely-mobilization-occupation-saint-nizier-church-prostitutes-lyon]

1975 - Scarlat Callimachi or Calimachi (nicknamed Prinţul Roşu, the Red Prince; b. 1896), Romanian journalist, essayist, Futurist poet, trade unionist, youthful anarchist and later a communist activist, dies. [see: Sep. 20]

1991 - Procession in Sofia to the monument of Christo Botev, the first Bulgarian anarchist and a national hero, who perished in the struggle for liberation of Bulgaria from Turkish power today in 1876.

1997 - Richard 'Tet' Tetenbaum (b. unknown), US anarchist activist, co-founder of Bound Together Anarchist Books in San Francisco, where he worked for 20 years, dies. 200 attend his memorial.

[B] 2008 - Arthur Adrién Porchet (b. 1907), Swiss filmmaker, cinematographer and libertarian, who made propaganda films for the CNT during the Spanish Civil War, dies. [see: Oct. 14]

2012 - The EDL’s football hooligan division, Casuals United, arrive in Brighton for what they had threatened to be a 'revenge mission' for the humiliation of the March for england on April 22, 2012 - "You asked for it" – "you sowed the wind, now you'll reap the whirlwind" - "no women and kids this time" - "We are coming back to Brighton IN NUMBERS and you dirty lefty child abusing cunts will be dealt with". They were met by around 100 anti-fascists, who had gathered in Churchill Square to support the Brighton Uncut Great Brighton Street Party and the regular Palestine Solidarity campaign stall, just in case the fash turned up. Despite the heavy police presence in anticipation of trouble, groups of the nationalists/fascists ran around Kemptown throwing bangers and shouting homophobic slogans - Stephen Sands, long time MfE stalwart and perpetrator of a vicious attack against an anti-fascist in 2010 , was arrested and plead guilty "discharging a firework in a public place". Anti-fascists, upon hearing of the Casuals' antics, then headed of to Kemp Town, despite police attempts to kettle them, but heavy police numbers prevented all but minor skirmishes. By 4pm, police had rounded up the majority of the Casuals, (around 35 of them) and marched them to the station to be forcibly placed on a train out of town. In addition to Sands, 13 other Casuals were arrested, mostly for racist chanting and assault, including 2 for cocaine possession and one for smack.
[www.schnews.org.uk/stories/Bangers-and-Fash/
www.theargus.co.uk/news/9742009.18_arrested_during_protests_in_Brighton/]

2013 - Ali Ismail Korkmaz (b. 1994), a 19-year-old university student, is brutally beaten by police as he tried to escape tear gas fired by police during anti-government protest in the city of Eskisehir. He was admitted to hospital 20 hours later (on June 3), after having made a police statement, suffering from a brain haemorrhage. He slipped into a coma and died after 38 days on July 10, 2013.
[tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ali_İsmail_Korkmaz
www.bbc.co.uk/turkce/haberler/2013/07/130710_gezi_olum
humanrightsturkey.org/2015/01/22/the-ali-ismail-korkmaz-trial/]

2013 - Abdullah Cömert, a 22 year-old Gezi Park protester and leading member of the Republican People's Party Youth (Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi Gençlik Kolları) organisation, is hit on the head by a tear gas canister in the Mediterranean port city of Hatay. He dies of his wounds the following day.
[humanrightsturkey.org/2015/04/09/guest-blog-seeking-justice-for-abdullah-comert/
www.hurriyet.com.tr/gundem/28113900.asp]
3
[1831 - Merthyr Rising: 'The Battle of Castle Inn'. up to 24 'rioters' killed
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Merthyr_Rising
libcom.org/library/1831-merthyr-tydfil-uprising
www.southwalespolicemuseum.org.uk/en/content/cms/history_of_the_force/the_merthyr_rising/the_merthyr_rising.aspx
www.hiraeth.wales/2013/06/03/bara-neu-waed-bread-or-blood-the-red-flag-is-raised-over-merthyr/
www.socialistparty.org.uk/articles/2464
www.alangeorge.co.uk/Dic_Penderyn.htm
democracyandclasstruggle.blogspot.co.uk/2013/05/merthyr-rising-1831-beginning.html]

1840 - Jean-Louis Pindy (d. 1917), French member of the Internationale, communard, anarchist and carpenter, born. In 1877, he founded with Paul Brousse and Dumartheray François, the French section of the AIT, and his newspaper 'L'Avant-Garde'.
"L'autorité en quelques mains qu'elle soit placée, est toujours pernicieuse à l'avancement de l'humanité" (When authority is placed in the hands of a few, it is always pernicious to the advancement of humanity)

1886 - A large solidarity meeting in support of 3,500 Decazeville miners who had been out on strike since January is held in Paris at the Chateau d’Eau Theatre. Among the people who spoke was Louise Michel, Jules Guesde, Paul Lafargue and Dr. Paul Susini. The meeting ran a lively course and was widely reported on by the press. 1500 people attended according to a police informant who was present and the spy alleged that Lafargue had threatened Baron Alphonse de Rothschild, head of the French branch of the banking family, with bodily injury. The four speakers were prosecuted on the basis of the Loi du 29 juillet 1881 sur la liberté de la presse (the law of July 29, 1881 on the freedom of the press) and, on August 12, 1886, they were sentenced to between 4 and 6 months in prison with a 100 franc fine. Lafargue, Guesde and Susini refused to attend and were sentenced in absentia. They successfullt appealled, much to thier surprise, on September 24. Louise Michel refused to appeal and, after serving her sentence, was released with remission in November 1886.
[socialhistory.org/en/collections/words-i-used-were-worse
fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louise_Michel
enjolras.free.fr/chrono.html
bataillesocialiste.wordpress.com/biographies/guesde-1847-1922/
www.marxists.org/history/france/paris-commune/michel-louise/1886/memories-commune.htm]

[1887 - Ramona Berni i Toldrà (d. unknown), member of the group Los Solidarios
[ca.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramona_Berni_i_Toldrà
manresanes.blogspot.com/2008/06/ramona-berni.html
docs.google.com/file/d/0ByhuTeUpjf8DbVkxVzhzU2lWTnc/edit?pref=2&pli=1]

1896 - Isaac Puente Amestoy (d. 1936), Spanish anarchist, CNT member and physician, born. [expand]
[es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isaac_Puente
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isaac_Puente
www.ephemanar.net/juin03.html
www.rebeldemule.org/foro/biblioteca/tema4817.html
www.lamalatesta.net/product_info.php/products_id/4013
gipuzkoa.cnt.es/spip.php?article110
navioanarquico.org/
www.alasbarricadas.org/noticias/node/24327
theanarchistlibrary.org/authors/isaac-puente]

1900 - The International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union is formed. At its founding convention, delegates represented roughly 2,000 members. The ILGWU grew to become one of the largest unions in the U.S., with 450,000 members at its peak in 1969. It merged with the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union in 1995 to form the Union of Needletrades, Industrial, and Textile Employees.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Ladies'_Garment_Workers'_Union]

1905 - [O.S. May 21] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: News of the defeat at Tsushima reaches St Petersburg, resulting in unrest and press criticism of the government. Nicholas II names Dmitri Trepov (Дми́трий Тре́пов), ex-chief of police in Moscow and Governor-General of St. Petersburg, as the Assistant Minister of Interior in full control of police forces and "domestic order", an inflammatory step towards martial law. He is described by Sergei Witte (Серге́й Ви́тте) as an "unofficial dictator".
[cnparm.home.texas.net/Nat/Rus/Rus02.htm
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Трепов,_Дмитрий_Фёдорович
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dmitri_Feodorovich_Trepov
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Витте,_Сергей_Юльевич
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sergei_Witte]

1906 - Josephine Baker (Freda Josephine McDonald; d. 1975), African-American dancer, singer, actress and civil rights activist, who worked for the French military intelligence and the Résistance during WWII, born. Her mother Carrie McDonald was a washerwoman who had given up her dreams of becoming a music-hall dancer and her father, Eddie Carson, a vaudeville drummer who would abandon mother and daughter shortly after Josephine's birth. Carrie would later remarry and have sibling for Josephine, who went to work at eight years old cleaning houses and nannying for wealthy white families in St. Louis in order to help support the family. Her school work suffered and, at the age of thirteen, Josephine ended up running away from home and working as a waitress in a club before ending up living as a street child, dancing on street corners for loose change and scavenging for leftovers in restaurant slop bins. She also fell into a short-lived marriage with Willie Wells, a man she met in the Old Chauffeur's Club when she worked there and who she divorced within weeks of marrying him. 1919 also saw her touring the United States with the Jones Family Band and the Dixie Steppers, dancing and performing comedy skit. Two years later and still aged just fifteen, she was married second time to a man named Willie Baker, whose name she would keep after their divorce in 1925.
In 1923, she had made the move to New York and had landed a role in the musical 'Shuffle Along' on Broadway as a member of the chorus. She was an instant success and quickly earned billing as "the highest-paid chorus girl in vaudeville". In 1925, Paris beckoned and on October 2, 1925, at the age of nineteen she appeared in 'La Revue Nègre' at the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées, going on to tour Europe and headline at the Folies Bergère, where she earned fame for her near-naked 'danse sauvage' in her banana skirt and notoriety for her diamond collar-bedecked pet cheetah, Chiquita, who accompanied her on stage and often escaped into the orchestra pit, adding further excitement to Josephine's act. In 1934 she became the first black woman to star in a major motion picture, when she starred opposite Jean Gabin in Marc Allégret's 'Zouzou'. An attempt in 1936 to conquer America as a star in a revival of the 'Ziegfeld Follies' on Broadway was a failure, experiencing the sort of racism that she never had to face performing in France. So, in 1937 she returned to Europe, giving up her American citizenship for that of France, having married a French industrialist named Jean Lion.
With the outbreak of WWII, Baker was recruited by French military intelligence, the Deuxième Bureau, as a spy in Parisian café-society, rubbing shoulders with Axis diplomats and gathering whatever useful information she could. Then, when the Germans invaded France, and with Baker's stage career in the country effectively over - Black performers and jazz being a Nazi no-no - she headed to her Château des Milandes home in the South, which became a recruiting hub for those wishing to join the Free French forces, Baker helping source visas for them to leave for England. However, she continued to tour neutral counties across the rest of Europe, acting as a courier, picking up and transmitting information on German troop concentrations in the West of France and other military materiel in invisible ink hidden on her sheet music! Her activities also took her to the French colonies in North Africa and to Spain, all the time hiding her secrets in her underwear.
During this period her health suffered badly with a series of infections following one on a number of miscarriages that she suffered and which resulted in her having to have a hysterectomy. Bouts of peritonitis and septicaemia then followed, and similar bouts of infection would dog her for the rest of her life. Having recovered her health, she set to entertaining allied troops in North Africa and she and her friends continued to organise entertainments for Free French forces for the rest of the war, after which she received the Croix de guerre and the Rosette de la Résistance for her wartime activities.
In 1947, Baker married French orchestra leader Jo Bouillon, and beginning in 1950 began to adopt orphans from around the world, adopting 12 children in all into what she called her "rainbow tribe". In 1949, she also returned to the stage of the Folies Bergère and two years later was invited back to the United States for a nightclub engagement in Miami and, after winning a public battle over desegregating the club's audience and earning threats from the Ku Klux Klan, Baker followed up her sold-out run at the club with a national tour. For her stand, the NAACP named her its Most Outstanding Woman of the Year for 1951 and declared Sunday, May 20, 1951 as 'Josephine Baker Day'. However, an incident at New York's Stork Club on October 19 that year, when she and her guests, one of whom was also Black, were effectively refused service (they had been served drinks but their order of steaks did not turn up, Baker taking this as a sign of the unofficial policy of clubs at the time of 'discouraging' Black patrons) turned into a public spat with the columnist Walter Winchell, who ended up accusing her of having "Communist sympathies". This resulted in Baker loosing her work visa and her having to cancel all her dates and leave the country. It would be nearly a decade before she returned but she continued to support the Civil Rights Movement and support the NAACP from a distance. On August 28, 1963, she spoke at the March on Washington at the side of Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., whilst wearing her Free French uniform emblazoned with her medal of the Légion d'honneur.
Josephine Baker died on April 12, 1975, in the Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris having suffered a cerebral haemorrhage and fallen into a coma. On the day of her funeral at which she was buried with full French military honours, more than 20,000 people lined the streets of Paris to witness the procession and say goodbye to the 'Black Pearl'.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Josephine_Baker
www.cmgww.com/stars/baker/about/biography.html
www.nydailynews.com/archives/news/firestorm-incident-stork-club-1951-article-1.571278]

1924 - Franz Kafka (b. 1883), Czech dystopian allegorist and anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Jul. 3]

1925 - Matanza de La Coruña [La Coruña Massacre]: At the beginning of 1925, workers in the Tarapacá salitreras (nitrate mines) initiated a series of mobilisations demanding improvements in the working and economic conditions. Local strikes began in different mines and camps along the Tamarugal pampa, which led to a general strike and the demand of the Federación Obrera de Chile (FOCH) for the nationalisation of the nitrate industry. After reaching a partial agreement that allowed the lifting of some strikes, the government led a clampdown, shutting down the Communist newspapers 'El Despertar de los Trabajadores' and 'El Surco' and arresting several FOCH leaders, transfering them to Valparaiso.
On June 3 , 1925 the workers of La Coruña decided to occupy the salitreras. Headed by the anarchist Carlos Garrido, secretary general of FOCH at La Coruña, they seized the mine offices, the powder magazine and the pulpería (company stores, which doubles as bars and cock fighting pits), finding in the latter final element of any armed opposition they would meet, the administrator, a Spaniard named Luis Gómez Cervela, who was dispatched by some of the more radical workers. The stores, warehouses and depots were looted by the workers and their provisions redistributed among the families of the camp.
Meanwhile, FOCH declared a 24-hour general strike of workers in the Province of Tarapacá for June 4, and called for protests in Huara, San Antonio de Zapiga and the pueblo of Alto San Antonio. In Alto San Antonio there were clashes between the workers and the police, when the latter broke into the FOCH offices where a rally was being held, resulting in the deaths of two policemen. After these events, the workers occupied the mines at Galicia and La Coruña, distributing the provisions of the pulperías between the families and beginning a general strike that resulted in the taking of 124 nitrate mines by their workers and the paralysis of the port of Iquique, with railway workers and wagon drivers ‌in the province also joining the strike.
Recaredo Amengual, the intendant (military administrator) of Tarapacá, communicated to the Minister of War, Colonel Carlos Ibáñez del Campo, that "había estallado la revolución soviética" (the Soviet revolution had broken out" on the Pampas. Alarmed by the nature of the events in the north, the government declared a state of siege in the provinces of Tarapacá and Antofagasta, the Chilean president Arturo Alessandri ordered General Florentino de la Guarda, commandant of the First Division, to crush any resistance. Military reinforcements were sent to the ports of Iquique, Pisagua and Mejillones on the warships Zenteno, O'Higgins, Lynch, Riquelme and Williams Rebolledo.
When news of the events in La Coruña reached Amengual, he immediately ordered the dispatch of a company of infantry, a squadron of cavalry and some sailors under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Acacio Rodriguez to put down the insurrection. After leaving Iquique on June 4, the troops arrived at La Coruña, encountering a fierce defence by the workers, who had entrenched themselves in the calicheras and in building, from where they threw dynamite bombs and improvised grenades at the military. Rodriguez requested reinforcements, including additional two batteries of artillery, which began to bombard the nitrate mine buildings, demolishing most of the positions of the rebels and sending some of them fleeing on to the pampas. The bombardment also set fire to the nitrate drying grounds and the stored nitrate, producing a huge fire that quickly consumed wooden houses, workshops, warehouses, sheds and food stores. Men, women and children were fired on by the troops as they tried to escape. This motivated to Garrido to send through an emissary a message to Rodriguez offering a ceasefire. He refused and continued to direct the withering attack of the artillery and machineguns that fired at targets less than three hundred metres away, despite white flags being displayed.
On the morning of June 5, Rodriguez directed the infantry and cavalry in a final assault on La Coruña. Carlos Garrido surrender voluntarily, declaring that he was solely responsible for the events at La Coruña, hoping to save the lives of those left alive. He was shot that same night on a nearby football field.
The death toll was extremely high but the exact figure is unknown. The popular press spoke of 2,000, including those shot, burned alive or thrown alive into the mine. Some of those detained were forced to dig their ow graves before being summarily shot. According to Peter DeShazo, "British diplomats estimated that between 600 and 800 workers were killed in the massacre, while the army suffered no casualties" ['Urban Workers and Labor Unions in Chile 1902-1927' (1983)]. 600 survivors were rounded up and imprisoned in a slaughterhouse. They were joined by groups of survivors who were captured in the pampa by the cavalry forces. They were sent to the velodrome of Iquique where they were tortured and tried in a military court.
[es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matanza_de_La_Coruña
www.puntofinal.cl/811/matanza811.php
www.puntofinal.cl/656/coruna.htm
www.luisemiliorecabarren.cl/files/recursos/Matanza_en_La_Coruna.pdf
laotrahistoriadechile.blogspot.co.uk/2013/07/masacre-de-obreros-en-tarapaca-en-1925.html
piensachile.com/2010/11/la-olvidada-matanza-de-obreros-y-sus-familias-en-la-oficina-salitrera-qla-coruapaq/
porlaputa.com/id/892141
www.nortino.com/2012/08/matanzas-en-las-oficinas-salitreras.html
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulperia]

[B] 1926 - Allen Ginsberg (d. 1997), American Beat poet, one-time Wobbly and Buddhist anarchist, born.
[philblank.net/blog/ginsinterview.htm]

1928 - Donald Clarence Judd (d. 1994), US anarchist, Minimalist painter and sculptor, born.

[C] 1934 - Despite forceful opposition from anti-fascists (the CPGB had put out a London-wide mobilisation), the British Union of Fascists are able to hold an hour-long meeting in Finsbury Park, North London, because of heavy police presence protecting them. [see: May 13][PR]

1935 - Relief Camp Workers' Union 'On-to-Ottawa Trek': 1,600 unemployed men living and working in Canadian federal relief camps – constructing roads and other public works at the rate of twenty cents per day – go on strike. Public support was enormous and the men decided to take their grievances to the federal government. On June 3, hundreds boarded boxcars headed east in what became known as the “On-to-Ottawa Trek.” [see: Apr. 4]
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/On-to-Ottawa_Trek
ontoottawatrek.weebly.com/on-to-ottawa-trek.html
bctf.ca/uploadedFiles/public/TeachingResources/YouthUnionsYou/SS11_L2.pdf
www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/on-to-ottawa-trekregina-riot/
ottawahistorytours.com/uncategorized/80th-anniversary-of-the-on-to-ottawa-trek-and-the-campaign-for-unemployment-insurance/
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relief_Camp_Workers'_Union]

[F] 1936 - Grève Générale en Belgique: A general strike is launched against the opinion of the trade union leaders who, on June 3, published a manifesto "Ouvriers du port, pas de suicide !... Pas de grèves irraisonnées !" (Workers of the port, no suicide! ... No unreasoned strikes), 'Le Peuple', June 4, 1936.

1937 - Tang Qunying (唐群英; b. 1871), Chinese revolutionary, who was the first female member of the Tongmenghui (同盟會 / Chinese Revolutionary Alliance), a secret society and underground resistance movement founded in Tokyo by Sun Yat-sen and Song Jiaoren in 1905, dies in her hometown of Hunan, China, on June 3, 1937, aged 66. Often cited as one of the "best-known women activists in modern Chinese history". She was chairwoman of the Women's Suffrage Alliance (中华民国女子参政同盟会), an organisation created by the merger of the Nanjing Women's Alliance, the Women's Backup Society, the Women's Martial Spirit Society, and the Women's Suffrage Comrades' Alliance in 1912. The following year she founded the 'Women’s Rights Daily' (女权日报), Hunan's first newspaper for women. [see: Dec. 8]

1940 - Helen Marot, American author, librarian and labour organiser, who was a member of the commission that investigated the 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire, and is best remembered for her efforts to address child labour and improve the working conditions of women, dies. [see: Jun. 9]
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helen_Marot
spartacus-educational.com/USAWmarot.htm
wyatt.elasticbeanstalk.com/mep/MS/xml/bmaroth.html
justicelibraries.blogspot.co.uk/2008/01/helen-marot-1865-1940-librarian-for.html]

1943 - French Résistance saboteurs destroyed 300 tons of tyres in the Michelin factory at Clermont-Ferrant.

[D] 1957 - Bataille d'Alger [Battle of Algiers]: Members of Yacef Saâdi's réseau bombes (bombs network) plant bombs in street lamps at bus stops in the centre of Algiers (at the bottom of the Rue Hoche, the Moulin station, at the crossroads of Agha, facing the Mauretania, and near the café Métropole). The four bombs, the first since February 9th, the day before the Pied-Noir attack at the football stadium, explode between 20:15 & 20:30, the time nearby offices are due to leave work. Seven people are killed, including three children, and 92 wounded, including 33 amputees.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Algiers_(1956–57)
fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bataille_d'Alger
www.histoire-en-questions.fr/guerre algerie/alger-attentats-lampadaire.html]

1967 - René-Louis Lafforgue (b. 1928), French singer, songwriter, actor, interpreter and anarchist, dies in a car accident in southern France. [see Mar 13]

[A/E] 1968 - Valerie Solanas, author of the 'SCUM Manifesto', shoots Andy Warhol. [expand]

1979 - Gladys del Estal Ferreño, an Hispano-Venezuelan programmer, environmetalist and anti-nuclear campaigner is murdered by the Guardia Civil during Earth Day protests, in Tudela.
[www.alasbarricadas.org/noticias/node/97
es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gladys_del_Estal]

1987 - Mariano Ferreyra (d. 2010), Argentine student militant in the Federación Universitaria de Buenos Aires (University Federation of Buenos Aires) and Partido Obrero (Workers Party) activist, is shot in the chest and killed in Buenos Aires by members of the largest Argentine railway workers union, the Peronist Unión Ferroviaria (UF), during a protest about the dismisal and outsourcing of workers by Unidad de Gestión Operativa Ferroviaria de Emergencia (Emergency Railway Operational Management Unit) railway company on October 20, 2010, born. [see: Oct. 20]

1995 - Jean-Patrick Manchette (b. 1942), French crime novelist, screenwriter and libertarian, dies. [see: Dec. 19]

2003 - G8 at Evian [expand].

2005 - Terence Wheelock, aged 20, dies in police custody at Dublin’s Store Street Garda station.

2005 - Mary Frohman (b. 1947), American anarchist, member of the Industrial Workers of the World, singer, guitarist, dies, of a heart attack while waiting for a bus. A member of the 'filk outfit' DeHorn Crew - the Chicago IWW's house band and lover of fellow anarchist and band member Leslie Fish, the fortune-telling character Mama Sutra in the novel 'Illuminatus!' is probably based on her.
[reason.com/archives/2005/06/09/american-anarchist]

2013 - 20-year old Mehmet Ayvalitaş is killed, and many other anti-government protesters injured, as a vehicle slams into a crowd (a well-known tactic of security forces) at a road block protest in the Ümraniye district of Istanbul.
[www.hurriyetdailynews.com/father-of-gezi-protest-victim-beaten-outside-of-court.aspx?pageID=238&nid=80188
www.radikal.com.tr/turkiye/dokuz_soruda_mehmet_ayvalitas_davasi-1174226]

2013 - Abdullah Cömert, a 22 year-old Gezi Park protester and leading member of the Republican People's Party Youth (Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi Gençlik Kolları) organisation, who was hit on the head by a tear gas canister fired from a police Scorpion armoured vehicle in the Mediterranean port city of Hatay yesterday, dies of his injuries.
[humanrightsturkey.org/2015/04/09/guest-blog-seeking-justice-for-abdullah-comert/
www.hurriyet.com.tr/gundem/28113900.asp]
4
1381 - Peasants' Revolt: The rebels gathered at Bocking, where their future plans seem to have been discussed. The Essex rebels, possibly a few thousand strong, advanced towards London, some probably travelling directly and others via Kent. One group, under the leadership of John Wrawe, a former chaplain, marched north towards the neighbouring county of Suffolk, with the intention of raising a revolt there.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peasants'_Revolt
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wat_Tyler
spartacus-educational.com/YALDchronology.htm
www.marxists.org/history/england/peasants-revolt/story.htm
morrisedition.lib.uiowa.edu/dreamJohnBallWrightHistoricalIntro.html
www.historic-uk.com/HistoryUK/HistoryofEngland/Wat-Tyler-the-Peasants-Revolt/]

[1831 - Merthyr Rising: Troops arrive from Brecon but one column is ambushed and disarmed by workers.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Merthyr_Rising
libcom.org/library/1831-merthyr-tydfil-uprising
www.southwalespolicemuseum.org.uk/en/content/cms/history_of_the_force/the_merthyr_rising/the_merthyr_rising.aspx
www.hiraeth.wales/2013/06/03/bara-neu-waed-bread-or-blood-the-red-flag-is-raised-over-merthyr/
www.socialistparty.org.uk/articles/2464
www.alangeorge.co.uk/Dic_Penderyn.htm
democracyandclasstruggle.blogspot.co.uk/2013/05/merthyr-rising-1831-beginning.html]

1852 - Pierre-Joseph Proudhon is released from the prison of Sainte-Pelagie having served his sentence of three years imprisonment (since June 7, 1849) for articles in 'Le Peuple' "insulting the President of the Republic". [see: Jun. 7]

1855 - Josep Barceló Cassadó (b. 1824), leader of a militant group of workers within the Societat de Filadors i de Teixidors de Cotó opposed to the introduction of automation in the cotton spinning industry, who had successfully negotiated the agreement to ban the controversial 'selfactines' cotton spinning machines with Ramon de La Rocha, the Captain General of Barcelona, during the strike the previous year, stands trial before a military tribunal as the alleged 'instigator' a robbery and murder committed on March 29 in the Mas de Sant Jaume, near d'Olesa de Montserrat. Arrested on April 27, 1855, in the Carrer Barberà in Barcelona, the only evidence at the was the belated declaration of one of the seven perpetrators of the robbery and murder as he was waiting to be executed four days earlier on April 23. Barceló was convicted the same day and sentenced to death. He was garrotted two days later in the Plaça del Portal de Sant Antoni in Barcelona. The day of his public execution, the Catalan capital was occupied by the military commander in chief, Juan Zapatero, who had declared a state of war.
[www.estelnegre.org/documents/barcelo/barcelo.html
es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orígenes_del_movimiento_obrero_en_España
es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huelga_general_en_España_de_1855
ca.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaga_general_de_1855
fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grève_générale_de_1855_en_Espagne
www.aurorafundacion.org/IMG/pdf/La_Clase_Obrera_hace_Historia.pdf
www.veuobrera.org/06crono.htm
www.veuobrera.org/02organi.htm]

1857 - J. William Lloyd (d. 1940), American individualist anarchist, poet and doctor, born. Editor of 'Free Comrade', he wrote for Benjamin Tucker's 'Liberty'. He was known as the 'drugless physician'.

1862 - Teresa Claramunt i Creus, 'the Spanish Louise Michel' (d. 1931), Catalan textile worker, militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and feminist pioneer, born. As a textile worker, she participated in the 'Vaga de les set setmanes' (seven-week strike) of 1883, which mobilised thousands of workers and textile workers in Sabadell to demand pay raises, the eight-hour day and better working conditions. Claramunt organised an anarchist group in the district in 1884, influenced by the engineer Tárrida del Mármol. On October 26, 1884, the textile workers of Sabadell, who had gathered at the Ateneo Obrero, decided to join the Federació de Treballadors de la Regió Espanyola (Federation of Workers of the Spanish Region) and Teresa was elected its secretary. In 1885 she attended its Congrés Comarcal de Catalunya (Regional Congress of Catalonia) in Barcelona. Between 1888 and 1889 had to exile in Portugal. In early 1891 he moved to Barcelona district of Gràcia. In 1892, with Angela Lopez de Ayala and Amàlia Domingo, helped create the Societat Autònoma de Dones de Barcelona (Society of Independent Women of Barcelona), the ​​first feminist society in the region. Teresa was arrested in 1893 following the bombing of the Liceo opera theatre. This bombing, carried out by one individual, was used as a pretext to attack the whole anarchist movement. Teresa was in no way implicated, and she herself, influenced by Tarrida del Mármol, disapproved of such tactics. In 1896, however, she and her husband Antoni Gurri had to move to Camprodon for work reasons. On June 7 of that year, a bomb exploded during the Corpus procession in the Carrer Canvis Nous (Cambios Nuevos) in Barcelona, leaving 12 dead and 35 wounded. As a result of this, Claramunt and her partner were arrested, tortured and tried, along with other anarchists, during the so-called rocés de Montjuïc. Their death sentences commuted to exile, Antoni and Teresa Claramunt Gurri went into exile in London and later in Paris and Roubaix. In 1889 Claramunt and Gurri's only surviving child, their daughter Proletària Lliure, died (Teresa had given birth five times but all the children had died shortly after birth). She returned to Catalonia in early 1898 and during the following years Teresa Claramunt, with her new partner Leopoldo Bonafulla, lived in Gràcia. In the village, she took part in numerous activities with fellow feminist, unionist, free-thought and anarchist comrades. Among the various organisations she was involved in was the Cercle Espiritista 'La Buena Nueva' de Gràcia with Amalia Domingo Soler.
In 1901, she and Leopoldo Bonafulla founded the newspaper 'El Productor', and collaborated on several publications including 'La Anarquía', 'La Tramontana', 'La Revista Blanca', 'El Rebelde', 'El Porvenir del Obrero' and even 'Freedom' in London. During the big labour rally held in the Circ Barcelonès on February 16, 1902, she called for solidarity with the strikers of the metallurgical union, which was one of the basic factors of the great general strike in Barcelona of February 17-24 that year. That year also involved a propaganda tour of Andalusia, which ending with her arrest in Ronda and subsequent expulsion from Màlaga. During the following years she participated in numerous meetings, propaganda tours, etc., always showing her great ability to inspire and mobilise people. Arrested again, on this occasion during the events of the Setmana Tràgica (Tragic Week) in 1909, she was banished to Zaragoza, where she was able to help organize the Aragonese anarcho-syndicalist movement. She played a leading role in the general strike there in 1911, five days after the founding of the CNT. Her home became a place of pilgrimage for young anarchists, including the members of the Solidarios group. Her role in the strike resulted in yet another period in prison, and the inevitable round of beatings that over the years led to her developing a progressive paralysis. Her home became a place of pilgrimage for young anarchist and exerted a strong influence on many of the members of the Los Solidarios group. Later she lived in Seville with the support of Antonio Ojeda, whose children she took on educating, in the hope that the climate would improve her health while maintaining her activism conducting meetings. Already very sick, following the attack against Cardinal Soldevila on June 4, 1923 in Zaragoza, the police searched his house with her lying on the bed, in which she was hiding weapons. Teresa returned to Barcelona in 1924, where she lived for a time at the home of Francesca Saperas, but greatly affected by the paralysis that distanced her from public life - 1929 was the last time she was able to participate in a rally.
Teresa Claramunt died on April 12, 1931 in Barcelona. Her funeral on April 14, which coincided with the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic was a great opportunity for anarchist demonstration in Barcelona and the first day of the Republican flag flew freely in the city it did so at half-mast for Teresa Claramunt. Amusingly, the street in Sabadell near Barcelona's harbour that was named after her by the new Republican authorities managed to escape the Francoist censor and the Carrer de Teresa Claramunt remained remained throughout the fascist era.
She was the author of the pamphlet 'La mujer. Consideraciones generales sobre su estado ante las prerrogativas del hombre' (Woman. General considerations about her status before the prerogatives of man), published in 'El Porvenir Obrero' in 1905, which lays claim to the rights of women to participate in the social, political and economic spheres; the play 'El mundo que muere y el mundo que nace' (The world that dies and the world that is born), which premièred in Barcelona in 1896. She also wrote for numerous magazines and newspapers anarchists of the time: 'La Alarma', 'Buena Semilla', 'El Combate', 'Cultura Libertaria', 'Fraternidad', 'Generación Consciente', 'El Porvenir del Obrero', 'El Productor', 'El Productor Literario', 'El Proletario', 'El Rebelde', 'La Tramontana', 'Tribuna Libre', etc.
[www.estelnegre.org/anarcoefemerides/0406.html
ca.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teresa_Claramunt_Creus
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teresa_Claramunt_Creus
fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teresa_Claramunt
es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teresa_Claramunt
libcom.org/history/claramunt-teresa-1862-1931
www.viruseditorial.net/pdf/TClaramunt.pdf
sites.google.com/site/narracionsindex-narracions/2-catalunya/biografies-de-dones-catalanes/01-reines-politiques/03-teresa-claramunt-i-creus
www.narracions.cat/index-narracions/2-catalunya/biografies-de-dones-catalanes/01-reines-politiques/03-teresa-claramunt-i-creus
www.historiamujeres.es/feminismo/TClaramunt_sel_textos_feministas.pdf
asfdiari.wordpress.com/page/17/
barcelofilia.blogspot.be/2014/01/teatro-calvo-vico-1888-1893-teatro-gran.html
ca.sabadell.cat/Nomenclator/p/dades_cat.asp?Id=545
www.nuevatribuna.es/articulo/cultura---ocio/teresa-claramunt-la-feminista-revolucionaria/20130627154115094138.html]

1877 - Arcole Louis Vauloup (1920), French electrician, anarchist and anti-militarist, born. Described by the police as a "dangerous anarchist anti-militarist", he was constantly in trouble with the authorities, being arrested and sent to prison or to military discipline companies. In 1907, he signed an anti-militarist poser 'To the Soldiers' but escaped prosecution. In 1908, after the bloody repression of the Draveil-Villeneuve strikes, he took refuge in Belgium, where he frequented libertarians and anti-militarist circles. In May 1910 he created, with Émile Aubin, the Groupe des Libérés des Bagnes Militaires (Military Prison Colonies Freedom Group), of which he was treasurer. In 1911 he joined the Fédération Communiste Révolutionnaire and became the manage of the anti-militarist 'Le Cri du Soldat' launched on Sept. 1 1912.

1882 - Karl Valentin (Valentin Ludwig Fey; d. 1948), German comedian, cabaret performer, clown, author, film producer and anarchist, born. A significant influence on German Weimar culture, Valentin was also the star of many silent films in the 1920's, earning him the sobriquet the 'Charlie Chaplin of Germany'. Known for his 'linguistic anarchism', which was based around linguistic dexterity and wordplay, his work parallels that of Dadaism and the social expressionism of the Neue Sachlichkeit. Bertolt Brecht was greatly influenced by Valentin, and Brecht scripted Valentin's slapstick film 'Mysterien eines Friseursalons' (Mysteries of a Barbershop; 1923). A German TV film, 'Liesl Karlstadt und Karl Valentin' (2008), was made about Valentin and his relationship with stage partner and long-term lover, Liesl Karlstadt (Elisabeth Wellano; 1892-1960).
[de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl_Valentin
de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liesl_Karlstadt
www.karl-valentin.de/leben/biographie.htm
www.dieterwunderlich.de/Karl_Valentin.htm
www.zeit.de/1971/09/der-anarchismus-der-woerter
www.spiegel.de/kultur/gesellschaft/valentinstag-im-juni-der-grosse-wrdlbrmpfd-a-485526.html]

1887 - On February 21, 1887, Oregon had become the first state of the United States to make Labor Day, the first Saturday in June, an official public holiday. The first year it fell on June 4.

1898 - Laurance Labadie (d. 1975), American individualist and mutualist anarchist writer and theorist, son of Joseph Labadie, born.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laurance_Labadie
uncletaz.com/liberty/labadie.html
recollectionbooks.com/bleed/Encyclopedia/LabadieLaurance.htm]

1899 - The unveiling of the statue by the anarchist sculptor Émile Derré of Charles Fourier on the central reservation of the Boulevard de Clichy in Paris. The monument was erected by a subscription launched in 1896 by members of l'École Sociétaire and l'Union Phalanstérienne. It will be melted down by the Vichy regime during the Nazi occupation.

1905 - [O.S. May 22] Ivanovo Soviet [Иваново-Вознесенский Депутатов] / Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Ivan Utkin (Иван Уткин) aka 'Stanko' (Станко) becomes leader of the workers' militia (рабочую милицию), ordering it to prevent blacklegs from entering factory premises. They also expell the existing police from working-class neighbourhoods. The city had ceased working except for the railway, needing to bring food in. Meanwhile, the city council was doing its best to suppress the strike movement by the eviction of workers from factory barracks and increasing in food prices. In response, the Workers' Council banned price increases and
began opening the factory shops and supplying essentials itself, organised by the strikers through a cooperative, as well as restarting the power supply.
[ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Иваново-Вознесенский_общегородской_совет_рабочих_депутатов
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Иваново-Вознесенские_стачки
wiki.ivanovoweb.ru/index.php/Первый_общегородской_Совет_рабочих_депутатов
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revolution_of_1905#Ivanovo_Soviet
libcom.org/library/soviets-their-origin-development-functions-andreu-nin
www.johndclare.net/Rempel_Soviet.htm
en.internationalism.org/ir/123_1905
cnparm.home.texas.net/Nat/Rus/Rus02.htm]

1910 - Rebelión de Valladolid: An anti-Diaz uprising breaks out in Valladolid in Yucatan , Mexico. Known as the 'Primera Chispa de la Revolución Mexicana' (First Spark of the Mexican Revolution), it is based on the Plan de Dzelkoop which was drawn up on May 10, 1910, in the wake of the failed insurrection of October 15, 1909, by Maximiliano R. Bonilla and other leaders of the Centro Electoral Independiente and the Frente Antirreeleccionista in Yucatan.
During the night of June 3-4 the rebels gathered in the Plaza de Sta. Lucia in Valladolid. At 03:00, a group commanded by Ruz Ponce and José E. Kantún seized the police headquarters and its commanders and officers were prisoners. Meanwhile Claudio Alcocer and Atilano Albertos attacked the Guardia Nacional. The Jefe Polirico (political leader) Luis Felipe de Regil, then at home, on hearing the shots armed himself and, without actually knowing what was happening, went to the police station and, in an exchange of shots, was mortally wounded. The first armed action of the rebellion was a success and, with the death of the Jefe, there was no going back.
The army of insurgents, which had been joined by labourers, mostly peaceful Mayan volunteers who had been recruited from surrounding farms, numbered between 1500-2000 men, the vast majority of whom had no military training, was now in control of the city. They took up sections of the rail-road tracks to the capital, Merida, and began digging trench in preparation to defend the city. Numerous people, merchants and landowners donated firearms machetes, ammunition and gunpowder, etc. to the poorly equipped rebels, however the available reserves were not plentiful to provision all the large rebel band.
As soon as he learned of the uprising, the state governor appointed Colonel Ignacio Lara, who was based in the city of Merida, as a new jefe polirico of Valladolid, ordering him to immediately organise a force to confront the rebels. Lara set out for Valladolid in command of 65 soldiers and 300 rifles and waiting to go recruiting men on the road. Basing himself in Tinum, he waited for reinforcements to arrive before attacking. By the time reinforcements of 600 men of the 10th Feberal Battalion commanded by Colonel Ignacio Luque arrived on June 8, Lara's men also numbered 600.

1913 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: During the night of the June 3rd-4th, Rough's boathouse on the river at Oxford, near the Long Bridges, is targetted in an act of arson; est value £3,000.
[lifeandtimesofflorencenightingale.wordpress.com/suffragette-newspaper-index/june-5-1913/]

1919 - The 4th (Ukrainian) Congress of Free Soviets, to which rank and file members of the Red Army have been invited to send representatives, is banned by Trotsky. Bolshevist troops are sent to destroy the Rosa Luxemburg Commune near Provkovski and the Ukrainian anarchist insurgent Nestor Makhno is declared an outlaw.

1921 - The first issue of 'Regeneracion', a monthly journal of revolutionary anarchist and libertarian communist social studies is published in Lleida, Catalonia.

1923 - In Zaragoza, Francisco Ascaso and Rafael Torres Escartín, members of Los Solidarios, help the militants Juliana López and Esteban Salamero shoot the cardinal archbishop Don Juan Soldevila Romero and an accompanying priest, riddling their car with bullets. Cardinal Soldevila was the principal financier and recruiter employers pistoleros and of the yellow Free Union of Zaragoza.

1925 - Matanza de La Coruña [La Coruña Massacre]: Following the recent clampdown by the government on the workers' movement, which had included the arrest of several Federación Obrera de Chile leaders, FOCH declared a 24-hour general strike of workers in the Province of Tarapacá on June 4, and called for protests in Huara, San Antonio de Zapiga and the pueblo of Alto San Antonio. In Alto San Antonio there were clashes between the workers and the police, when the latter broke into the FOCH offices where a rally was being held, resulting in the deaths of two policemen. After these events, the workers occupied the mines at Galicia and La Coruña, distributing the provisions of the pulperías between the families and beginning a general strike that resulted in the taking of 124 nitrate mines by their workers and the paralysis of the port of Iquique, with railway workers and wagon drivers ‌in the province also joining the strike.
Recaredo Amengual, the intendant (military administrator) of Tarapacá, communicated to the Minister of War, Colonel Carlos Ibáñez del Campo, that "había estallado la revolución soviética" (the Soviet revolution had broken out" on the Pampas. Alarmed by the nature of the events in the north, the government declared a state of siege in the provinces of Tarapacá and Antofagasta, the Chilean president Arturo Alessandri ordered General Florentino de la Guarda, commandant of the First Division, to crush any resistance. Military reinforcements were sent to the ports of Iquique, Pisagua and Mejillones on the warships Zenteno, O'Higgins, Lynch, Riquelme and Williams Rebolledo.
When news of the events in La Coruña reached Amengual, he immediately ordered the dispatch of a company of infantry, a squadron of cavalry and some sailors under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Acacio Rodriguez to put down the insurrection. After leaving Iquique on June 4, the troops arrived at La Coruña, encountering a fierce defence by the workers, who had entrenched themselves in the calicheras and in building, from where they threw dynamite bombs and improvised grenades at the military. Rodriguez requested reinforcements, including additional two batteries of artillery, which began to bombard the nitrate mine buildings, demolishing most of the positions of the rebels and sending some of them fleeing on to the pampas. The bomardment also set fire to the nitrate drying grounds and the stored nitrate, producing a huge fire that quickly consumed wooden houses, workshops, warehouses, sheds and food stores. Men, women and children were fired on by the troops as they tried to escape. This motivated to Garrido to send through an emissary a message to Rodriguez offering a ceasefire. He refused and continued to direct the withering attack of the artillery and machineguns that fired at targets less than three hundred metres away, despite white flags being displayed. [see: Jun. 5]
[es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matanza_de_La_Coruña
www.puntofinal.cl/811/matanza811.php
www.puntofinal.cl/656/coruna.htm
www.luisemiliorecabarren.cl/files/recursos/Matanza_en_La_Coruna.pdf
laotrahistoriadechile.blogspot.co.uk/2013/07/masacre-de-obreros-en-tarapaca-en-1925.html
piensachile.com/2010/11/la-olvidada-matanza-de-obreros-y-sus-familias-en-la-oficina-salitrera-qla-coruapaq/
porlaputa.com/id/892141
www.nortino.com/2012/08/matanzas-en-las-oficinas-salitreras.html
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulperia]

[B] 1926 - Judith Malina, German-born American theatre and film actress, writer, director, anarchist and pacifist, born. One of the founders of The Living Theatre alongside her long-time collaborator and husband, Julian Beck. Also noted for playing Grandma in 'The Addams Family' movie (1991); and her roles in the films 'Awakenings' (1990), 'Radio Days' (1987) and 'Dog Day Afternoon' (1975).

1932 - Angelo Pellegrino Sbardellotto is arrested in Rome under a false identity following the discovery of two guns and bombs during a search of his home. He will be tried and summarily executed on June 17 for attempting to assassinate Mussolini.

[F] 1935 - Battle of Ballantyne Pier: Longshoremen at Ballantyne pier refuse to load paper handle by scab labour on Powell River following the management lockout there on May 16. The employers respond by locking out 900 workers on the Vancouver waterfront and the collective agreement is unilaterally terminated by the employer. Vancouver Mayor, Gerry McGeer declares that "longshoremen are communists". On June 15, all Canadian vessels are declared 'hot' and dockworkers refuse to handle them and dockers across the border in Seattle also refused to unload ships coming from Vancouver and Powell River that were manned by non-union workers. The dispute led to the Battle of Ballantyne Pier on June 18th.

1936 - Grève Générale en France: Renault and Citroën are back on strike.

1936 - Grève Générale en Belgique: In Antwerp on 4 June. A total of 10,000 dock workers went on strike to demand wage increases. Fifteen thousand bus and trolley workers joined the dock workers. Vessels were not able to dock at Antwerp. Van Zeeland sent in troops to corral the strikers. The troops arrested two strikers.

1937 - Emma Goldman and Fenner Brockway, of the Independent Labour Party, appeared at a meeting organised by the Anarcho-Syndicalist Union held at Conway Hall in London, speaking about the conditions in Spain during the Revolution. Also speaking was the 'Spain and the World' journalist, Sonia Clements, who spoke on hehalf of the Anarcho-Syndicalist Union.
[www.estelnegre.org/anarcoefemerides/0406.html]

1937 - Helmut Hirsch (b. 1916), a German Jew is executed for his part in a Schwarze Front (Black Front)[formerly the Kampfgemeinschaft Revolutionärer Nationalsozialisten (KGRNS; Combat League of Revolutionary National Socialists), a group formed by Otto Strasser after his expulsion from the NSDAP in 1930] bombing plot intended to target the Nazi party headquarters in Nuremberg and destabilise the German Reich. [see: Dec. 21]
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helmut_Hirsch
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Front
valkyrie.greyfalcon.us/hitlermurd.htm]

[C] 1937 - Pablo Picasso completes his mural-sized painting 'Guernica'.

1938 - Pepita (Josepa) Not (b. 1900), Spanish militant anarchist who was involved in the 1920s in transporting mail, money and weapons for Los Solidarios, dies in childbirth. [expand]
[www.ita.anarchopedia.org/Pepita_Not
ca.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pepita_Not
www.estelnegre.org/anarcoefemerides/0406.html
militants-anarchistes.info/spip.php?article8492
www.ephemanar.net/juin04.html]

1939 - Voyage of the Damned: America refuses entry to the Jews amongst the 915 refugees remaining [see: May 27] onboard the MS St. Louis seeking asylum from Nazi persecution in Germany, even firing a warning shot to keep them away from Florida’s shores.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MS_St._Louis
www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/stlouis.html]

1945 - Georg Kaiser (b. 1878), German Expressionist playwright, anti-fascist and anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Nov. 25]

1950 - 43 Group Disbands: At an extraordinary general meeting of the membership of the 43 Group, the resolution that the executive committee had drawn up on May 18:
"In the interests of the Jewish community, as the ultimate proof of our sincerity in this desire for unity, and because we consider that Jewish ex-servicemen can and must play a leading role against all forms of reaction, it is hereby resolved by the membership of the 43 Group of Ex-Servicemen that this organization shall forthwith disband, and that all those eligible should immediately join and take part in the work of the Association of Jewish Ex-Servicemen." Its active members join AJEX or groups like the CPGB, the British Peace Council and the NCCL. Other will emigrated to israel or just retired from active anti-fascist activity.
[stevesilver.org.uk/from-anti-fascist-war-to-cold-war/]

1953 - Guy Allix, French poet and libertarian writer, born. [expand]
[fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guy_Allix
www.m-e-l.fr/guy-allix,ec,13
guyallixpoesie.canalblog.com]

1958 - Battle of The Level: An attempted recruitment rally by the Union Movement, where Jeffrey Hamm and Raven Thompson were due to speak, ends in a mass battle as the fascists are outnumbered. AJEX and the 43 Group had gotten wind of the rally in advance and mobilised for it, catching both the UM and the police unaware. Hamm ended up being hospitalised and the fascists humiliated, and no further fascist meetings were held in Brighton for many years. [PR]
[see also: Graham Macklin - 'Very Deeply Dyed in Black: Sir Oswald Mosley and the Resurrection of British Fascism after 1945' (2007)]
[www.mybrightonandhove.org.uk/page_id_ _11195_path_ _0p115p203p1973p.aspx [NB: URL suffers formatting display problems with this wiki - Close the _ _ gaps before using!]
afaarchive.files.wordpress.com/2012/02/heroes-or-villains.pdf
www.mikeashworth.co.uk/2009/05/fascism-and-racism-in-brighton-the-battle-of-the-level/
7directory.co.uk/brightononthelevel.php
content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,803581,00.html
transpont.blogspot.co.uk/2008/12/brighton-vigilantes-in-new-cross-1944.html]

[A/E] 1972 - Angela Davis found not guilty of all charges against her and released after two years in jail.

1976 - Eighteen-year Old Sikh Amit Roy As Gurdip Singh Chaggar is stabbed by a NF-inspired gang in a racist attack outside the Victory public house in Southall, London. Local youths responded by turning out in large numbers to express their anger, before 200 of them marched on the town’s police station to demand better protection from racist attacks. Police arrested 2 of the demonstrators but, after 'negotiations' with local 'community leaders', they were released - the fact that the police station was surrounded by protesters holding a sitdown protest and refusing to leave until the 2 were released, and that there was the possiblity of a full-scale riot may also have played its part. No one was ever convicted of the killing.
Later that same evening, another meeting was held to organise self-defence units, leading directly to the formation of the Southall Youth Movement (SYM).
[archive.spectator.co.uk/article/19th-june-1976/11/summer-in-southall
www.itnsource.com/shotlist/RTV/1976/06/07/510050126/
livesrunning.wordpress.com/tag/southall/
hatfulofhistory.wordpress.com/2014/04/23/35-years-since-southall-1979/
randompottins.blogspot.co.uk/2010/04/southall-two-murders-no-conviction-and.html
www.sikhsangat.com/index.php?/topic/43783-30-years-on-southall-riots/
www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2009/apr/26/police-blair-peach
libcom.org/files/politics of asian youth movement.pdf]

1986 - Umberto Marzocchi (b. 1900), Italian shipyard worker, anarchist and anti-fascist fighter in the Arditi del Popolo, who fought on the Aragon front during the Spanish Civil War and, following the Retirada, joined the Foreign Legion (to gain French papers) and fought with the Maquis during WWII, dies. [see: Oct. 10]

[D] 1989 - The army massacres at least 2,000 peacefully protesting students and workers in Beijing's Tianenmen Square.
Demonstrators in the city of Chengdu fight against troops.
5
1381 - [poss.] Peasants' Revolt / Wat Tyler's Rebellion: An angry crowd of local people gathered at Dartford to discuss the arrest of John Belling, an alleged escaped serf from one of Sir Simon Burley's estates. From there the rebels travelled to Maidstone, where they stormed the gaol.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peasants'_Revolt
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wat_Tyler
partacus-educational.com/YALDchronology.htm
www.marxists.org/history/england/peasants-revolt/story.htm
morrisedition.lib.uiowa.edu/dreamJohnBallWrightHistoricalIntro.html
www.historic-uk.com/HistoryUK/HistoryofEngland/Wat-Tyler-the-Peasants-Revolt/]

[1831 - Merthyr Rising: Gwent workers rise and march to support Merthyr workers
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Merthyr_Rising
libcom.org/library/1831-merthyr-tydfil-uprising
www.southwalespolicemuseum.org.uk/en/content/cms/history_of_the_force/the_merthyr_rising/the_merthyr_rising.aspx
www.hiraeth.wales/2013/06/03/bara-neu-waed-bread-or-blood-the-red-flag-is-raised-over-merthyr/
www.socialistparty.org.uk/articles/2464
www.alangeorge.co.uk/Dic_Penderyn.htm
democracyandclasstruggle.blogspot.co.uk/2013/05/merthyr-rising-1831-beginning.html]

[D] 1832 - Insurrection Républicaine: The poor of Paris revolt against the new monarchy (June 5-6). The Société des Droits de l'Homme raise the red flag, declaring "La liberté, ou la mort!" — an episode immortalised by Victor Hugo in 'Les Misérables' (or for the younger and less culturally astute of our readers, traduced by some god-awful recent stage musical).
The first republican insurrection under the July Monarchy of Louis-Philippe (1830-1848); it took place on the occasion of the funeral of General Jean Maximilien Lamarque, a popular leftist member of the Parti Républicain opposition who had died on June 1 during the then cholera epidemic, as the Republican left seized the opportunity presented by the up-welling of popular sentiment accompanying the death of a hero of the Napoleonic War and the weakening of the position of Louis-Philippe, following the death on May 16, 1832, of the king's powerful supporter Casimir Pierre Périer, President of the Council. With various republican and leftist groups such as the Société des Droits de l'Homme having long plotted insurrection, hoping to emulate those that had led to the 1830 July Revolution against the ministers of Charles X.
Unlike the grand state funeral accorded the arch-conservative Perier, the official funeral procession of General Lamarque ["loved by the people because he accepted the chances the future offered, loved by the mob because he served the emperor well" - 'Les Misérables' (1862)] would include the presence of ordinary Parisians and afford the ideal occasion to demonstrate the strength of the opposition and popular sentiment against the monarchy. At the esplanade of the pont d'Austerlitz the slow progress of the procession was interrupted as groups of demonstrators surrounded the hearse. Speeches were made and, suddenly, the red flag of the Société des Droits de l'Homme appeared bearing the words 'La Liberté ou la Mort'. Uproar ensued and the populous that had joined the procession along the route erupted into noisy a pro-republican protest, which in turn degenerated into clashes with troops sent to restore order. Part of the Garde Nationale defected to the crowd and fraternised with the insurgents. The fighting persisted into the evening, as the insurgents took control of much of the eastern and central districts of Paris.
Overnight, vast reinforcements of about 40,000 regular army troops were brought in to back up the 20,000 part-time militia of the Paris Garde Nationale. They occupied the peripheral districts of the capital and at dawn began to push into the insurgent stronghold in the Faubourg Saint-Martin, where they had built barricades in the narrow streets around the Rue Saint-Martin and Rue Saint-Denis. Louis-Philippe put in an appearance, just to show that he was still in charge, reviewing the troops of the line and gardes nationales. Through out much of June 6, the insurgents defended their barricades but by the late afternoon the last republican hold-out had fallen. Among the insurgents there were 93 dead and 291 wounded, whilst the army and gardes lost 73 killed and 344 wounded.
The repression was swift: Paris was placed under siege the same day to prevent further unrest and to try and prevent those involved from fleeing the capital; the powers normally exercised by the civilian authorities were transferred to the military authorities, with a conseil de guerre trying cases and handing down much more severe punishments than a civil court would. However, forced by the Court of Cassation, Louis-Philippe recinded the June 6 order and jury trials of those detained now took place and, to everyone's surprise, the juries still handed down severe punishments, convicting 82 for their part in the popular protest, seven of which were given death sentences, which Louis-Philippe later commuted to deportation.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/June_Rebellion
fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insurrection_républicaine_à_Paris_en_juin_1832
baudrier.voyeaud.org/juin1832.php]

1871 - Michele Angiolillo Lombardi (d. 1897), Italian anarchist and typographer, proponent of 'Propaganda by the Deed', born. [expand]
[www.estelnegre.org/anarcoefemerides/1506.html
ita.anarchopedia.org/Michele_Angiolillo
es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michele_Angiolillo
guillotine.cultureforum.net/t2502-michele-angiolillo-lombardi-anarchiste-1897]

1873 - Proclamation of the First Spanish Republic: Francisco Pi y Margall assumes Presidency. Advocates Federalist program inspired by Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, becoming popular among Spanish anarchists. Andalusia and several cities in the southeast establish a libertarian federalism. Pi y Margall is promptly overthrown by Monarchist forces. The town of Carthagène resists a government takeover for several months.

[B] 1875 - Stanislav Kostka Neumann (d. 1947), Czech journalist, poet, literary and art critic, translator and anarchist, born. A representative of the turn of the century generation of Czech Anarchističtí Buřiči, "básníci života a vzdoru" (Anarchist Rebels, "the poets of life and defiance"). Expelled from business college, he participated in the clandestine youth movement, Omladina, for which he was arrested in 1893, standing trial in the notorious Proces s Omladinou (Trial of the Teenagers) and spending 14 months in Plzen-Bory prison. After returning from prison, he published his first poetry collection of 'Latinsky Nemesis, Strážkyně Dobrých / Majetku' (Latin Nemesis, Guardian of Good / Assets; 1895) and contributed to the Symbolisti magazine 'Moderní Revue' (Modern Revue). He also became publisher and editor of the anarchist literary magazine 'Nový Kult' (The New Cult) in 1897, and was active in anarchist circles and writing for movement magazines such as 'Práce' (Labour). In 1902 he co-founded the Prague Esperanto club and began to write poetry in the langauge, as well as helping form, with Michal Kácha, the Česká Anarchistická Federace (Czech Anarchist Federation, or ČAF) and the Česká Federace Va̧ech Odborů (Czech Federation of All Unions, or ČFVO).
Around this time he started to work for the Brno paper 'Lidové Noviny' (People’s Newspaper) and, thanks to the brothers Čapek, he came into a closer contact with the pre-war art group founded around the 'Almanach na Rok 1914' (Almanac for the Year 1914), which rejected Symbolism and signalled the beginning of a shift by Neumann away from anarchism. During WWI he was on the Albanian front as ambulance driver and just before the end of the war he started publishing the magazine 'Červen' (June; 1918-22), co-edited with Michal Kácha, which brought together the pre-war "moderns" (the brothers Čapek and others) and authors from the upcoming generation who dedicated themselves to "proletarian art" (e.g. Jaroslav Seifert, Vladislav Vančura, Jiří Wolker, Jindřich Hořejší).
He joined the new Česká Strana Socialistická (Czech Socialist Party), of which he became a representative in the Revoluční Národní Shromáždění (Revolutionary National Assembly) and became a high official at the Ministry of Education. In 1919 he withdrew from his parliament seat and in 1920 he left the party. He started setting up communist cells together with former anarchists in the North of Bohemia. The cells integrated in 1921 in the new KSČ (Communist Party of Czechoslovakia). He would go on to have a stormy relationship with the KSČ, leaving or being expelled on numerous occasions and during the Nazi occupation he went into hiding rather than fleeing the country due to sever ill health.
His poetry collections include: 'Sen o Zástupu Zoufajících a Jiné Básně' (Dreaming of a Despairing Crowd and Other Poems; 1903); 'Socialism a Svoboda: (1904–1908)' (Socialism and Freedom; 1909) and 'Kniha Mládí a Vzdoru' (Book of Youth and Rebellion; 1920).
NB: the decades-long feud between the proletarian poet S. K. Neumann and the avant-garde theorist Karel Teige.
[sk-neumann.wgz.cz/rubriky/sk-neumann
cs.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stanislav_Kostka_Neumann
www.arts.gla.ac.uk/Slavonic/carnival.html
lic.ned.univie.ac.at/sl/node/14808
www.phil.muni.cz/fil/scf/komplet/neuman.html
www.a-kontra.cz/100-let-ceske-anarchisticke-federace
odpor.wz.cz/CLANKY/HISTORIE/hist_cr.htm
cs.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anarchismus_v_%C4%8Cesku
cs.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anarchisti%C4%8Dt%C3%AD_bu%C5%99i%C4%8Di
www.cojeco.cz/index.php?s_term=&s_lang=2&detail=1&id_desc=64648
cs.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proces_s_Omladinou
blogs.princeton.edu/graphicarts/2011/02/cerven.html]

1878 - Francisco 'Pancho' Villa (José Doroteo Arango Arámbula; d. 1923), Mexican revolutionist, born.

1883 - La Bande Noire: Second of three blasts blows up the bedroom at the engineer Michalovski's house but he escapes uninjured again. [see: May 12 & Oct. 30]

1892 - The first issue of the fortnightly 'It Grido degli Oppressi' (The Cry of the Oppressed), paper of "the [Italian] communist-anarchist groups of New York and surrounding areas" is published in NYC.

1894 - Cripple Creek Miners' Strike: Sheriff Bowers' out of control army of 1300 deputies occupy Altman, cutting the telegraph and telephone wires leading out of town, and imprisoning a number of reporters, as what was presumed to be a prelude to storming Bull Hill. Governor Waite dispatched the state militia to take control of the situation. [see: Feb. 7]

1898 - Federico García Lorca (d. 1936), Andalusian poet, dramatist and artist, born. He will be murdered by Franco's fascists.

1905 - [O.S. May 23] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The St. Petersburg Municipal Council endorses political reform.
[cnparm.home.texas.net/Nat/Rus/Rus02.htm]

1906 - Joaquín Ascaso Budria (d. 1977), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. [expand]
[www.estelnegre.org/anarcoefemerides/0506.html
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joaquín_Ascaso_Budria
es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joaquín_Ascaso
an.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joaquín_Ascaso
antoncastro.blogia.com/2006/060801-joaquin-ascaso-memorias-de-un-anarquista.php]

1915 - Revolución Mexicana: Oaxaca declares itself a sovereign state.

1915 - Henri Gaudier-Brzeska (b. 1891), French anarchist, sculptor, painter and draughtsman associated with the Vorticists, dies. [see: Oct. 4]

[???] 1919 - 67 anarchists are arrested and face deportation in the wake of a bomb explosion marking the beginning of the infamous 'Palmer raids' in the US. [rewrite]

1922 - Madeleine Briselance (d. 2009), French bookbinder, libertarian and anti-militarist activist, born.
[militants-anarchistes.info/spip.php?article6854
www.estelnegre.org/anarcoefemerides/0506.html]

[F] 1925 - Matanza de La Coruña [La Coruña Massacre]: On the morning of June 5, Lieutenant Colonel Acacio Rodriguez directed the infantry and cavalry in a final assault on the few miners at La Coruña who had not already been killed of fled on to the pampa. Carlos Garrido, the anarchist secretary general of FOCH at La Coruña, surrendered voluntarily, declaring that he was solely responsible for the events at La Coruña, hoping to save the lives of those still left alive. He was shot that same night on a nearby foolball field.
The death toll was extremely high but the exact figure is unknown. The popular press spoke of 2,000, including those shot, burned alive or thrown alive into the mine. Some of those detained were forced to dig their ow graves before being summarily shot. According to Peter DeShazo, "British diplomats estimated that between 600 and 800 workers were killed in the massacre, while the army suffered no casualties" ['Urban Workers and Labor Unions in Chile 1902-1927' (1983)]. 600 survivors were rounded up and imprisoned in a slaughterhouse. They were joined by groups of survivors who were captured in the pampa by the cavalry forces. They were sent to the velodrome of Iquique where they were tortured and tried in a military court.
[es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matanza_de_La_Coruña
www.puntofinal.cl/811/matanza811.php
www.puntofinal.cl/656/coruna.htm
www.luisemiliorecabarren.cl/files/recursos/Matanza_en_La_Coruna.pdf
laotrahistoriadechile.blogspot.co.uk/2013/07/masacre-de-obreros-en-tarapaca-en-1925.html
piensachile.com/2010/11/la-olvidada-matanza-de-obreros-y-sus-familias-en-la-oficina-salitrera-qla-coruapaq/
porlaputa.com/id/892141
www.nortino.com/2012/08/matanzas-en-las-oficinas-salitreras.html]

1934 - Ralph Rumney (d. 2002), English artist, writer and lifelong conscientious objector, born. One of the co-founders of the London Psychogeographical Association and a founding member of the Situationist International, he was the first to be expelled ('amiably' 7 months later) by Guy Debord. He produced a vast body of work despite living most of his life in destitution.
[www.notbored.org/citylights.html
www.revoltagainstplenty.com/index.php/archive/35-archivelocalwreckage/53-on-ralph-rumney-hidden-connections-ruminations-and-rambling-parentheses.html
www.englandgallery.com/artist_group.php?mainId=39&media=Paintings
www.tate.org.uk/art/artists/ralph-rumney-2244
www.guardian.co.uk/news/2002/mar/08/guardianobituaries.arts1]

1936 - Grève Générale en France / Accords Matignon: With the strike crisis deepening, Léon Blum held overnight discussion with the representatives of the employers' organisation, the Confédération générale du patronat français, at which the stakes of a possible negotiation were outlined (they were willing to deal with wages and collective agreements, but not with the 40 hours week and paid holidays, which fall under government legislation) and that talks with the CGT were possible. Therefore, even before the Council of Ministers had approved his ministerial declaration, he broadcast on radio at noon asking the workers "to rely on the law for those of their claims that must be settled by law, to pursue the others with calm, dignity and discipline". The outcome of those discussion would be the Accords Matignon.
[www.cairn.info/revue-le-mouvement-social-2002-3-page-33.htm
www.matierevolution.fr/spip.php?article525
gilles.pichavant.pagesperso-orange.fr/ihscgt76/num4/num4page4.htm
www.histoire-image.org/etudes/greves-mai-juin-1936
npa2009.org/idees/histoire/la-greve-generale-de-mai-juin-1936
fresques.ina.fr/jalons/fiche-media/InaEdu02006/les-greves-de-mai-juin-1936-en-region-parisienne-et-dans-le-nord.html
fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Accords_Matignon_(1936)
fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Accords_Matignon_(1936)]

1946 - Members of the International Typographical Union at the 'Vancouver Daily Province' newspaper go on strike in support of fellow ITU members in Winnipeg. When the 'Province' managed to resume publication on July 22, delivery trucks leaving the loading docks were confronted by a large crowd of about 50 pickets and 1,000 onlookers at the protest. A couple of trucks loaded with papers left the Province to a chorus of boos, then protesters surrounded a 'Province' van and overturned it. Copies of the paper were strewn about the street and set on fire. Eight people were arrested. The violence failed to stop the paper from publishing, but many unionised workers in Vancouver switched their allegiance to the 'Vancouver Sun'.
[www.unifor780g.org/day-history-june-5-1946/
www.pressreader.com/canada/vancouver-sun/20120724/281543698049488]

1951 - The Japanese Anarchist Federation reconstituted this month. Simultaneously, the anarchist communists set up the Japan Anarchist Club (Nihon Anakisuto Kurabu / 日本アナキスト・クラブ).

1962 - A bomb explodes at the Vicariat Militaire in Madrid. This is followed by another at the HQ of the Banco Popular, owned by Opus Dei. Four other vehicle bombs follow before the end of the month: June 12 at the Instituto Nacional de Previsión (Phalange) in Madrid, and three other bombs in Barcelona on June 29 at the Colegio Mayor Monterola (Opus Dei) and at the Institution Nacional de Previsión, and on June 30 at the headquarters of the Phalange. These acts against the Francoist regime and its supporters are the work of the secret Interior Defence section of the CNT-FAI in exile.

1962 - Vaga Minaire d'Astúries / Huelga Minera de Asturias [Asturian Miners' Strike]: Over the next two days [Jun. 5-6] the strikes ended with most of the demands: salary improvements, pensions update, annulment of the sanctions against the Nicolasa miners and the freedom of the detainees, having been granted, although not all, and of course not all those arrested and imprisoned were freed – 28 workers still remained in prison in mid-June. Throughout the two-month strike, nearly four hundred workers had been arrested, and many of them were tortured. They also resorted to dragging them out of their homes and, under escort, forcing them to go to work. Most of the detainees were sent to prison accused of incitement to strike and plots, others were deported. In Asturias alone, 65 were imprisoned for communist militancy, five for belonging to the Frente de Liberación Popular and four for distribution of socialist propaganda.

1969 - Imprisoned soldiers at Fort Dix, the majority either imprisoned for going AWOL, draft-resistors and conscientious objectors - many being held without trial, riot in protest at the conditions in which they are held.

[E] 1975 - Margherita Cagol (b. 1945), Italian founder member (along with Alberto Franceschini and her partner Renato Curcio) and a former leader of the Brigate Rosse, is killed in a shoot-out during a police raid on the hideout where the kidnapped industrialist Vallarino Gancia was being held. [see: Apr. 8]

[AA] 1985 - Douglas Scott, a 26-year-old member of the Anmatyerre Aboriginal People of Central Australia dies in custody. He was arrested in Darwin, Northern Territory for allegedly swearing in public. Unlawfully arrested and detained for 60 days for the use of ‘obscene’ language. While in custody he was tortured, refused bail, legal representation and medical assistance and was finally allegedly murdered in the early hours of the June 5 1985.

[A] 1989 - An unknown man stands in front of tank following Tiananmen Square protests in China.

1998 - Dieter Roth (b. 1930), German-Swiss anarchist and artist-poet associated with the Fluxus movement, best known for his artist's books, editioned prints, sculptures, video installations and found materials assemblages, dies. [see: Apr. 21]

[C] 2004 - Police in The Hague violently break up an attempt by 350 anti-fascists to block a demonstration by the fascist Nederlandse Volks Unie (Dutch People’s Union).

2005 - Pepita Carpeña (Josefa Carpena-Amat; b. 1919), Catalant anarcho-syndicalsist and anarcha-feminist militant, who in exile became one of the mainstays of the Centre Internacional de Recerques sobre l'Anarquisme (CIRA) in Marseille, dies. [see: Dec. 19]

2010 - Jason Pearce dies of the mysterious new condition "excited delirium" whilst being arrested and restrained by two police officers in Market Drayton. No one is charged.

2013 - Clément Méric, an 18-year-old activist with Action Antifasciste Paris-Banlieue and Solidaires Étudiant-es from Brest, is beaten to death by neo-Nazis in central Paris. Clément and three of his friends were attending a Fred Perry private sale in the central Rue de Caumartin when a group of four neo-Nazis skinheads from the Jeunesse Hationaliste Révolutionnaire arrived at the premises. Sporting shaved heads and swastika tattoos; one also wore a Blood and Honour sweatshirt, the neo-Nazis started shouting at and shoving the group that included Méric. He was then punched by one of the neo-Nazis who was wearing knuckle dusters. Seriously injured, Clément was rushed to hospital and was later pronounced 'brain-dead'
[www.liberation.fr/societe/2013/09/18/mort-de-clement-meric-ce-qui-s-est-passe-ce-5-juin-a-18h43_932932
fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Affaire_Clément_Méric
www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/06/06/clement-meric-dead-skinhead-attack_n_3397221.html]
6
1381 - Peasants' Revolt / Wat Tyler's Rebellion: Parallel to the unrest in Essex, the unrest amongst rural workers in Kent was simmering. The previous day (June 5), an angry crowd of local people had gathered at Dartford to discuss the arrest of John Belling, an alleged escaped serf from one of Sir Simon Burley's estates. From there the rebels had travelled to Maidstone, where they stormed the gaol. On June 6, the Kent rebels then moved on from Maidstone to Rochester where, faced by the angry crowds, the constable (governor) of Rochester Castle, Sir John Newton, who was soon employed to bear the rebels' messages to the king at London, surrendered it without a fight and John Belling, and alleged escaped serf from one of Sir Simon Burley's estates, is set free. Some of the Kentish crowds now dispersed, but others continued on towards Maidstone.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peasants'_Revolt
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wat_Tyler
spartacus-educational.com/YALDchronology.htm
www.marxists.org/history/england/peasants-revolt/story.htm
morrisedition.lib.uiowa.edu/dreamJohnBallWrightHistoricalIntro.html
www.historic-uk.com/HistoryUK/HistoryofEngland/Wat-Tyler-the-Peasants-Revolt/]

[A] 1638 - A football match on Burnt Fen, Cambridgeshire is the guise for anti-enclosure rioters from Ely and Lakenheath to assemble and destroy the drainage ditches.

1780 - Mob storms Newgate Prison in London, setting prisoners free and setting fire to and destroying the prison.

[1831 - Merthyr Rising: Great workers' gathering at Twyn y Waun, troops arrive and level guns
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Merthyr_Rising
libcom.org/library/1831-merthyr-tydfil-uprising
www.southwalespolicemuseum.org.uk/en/content/cms/history_of_the_force/the_merthyr_rising/the_merthyr_rising.aspx
www.hiraeth.wales/2013/06/03/bara-neu-waed-bread-or-blood-the-red-flag-is-raised-over-merthyr/
www.socialistparty.org.uk/articles/2464
www.alangeorge.co.uk/Dic_Penderyn.htm
democracyandclasstruggle.blogspot.co.uk/2013/05/merthyr-rising-1831-beginning.html]

1865 - Dreigroschenstreik [Threepenny Strike]: A strike by employees in 500 of the approximately 800 book printers in Leipzig that had begun on April 1 in support of higher wages and shorter working hours ends with the employers granting a 28 Pfennig pay increase. However, 50 sacked strikers during the disputed subsequently failed to be reinstated. [see: Apr. 1]

1868 - Georges Butaud (d. 1926), French anarchist communard, partisan of the 'Milieux Libres', born. He was the publisher of 'Flambeau' ("an enemy of authority") in 1901 and of the monthly 'La Vie Anarchiste' (1912-14) in Vienne, Isère. His key activity was the creation of libertarian communities: Saint Symphorien d'Ozon, in Isère (1899), the Milieu libre de Vaux near Chateau-Thierry (1902-06) and Saint Maur (Seine) in 1913, a community farm dedicated to agriculture and livestock. However, becoming aware of the problems of food production, he became a supporter of veganism, a principle he put into practice at the Bascon (Aisne) colony.

1894 - Cripple Creek Miners' Strike: When Colorado state troops arrived in Cripple Creek early on the morning of June 6, more violence had already broken out. The deputies were exchanging gunfire with the miners on Bull Hill. Gen. Brooks quickly moved his troops from the train station to the foot of Bull Hill. As Sheriff Bowers and Gen. Brooks began to argue about what course of action to take next, the deputies took advantage of the lull and attempted to charge the miners. The miners sounded the whistle at the Victor mine, alerting Gen. Brooks. Soldiers of the state militia quickly intercepted the deputies and stopped their advance. Brooks ordered his men to occupy the top of Bull Hill, and the miners offered no resistance.
The deputies turned their attention to Cripple Creek itself, arresting and imprisoning hundreds of citizens or forcing them to run the gaunlet as they were beaten and abused. With Bull Hill in his possession, Gen. Brooks began detaining the deputies. By nightfall, Brooks had seized the town and corralled all of Bowers' men. Waite threatened to declare martial law, but the mine owners refused to disband their deputy force. Gen. Brooks then threatened to keep his troops in the region for another 30 days. Faced with the prospect of paying for a paramilitary force which could only sit on its hands, the owners agreed to disband it. The deputies, which Gen. Brooks had dispatched via rail to Colorado Springs, began dispersing on June 11. The Waite agreement became operative the same day, and the miners returned to work.
Union president Calderwood and 300 other miners were arrested and charged with a variety of crimes. Only four miners were convicted of any charges, and were quickly pardoned by the sympathetic populist governor. [see: Feb. 7]

1897 - Arnaldo Simões Januário (d. 1938), Portuguese barber, militant syndicalist and anarchist propagandist, born. Typographer and writer for the libertarian press on 'A Batalha' (The Battle, paper of the Portuguese CGT), 'A Communa', 'O Anarquismo', 'O Libertário' and the review 'Aurora'. In 1927, as a member of the União Anarquista Portuguesa, he was arrested, spending time in prisons at Coimbra, Aljube and Trafaria, before being deported to various concentration camps (Angola, Azores, Cape Verde and Oikussi on Timor).
Released in 1933, he returned to clandestine activities in Portugal, helping prepare for the insurrectionary general strike on 18 January 1934. Arrested and tortured, he was sentenced to 20 years in prison. He died from a lack of medical care at Camp Tarrafal on Cape Verde in 1938.
[ita.anarchopedia.org/Arnaldo_Simões_Januário
arepublicano.blogspot.co.uk/2008/03/arnaldo-janurio-70-anos-depois-da-sua.html
www.ephemanar.net/juin06.html]

1900 - Silvia Secchiari (d. 1959), Italian anarchist mulitant and anti-fascist, born. The daughter of anarchist militants, she was left paralysed by fascist violence and maintained her commitment to the anarchist cause by writing songs based on the history of her family and the local anarchist movement.
[militants-anarchistes.info/spip.php?article8328]

1903 - The first issue of the Italian language anarchist journal 'Cronaca Sovversiva' is published in Barre, Vermont. A victim of anti-anarchist repression during the war, the newspaper is finally banned in July 1918 and its editor, Luigi Galleani, is arrested and deported.

1903 - The first issue of 'L'Insurgé', a weekly newspaper of anarchist communist propaganda, is published in Herstal, Liege.

1905 - [O.S. May 24] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Nicholas II had received a Zemstvo deputation and, responding to speeches by Prince Sergei Nikolaevich Trubetskoy (Серге́й Петро́вич Трубецко́й) and Mr Fyodrov, he confirmed his promise to convene an assembly of people’s representatives. Moscow City Council also endorses the calls for reform.
[cnparm.home.texas.net/Nat/Rus/Rus02.htm
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Трубецкой,_Сергей
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sergei_Nikolaevich_Trubetskoy]

1909 - Émilie Lamotte (b. 1876), French teacher, miniatures painter, neo-Malthusian and anarchist, dies. [see: Jun. 21]

1911 - Rebelión de Baja California / Revolución Mexicana: The Mexican Government requests US permission (which is swiftly granted) to send troops from Chihuahua to Baja California (through US territory and in US trains) to fight "bandits". Francisco Madero (a revolutionary opportunist seeking power), wins US support to send troops into lower California to crush the experimental Libertarian Commune whose rallying cry has been "Tierra y Libertad". Two days later on June 8, the US State Department gave permission for at least 1,500 Mexican soldiers to cross American territory. The troops would be disarmed as soon as they crossed into Arizona, and their weapons and ammunition would be returned to them after they crossed from California back into Mexico.

1921 - The première of 'Le Cœur à Gaz' (The Gas-Operated Heart), Tristan Tzara's classic Dadaist play (characterised as "the greatest three-act hoax of the century" by critics) staged as part of a Dada Salon at the Galerie Montaigne by the Paris Dadaists, ends in a near riot.

1922 - The mountain that overlooks the town of Osoyoos in British Columbia is officially named 'The Anarchist Mountain' after an Irish settler named Richard G. Sidley who came to settle in the area around 1889. He ran the first post office in the area in 1895, later becoming a magistrate and customs officer. But his later political opinions earned him the sobriquet 'anarchist', and he was relieved of his duties.

1933 - Willy Braque, French libertarian, actor, director, producer and writer, born.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Willy_Braque
www.imdb.com/name/nm0105319/]

[B] 1939 - Louis Andriessen, Dutch composer, pianist, anarchist and Marxist, born. Involved in the late sixties radical student movement and anti-Vietnam protests, he led the notorious Actie Notenkrakers (Nutcrackers Action) on 17 November, 1969 in which a group of activists interrupted a concert by the Concertgebouw Orchestra, demanding an open discussion of music policy. That same year, Schat contributed, together with the composers Reinbert de Leeuw, Louis Andriessen, Jan van Vlijmen, and Misha Mengelberg, and the writers Harry Mulisch and Hugo Claus, in 'Reconstructie', a sort of co-operative opera, or 'morality' theatre work, about the conflict between American imperialism and liberation. He was later to set up the political street band, Orkest de Volharding (Perseverance Orchestra), with Willem Breuker in 1972. An early piece of his, 'Volkslied' (1971), feature the Dutch national anthem, 'Wilhelmus', slowly giving way to 'The International', but his most overtly anarchist-influenced piece is the central part of his major trilogy of works 'Die Staat' (1976), 'Mausoleum' (1979) and 'De Tijd' (1979–81). The first uses texts by Plato and the latter by St. Augustine, but 'Mausoleum' was written to commemorate the centennial of Bakunin’s death and sets texts by him to music.
[www.biografievanamsterdam.nl/Data/Dossier0000000087]

1943 - Pandelis Pouliopoulos (Παντελής Πουλιόπουλος; b. 1900), Greek Trotskyist and onetime general secretary of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE), is executed by the Italian occupation forces in Nezero, near Larissa, along with over a hundred other militants, in retaliation for the destruction by partisans of the Gorgopotamos bridge. Speaking in Italian to the squad of soldiers given the job of executing him, he exhorted them not to commit such a crime against the anti-fascist resisters and their adversaries in the war. When the soldiers refused to be executioners, it was the Carabinieri who were given the task. [see: Mar. 10]

[D] 1968 - Mai '68: France goes back to work after the lengthy May 1968 holidays!

1978 - Kitasono Katue (北園 克衛; b. 1902), renowned Japanese poet, painter, photographer, critic and anarchist, who helped introduced Dada and Surrealism into Japan, dies. [see: Oct. 29]

[C] 1981 - The British Movement make a serious miscalculation and try to hold a mass Day of Action and march in the centre of Oxford. A mass anti-fascist mobilisation (600 anti-fascists) sees BM supporters attacked whenever and wherever they are found.

1982 - Kenneth Rexroth (b. 1905), poet, essayist, critic, translator, anarchist, Wobbly, pacifist and conscientious objector, dies. [see: Dec. 22]

[F] 1988 - Approximately 2.5 million people heed the call by COSATU for a peaceful three-day countrywide stay-away or general strike to protest against apartheid, the apartheid government’s two-year old state of emergency, the February banning of 18 anti-apartheid groups from all political activity and the pending Labour Relations Amendment Bill that would further restrict activities of trade unions.
[www.sahistory.org.za/topic/congress-south-african-trade-unions-cosatu
www.sahistory.org.za/article/mass-democratic-movement-february-1988-january-1990]

[E] 1988 - Maria Vladimirovna Alyokhina [Мари́я Влади́мировна Алёхина], Russian poet, journalist, political activist, and ex-member of the anti-Putinist punk rock group Pussy Riot [Пусси Райот] and the street art group Voina (War/Война), born. She is also the cofounder (along with Nadezhda Tolokonnikova [Наде́жда Толоко́нникова]) organisation to protect the rights of prisoners Zona Prava [Зона Права](Zone of Rights) and the media network MediaZona [Медиазона].
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maria_Alyokhina
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Мария_Алёхина
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pussy_Riot
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pussy_Riot
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voina
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Война_(арт-группа)
zonaprava.com/
voiceproject.org/campaign/zona-prava/
zona.media]

1989 - The funeral of Franco-Spanish militant anarchist Hortensia Torres Cuadrado (b. 1924). Born into an anarchist family (her father taught in a Ferrer school before being deported to Germany by the Nazis where he died in 1941). Hortensia herself was interned in early 1939 at the Argelès camp in France, then turned over to Spain. In 1957, she returned to Toulouse as an employee of the Red Cross and worked with the SIA (International Solidarity Anti-fascist). On May 1, 1988, she participated in the re-establishing of the CNT in Madrid. It should be noted too that her son was imprisoned as a member of the GARI (Groupe d'action révolutionnaire internationaliste).
[ca.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hortensia_Torres_Cuadrado
losdelasierra.info/spip.php?article8226
mujeressinfonterasysinbozal.blogspot.co.uk/2015_06_01_archive.html]

1997 - Juan José Sacramento García (b. 1915), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist combatant, dies. [see: Aug. 26]

2000 - Frédéric Charles Antoine Dard (b. 1921), French writer of romans policiers and so-called anarchiste de droite, dies. [see: Jun. 29]

2010 - Jose Saramago's coffin bizarrely receives full state honours with a military guard alongside representatives of the Portuguese, Angolan and Mozambiquean governments and the Portuguese Communist party.
[www.libertaddigital.com/sociedad/el-feretro-de-saramago-viaja-a-lisboa-en-un-hercules-fletado-por-portugal-1276395551/]

2011 - The first of 11 anti-fascists go on trial two or more years after their arrests on charges connected to an altercation on the platform of Welling train station between a couple of the anti-fascists and two fascists from a Blood and Honour gig at the Duchess of Edinburgh pub in Upper Wickham Lane on March 28, 2009. After 17 days, seven of them were convicted and four acquitted. Of those convicted, four were immediately sentenced to 21 months in prison. Another two were later sentenced to 18 and 15 months. The seventh was given a suspended sentence. [see: Jun. 29]
[antifascistprisonersupportuk.wordpress.com/about-2/
transpont.blogspot.co.uk/2011/10/anti-fascists-jailed-after-welling.html]
7
1381 - Peasants' Revolt / Wat Tyler's Rebellion: The revolt is now widespread. The Kent rebels besiege Maidstone Castle, and Wat Tyler is elected at a large gathering in the town. Little is known about Tyler's former life; chroniclers suggest that he was from Essex, his surname may originate from his trade as a roofer, that he had served in France as an archer and was a charismatic and capable leader.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peasants'_Revolt
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wat_Tyler
spartacus-educational.com/YALDchronology.htm
www.marxists.org/history/england/peasants-revolt/story.htm
morrisedition.lib.uiowa.edu/dreamJohnBallWrightHistoricalIntro.html
www.historic-uk.com/HistoryUK/HistoryofEngland/Wat-Tyler-the-Peasants-Revolt/]

1780 - Gordon Riots: The army is called out and given orders to fire upon groups of four or more who refused to disperse. About 285 people are shot dead, and several hundred more wounded.

[1788 - Journée des Tuiles [Day of the Tiles]: disturbances in Grenoble that acted as a precursor to the French Revolution
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Day_of_the_Tiles
fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Journée_des_Tuiles]

1821 - [N.S. Jun. 19] Greek Revolution [Ελληνική Επανάσταση] or Greek War of Independence: Following the dashing of Alexander Ypsilantis' hope that the Russians would intervene on his side (he had in fact been denounced by the Tsar, kicked out of the Russian army and ordered to lay down his arms) and the crossing of the Danube by 30,000 Ottomans troops, there followed a series of major battles that lead to the defeat of the Eteria's forces, culminating in the final defeat of Ypsilantis' Sacred Band (Ἱερὸς Λόχος) battalion at Drăgăşani on June 7 (O.S.). Ypsilantis fled to Austria with the remnants of his followers where, having failed to gain permission to cross the frontier despite several days negotiations with the Austrian authorities, and fearing capture by the Turks, he crossed in Austria and was promptly arrested. Ypsilantis was subsequently kept in close confinement for seven years.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_War_of_Independence
el.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ελληνική_Επανάσταση_του_1821]

[1831 - Merthyr Rising: Troops regain control of Merthyr, mass arrests and imprisonment follow
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Merthyr_Rising
libcom.org/library/1831-merthyr-tydfil-uprising
www.southwalespolicemuseum.org.uk/en/content/cms/history_of_the_force/the_merthyr_rising/the_merthyr_rising.aspx
www.hiraeth.wales/2013/06/03/bara-neu-waed-bread-or-blood-the-red-flag-is-raised-over-merthyr/
www.socialistparty.org.uk/articles/2464
www.alangeorge.co.uk/Dic_Penderyn.htm
democracyandclasstruggle.blogspot.co.uk/2013/05/merthyr-rising-1831-beginning.html]

[EE] 1848 - Dolores Jiménez y Muro (d. 1925), Mexican schoolteacher, writer, poet, socialist activist, and Colonel in the Mexican Revolutionary Army, who was a supporter and associate of General Emiliano Zapata, born.
She expressed her progressive political views through her poetry and was invited by the state government to read her poems at an official celebration of the September independence festivals in 1874 – later collected into a book and published as 'Un Rayo de Luz' (A Ray of Light). She was arrested for a number of anti-Diaz articles and in prison she met Elisa Acuña y Rossetti, Juana Belén Gutiérrez de Mendoza, and Inés Malváez, as well as beginning publishing 'Fiat Lux', a radical journal. In 1905, she joined the staff of the 'La Mujer Mexicana', becoming its editor. In 1907, Acuña, Belén and Jiménez y Muro founded Las Hijas de Anahuac, a group of about three hundred libertarian women, who demanded improved working conditions for women and advocated industrial action to achieve workers' rights. In 1910, Jiménez and others founded the Club Femenil Antirreeleccionista Hijas de Cuauhtémoc (Anti-Reelectionist Women's Club: Daughters of Cuauhtémoc), with Jiménez y Muro as its president. The club, which included Mercedes Arvides and Julia Nava de Ruisánchez, staged a demonstration in Mexico City on September 11, 1910, protesting against election fraud. For this and their radical activism against the Diaz regime, Jiménez, Acuña, Belén, and María Dolores Malváes were arrested and imprisoned at San Juan de Ulúa fortress in the Gulf of Mexico. The following year, Jimenez y Muro founded 'Regeneracion y Concordia' from her prison cell to "improve the lot of indigenous races, rural people, workers; to unify revolutionary forces, and elevate women economically, morally and intellectually".
Thanks to her excellent writing skills and sense-making ideas regarding women and their value in Mexican society, Jiménez y Muro was selected a part of the group that wrote the 'Complot de Tacubaya', a document that took the ideas of several leading progressive thinkers and combined them into a call for the overthrow of President Porfirio Díaz. The document also set out plans for equal pay for men and women, and for education and housing reform. It also got her arrested when it was read out in Mexico City on October 31, 1911, and she was forced to go on hunger strike to gain her release – despite then being in her 60s. Emiliano Zapata however was impressed, especially with her call for restitution of lands, and invited her to Morelos, where she joined his forces in 1913 and was made one of the few Colonels in the Mexican Revolutionary Army, a cause she served the until Zapata's assassination in 1919. During that time she developed the prologue to the Plan de Ayala and directed the newspaper 'La Voz de Juárez'., which denounced the coup led by Victoriano Huerta to overthrow Madero. Zapata appointed her a brigadier general to try and stave off Huerta's wrath but it was insufficient to prevent her being imprisoned by Huerta in 1914 for eleven months. She died on October 15, 1925, in Mexico City, at the age of 75.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dolores_Jiménez_y_Muro
es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dolores_Jiménez_y_Muro]

1849 - Pierre-Joseph Proudhon is imprisoned in the prison of Sainte-Pelagie where he serves a sentence of three years imprisonment (since June 7, 1849) for articles in 'Le Peuple' "insulting the President of the Republic". [see: Jun. 4]

1862 - Jules Alexandre Sadier (d. 1936), Franco-Argentine anarchist militant propagandist and anti-militarist, born. Refusing military service, he fled France for Switzerland, where he encountered Kropotkin in Geneva and became an active anarchist. In 1887 he moved to Belgium, where his son Gilbert was born, and was imprisoned in Liege before being expelled. He then moved to London, before leaving for Argentina in 1889. In Buenos Aires, he started working at the International Library of Émile Piette, which goes on to become a rallying point for progressive forces in the country. Sadier also worked in the anarchist newspaper 'El Perseguido' (The Persecuted) between 1890-97, and on January 23, 1893, he and Piette published the first issue of the Buenos Aires French-language weekly 'La Liberté', which they co-founded with Pierre Quiroule (pseudonym of Alexandre Falconnet, another French refuge who would form a close friendship with Sadier). Auguste Vaillant would also at one point collaborate on 'La Liberté'.
Sadier carried out an extensive correspondence with Nettlau Max and Jean Grave on the progress of the Argentine anarchist movement and financially helped a number of European publications ('Revolte', 'Les Temps Nouveaux', etc.). In 1910 he returned to France and eventually settled in Nice in 1927, collaborating on 'L'Emancipateur', 'La Voix Libertaire' and the magazine 'Plus Loin'. An amateur chemist, he invented a recipe for food colouring made from turmeric. In November 1935, and suffering from gastric cancer, he returned to his son in Buenos Aires, where he died. His partner, Carolina Kinclaven, survive him by three years, dying of colon cancer. Among his published works were 'Un Congrès dit Anarchiste' (1922), 'À Mes Camarades' (1922), 'Patriotisme Capitaliste' (1932) and 'Dans l'Internationale Anarchiste' (1932).

1868 - André Veidaux (anagrammic pseudonym of Jean-Baptiste Adrien Devaux; d. 1927), French Symbolist writer, poet, critic and anarchist sympathiser, born. Wrote for numerous anarchist journals including: 'L'Attaque', 'L'en Dehors', 'Revue Anarchiste', 'La Revue Libertaire', 'Le Libertaire', 'Le Journal du Peuple', 'L'Education Libertaire', 'L'Homme Libre', 'Le Réveil de l'Esclave', etc.

1876 - Adya van Rees (Adrienne Catherine Dutilh; d. 1959), Dutch artist (needle art, broderies and wall hangings) who was involved with Dadaism and the Ascona colony, born. She met her partner the Dutch painter and Tolstoyian anarchist Otto van Rees at the International Brotherhood colony at Blaricum in 1904.
[www.historici.nl/Onderzoek/Projecten/DVN/lemmata/data/dutihl
www.kubisme.info/kb156.html
sdrc.lib.uiowa.edu/dada/dadas/arees.htm]

[E] 1881 - Kanno Sugako (管野 スガ; d. 1911), also called Suga, Japanese anarcho-feminist journalist, writer and activist, born. Also used the pen names Yūgetsujo and Yūgetsu. Partner of Kōtoku Shūsui (幸徳秋水), she would dies alongside him following their supposed involvement in the High Treason Incident (大逆事件; Taigyaku Jiken) or Kōtoku Incident (幸徳事件; Kōtoku Jiken) plot against the Japanese Emperor's life. [see: May 20]
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kanno_Sugako
ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/管野スガ]

1896 - A bomb explodes during a religious parade in Barcelona, killing a dozen people and wounding 30. In response the government totally represses the anarchist movement, torturing hundreds of people in the Montjuich Prison. Spanish authorities imprison over 400 people, including anarchists, suspected of involvement in the bombing. The severity of the punishment sparks international protests. Of the 87 prisoners taken to the tribunal, eight received death sentences and nine were condemned to long imprisonment. The other seventy-one were declared innocent but were deported to Río de Oro, a Spanish colony in West Africa, on the orders of Antonio Cánovas, Spain’s Prime Minister.

1898 - In Chicago, Emma Goldman attends the first convention of Eugene Debs's Social Democracy movement; in her view it is a "fiasco." When she is at first prevented from speaking at the event, Debs personally invites Goldman to address the convention.

1898 - Antonio Casanova Prado (d. 1966), Spanish-born Argentinian baker, editor, translator and anarchist combatant in the Spanish Civil War and French Résistance, born. Emigrated to Argentina at an early age, but returned and fought during the Spanish Revolution in the 28th Division. After the defeat of the Republic he helped reorganise the CNT in exile in France, fighting with the Résistance during WWII and took part in the liberation of Paris.
[libcom.org/history/antonio-casanova-1898-1966
www.estelnegre.org/anarcoefemerides/0706.html
gl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Casanova_Prado]

[B/EEE] 1902 - Germaine Berton (d. 1942), French trade union militant and anarchist, born. Previously a member of the Communist Party, she joined l'Union Anarchiste in Paris in 1922 but left to join an individualist group. That year she joined the defence committee of the 1919 Mutinerie des Marins de la Mer Noire (Mutiny of the Sailors in the Black Sea) and was also imprisoned for insulting the secretary of the Police Commissioner.
On January 22, 1923, Berton had planned to kill Leon Daudet, a notorious right-wing extremist/propagandist of l'Action Française, but instead she ended up shooting Marius Plateau, Chef des Camelots du Roi [see: Jan. 22]. She later attempted to commit suicide to escape the judgement but, defended by Henry Torres, she was acquitted on Dec. 24, 1923. 'Le Libertaire' has declared her a hero, running a vociferous support campaign which led to her adoption by the Surrealists and featuring in a famous 'La Révolution Surréaliste' collage.
Following her aquittal, Germaine undertook a lecture tour, one date (Bordeaux) was prohibited by the police, leading to a fight and mass arrests - more than 150 people, including Berton. Sentenced to four months in prison plus a 100 franc fine, she was interned at Fort du Hâ where she pursued a hunger strike and was hospitalised. Upon her release her mental health deteriorated, quit political activities and later attempted suicide on Philippe Daudet's grave at the Père Lachaise cemetry.

'Why I shot a Royalist'
Germaine Berton
1923
Le Flambeau, Algiers

Amongst the enemies of the proletariat, I have always had a particular hatred for the Royalists and their agents provocateurs; I could hardly contain my anger when I recalled the abject attitude of MM. Maurras and Daudet towards workers’ organisations. The articles and the media campaign by the Action Française in 1920 through which the King’s Camelots became strike breakers; the incessant call to violence; the shameful slander of some Anarchists and Communists; the threats of repression and fascism. Towards the end of 1922 I was pushed to the limit, I would have been a coward if I hadn’t had the courage to express, in my own way, my rancour and my disgust.

At that time, while Poincaré was busy with the invasion of the Ruhr, the Royalists were actively preparing their social war, hiding their resentment and their unhealthy appetites under a hypocritical jingoism of dubious tatste. The facts prove this. It is none other than the Action Française who demanded the arrest of French Syndicalists and Communists with whom they had old affairs to settle; it is the Action Française who demanded the lifting of the parliamentary immunity of the Deputy Cachin; it is them, lastly, who never stopped, in their columns, to stir up hatreds in the attempt of creating fascist politics, – Daudet was the main instigator of all this. I recalled his entire life spent fighting workers’ organisations. This is when I decided to kill him.

I am not insensitive, and I had to overcome great reluctance before killing a human being, even my enemy.

However, in no way do I regret the act I committed and my conscience feels no remorse. Because, in killing the leader of the King’s Camelots, I only obeyed my heart, torn by the suffering of all unfortunate proletarians, hounded and enslaved pariahs.

[militants-anarchistes.info/spip.php?article335
fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germaine_Berton
forgottenanarchism.wordpress.com/2015/03/13/why-i-shot-a-oyalist-germaine-berton/
surrint.blogspot.co.uk/2014/06/autobiografia-de-germaine-berton_17.html
philippepoisson-hotmail.com.over-blog.com/2014/03/germaine-berton-anarchiste-et-meurtriere-son-proces-en-cours-d-assises-du-18-au-24-decembre-1923.html
paris-luttes.info/24-decembre-1923-germaine-berton-1589?lang=fr
news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1314&dat=19241227&id=qugUAAAAIBAJ&sjid=1uEDAAAAIBAJ&pg=5919,4185060
hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/file/index/docid/418534/filename/Germaine_Berton-NQF.pdf]

1911 - Revolución Mexicana: Pascual Orozco's army enters Chihuahua City and makes it their headquarters.

[F] 1913 - Paterson Strike Pageant: By the end of May, after three months on strike, most silk workers families were having real difficulty feeding themselves, let alone paying the rent. Actively renewing their faith each Sunday in Haledon, men and women transformed their daily struggles into a living testimony to resilience, courage, and hope. That is why Haledon had such an impact on visitors. There, New York intellectuals saw the working class at its most hopeful and most united. Back in New York, the intellectuals spread the word about Paterson, both publicly and privately, and joined in the serious task of fund raising. The round of fund-raising meetings begun in April continued in May, with their typical combination of Wobbly and Socialist speakers. But the Village connection was already adding a new dimension to the drive to develop strike support in New York. By the third week in May, many New York writers and artists, including John Reed [portions of the pageant were recreated in the 1981 film 'Reds'] and John Sloan, were hard at work on the Paterson Strike Pageant, with wealthy socialite and art patron Mabel Dodge (who had originally suggested the idea to Bill Haywood) footing the bill.
By showing the audience the active role that workers were playing in Paterson, the originators of the Pageant hoped to reach out to the hearts and wallets of workers in New York. They even hoped to force the New York newspapers to tell the real story of the strike. Haywood in an essay about the strike, which he had written earlier in April, pointed to the need for publicity. "Through their control of outside newspapers, the Paterson silk manufacturers were able to bring about a general conspiracy of silence. The New York papers, for example, after the first few days in which they gave prominence to the strike, were warned through subtle sources that unless there was less publicity they would be made to suffer through loss of support and advertising." The Pageant began, then, as a way of breaking the conspiracy of silence in New York.
On June 7, after the strikers had paraded up Fifth Avenue to Madison Square Garden, led by seventeen-year-old striker Hannah Silverman, an overflow crowd of almost 15,000 people watched 1,029 silk workers reenact the major events of their strike. When the doors were finally closed at nine o'clock by order of the police, every seat in the Garden was taken, 1,000 people were standing inside, and many thousands more were left outside in lines stretching for blocks. By that time almost 15,000 had crowded inside. Only about 12,000 of these had paid, however. The rest were silk strikers who had been admitted free, including 800 who had walked the twenty-three miles from Paterson to the Garden and a larger contingent from Hudson County, New Jersey. The audience as a whole was overwhelmingly working class.
Instead of making money, the pageant lost $2,000. The strike fund was unable to raise enough money and by July the workers had been starved into submission.
[historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5648/
historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5649/
walkingoffthebigapple.blogspot.co.uk/2012/04/before-may-day-recalling-paterson.html
armory.nyhistory.org/a-new-social-art-the-paterson-strike-pageant/
patersongreatfalls.org/silkstrike.html]

[D] 1914 - Settimana Rossa di Ancona: Around 18:00 in the evening at the end of an anti-war meeting where Errico Malatesta had made a speech outside the Villa Rossa (Partito Repubblicano HQ) in the Italian port city of Ancona, police open fire, killing three people and wounding about 20.
The meeting had been called on the 'Festa dello Statuto' (Constitution Day, which celebrated the 1861 treaty establishing the Kingdom of Italy) by what amounted to an anti-militarist united front of far-left parties, republicans, anarchists and socialists [including 'maximalists' from the PSI, whose splits and divisions would prove significant later in events], to protest against militarism and against the war in Libya, to demand the abolition of the Compagnie di Disciplina nell'Esercito (the Army's Punishment Batallions) and in support of two conscripts, Augusto Masetti (who had shot his commanding officer in Lybia whilst shouting "Viva l'Anarchia, Abbasso la guerra" (Long live Anarchism, Down with the war) and Antonio Moroni, a revolutionary syndicalist sent to a disciplinary company because of his political activities. The Liberal government saw the 'front' as a threat to its 'Trasformismo' project (a centrist platform that sought to isolate the 'extremes' of left and right whilst co-opting their potential support bases) as the potential basis for a revolutionary 'Red bloc' and had therefore deployed police units to prevent and potential protests following the meeting. Thus, when some of those attending tried to march into the centre of Ancona, the police opened fire killing a 22-year-old anarchist Attilio Giambrignani on the spot and two Republicans, 24-year-old Nello Budini and Antonio Casaccia aged 17, who both died soon after in hospital.
The following day the anarcho-syndicalist trade union, the Unione Sindacale Italiana, and the Confederazione del Lavoro called a general strike across Italy starting that morning. In Ancona 30,000 people follow the coffins of the three killed. A revolutionary committee of those involved in the anti-militarist 'front' is formed to help coordinate the insurrectionary actions that had already broken our spontaneously across the Emilia-Romagna and Marche regions, where anarchists were particularly numerous. Armouries were stormed and their weapons seized, as were the ports and railways stations; telegraph lines were cut and railway tracks torn up, slowing the arrival of more soldiers called in as reinforcement; tax offices torched; and public buildings are taken by the protesters, in what many saw as a wildcat strike to the bitter end. Barricades sprang up in the northern industrial centres. Self-governing communes were declared in smaller towns and government officials forced to flee. About a million people participated and for ten days the city of Ancona was under the control of rebel workers and peasants.
Over the following days the numbers of clashes with the security forces began to increase, as parts of Italy move towards insurrection. Nationalist gangs also siezed the opportunity to attack workers and 'reds' in some areas. By June 10, the fourth day of the Settimana Rossa, the general strike has spread throughout Italy, with violent clashes between workers and the forces of law and order in Romagna, in Milan, Turin, Bologna, Florence, Naples, Palermo and Rome, as the carabinieri and army were overwhelmed by revolutionary actions against symbols of authority and the Church. The Confederazione Generale del Lavoro, the socialist trade union that had initially supported the general strike and now under pressure from the reformists within the PSI, then sent a telegram throughout the country encouraging the resumption of work.
The same day in the Arena di Milano, a certain Benito Mussolini (then a prominent PSI Maximalist who still considering himself to be a revolutionary socialist) and the revolutionary syndicalist Filippo Corridoni, who led a strike of the workers of the car, gas, and clothing sector in May 1914, spoke before a gathering of 60,000 protesters. Mussolini: "In Florence, Turin, Fabriano there are others dead and others wounded, it is necessary to work in the army because it is not firing on workers, we need to make sure that the penny of the soldier will soon be a fait accompli."
By June 12, cities such as Rimini, Ravenna and Romagna the strike was over without a fight as the army had moved in overwhelming numbers. However, insurrectionary activities carried on in isolated pockets for a few days longer and by June 14 'The Red Week of Ancona' general strike was over, brought to an end in large part by the complicity of the Socialists and their trade union, as much as by the ten thousand troops deployed to regain control of the country and, in particular, Ancona.
Many of the high-profile participants chose to leave the country to avoid arrest. Some like Giuseppe Bellini, Cino Macrelli and Armando Casalini sought refuge in San Marino. Others escaped to Switzerland. Errico Malatesta was one of these, escaping to Geneva, where he worked on Luigi Bertoni's 'Le Réveil - Il Risveglio' before leaving for London.
[anarkismo.net/article/27349
alfonsinemonamour.racine.ra.it/alfonsine/Alfonsine/settimana_rossa_dove.htm
alfonsinemonamour.racine.ra.it/alfonsine/Alfonsine/cronologia_settimana_rossa_fusignano.htm]

1920 - The first issue of the eclectic fortnightly individualist libertarian newspaper 'Un' is published in Paris by Marcel Sauvage.

[C] 1934 - Oswald Mosley and the British Union of Fascists hold their most notorious mass rally at the 20,000 seat Olympia and what was meant to be a triumphal moment turns into a disaster for Mosley and the Fascists. Amongst the audience of 10,000 or so people - made up largely of fascists bussed in from across the country - were about 500 anti-fascists including Vera Brittain, Richard Sheppard and Aldous Huxley, who had managed to get inside the hall undetected. When they started to heckle Mosley's speech, they were brutally set upon by the 1,000 or so black-shirted 1 Squad stewards and, as they were ejected from the meeting, they proved easy targets for anyone else to punch and kick them. Many of the neutrals present were horrified by what they saw, as were some of the large number of journalists present. Those from the pro-fascist Rothermere papers ('Daily Mail', 'London Evening News', 'Sunday Dispatch', etc.) thought 'The Reds' got what they deserved, but those from the more neutral and leftist newspapers (e.g. the 'Daily Chronicle' and 'Daily Herald') and even from newspapers unlikely to be sympathetic to the anti-fascist cause, such as the 'Daily Telegraph', were shocked by the brutality of the Blackshirts (one doctor reported seeing 50-70 victims of the violence). The press reports over the following days signalled a major set back for BUF [and the nails were finally driven into its coffin with the Nights of the Long Night 3 weeks later] and the following month, Rothermere suddenly withdrew his support for Oswald Mosley. According to the historian, James Pool: "The rumour on Fleet Street was that the Daily Mail's Jewish advertisers had threatened to place their adds in a different paper if Rothermere continued the pro-fascist campaign." ['Who Financed Hitler: The Secret Funding of Hitler's Rise to Power' (1979)] Sometime after this, Rothermere met with Hitler at the Berghof and told how the "Jews cut off his complete revenue from advertising" and compelled him to "toe the line". Mosley would now have to up his rhetoric to get noticed and he would go on to be more openly and vociferously anti-Semitic in his speeches.
MI5 later reported to the Home Office that the rally would have a negative impact on the future of BUF: "It is becoming increasingly clear that at Olympia Mosley suffered a check which is likely to prove decisive. He suffered it, not at the hands of the Communists who staged the provocations and now claim the victory; but at the hands of Conservative MPs, the Conservative press and all those organs of public opinion which made him abandon the policy of using his Defence Force to overwhelm interrupters."
"Olympia was nearly full – tier upon tier of the curious and the enthusiastic, and the enthusiastic in great majority. In every open space, at the end of every row, stood black-jerseyed stewards with hands on hips, complacent and menacing. The seats had been full for many minutes before hidden trumpets sounded a fanfare, and the Leader strode into the arc-lights. He was flanked by four blond young men, and a platoon of flag-bearing Blackshirts followed in their wake . . . Sir Oswald had stood at the rostrum for at least two minutes of this din, before his own arm rose, formidably, to command silence." - English write and CPGB member Philip Toynbee.
Geoffrey Lloyd MP, parliamentary private secretary to Stanely Baldwin, later told the 'Yorkshire Post': "I came to the conclusion that Mosley was a political maniac and that all decent English people must combine to kill this movement."
[www.theguardian.com/politics/1934/jun/08/thefarright.uk
www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/Pfascists.htm
wiki.leeds.ac.uk/index.php/The_Failure_of_the_BUF_and_the_CPGB_in_Inter-war_Britain_1918-1939
hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1934/jun/13/british-union-of-fascists
www.brentonpriestley.com/writing/mosely_british_union_fascists.htm
www.oswaldmosley.net/olympia-1934.php
www.newstatesman.com/archive/2013/08/oswald-mosley-memories-unrepentant-fascist
www6.svsu.edu/~jalewis2/British/British Fascism/1934 Red Violence.pdf]

1936 - Thousands of Blackshirts march from Westminster through the East End to Victoria Park to hold their first large open air fascist rally in London’s East End on the second anniversary of the Olympia rally. Mosley in black uniform reviews the fascists parade, then proceeds through the streets standing in an open car as people along side the route giving fascist salutes. Thousands of police are drafted in to prevent anti-fascists rising to the obvious provocation. The fascists claimed that 100,000 attended the rally in the Park but press estimates varied from 3,000 to 50,000. Among them were 500 uniformed Blackshirts who, along with the police, attacked the hostile crowd of local residents, with it all ending in a free-for-all of hand-to-hand fighting.
[newworkerfeatures.blogspot.co.uk/2006_10_01_archive.html
afaarchive.files.wordpress.com/2012/02/heroes-or-villains.pdf
www.ssplprints.com/image/112023/malindine-edward-fascists-and-communists-clash-victoria-park-london-1936
www.ushmm.org/online/film/display/detail.php?file_num=3352]

[FF] 1936 - Accords Matignon / Grève Générale en France: Following a series of strikes and sit-ins that saw nearly 1.8 million French workers down their tools and occupy 8,441 factories, the government convened a meeting between labour and corporate representatives in the at the Hotel Matignon in Paris. The result of the discussions, which continued deep into the night, was the Accords Matignon (Matignon Agreements), which included a 40-hour work week, increased union rights, collective bargaining rights, wage increases of between 7 and 15 percent, and 15 days paid leave a year.
[fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Accords_Matignon_(1936)
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matignon_Agreements_(1936)]

1964 - Takamure Itsue (高群 逸枝; b. 1894), Japanese poet, activist-writer, feminist, anarchist, ethnologist and the first historian of Japanese women, dies of cancerous peritonitis. [see: Jan. 18]

1966 - Hans or Jean Arp (b. 1886), German-French Dadaist, Surrealist and Abstraction-Création sculptor, painter, poet and multi-media artist, dies. [see: Sep. 16]

1967 - Dorothy Parker (b. 1893), US poet, short story writer, critic, and satirist, who became a vocal advocate of causes like civil liberties and civil rights, resulting in her being labelled a communist by the FBI, dies of a heart attack at the age of 73. [see: Aug. 22]

1968 - Mai '68: Violent clashes occur between French workers and police at the Flins Renault plant near Paris.

1976 - Police charge 5 white youths with the June 4th killing of Gurdip Singh Chaggar and maintain that the murder was not racially motivated. [see: Jun. 4]
[www.itnsource.com/shotlist/RTV/1976/06/07/510050126/]

1976 - Robert Relf, who was imprisoned in May for contempt following his refusal to remove his 'For sale to a white family only' sign from outside his house in Leamington Spa, appears in court for a hearing. Counsel for the Race Relations Board was petitioning for the court to order the taking down of the sign. But Relf, who had been on partial hunger strike (sympathetic screws had been feeding him Complan), told the court that he would just replace it [it had already been stoeln on a number of occasions, only for the police to return it]. The judge said he was guilty of gross, deliberate and wanton contempt" and ordered him back to jail. There were scuffles in court and 4 people, including Colin Jordan, were arrested.
[jiscmediahub.ac.uk/mediaContent/open/scripts/1976/19760607_LT_01_ITV.pdf
hansard.millbanksystems.com/written_answers/1976/jun/14/mr-robert-relf
hansard.millbanksystems.com/lords/1976/jun/28/mr-robert-relf
news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1300&dat=19760621&id=SpspAAAAIBAJ&sjid=RJIDAAAAIBAJ&pg=6992,4893259]

1977 - The police board a boat on the River Thames, where the Sex Pistols are giving live Royal Jubilee concert, arresting the band and their manager Malcolm McLaren.

1980 - Henry Valentine Miller (b. 1891), American writer, banned novelist, memoirist, critic, painter, individualist anarchist and champion of free speech, dies. [see: Dec. 26]

1981 - The Israeli airforce bomb an Iraqi nuclear reactor.

1984 - U.K.Miners' Strike: During a protest march by miners and their supporters in London, four protesters – three of them miners – are arrested on Grays Inn Road by the police. In response, around a third of the march (numbering four thousand or more), including a large brass band, stop and refuse to move on until the release of their comrades 1.5 hours later. This protest brought mush of the area to a complete standstill, with bus drivers refusing "to cross picket lines".

[A] 1991 - A three-week Albanian General Strike ends, having brought down the government.

1998 - James Byrd, Jr. (b. 1949), an African-American is murdered by white supremacists in Jasper, Texas. He is dragged for three miles behind a pick-up truck, remaining conscious throughout most of the ordeal until killed when his body hit the edge of a culvert, severing his right arm and head. Having accepted a ride from Shawn Berry (who he knew and was driving), together with Lawrence Russell Brewer and John King, instead of taking Byrd home, the three men took Byrd to a remote county road out of town, beat him severely, urinated on him and chained him by his ankles to their pickup truck before dragging him for approximately 1.5 miles.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Murder_of_James_Byrd,_Jr.]
8
1381 - Peasants' Revolt / Wat Tyler's Rebellion: Maidstone Castle surrenders and the rebel excommunicated Lollard priest John Ball is freed.
The people of Yalding receive news of the rebellion.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peasants'_Revolt
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wat_Tyler
spartacus-educational.com/YALDchronology.htm
www.marxists.org/history/england/peasants-revolt/story.htm
morrisedition.lib.uiowa.edu/dreamJohnBallWrightHistoricalIntro.html
www.historic-uk.com/HistoryUK/HistoryofEngland/Wat-Tyler-the-Peasants-Revolt/]

[D] 1794 - Having unsuccessfully opposed the policy of déchristianisation in the first years of the Revolution, Maximilien de Robespierre inaugurates a new state religion of his own invention, Le Culte de l'Être Suprême (Cult of the Supreme Being), across the new French Republic. A case of the corrupting influence of power or simply the fact that he was barking mad?
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cult_of_the_Supreme_Being]

[F] 1852 - First known labour strike in San Francisco occurs as Chinese labourers working on the Parrott granite building demand a wage increase.

1865 - Claude-François Georges Etiévant (d. 1900), French typographer, anarchist and anti-militarist, born. [expand]
He died on February 6, 1900, in the Îles du Salut penal colony in French Guiana having had his death sentence for a revenge attack on police in January 1898, that left 3 officers with only slight wounds, communicated to life.
[militants-anarchistes.info/spip.php?article1501
www.anarchaos.org/2008/08/dichiarazione-di-claude-francois-etievant-alle-asse-di-varsailles-del-27-luglio-1892/]

1866 - [O.S. May 28] Lidia Ezerskaya [Лидия Езерская] (Lidia Pavlovna Kazanovich [Лидия Павловна Казанович]; d. 1915), Russian dentist and Socialist-Revolutionary Party (Партия социалистов-революционеров) member, born. October 29 / nov. 10, 1905 made ​​an attempt on the governor of Mogilev (Могилевского) Province, Nikolai Klingenberg (Николай Клингенберг), wounding him. Tried March 19 [7], 1906 in Kiev, in contrast to most of the revolutionaries, civil rather than a military court, which contributed to a relatively lenient sentence - Ezerskaya was sentenced to 13 and a half years in prison.
Died September 30, 1915 from bronchial asthma complicated by a severe form of tuberculosis.
[ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Езерская,_Лидия_Павловна
www.politjournal.ru/index.php?action=Articles&dirid=50&tek=729&issue=20
www.e-reading.club/chapter.php/1005637/105/Budnickiy_-_Zhenschiny-terroristki_Rossii._Beskorystnye_ubiycy.html]

1873 - Rebelión Cantonal / Revolución Cantonal: A Federal Republic is proclaimed in Spain. However, when the new Constitution was revealed on July 3, it did not go as far as the intransigent, who sought to dismember Spain into 'independent cantons', wished. Thus, the intransigentes organised a series of uprisings in the provinces. From July 5 to 11, the intransigents triumphed in Seville, Cordoba, Granada, Málaga, Cadiz, Alcoy, Murcia, Cartagena, Valencia, etc., and established in each of these cities an independent cantonal government.

1884 - The first issue of the weekly Sunday newspaper 'Le Droit Anarchique' is published in Lyon, the last in a series of publications that commenced with 'Le Droit Social' in February 1882.

1884 - Pilade Cecchi, editor of the Italian anarchist publication 'La Questione Sociale' is sent to prison for 21 months and fined 2,000 lire.

1902 - The first issue of the initially fortnightly, then weekly, sociological newspaper 'El Corsario' is published in Valencia, replacing José Alarcón's anarcho-feminist periodical 'La Humanidad Libre'.

1903 - Vittorio Pini (b. 1860), Italian shoemaker and illegalist, dies. Pini got 20 years in prison in 1889 for his political 'expropriations' supporting Intransigenti groups and anarchist propaganda. [see: Nov. 4]

[A] 1913 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: Suffragette Emily Wilding Davison dies after falling under the hooves of the King's horse at the Epsom Derby.

1913 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: Kitty Marion and Betty Giveen burn down the stands at Hurst Park racecourse, near Hampton Court Palace. They were arrested and charged at Richmond court on June 10 with being concerned together in feloniously and maliciously setting fire to the buildings and causing damage to the extent of £7,000 for the arson attack and released on bail of £2000 each on sureties partly offered by two wealthy WSPU supporters. At their trial on July 3, Kitty Marion and Betty Giveen were both found guilty, and each sentenced to three years' penal servitude.
[womanandhersphere.com/2013/06/07/suffrage-stories-kitty-marion-emily-wilding-davison-and-hurst-park/
viceandvirtueblog.wordpress.com/2013/06/04/kitty-marion-edwardian-englands-most-dangerous-woman/
spartacus-educational.com/WmarionK.htm
spartacus-educational.com/Warson.htm
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kitty_Marion
womanandhersphere.com/2014/11/06/suffrage-stories-kitty-marion-arson-a-route-taken-and-a-touch-of-solipsism/
www.moleseyhistory.co.uk/books/molesey/tm/tm_19.htm
www.moleseyhistory.co.uk/pictures/themes/hurstpark.htm
www.historytoday.com/fern-riddell/weaker-sex-violence-and-suffragette-movement]

1913 - The first issue of the journal of anarchist propaganda 'Volontà' is published in Ancona, Italy.

1913 - Paterson Strike Pageant: Hundreds of thousands of New Yorkers read about the key events of the strike in detail in their Sunday newspapers. [see: Jun. 7]

1914 - Settimana Rossa di Ancona: The second day of the uprising in Ancona sees the proclaimation of a general strike in the Romagna, Marche and Emilia regions where anarchists are particularly numerous, as parts of Italy move towards insurrection.

1917 - Granite Mountain / Speculator Mine Disaster: Fire broke out at the shaft bottom of the North Butte Mining Company's Speculator Mine. 164 miners were trapped by unbreakable concrete bulkheads designed to limit trespassing and died in the fire.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speculator_Mine_disaster
www.minememorial.org/history/intro.htm]

1921 - Félix (Felicísimo) Álvarez Ferreras (d. 2009), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, Civil War and Résistance fighter, writer and polyglot, born in France. [expand]
[www.estelnegre.org/documents/alvarezferreras/alvarezferreras.htm
militants-anarchistes.info/spip.php?article1476]

1922 - Débora Céspedes (d. 2009), Uraguayan poet, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born.
[www.estelnegre.org/anarcoefemerides/0806.html
armandolveira.blogspot.co.uk/2011/09/una-cronologia-asturiana-en-uruguay_778.html]

1923 - Devetoyunski Coup [Деветоюнски преврат, Devetoyunski prevrat]: During the night of June 8-9 a coup d'état is implemented by armed forces under General Ivan Valkov's Military Union, overthring the government of the Bulgarian Agrarian National Union headed by Aleksandar Stamboliyski and replaced it with one under Aleksandar Tsankov, who would later become a leading Bulgarian Fascistpolitician. [see: Jun. 9]
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulgarian_coup_d'état_of_1923
bg.wikipedia.org/wiki/Деветоюнски_преврат
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aleksandar_Tsankov
bg.wikipedia.org/wiki/Александър_Цанков]

1930 - Antoine Antignac (b. 1864), French anarchist, speaker, bookstore manager, writer for numerous libertarian publications, dies. [expand]

[FF] 1936 - Accords Matignon / Grève Générale en France: Following discussions at a government-convened meeting between labour and corporate representatives in the at the Hotel Matignon in Paris, which continued deep into the night, the Accords Matignon (Matignon Agreements) is signed by all sides at 00:40 that morning. Its provisions include a 40-hour work week, increased union rights, collective bargaining rights, wage increases, and paid leave. However, the agreement fails to halt the second wave of strikes and it begins to extend to new areas of the economy.
Department stores had already come out on strike on June 6 and on June 8 building workers and those in the insurance sector in Paris come out too, whilst the entrance of bank workers into immediate negotiations prevented that sector from coming out on strike as well. By the middle of the week [10th] there are a million and a half workers out on strike but tension began to slowly dispate towrds the end of the week, with the CGT, PCF and PSOE mobilising to try and bring the strike to an end following the signing of the Accords Matignon. However, in order for the strike to cease, it was still necessary for local negotiations to be successfully concluded and sometimes these negotiations proved long and drawn-out. Four day later on June 15, metalworkers in the Paris region return to work and with the holidays, which were to be the first Matignon-related paid time off, calm seems to return. However, a third wave of strikes would break out in late June-early July.
[www.cairn.info/revue-le-mouvement-social-2002-3-page-33.htm
www.matierevolution.fr/spip.php?article525
gilles.pichavant.pagesperso-orange.fr/ihscgt76/num4/num4page4.htm
www.histoire-image.org/etudes/greves-mai-juin-1936
npa2009.org/idees/histoire/la-greve-generale-de-mai-juin-1936
fresques.ina.fr/jalons/fiche-media/InaEdu02006/les-greves-de-mai-juin-1936-en-region-parisienne-et-dans-le-nord.html
fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Accords_Matignon_(1936)
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matignon_Agreements_(1936)]

1936 - Grèves en Alsace: The Accords Matignon are signed at 00:40, allowing for the establishment of collective agreements, the free exercise of the right to organise, the creation of elected staff delegates by secret ballot, and increases in wages from 7 to 15%. The social movement is at its apogee, and there are more than a million strikers.
[www.chrono-france.com/france.php?langue=&motclef=&&debut=45373
fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grèves_de_mai-juin_1936_en_Alsace]

1939 - Emmy Eckstein (Emilia Eckstein; b. 1900), German anarchist Alexander Berkman's longtime companion, dies after a series of operations on her stomach. [see: Oct. 10]

1942 - José Pellicer-Gandia (b. 1942) Spanish anarchist, member of the famed Iron Column during the Spanish Revolution of 1936, is executed by the Franco regime. [expand]

1943 - Penny (Lapsang) Rimbaud (Jeremy John Ratter), English writer, poet, philosopher, painter, musician and anarchist, born. A former member of the performance art groups EXIT and Ceres Confusion, and co-founder in 1972, with Phil Russell aka Wally Hope, of the Stonehenge Free Festivals. Best known for co-founding in 1977, alongside Steve Ignorant, the seminal anarchist punk band Crass, which disbanded in 1984.

[C] 1945 - Robert Desnos (b. 1900), French poet, author, anti-fascist and anarchist, who was one of the most important figures of the French surrealist movement in the 1920s and 30s, dies in Terezín he died from typhoid at 5.30 in the morning, only weeks after the camp’s liberation and less than a month short of his 45th birthday. [see: Jul. 4]

1946 - Gerhart Hauptmann (b. 1862), German Naturalist dramatist and novelist, chiefly known today for his early naturalistic social drama 'Die Weber' (The Weavers; 1892), dies. [see: Nov. 15]

1949 - George Orwell's '1984' first published. 25,000 copies are printed, with 23,000 selling within four months.

[B] 1961 - Uno Laur aka Kohtla-Järve Uno (a nickname derived from his hometown Kohtla-Järve), Estonian-Jewish anarchist and iconoclastic ex-lead singer of the Must Mamba (Black Mamba) and Röövel Ööbik (Robber Nightingale), born. "The oldest punk in Estonia".

1968 - In Milan, police storm the Catholic University of the Sacred Heart where students have been in occupation, having held the rector captive in his office. 250 students are arrested and 30 put in hospital.

[E] 1972 - Gudrun Ensslin is arrested in the Linette clothing boutique in Hamburg after a sales clerk notices that she is carrying a gun and calls the police.
[www.baader-meinhof.com/timeline/1972-timeline/]

1976 - Trial begins for Bob Robideau and Dino Butler for killing two FBI agents at Oglala, South Dakota. They are be acquitted on grounds of self-defence; later, Native American activist, Leonard Peltier, is convicted of the same charges after most evidence and witnesses used by Robideau and Butler is disallowed in Peltier's trial.

1979 - Following a notorious racially-biased conviction for robbery, George Lindo is freed on appeal.
[www.runnymedetrust.org/histories/race-equality/74/george-lindo-cleared.html]

1980 - Friedrich Wilhelm Ernst Busch (b. 1900), German singer and actor, dies. [see: Jan. 22]

1986 - Elfie Gidlow (b. 1898), British-born, Canadian-American feminist poet, freelance journalist, philosophical anarchist, lesbian and Taoist, dies. [see: Dec. 29]

1993 - Deolinda Lopes Vieira [also known as Deolinda Quartim] (b. 1888), Portuguese educator, feminist, Mason, anarchist militant and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Jul. 8]

[BB] 2009 - Joachim Gatti (b. unknown), French libertarian cinematographer, director and writer is shot in the face by police flash-ball, loosing an eye, during a peaceful demonstration in Montreal against the eviction of the Clinic squatted social centre. Joachim is the grandson of French playwright, poet, journalist, screenwriter, filmmaker and anarchist Armand Gatti and the son of French libertarian filmmaker Stéphane Gatti.
Gatti played the part of Joachim Rivière in Peter Watkins' 2000 film 'La Commune (Paris, 1871)'.
[www.imdb.com/name/nm1778399/
www.larevuedesressources.org/french-police-force-aiming-the-demonstrators-to-the-head,1255.html]

2010 - Sara Berenguer Laosa (b. 1919), Catalan poet, anarchist and member of Mujeres Libres, dies. Wrote a narrative autobiography 'Entre El Sol y la Tormenta' (Between the Sun and the Storm; 1988). [see: Jan. 1]
9
1381 - Peasants' Revolt / Wat Tyler's Rebellion: Sir John Legge, the king's tax collector for Kent, hears about the rebellion and returns to London. Wat Tyler and the rebels march to Canterbury.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peasants'_Revolt
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wat_Tyler
spartacus-educational.com/YALDchronology.htm
www.marxists.org/history/england/peasants-revolt/story.htm
morrisedition.lib.uiowa.edu/dreamJohnBallWrightHistoricalIntro.html
www.historic-uk.com/HistoryUK/HistoryofEngland/Wat-Tyler-the-Peasants-Revolt/]

[E] 1843 - Bertha Felicitas Sophie Freifrau von Suttner (d. 1914), Czech-Austrian pacifist, novelist and journalist, who in 1905 was the first woman to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, born. She founded the Deutsche Friedensgesellschaft (German Peace Society) in 1892 and was the editor of the international pacifist journal 'Die Waffen Nieder!'.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bertha_von_Suttner]

1858 - The first issue of 'Le Libertaire', "Journal du Mouvement Social", is published in New York by Joseph Déjacque.

1865 - Helen Marot, American author, librarian and labour organiser, who was a member of the commission that investigated the 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire, and is best remembered for her efforts to address child labour and improve the working conditions of women, born.

1873 - Rebelión Cantonal / Revolución Cantonal in Sanlúcar: At 21:00, an extraordinary meeting of the municipal council is called, at which a petition is presented by the day labourers, pointing out the refusal of the owners of the hacendados (rural estates) to give them work in them, and demanding that the city council needs to find them paid work or support then and their families financially in or avoiding serious unrest. Determined to uphold public order and to enforce the exercise of individual freedoms, González Peña contacted the civil governor of the province, informing him that in the face of potential breakdowns in public order, the municipal authority lacked sufficient security forces to ensure order. In addition, he informed the Juzgado de 1ª Instancia (Court of the First Instance) about the 'abuses' that had supposedly been committed in the city's Asociación de Obreros (Workers' Association).
[ordenanarquista.wordpress.com/2016/10/07/la-revolucion-cantonal-en-sanlucar/
www.historiadeespananivelmedio.com/19-17-16-gobierno-figueras/
www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1873/bakunin/
ccec.revues.org/5455?lang=en
es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primera_República_Española]

1883 - La Bande Noire: Nearly two hundred cartridges of explosives are subtracted from a load destined for the mines of Blanzy. Jacob and Serprix steal precious booty from Perrecy.

1894 - [O.S. May 28] Nina Aleksandrovna Nikitina (Нина Александровна Никитина; d. 1942), Russian officer worker [Second Moscow State Secretary of Finance and Accounting Department] and anarcho-mystic, born. The sister of the stage designer and artist Leonid Alexandrovich Nikitin (Леонид Александрович Никитин; 1896-1942), who had worked with Sergei Eisenstein on Valentin Smyshlyaev's production of 'The Mexican' in 1921, based on a Jack London short story. She was arrested on September 12, 1930, for her membership of the anarcho-mystic organisation Order of the World (Орден Света), and charges with membership of an illegal organisation and anti-Soviet agitation. On January 13, 1931, she was sentenced to three years' deportation to Central Asia (Tashkent). Released on Sept. 19, 1933, after which she worked as a stenographer in the Commissariat of the Uzbek SSR until 1937, after which she worked with sick children in the children's tuberculosis hospital in the German occupied city of Kalinin (Tver) until her death from exhaustion during the German occupation. Her brother Leonid was arrested and stood trial alongside Nina, and was sentenced to five years in the camps on the White Sea-Baltic Canal (Беломоро-Балтийском канале). Released in 1934, he was arrested again in June 1941 and sentenced to ten years in the gulags, dying in October 1942 of scurvy and pellagra in the camp hospital of Kansk (Канска) in the Krasnoyarsk Territory.
[www.sakharov-center.ru/asfcd/auth/?t=book&num=1423
www.makhno.ru/forum/archive/index.php/t-1464-p-2.html
lib.sale/istoricheskaya-literatura-uchebnik/delo-ordena-sveta-59488.html
www.razlib.ru/istorija/okkultnye_sily_sssr/p3.php
ander.ladimir.kiev.ua/pq/show/istoriya-Orden-rossijskikh-tamplierov%602C-tom-2.txthtml?page=169&b_a=istoriya
history.wikireading.ru/410357
www.memorial.krsk.ru/memuar/Nikitin.htm
krotov.info/libr_min/14_n/ik/itin_andr_9e.htm
www.istpravda.ru/digest/5565/
www.e-reading.club/chapter.php/28596/70/Kolpakidi_-_Okkul'tnye_sily_SSSR.html]

1899 - Robert Jospin (d. 1990), French militant socialist, pacifist and one-time anarchist, born. Father of French socialist Prime Minister Lionel Jospin, he was deeply affected by WWI and became a pacifist. He began writing for the anarchist press ('La Patrie Humaine', 'Le Réfractaire', 'Le Libertaire', etc.) after meeting Victor Meric and Roger Monclin in the early Twenties while with the Pacifist Union. A visceral anti-communist, he also joined the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) and, in the Thirties, the secretary of the Ligue Internationale des Combattants de la Paix. Bernard Baissat made an 80 minutes film, 'Robert Jospin', about him in 1990.

[1902 - Washington state passes anti-anarchist law. [unable to find source or reference to a Wash. State anti-Anarchy law before 1909 - see: Mar. 22]]

1908 - Alexandre Eugène Tennevin (b. 1848), French anarchist activist, is cremated at the Père Lachaise crematorium. [see: Dec. 5]

1910 - The forces loyal to Porfirio Diaz departed Tinum at daybreak and, after clashes with the populations of Uayma and Pixoy along their route, arrived at the outskirts of Valladolid at 08:00. The battle was fierce and it took till early afternoon before the government troops managed to enter the city in the neighborhood of La Candelaria and the battle was over; the first city in the country freed from the dictatorship of Porfirio Diaz, in power since 1884, was back in government hands after only 4 days of freedom. 200 rebels were left dead, 500 wounded and 600 prisoners. The attackers suffered 30 dead and 76 wounded, including Colonel Lara himself. The city was sacked by the government troops and a significant seizure of weapons was made.
Some of the rebels fled into the jungle, taking refuge among the Mayan population, but many were
arrested and subjected to military trial. The three leaders of the uprising, Maximiliano Bonilla, Atilano Albertos and José E. Kantún were sentenced to death. They were shot on June 25, 1910 in the city of Merida. The rest of the prisoners were sentenced to long terms of hard labour. Those who fled into the jungle included Claudio Alcocer and Ruz Ponce, who became Mayan rebel leaders in Quintana Roo.
[es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rebelión_de_Valladolid
www.valladolid.com.mx/historia/chispa-de-la-revolucion.html
www.archivogeneral.yucatan.gob.mx/Efemerides/Valladolid/valladolid.htm]

1912 - Mass protest in London's Trafalgar Square, demanding the release of Errico Malatesta. Earlier in the year Malatesta was sentenced to three months imprisonment and recommended for deportation for criminal libel. Only a massive public outcry, such as today, prevents the latter sentence from being carried out.

1913 - Paterson Strike Pageant: William D. Haywood announces that the newspapers had been saying that the Paterson strike was broken, but now the Pageant had shown the people of New York the truth. And later in the month, sure enough, outside contributions to the strikers' relief fund in Paterson began to grow. In terms of its original purpose of publicising the strike, the Pageant was an overwhelming success. [see: Jun. 7]

1917 - Octave Jahn (b. 1869), French anarchist who founded, with Joseph Tortelier and others, the 'League of the Anti-Patriots' in 1886, dies. [see: Feb. 10]

[F] 1919 - Winnipeg General Strike: Nearly a month into the Winnipeg general strike, the Police Commission fires almost the entire city police force for refusing to withdraw their strike notice and sign a pledge not to participate in a sympathy strike. They were replaced by a large body of untrained but better paid special constables.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winnipeg_general_strike
libcom.org/history/1919-winnipeg-general-strike
www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/winnipeg-general-strike/]

1921 - In the Sacco and Vanzetti trial, eyewitnesses Carrigan, Bostock and Wade testify they are unable to identify any of the bandits they had seen at the crime.

[D] 1923 - Devetoyunski Coup [Деветоюнски преврат]: During the night of June 8-9 a coup d'état is implemented by armed forces under General Ivan Valkov (Иван Вълков) and his Military Union (Деветоюнския преврат), overthrowing the government of the Bulgarian Agrarian National Union (Българския земеделски народен съюз) headed by Aleksandar Stamboliyski (Александър Стамболийски) and replaced it with one under Aleksandar Tsankov (Александър Цанков), who would later become a leading Bulgarian Fascist politician. The coup in turn provoked the June Uprising (Юнско въстание), an armed rebellion centred on Kilifarevo (Килифарево), Debelets (Дебелец), Veliko Tarnovo (Велико Търново) and Elena (Елена), as agrarian activists, the anarchist Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (Вътрешна Македонска Революционна Организация) and some communist groups fought back. However, due to the lack of support from the Bulgarian Communist Party (Българска Комунистическа Партия), the uprising was defeated.
Meanwhile, when news of the Devetoyunski Coup reached Kilifarevo (Килифарево) the anarchist group there held a secret meeting that evening to plan a protests for the following day, one that would turn into an armed uprising.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulgarian_coup_d'état_of_1923
bg.wikipedia.org/wiki/Деветоюнски_преврат
bg.wikipedia.org/wiki/Военен_съюз
ikonomov.a-bg.net/kilifarevsko.html
bezlogo.com/2011/06/заради-преврата-от-9-юни-1923-г-килифарево-е.html
www.kilifarevo.eu/kilifarevo-komunisticheska-krepost-1983.html
www.otbrana.com/новини_5747
www.anarkismo.net/article/9678]

1923 - June Uprising [Юнско въстание]: When news of the Devetoyunski Coup (Деветоюнски преврат) reaches Kilifarevo (Килифарево) the anarchist group there hold a secret meeting during the evening to plan a protests for the following day, one that would turn into an armed uprising.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulgarian_coup_d'état_of_1923
bg.wikipedia.org/wiki/Юнско_въстание
ikonomov.a-bg.net/kilifarevsko.html
www.kultura.bg/bg/article/view/16487
bezlogo.com/2011/06/заради-преврата-от-9-юни-1923-г-килифарево-е.html
www.kilifarevo.eu/kilifarevo-komunisticheska-krepost-1983.html
www.anarkismo.net/article/9678]

1933 - Hildegart Rodríguez Carballeira (b. 1914), Spanish socialist (in the Partido Socialista Obrero Español) and activist for the sexual revolution, she was concieved by her mother in a eugenics experiment and brought up by her as a model for women of the future, only to be murdered by her at the age of eighteen, is killed – shot three times in the head, and once in the heart – by her increasingly paranoisd and jealous mother. [see: Dec. 9]

1934 - The British Union of Fascists attempt to hold meeting tonight (Saturday) and tomorrow night in Hackney, Finsbury Park, Regent's Park, Woolwich, Notting Dale, Tottenham, and Wood Green, facing stiff anti-fascist opposition. Five people are injured and the police make a totla of 8 arrests.
[hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1934/jun/13/british-union-of-fascists]

1936 - Grèves en Alsace: Within hours of the signing of the Accords Matignon, the first strikes break out in in the Alsace and remain largely restricted to the region. The workers in two chemical companies in Mulhouse kick off the wave of strike and almost immediately obtain a 12% increase in their salaries.
[www.chrono-france.com/france.php?langue=&motclef=&&debut=45373
fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grèves_de_mai-juin_1936_en_Alsace
www.calixo.net/~knarf/fructus/greve/greve.htm]

1936 - Grève Générale en Belgique: Having been largely isolated to Antwerp, although some smaller buisiness sectors had gradually joined in, such as ship repairers, the diamond sector, bus drivers, now the strike suddenly and spontaneously switched to other sectors, including the coal mines and the metal industry. 3,000 miners from La Batterie, in Liège, stopped work and occupied the mine in protest against a fine imposed on two of them. By the following day, the strike had spread spontaneously throughout the Liège region, as well as to construction workers in various Flemish regions, and to ceramic workers in Borinage.
Communist militants were seen to have played a major role in the spread of the strike, including in the diamond sector.
[www.lcr-lagauche.be/cm/index.php?view=article&id=606:la-greve-de-1936-en-belgique&option=com_content&Itemid=53
romaincourcelles.wordpress.com/2011/07/09/belgique-dans-solidaire-comment-les-travailleurs-belges-ont-fo-nde-la-securite-sociale/
deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/50989/215.pdf;jsessionid=D3720CF399E8FCE653807B8C873C5DAF?sequence=1
solidaire.org/articles/1936-les-travailleurs-la-conquete-du-temps
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_strikes_in_Belgium
nvdatabase.swarthmore.edu/content/belgian-workers-strike-minimum-wage-paid-vacations-40-hour-work-week-and-union-rights-1936
www.larevuetoudi.org/en/story/belgian-walloon-general-strikes
mocliege.be/IMG/pdf/reg059_dossier.pdf
www.skynet.be/actu-sports/dossier/1621328/les-plus-grandes-greves-de-l-histoire-en-belgique/1621331/2-juin-1936]

1937 - Carlo Rosselli (b. 1899), Italian non-Marxist Socialist, journalist, historian and anti-fascist activist, who founded the anti-fascist militant movement Giustizia e Libertà and fought for the the Republicans in the Spanish Civil War, is assassinated alongside his brother Nello [see: Nov. 29] in the French resort town of Bagnoles-de-l'Orne by a group of cagoulards, militants of the French Cagoule fascist group, probably on the orders of Mussolini. [see: Nov. 16]

1937 - Sabatino 'Nello' Rosselli (b. 1900), Italian historian , journalist and anti-fascist, who participated in the founding of the first clandestine Italian anti-fascist newspaper 'Non Mollare' (Not Giving Up) in 1925, is assassinated alongside his brother Carlo [see: Jun. 9] in the French resort town of Bagnoles-de-l'Orne by a group of cagoulards, militants of the French Cagoule fascist group, probably on the orders of Mussolini. [see: Nov. 29]

1943 - Ester Frumkin (Khaye Malke Lifshits aka Maria Iakovlevna Frumkina [Мария Яковлевна Фрумкина]; b. 1880), Belarus educator, journalist, and member of the Jewish social-democratic and communist movement, who was the most prominent female leader of the Jewish Labour Bund in Russia a leader in the Evsektsiyas [Евсекция] (Jewish section) of the Russian Communist Party (b), dies in a forced labor camp for political prisoners in Kazakhstan, a victim of Stalinist repression. She joined the Bund (General Jewish Workers' Union in Lithuania, Poland and Russia) [Всеобщий еврейский рабочий союз в Литве, Польше и России] / Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeter Bund Ying Lite, Poyln un Rusland) in Minsk in 1897, becoming a member of its Central Committee in 1910.
[ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Фрумкина,_Мария_Яковлевна
www.yivoencyclopedia.org/article.aspx/Lifshits_Khaye_Malke
jwa.org/encyclopedia/article/frumkin-esther]

[C] 1944 - 99 civilians are hanged from lampposts and balconies by German troops in Tulle, France, in reprisal for maquisards attacks.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tulle_murders]

1944 - Johanna 'Hanna' Kirchner (Johanna Stunz; b. 1889), German Social Democrat, feminist, member of the German anti-Nazi underground and resistance fighter in the French Résistance, is beheaded in Berlin-Plötzensee Prison for treason. [see: Apr. 24]

1957 - Bataille d'Alger [Battle of Algiers]: Following the killing of school children and Muslim returning from their work on June 3, Yacef Saâdi decided that he should better target his bombs. The Corniche Casino, a popular dancing with young people, mostly Jews of Bab-el-Oued, but which is also used as a detention cente, is chosen as the next target. The bomb, placed under the platform where the Lucky Starway Orchestra was playing, explodes at 18:55, killing eight people (including Starway) and injuring 81, including 10 with lower limb amputations.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Algiers_(1956–57)
fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bataille_d'Alger
www.histoire-en-questions.fr/guerre algerie/alger-attentats-casino.html]

1966 - Helmut Rüdiger aka Rodriguez, Ivar Bergegren; Dashar, Stefan Stralsund (b. 1903), German author, journalist, anarcho-syndicalist, anti-fascist and staunch anti-communist, and theorist of federalism, dies. [see: Jan. 22]

1972 - Rote Armee Fraktion member (and original member of the SPK) Brigitte Mohnhaupt and Bewegung 2. Juni (June 2 Movement) member Bernhard Braun are captured in Berlin.
[www.baader-meinhof.com/timeline/1972-timeline/]

[A] 1976 - Anarchists Noel and Marie Murray sentenced to hang by a Dublin court for the killing of a Gardai during an attempted bank robbery.

1983 - In Poland, following General Jaruzelski's declaration of martial law, aimed at suppressing independent labor union activity, people in the city of Lodz demonstrate their disgust for the lies propagated by the official government television news by taking a daily promenade timed to coincide exactly with the broadcast, wearing their hats backwards. Soon, much of the town has joined them.

1995 - 2 days of rioting begin in Manningham, Bradford. The Asian community reacts against police violence and intimidation.

[B] 2013 - Iain Banks (b. 1954), Scottish novelist and self-described "evangelical atheist", who, using the pen name Iain M Banks, was the author of the Culture series of sci-fi novels that feature a pan-galactic anarchist society, dies. [see: Feb. 15]
10
1381 - Peasants' Revolt / Wat Tyler's Rebellion: The Kent Rebels march on Canterbury, and capture the city. The castle and the Archbishop of Canterbury's palace are ransacked. Rich pilgrims are attacked in the town. Finding the Archbishop away, the rebels appoint a humble monk as the new Archbishop, and hold a service in the Cathedral, promising death to all "traitors" they capture.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peasants'_Revolt
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wat_Tyler
spartacus-educational.com/YALDchronology.htm
www.marxists.org/history/england/peasants-revolt/story.htm
morrisedition.lib.uiowa.edu/dreamJohnBallWrightHistoricalIntro.html
www.historic-uk.com/HistoryUK/HistoryofEngland/Wat-Tyler-the-Peasants-Revolt/]

[A] 1555 - Thomas Haukes burned at the stake in England for not baptising his son.

[B] 1819 - Gustave Courbet (d. 1877), French painter, revolutionary anarchist, Communard, essayist and leader of the Realist school of art, born. A close friend of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, he was elected to the Paris Commune and participated in the anarchist congress of the Jura Federation. Probably his most notorious painting is 'L'Origine du Monde' (1866), not publicly exhibited until 122 years after it was painted.
[www.anarchisme2012.ch/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=63:gustave-courbet&catid=11:presentation-des-ateliersconferences&Itemid=13&lang=en]

1863 - Jean Ajalbert (d. 1947), French lawyer, Impressionist poet, naturalist writer and anarchist, born.
[www.ephemanar.net/juin10.html#ajalbert
militants-anarchistes.info/spip.php?article2230]

1865 - Pierre Desgranges (aka Grange; d. 1898), French anarchist militant, born.
[www.ephemanar.net/juillet16.html#16]

1885 - Le Chat Noir opens at its second site, at 12 Rue Victor-Masse, in Paris.

1899 - Anita Berber (d. 1928), German dancer, actress, writer and icon of the Weimar era, who was the subject of a famous Otto Dix painting, born. Androgenous, bisexual, habitual drug user/addict (cocaine, opium, morphine, chloroform, ether and alcohol), her performances with her virtual alter ego and sometime lover Sebastian Droste, verged on total nudity, pushing the boundaries of what was acceptable even on the Weimar stage. Diagnosed with severe tuberculosis after collapsing whilst performing in Damascus, she returned to Germany and died in a Kreuzberg hospital on November 10, 1928, and was buried in a pauper's grave.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anita_Berber
www.cabaret-berlin.com/?p=365
strangeflowers.wordpress.com/tag/anita-berber/]

1900 - St. Louis Streetcar Strike: On the evening of June 10 outside the posse headquarters at 510 Washington, vigilantees fatally shot at a group of strikers returning from a picnic, killing A.E. Burkhardt, Edward Thomas and George Ryne, and leaving 14 others wounded. A dozen or more eyewitnesses disputed the sheriff's version of events – he claimed that as the strikers were marching down the street, a brick and bomb had been thrown at a street car and, as posse members ran toward the strikers, a pistol had gone off and posse members had responded by shooting into the crowd, killing three and injuring 14.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Louis_streetcar_strike_of_1900
www.stltoday.com/suburban-journals/metro/news/this-week-in-south-side-history-posse-killed-in-streetcar/article_45b20291-9ad2-50f3-8b64-88d73e215b22.html
www.stltoday.com/news/local/illinois/look-back-bloody-streetcar-strike-in-wins-working-class-support/article_ca886618-1f12-5be6-bb04-aff64fa1130d.html
www.stltoday.com/news/local/metro/a-look-back-bloody-street-strike-in-rips-open-class/article_483cd720-0051-59a0-acda-630b34955262.html
archives.chicagotribune.com/1900/06/17/page/6/article/strikers-lose-st-louis-fight
www.urbanreviewstl.com/2012/06/breakthrough-on-transit-worker-strike-june-22-1900/
www.depauw.edu/files/resources/metinger-2005-history-senior-seminar-paper.pdf]

1904 - 79 striking Colorado Dunnville miners 'deported' to Kansas. A battle two days ago between the Colorado Militia and striking miners at Dunnville ended with six labor union members dead and 15 taken prisoner. Dozens were arrested without warrants and held without formal charges. General Sherman Bell of the Colorado National Guard shouted: "Habeus Corpus, hell! We'll give 'em post mortems".

1904 - Maria Zazzi (d. 1993), life-long Italian anarchist militant, born. She was in the front line in the campaign for Sacco and Vanzetti. In 1932 she moved to Paris, where she met the Russian anarchist Ida Mett and her companion Nicolas Lazarevitch, the Spanish anarchists Buenaventura Durruti and Francisco Ascaso, the Ukrainian anarchist Nestor Makhno and the Russian Volin.
When her then partner, the Bolognese anarchist Armando Malaguti, enrolled in the Ascaso Column in Spain and fought at Monte Pelato on the Aragon Front, Maria moved to Barcelona to take part in the Revolution.
In Bologna, in the late 1950s, she began a relationship with the anarchist Alfonso 'Libero' Fantazzini, the father of Horst, the future 'gentleman bank-robber' anarchist illegalist. [expand]
[libcom.org/history/zazzi-maria-1904-1993
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maria_Zazzi
www.estelnegre.org/anarcoefemerides/1006.html
www.horstfantazzini.net/maria_zazzi.htm
circoloberneri.indivia.net/le-nostre-storie/maria-zazzi-una-donna-mite-col-cuore-da-guerrigliera
www.arivista.org/?nr=197&pag=197_14.htm]

1906 - The first issue of the fortnightly 'Le Cubilot', "Journal International d'Education et de Lutte Ouvrière", the newspaper of the L'Essai communist colony, is published in Aiglemont.
[www.aiglemont.com/indexpc.php?r=9&s=16
raforum.info/spip.php?article4135]

[E] 1907 - The first edition of 'Tiān yì bào' (天义报; 'Journal of Natural Justice'), the journal of the Chinese anarcha-feminist Society for the Restoration of Women's Rights (女子復權會), is published. The Society was formed by He Ban [何班]; ca. 1884 - ca. 1920), better known by her taken name He Zhen (何震; He 'Thunderclap') and her penname He-Yin Zhen (何殷震), following the move by her and her partner Liu Shipei (劉師培) to Tokyo, where He Zhen became one of the mainstays of the Chinese anarchist group there.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/He_Zhen_(anarchist)
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women's_Rights_Recovery_Association
www.wenku1.com/view/BCA7C115769840C9.html
www.jiemian.com/article/750960.html
www.thepaper.cn/newsDetail_forward_1644423
www.xzbu.com/4/view-3100091.htm
libcom.org/files/He%20Zhen%20and%20Anarcha-Feminism%20in%20China.pdf]

1913 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: Kitty Marion and Betty Giveen are charged at Richmond court with being concerned together in feloniously and maliciously setting fire to the buildings and causing damage to the extent of £7,000 for the arson attack at Hurst Park racecourse, near Hampton Court Palace and released on bail of £2000 each on sureties partly offered by two wealthy WSPU supporters.
[womanandhersphere.com/2013/06/07/suffrage-stories-kitty-marion-emily-wilding-davison-and-hurst-park/
viceandvirtueblog.wordpress.com/2013/06/04/kitty-marion-edwardian-englands-most-dangerous-woman/
spartacus-educational.com/WmarionK.htm
spartacus-educational.com/Warson.htm
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kitty_Marion
womanandhersphere.com/2014/11/06/suffrage-stories-kitty-marion-arson-a-route-taken-and-a-touch-of-solipsism/
www.moleseyhistory.co.uk/books/molesey/tm/tm_19.htm]

1913 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: An explosion at Barras Bridge Post Office in Newcastle in the early hours of the morning causes some damage to stone facings and brickwork. Alterations were being made to the building at the time and the timing of the incident suggests that damage to property to raise awareness of their cause was preferable to human casualties. Two policemen in the area saw a bright flash ‘followed by a report’. Burnt fuses and gunpowder were later discovered.
[www.livingnorth.com/northeast/people-places/think-you-know-newcastle
radicaltyneside.org/events/smashing-windows-newcastle-liberal-club-suffragettes]

1914 - Settimana Rossa di Ancona: The fourth day of the Settimana Rossa, and the general strike has spread throughout Italy. The carabinieri and army are overwhelmed by revolutionary actions against symbols of authority and the Church. The Confederazione Generale del Lavoro (CGL), the socialist trade union, sends a telegram throughout the country encouraging the resumption of work.

1914 - Settimana Rossa di Ancona: In response to the killing by police of three demonstrators on June 7, 1914, at an antiwar protest in the Italian port city of Ancona, Benito Mussolini (then still considering himself to be a revolutionary socialist) and the revolutionary syndicalist Filippo Corridoni, who leads a strike of the workers of the car, gas, and clothing sector in May 1914, speak before a gathering of 60,000 protesters in the Arena di Milano. Mussolini: "In Florence, Turin, Fabriano there are others dead and others wounded, it is necessary to work in the army because it is not firing on workers, we need to make sure that the penny of the soldier will soon be a fait accompli."
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benito_Mussolini
alfonsinemonamour.racine.ra.it/alfonsine/Alfonsine/mussolini_settimana_rossa.htm
www.hubertlerch.com/modules/European_Dictatorship/Mussolini_the_Socialist.html
www.wsws.org/en/articles/2014/06/02/twih-j02.html]

[D] 1914 - Toma de Zacatecas [Taking of Zacatecas] / Revolución Mexicana: During one of the bloodiest battles in the Revolution, Pancho Villa's División del Norte (Division of the North) decisively defeated the troops of General Luís Medina Barrón defending the town of Zacatecas. The great victory demoralised Victoriano Huerta's supporters, leading to his resignation on July 15. Huerta goes into exile in Europe. Enters US to try to reenter Mexico. Kept under house arrest in El Paso till his death in 1916.
[es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toma_de_Zacatecas_(1914)
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Zacatecas_(1914)]

1921 - In the Sacco and Vanzetti trial, Mr. Pelser testifies Sacco was the “dead image” of the man in the getaway car. He admits in cross-examination that he earlier told the police that he had not witnessed the robbery and had run away because he was scared.

[DD] 1923 - June Uprising [Юнско въстание]: During the morning in the centre of Kilifarevo (Килифарево) a big rally is held, at which members and supporters of the anarchist Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (Вътрешна Македонска Революционна Организация), the Bulgarian Communist Party (Българска Комунистическа Партия) and the overthrown Bulgarian Agrarian National Union (Българския земеделски народен съюз) are present. Anarchist Georgi Popov (Георги Симеонов Попов) calls on people to rise up in arms. After his speech the rebellion is declared and a group of armed rebels head to the assembly point in the Mochura (Мочура) region. There a concentration of around 120 Kilifarevo rebels assemble together with armed villagers from Debelec (Дебелец), Yalova (Ялово) and Plakovo (Плаково). In Kilifarevo a Revolutionary Council (Революционен съвет) is formed with anarchist, communist and agrarian members.
The following day, a large group of rebels attacked and seized Drianovo (Дряново), setting up its own Revolutionary Council after rejecting the new government of plotters. On June 12, insurgent peasants became involved in fighting a number of heavy battles against the army and police arriving at the Ganchovets (Ганчовец) and Sokolov (Соколово) stations in the Mochura (Мочура) oblast, as the rebel forces came under increasing pressure from the new Tsankov government. At Kilifarevo newly arrived artillery pieces begin firing on the last positions of the rebels around Usoynata (Усойната) and Butora (Бутора) on June 14, and over the following few days the uprising was suppressed. The remaining guerrillas immediately set about forming the Kilifarevo Band (Килифаревската чета [четата]), a sort of insurrectionary 'united front' of the three rebel strands, that would remain active for the next couple of years despite the loss of leading lights such as Georgi Popov (Георги С. Попов) and Georgi Sheytanov (Георги Шейтанов).
[Due to the strong anarchist foundations to the June Uprising and the prevailing post-1994 Communist historiography, the exact details of the events of the June Uprising (especially when compared to the September Antifascist Uprising [Септемврийско антифашистко въстание], which coincided with the bolshevisation of the BCP, and was therefore promoted as the 'First' Antifascist Uprising) have been largely hidden or lost, and much of the modern research into the events is not readily available, especially to the non-Bulgarian speaker.]
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulgarian_coup_d'état_of_1923
bg.wikipedia.org/wiki/Юнско_въстание
ikonomov.a-bg.net/kilifarevsko.html
www.kultura.bg/bg/article/view/16487
bezlogo.com/2011/06/заради-преврата-от-9-юни-1923-г-килифарево-е.html
www.kilifarevo.eu/kilifarevo-komunisticheska-krepost-1983.html
archive.ec/sGC4
bg.wikibooks.org/wiki/Звезди_във_вековете
www.anarkismo.net/article/9678]

[CC] 1924 - Giacomo Matteotti (b. 1885), Italian socialist member of parliament and prominent opponent of the Fascist regime, is murdered by fascist thugs during a kidnap attempt. Bundled into a car and stabbed several times with a carpenter's file as he was struggling to escape, his corpse is found on August 16, 1924, near Riano, 20 miles from Rome, after an extensive search. His murder comes after two fierce and lengthy speeches in the Chamber of Deputies denouncing Fascism [see: Jun. 30] and the publication of his book 'The Fascisti Exposed: A Year of Fascist Domination' (1924)[an english translation of his 'Un anno di dominazione fascista' (1923)]. His killing precipitating a parliamentary crisis that Mussolini overcame by disavowing the murder and tightening police control. The crushing of the opposition aroused by Matteotti’s assassination effectively marks the beginning of Mussolini’s dictatorship.
Five men (Amerigo Dumini - a prominent member of the Fascist secret police, the Ceka, Giuseppe Viola, Albino Volpi, Augusto Malacria and Amleto Poveromo) were arrested a few days after the kidnapping. Only three (Dumini, Volpi and Poveromo) were convicted and shortly after released under amnesty by King Victor Emmanuel III; one, Filippo Panzeri, escaped before the arrests of his accomplices. Before the trial against the murderers, the High Court of the Senate started a trial against general Emilio De Bono, commander of the Fascist paramilitary groups Blackshirts (Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale), but he was discharged. After the Second World War, in 1947, the trial against Francesco Giunta, Cesare Rossi, Dumini, Viola, Poveromo, Malacria, Filippelli and Panzeri was re-opened. Dumini, Viola and Poveromo were sentenced to life imprisonment. [see: May 22]

1927 - The trial (June 8-10) of anarchist Gino Lucetti concludes. He attempted to assassinate Mussolini on September 11, 1926. He is sentenced to 30 years in prison; two others receive 12 years. Antifascist partisan formations during WWII took group names, and two in the Carrara area proudly adopted the names ‘G. Lucetti’ (60-80 guerrillas) and ‘Lucetti bis’ (58 strong).

1936 - Grève Générale en France / Accords Matignon: In France 1.5m workers are now on strike. The official Ministère du Travail statistics for the whole of June were 1,831,000 strikers and 12,142 strikes.

1936 - Grèves en Alsace: The strike in Antwerp has now spread to Mulhouse in the Haut-Rhin. Workers at th Charles Miege textile company and the Société alsacienne de constructions mécaniques (Alsacienne Society of Mechanical Constructions) in Mulhouse go out on strike. The following day, other textile companies follow suit. That same evening, negotiations begin and swiftly win wage increases of 15% and the promise of the negotiation of collective agreements.
[www.chrono-france.com/france.php?langue=&motclef=&&debut=45383
fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grèves_de_mai-juin_1936_en_Alsace
www.calixo.net/~knarf/fructus/greve/greve.htm]

1940 - René Maurice Frémont (b. 1903), French anarcho-communist and syndicalist, dies. [see: Dec. 23]
[militants-anarchistes.info/spip.php?article1840]

[F] 1941 - Nord-Pas-de-Calais Miners' Strike: Striking miners are finally forced back to work by the wave of terror and hunger inflicted on the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region by the occupying forces. [see: May 27]

[C] 1942 - Whilst constructing a drainage ditch at Auschwitz-Birkenau, a group of Polish prisoners in a work detail manage to escape. The SS shoot twenty prisoners in retaliation and, to prevent future acts of resistance and in revenge, more than 300 Poles are murdered in the gas chambers.
[www.holocaustchronicle.org]

1960 - Several thousand council workers and revolutionary students surround the entourage of White House Press Secretary James Hagerty at Tokyo International Airport, Japan, forcing the press secretary to be rescued by a United States Marine Corps helicopter.

1966 - Henry Treece (b. 1911), British poet, novelist, short story writer, essayist, playwright, editor, teacher, pacifist and philosophical anarchist, dies. [see: Dec. 22]

1968 - Mai '68: After the clearing of the Renault factory at Flins during the night of June 6-7, fights with the police continue and today a high school student, Gilles Tautin, drowns while trying to escape police batons.

1970 - Brixton Conservative Association firebombed. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1979 - Uprising against the Somoza regime in Nicaraugua.

1989 - Someone bombs a London MacDonald's restaurant two days after Chrissie Hynde of the Pretenders advocated such action.

1991 - ALF (Animal Liberation Front) activists damage an OSU animal lab, Corvallis, Oregon. The government and press wrongly insists calling them terrorists, though they attack property rather than people.

2003 - Sarah Goldberg (b. 2003), Belgian Jew, member of the Rote Kappelle (Red Orchestra) anti-Nazi resistance network and founding member of Amnesty International in Belgium, dies. [see: Jan. 1]

2006 - Aleksey Baranovsky, a 33-year-old on the run from the Russian Mafia and who had applied for political asylum in the UK, died in the health centre of he G4S-run private prison HMP Rye Hill, slowly bleeding to death despite being on suicide and self-harm watch (SASH). The initial post mortem stated that Alexsey had dies from malnutrition!

2008 - Derbyshire police object to entertainment and alcohol license at a meeting of Amber Valley Borough Council's licensing panel. Police wanted to see additional conditions imposed, including a seven-metre-high fence around the site, increasing the number of security staff to one per one hundred people and that the festival should only be one-and-a-half days long. In response, the BNP withdrew their application. More than 30 members of Derby Unite Against Fascism and Nottinghamshire Stop the BNP campaign, who protested with banners outside the town hall.
[www.hopenothate.org.uknews/home/article/948/bnp-festival-will-go-ahead-despite-licensing-setback]

2012 - Inmates at the Georgia Classification and Diagnostic Prison go on hunger strike against their treatment.
11
[F] June 11 : William Davis Miners' Memorial Day.
An annual day of remembrance for miners who died in major accidents in the mines, which observed in coal mining communities in Nova Scotia, Canada on the anniversary of the shooting deaa of William Davis, a coal miner killed during a mining strike near the town of New Waterford. The protest was in response to a decision by the mining company, British Empire Steel and Coal Company (BESCO), to shut down the drinking water supply and electricity to the town as a result of previous escalating strikes. Davis was shot and killed at approximately 11:00 on June 11, 1925 and many other miners were injured, when striking miners were charged by the company police force, whose officers fired over 300 shots. In the weeks and months following Davis' shooting, company facilities were looted and/or vandalised, despite the deployment of the provincial police force and 2,000 soldiers in what remains Canada's second-largest military deployment for an internal conflict.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Davis_Miners'_Memorial_Day
museumofindustry.novascotia.ca/nova-scotia-industry/coal-mining/miners-memorial-day-davis-day
nslegislature.ca/legc/statutes/willdavm.htm]

1381 - Peasants' Revolt / Wat Tyler's Rebellion: Both the Kent and the Essex rebels now set out to march on London. Along the way, the marchers break into several manor houses, destroying any documents concerning the feudal system they find and setting free imprisoned serfs.
The politically unsophisticated peasants that made up the main body of the rebels believed that they were going to explain their grievances to the King, who they thought had merely been badly advised, and that all their grievances would be set right. However, some of the more experienced and astute figures amongst them, such as Wat Tyler and John Ball, had a much clearer idea of the situation, and were planning to exploit their numbers to gain as much leverage as they could.
The King and his council were caught completely by surprise, and there were only a few hundred troops in London, leaving the city virtually defenceless.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peasants'_Revolt
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wat_Tyler
spartacus-educational.com/YALDchronology.htm
www.marxists.org/history/england/peasants-revolt/story.htm
morrisedition.lib.uiowa.edu/dreamJohnBallWrightHistoricalIntro.html
www.historic-uk.com/HistoryUK/HistoryofEngland/Wat-Tyler-the-Peasants-Revolt/]

1832 - Jules Vallès (d. 1885), French novelist, journalist, anarchist propagandist, born. A revolutionary from an early age, he took part in revolutionary agitation in Nantes in 1848, leading to his being expelled from school and moving to Paris. After taking part in the uprising against Napoleon III during the French coup of 1851, he flees back to Nantes where his father has him committed to a mental institution (he does not share his son's political beliefs). Thanks to help from a friend, he managed to escape a few months later and returns to Paris, joining the staff of 'Le Figaro', and becoming a regular contributor to the other leading journals.
In 1853 he was arrested for conspiring against Napoleon III, but was later freed due to a lack of evidence. Living in poverty and writing journalism for bread (the stock market page of 'Le Figaro', which fires him for his bias against capitalism). It was around this time that he wrote his first book, 'L'Argent' (1857).
Fascinated by the writings of Proudhon, he becomes a journalist and continues to write novels. On 1 June 1867, he launched the weekly 'La Rue' in collaboration with a number of artists, including Zola and Courbert. Banned after only 6 months, Vallès is imprisoned in Sainte-Pelagie for 2 months in prison for articles critical of the police. There he founds the 'Journal de Sainte-Pelagie'. Released, in 1869 he founds in quick succession 'Le Peuple', 'Le Réfractaire', resurrects 'La Rue' in 1870, and on Feb. 22, 1871, publishes the first issue of 'Le Cri du Peuple'. Condemned to 6 months in prison for his part in the October 1870 Blanquist plot, he manages to escape before arrest but his paper is banned, but will eventually become the official journal of the Commune. One of the 4 editors of the 'L'Affiche Rouge' posted on Jan. 7, he is elected to the Commune on March 26, 1871. A supporter of the minority (signing the manifesto of the minority ande publishing it in his newspaper on May 15), he opposes the Comité de Salut. He fought on the barricades during the Semaine Sanglante, making a last stand in the rue de Paris (now rue de Belleville) on May 28. He managed to escape (2 'false' Vallès are executed by the army in error) and take refuge in England. Sentenced to death in absentia, he will not return to Paris until the amnesty of 1880, when he restarts publication in 1883 of 'Le Cri du Peuple' as a voice for libertarian and Blanquist ideas. During his exile he begins writing 'Jacques Vingtras', his major autobiographical trilogy - 'L'Enfant' (1879), 'Le Bachelier' (1881), and 'L'Insurgé', published in 1886, the year after he dies, exhausted and suffering from diabetes. 60,000 follow his coffin to the Père Lachaise Cemetery.
[www.ephemanar.net/juin11.html#11
www.julesvalles.com/biographie-jules-valles.htm
www.la-presse-anarchiste.net/spip.php?article509]

[E] 1847 - Millicent Garrett Fawcett (d. 1929), English feminist, suffragist, writer and intellectual, political and union leader, born. In 1871 co-founded Newnham College, Cambridge, and was president of the mainstream National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies (1897-1919), disagreeing with the militancy of the WSPU.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Millicent_Fawcett
spartacus-educational.com/WfawcettM.htm
www.fawcettsociety.org.uk/about-2/history/]

1848 - Fourty four book printers and principals of printing presses, representing around 12,000 printers and setters, hold a congress [Jun. 11-14] in Mainz at which the Nationalen Buchdrucker-Verein (National Book Printer Association, Germany's oldest trade union, is founded to campaign the against the "depressing nature od factory work" (herabdrücken zur fabrikarbeit).
[www.gewerkschaftsgeschichte.de/erfolgreiche-vereinsgruendung-der-buchdrucker-und-zigarrenarbeiter.html]

1849 - Palatine Uprising: The advance guard of the Prussian Army crosses the Palatine border unopposed near Kreuznach - the feared Prussian intervention had begun.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palatine_uprising
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revolutions_of_1848_in_the_German_states]

1873 - Rebelión Cantonal / Revolución Cantonal in Sanlúcar: Judge Tomás Solanich Fuster appeared at the premises of the Asociación de Obreros, accompanied by a couple of rural guards, and ordered the eviction of the local, sealing its doors and confiscating its keys. Federación Local de Sanlúcar de Barrameda responded by issuing a manifesto "en nombre de todos los trabajadores del mundo civilizado" (on behalf of all the workers of the civilized world). In it, they branded the Government of Spain and the mayor Antonio González Peñaas as bourgeois, and stated categorically that the city council had trampled upon the very laws emanating from Congress, from which the workers now distanced themselves further ideologically. The manifesto also denounced the city's use of brute force against the local, when the only purpose of the Asociación was to deal with matters relating to work and organisation of workers, while the bourgeois city council apparently had no other purpose than to exploit the working class.
It ended with an open and obvious threat: the Ayuntamiento, a representative of the bourgeoisie of Sanlúcar, had committed an illegal and violent act, and declared that there was now war "entre los pobres y los ricos, entre los señores y los esclavos, entre los opresores y los oprimidos" (between the poor and the rich, between the lords and the slaves, between the oppressors and the oppressed). For these reasons, it called on the workers of the city to assemble, organise, ready arms and prepare for the impending struggle.
That night, Antonio Cuevas Jurado (a member of the Guardia Municipal and one of the principal actors in the impending revolution) met judge Solanich Fuster in secret to explain the views of the workers. The meeting resulted in a friendship, which helped prevent the revolt from getting 'out of hand' and ending up with fratricidal revenge or looting.
[ordenanarquista.wordpress.com/2016/10/07/la-revolucion-cantonal-en-sanlucar/
www.historiadeespananivelmedio.com/19-17-16-gobierno-figueras/
www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1873/bakunin/
ccec.revues.org/5455?lang=en
es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primera_República_Española]

1888 - Bartolomeo Vanzetti (d. 1927), Italian-American anarchist framed and executed alongside Nicola Sacco, born.
[www.ephemanar.net/juin11.html#vanzetti
libcom.org/library/story-proletarian-life]

[FF] 1889 - Glasgow Dockers' Go-Slow aka The World's First Ca'canny Strike: On June 11, 1889, the newly formed National Union of Dock Labourers (formed in February 1889) come out on strike in Glasgow in support of the National Amalgamated Sailors and Firemen’s Union, who had been agitating for months previously for better wages and conditions. Management had brought in hundreds of scabs and blacklegs from around the British Isles to try and break the strike in the Clyde ports.
The first large contingent of scabs brought into Glasgow were from Dundee. They got the police protection they had been promised, and quickly set to work. But they soon left work in a body after the strikers managed to make contact with them and to explain their case. Sixty labourers from Tilbury, brought in by the employers to replace the strikers, turned back for London once they found that the labour shortage they had been going to fill had arisen because of the strike. Similarly, men from Leeds turned back when they discovered the real reason for their being needed. But these small victories for the strikers were not enough.
True to form the scabs made a complete hash of trying to do a job that took years to build up any sort of rhythm and skill. It even got so bad that a scab lost his life when he fell overboard while unloading cargo from a ship. By July 5th the newly formed union had run out of strike funds and so agreed to go back to work at the old wage level. The dock employers throughout the strike said they were happy with the scabs work, even though cargo was being lost and dropped and in general was a full four times slower at unloading, ships were also being condemned as un-seaworthy due to dangerous loading. To break the strike the employers had had to keep up a false front and pretend everything was rosy.
It was agreed by the dock workers when they returned that since the scabs work was seen as acceptable and paid at a higher rate, then it was only logical to keep the same level of incompetence and slowness as well as dropping as many packages in to the water as the scabs but there would be no need to fall in the water in the same manner as the scabs – and so the "ca’ canny" strike was born.
Within a few months the employers had offered the dock labourers a pay increase if they went back to pre-strike work rate. Workers from Dundee, Tilbury and Leeds once they had found out that they had been brought in as strike breakers all refused to work, even though free tobacco, food and higher wages were all on offer from the hard done by employers!
[libcom.org/history/1889-glasgow-dockers-go-slow
www.radicalglasgow.me.uk/strugglepedia/index.php?title=The_World's_First_Ca'canny_Strike]

1898 At a public meeting in the Salle de L'Harmonie in Paris, the anarchist, Louise Michel, Laurent Tailhade and Charles Malato discuss the big political issues of the moment: famine, mass repression of workers in Italy, the processes of Montjuïc in Catalonia, the war in Cuba and the deception of universal suffrage, and the price of bread; all from a libertarian perspective.
[www.estelnegre.org/anarcoefemerides/1106.html]

1904 - Joaquín Miguel Artal, a 19-year-old anarchist, who tried to stab Spanish Conservative politician Antonio Maura he is sentenced to 17 years in prison and sent to prison in Ceuta, where he will die in 1909 of inhuman treatment standard to Spanish prisons. Anarchist newspapers such as 'El Libertario' and 'Tierra y Libertad' honour him, referring to him as El Rebelde following his death.

1908 - Mildred Sablich aka 'Flaming Milka' (Amelia Milka Sablich; d. 1994), U.S. resturant, laundry and dairy worker who, aged just 19-years-old, stepped into the breach and became an IWW organiser and leader of the Columbine Coal Miners' Strike after the locking-up and deporting of the strike's organisers, born.
Fiery and fearless, Sablich talked 450 coal miners into striking, and then led them into combat against 37 gun-toting strike breakers. Although the press played up her sex appeal and diminished her actual accomplishments – a 'Denver Morning Post' poem called her "the hottest thing … Since the Chicago fire" – at least one article saluted her "single- handed courage". The daughter of an immigrant Croatian father who toiled in the Colorado mines, Sablich worked in restaurants, a laundry, and a dairy before turning her attention to the plight of local miners. She knew the issues affecting the miners and convinced many to join the IWW strike.
On October 26, 1927, 'Flaming Milka' led strikers on a march and ran into 12 gunmen and 25 horse-riding guards. In the ensuing clash, Sablich was knocked down by a mounted guard and dragged behind his horse. Hospitalized with a broken wrist, she was then jailed because picketing was illegal in 1927. Sablich "represented a significant threat" to mine owners, wrote Richard Myers in Slaughter in Serene: the Columbine Coal Strike Reader, because "workers looked at the daring deeds of a teenaged girl and realized if she could carry this fight to the bosses, then anyone could."
In November 1927, the strike turned tragic when 500 miners and their families ran into machine-gun fire at the Columbine mine located north of Denver in the town of Serene. At least six people died and more than 60 were injured in the onslaught.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amelia_Milka_Sablich
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Columbine_Mine_massacre
www.rebelgraphics.org/milka.html
www.rebelgraphics.org/serene.html
libcom.org/history/1927-colorado-miners-strike-and-columbine-mine-massacre
libcom.org/history/blood-coal-colorado-strike-1927-patrick-murfin]

1920 - Bartolomeo Vanzetti - despite having no previous criminal record - is indicted for the Bridgewater hold-up. The anarchist is quickly brought to trial, convicted, and sentenced to the maximum sentence of 12-15 years.

1922 - The anarcho-syndicalist Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT) withdraws its provisional affiliation with the Third International in favor of the International Workers Association (IWA).

1923 - June Uprising [Юнско въстание]: A large group of rebels attack and seize Drianovo (Дряново), which sets up its own Revolutionary Council, rejecting the new government of plotters.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulgarian_coup_d'état_of_1923
bg.wikipedia.org/wiki/Юнско_въстание
ikonomov.a-bg.net/kilifarevsko.html
www.kultura.bg/bg/article/view/16487
bezlogo.com/2011/06/заради-преврата-от-9-юни-1923-г-килифарево-е.html
www.kilifarevo.eu/kilifarevo-komunisticheska-krepost-1983.html
www.anarkismo.net/article/9678]

1927 - Italian anarchist Gino Lucetti is tried before the Tribunale Speciale per la Difesa dello Stato (Special Tribunal for the Defense of the State) and sentenced to the maximum penalty, 30 years in prison, for attempting to assassinate Mussolini on September 11, 1926. The bomb he threw at him bounced off the car to the ground and exploded, wounding eight passersby.
[www.micciacorta.it/archivio/articolo.php?id_news=2296]

1931 - III Congreso de la CNT: Held in the Teatro del Conservatorio in Madrid [Jun. 11-16], it was the first after the end of the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, and after the establishment of the Second Republic, and as such it addressed the organic restructuring of the organisation. The congress was attended by delegates from 511 unions totaling a figure of 535,000 represented members, with approximately 800,000 the total number of FRE members. This congress approves the Federaciones Nacionales de Industria (National Federation of Industry), as a complement to the classic structures of trade unions and sectoral federations, the UGT 'corporate' union model that the Republic was now trying to impose, even though the model had already been rejected at the II Congress of 1919.
[es.wikisource.org/wiki/III_Congreso_de_la_CNT
es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confederación_Nacional_del_Trabajo
madrid.cnt.es/historia/la-cnt-en-la-segunda-republica/
gredos.usal.es/jspui/bitstream/10366/24224/3/THVI~N61~P22-27.pdf]

1936 - In Tonypandy, anti-fascist make a concerted effort to prevent a BU meeting. "[T]he speakers, a local Fascist and Tommy Moran, a National Headquarters Propaganda Officer, were stoned and injured, and the meeting was closed after half an hour. The anti-Fascist leaders implored the crowd to desist but to no avail. Further trouble resulted from the distribution of a Blackshirt pamphlet, The Miners' Only Hope. The pamphlets were seized and torn to bits and, as a result, the Blackshirts began pushing them into people's faces. Thirty-six people were subsequently charged with a total of 180 counts of riot, incitement to riot, unlawful assembly and breaches of the peace. The accused, as a body, were brought before the Glamorgan Assizes at Swansea in December. It was alleged that hostile crowds had stoned the Fascist loud-speaker van, which was eventually driven away under police protection. The first of thirty police officers who gave evidence, when cross-examined by the defence, agreed that before the arrival of the Fascist van a number of people had been holding an orderly meeting. He further testified that after the departure of the van the anti-Fascists marched to Tonypandy in orderly fashion. This was the main contention of the defence. Moran, under cross-examination, admitted that his head had been split open on eight occasions over the preceding months.
The defence argued that wherever he and his Blackshirts went, disorder followed. Moran stated that the crowd was determined not to give him a hearing. The judge then asked him why he didn't go away. He replied that it was his job to promote Fascism. The defence finally submitted that out of a crowd of 5,000 to 6,000 people the police had not found a single independent witness to give evidence. Three of the accused were discharged and seventeen were bound over. Seven were sent to prison for terms of two to twelve months. Five of these were unemployed and the sixth was the wife of one of the unemployed. Nine were sentenced to twenty days' hard labour, which being the period of the Assizes meant their immediate discharge. They were also bound over. Seven of them were unemployed. Of the seventeen others bound over, seven were unemployed, and four were women. Most of the others were colliers."
"But for the presence of the police the Fascist speakers undoubtedly would have received serious injuries ... The conduct of the crowd, which numbered between five and six thousand, was the worst I have seen in the 25 years I have been in the Rhondda." - Supt. Beirne, in charge of policing that day. ['Yorkshire Evening News', Sept. 1936]
[heartofanation.blogspot.co.uk/2010/02/fighting-fascism-is-great-welsh.html
afaarchive.files.wordpress.com/2012/02/heroes-or-villains.pdf]

1936 - Grèves en Alsace: The strike wave has extended into the Liège basin and in Mulhouse further textile companies now go out on strike. That same evening, negotiations begin and swiftly win wage increases of 15% and the promise of the negotiation of collective agreements. Over the following days, union leaders begin to call for the suspension of the strikes. However, it continues in those companies whose management have refused to endorse the agreement concluded on the evening of June 11.
[www.chrono-france.com/france.php?langue=&motclef=&&debut=45383
fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grèves_de_mai-juin_1936_en_Alsace
www.calixo.net/~knarf/fructus/greve/greve.htm]

1936 - Grève Générale en France / Accords Matignon: With the CGT, PCF and PSOE mobilising to try and bring the strike to an end following the signing of the Accords Matignon, Maurice Thorez, leader of the PCF, make his famous pronouncement "Il faut savoir terminer une grève dès que satisfaction a été obtenue" (You have to know how to end a strike as soon as satisfaction has been obtained) to a gathering of communist officials. However, in order for the strike to cease, it was still necessary for local negotiations to be successfully concluded and sometimes these negotiations proved long and drawn-out. Four day later on June 15, metalworkers in the Paris region return to work and with the holidays, which were to be the first Matignon-related paid time off, calm seems to return. However, a third wave of strikes would break out in late June-early July.
[www.cairn.info/revue-le-mouvement-social-2002-3-page-33.htm
www.matierevolution.fr/spip.php?article525
gilles.pichavant.pagesperso-orange.fr/ihscgt76/num4/num4page4.htm
www.histoire-image.org/etudes/greves-mai-juin-1936
npa2009.org/idees/histoire/la-greve-generale-de-mai-juin-1936
fresques.ina.fr/jalons/fiche-media/InaEdu02006/les-greves-de-mai-juin-1936-en-region-parisienne-et-dans-le-nord.html
fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Accords_Matignon_(1936)
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matignon_Agreements_(1936)]

1937 - Robert Ramsay 'Bob' Smillie (b. 1917), Scottish left-wing, anti-authoritarian socialist, who volunteered with the Independent Labour Party (ILP) contingent in the Spanish Civil War, allegedly dies from peritonitis whilst under arrests by the Stalinist police in Valencia. As an university chemistry student, he took part in hunger marches and fought against Oswald Mosley and the British Union of Fascists. At the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, he travelled to Barcelona and in October 1936 he joined the Executive Committee of the International Revolutionary Youth Bureau, developing strong links with the Workers Party of Marxist Unification (POUM). In January 1937, he volunteered to go to the Aragón Front with other ILP members such as Bob Edwards and George Orwell, serving alongside POUM forces. In April 1937, he travelled with the ILP contingent to Barcelona on leave. There he procured official POUM papers to go to a International Bureau meeting in Paris and on a speaking tour of Scotland. However, when he got to Figueras he was arrested by Spanish Communist Party (PCE) police and charged with carrying "materials of war" (two discharged grenades intended as war souvenirs). In prison in Valencia, the more serious charge of "rebellion against the authorities" was later added. POUM and ILP officials unsuccessfully lobied for his release. According to the official record, on June 4 Smillie began complaining of stomach pains. He was eventually diagnosed with appendicitis and taken to hospital. However, he was not operated on because of "ward congestion" and was not examined until the 12th, when the doctor said it was too late to do anything for him. He died later that day. Another version had it that he died following a beating by guards in his cell, one of the many victims of the Stalinist repression. Amongst those that believed this version were George Orwell and Scottish anarchist Ethel MacDonald, who began writing newspaper articles and making radio broadcasts after Smillie's death claiming that he had been executed by the secret police, something that led to her own arrest.
[www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/SPsmillie.htm
spartacus-educational.blogspot.co.uk/2009/12/ethel-macdonald-and-bob-smillie.html
www.international-brigades.org.uk/content/ilp-contingent-spain
www.academicroom.com/article/death-bob-smillie-spanish-civil-war-and-eclipse-independent-labour-party]

1942 - Herbert Baum (b. 1912), German-Jewish electrician, communist and resistance fighter, who led the Gruppe Baum, a largely Jewish resistance group, with his wife Marianne, is tortured to death in Moabit Prison in Berlin. An active member of different left wing and Jewish youth organizations by the mid 1920s, including the Deutsch-Jüdischen Jugendgemeinschaft, where in 1928 he met Marianne Cohn, whom he later married. In 1931 she joined the Kommunistischen Jugendverband (Communist Youth Federation; KJVD) and, after the Nazi seizure of power, he together with his wife Marianne Baum and their friends, Martin and Sala Kochmann, began to organise anti-Nazi meetings. He was designated the chair of the circle of friends, most of whom were Jewish, and up to 100 youths attended these meetings at various times, engaging in political debates and cultural discussions. The group openly distributed leaflets arguing against National Socialism. In 1940, he and Marianne were forced into slave labour in the Jewish department at the Siemens electric motors factory. By 1941, he was heading a group of Jewish slave labourers at the plant, who, to escape deportation to concentration camps, went into the Berlin underground. There they organised semi-clandestine demonstrations, leafleting and propaganda poster campaigns and the printing of a 19-page document, 'Organisiert den revolutionären Massenkampf gegen Faschismus und imperialistischen Krieg' (Organise the mass revolutionary struggle against Fascism and the Imperialist War).
In May 1942, the group decided to target the massive anti-communist and anti-Jewish propaganda exhibition 'Das Sowjetparadies' (The Soviet Paradise) that had been organised by Goebbels’ propaganda services at the Berlin Lustgarten. The Rote Kapelle (Red October) group had already targetted the exhibition [Liane Berkowitz and Otto Gollnow posted approx. 100 anti-Nazi posters in the vicinity of the Kurfürstendamm and Uhlandstrasse whilst Harro Schulze-Boysen acted as a lookout] and the Baum Group also flypostered but, wanting to go further, decided to carry out a firebomb attack on it. Herbert and Marianne Baum, Hans Joachim, Gerd Meyer, Sala Kochmann, Suzanne Wesse and Irene Walter took part in the action, planting their miniature incendiary bombs at different points in the exhibition on May 18 (they had tried the day before but too many people were present). Within days of the event, the seven participants and most of the other members of the group were arrested by the Gestapo (the Baums on May 22). Herbert Baum was tortured to death in Moabit Prison, dying on June 11, 1942 - the Gestapo reported his death as suicide.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbert_Baum
de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbert_Baum
www.gdw-berlin.de/nc/en/recess/biographies/biographie/view-bio/baum/
antifadueren.blogsport.de/2012/06/08/mit-mut-und-klarheit/
www.cwporter.com/hbaum.htm
herbertbaumgroup.blogspot.co.uk/]

1944 - The Federación Sindical de Trabajadores Mineros de Bolivia (Union Federation of Bolivian Mine Workers) is founded at a congress held in Huanuni, Oruro [Jun. 10-13] in the wake of a violent clash between government troops and striking tin miners in Oruro and Potosí in 1942. The Huanuni Congress included delegates from 25 local unions, the Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionario (Revolutionary Nationalist Movement), and the Trotskyist Partido Obrero Revolucionario de Bolivia (Revolutionary Workers' Party). The newly formed union had a membership of 60,000 miners.
[es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federación_Sindical_de_Trabajadores_Mineros_de_Bolivia
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federación_Sindical_de_Trabajadores_Mineros_de_Bolivia]

1957 - Bataille d'Alger [Battle of Algiers]: Following the burial of the dead from the Corniche Casino attack on Sunday June 9th, the Pied-Noirs carry out a ratonnade that ends with in 5 dead Muslims and more than 50 injured; stores are looted and the CRS have to deploy teargas to try and control the furious crowds. A 21:00 curfew is declared. As a result of this upturn in violence, the 10e Division Parachutiste (10th Parachute Division) was again deployed to Algiers.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Algiers_(1956–57)
fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bataille_d'Alger
www.histoire-en-questions.fr/guerre algerie/alger-attentats-casino.html]

1959 - Dolores Rodríguez Fernández (b. 1915), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies in exile in France. [see: Dec. 16]

1962 - Frank Morris, John Anglin and Clarence Anglin are believed to have taken part in the first successsful escape from Alcatraz. Escaping from their cell block via an air vent, and having fashioned papier-mâché heads to fool guards into thinking they we asleep in their beds, they made a raft from stolen raincoats and paddled away never to be seen again - though relatives continued to receive postcards in the men's handwriting.

1965 - The International Poetry Incarnation attended by philosophical anarchists, Allen Ginsberg and Lawrence Ferlinghetti, as well as other members of the Beat Generation.

1968 - Mai '68: Violent incidents continue with a demonstrator is shot and killed at Montbéliard, while two striking workers are killed by the hated CRS at the Peugeot factory in Sochaux (one with a bullet fired from submachine gun by CRS).
In Paris, a demonstration departing from the Gare de l'Est descends into riots and barricades, with 266 wounded and 1500 arrests, violent demonstrations will also take place in the provinces.

[B] 1969 - Marco Rovelli, Italian musician, writer, poet, history and philosophy teacher, and anarchist, born. His band Les Anarchistes recorded 2 albums: 'Figli di Origine Oscura' (Children of Obscure Origin; 2002) and 'La Musica Nelle Strade!' (The Music in the Streets!; 2005). He also recorded a 2009 record 'LibertAria'. In addition to his books of poetry such as 'Corpo Esposto' (Exposed Body; 2004) and 'L'Inappartenenza' (Not Belonging; 2009); are his non-fiction works such as 'Lager Italiani' (Italian Lager; 2006), about Italian immigration detention centres, and 'Servi' (Servants; 2009), in which he recounts the stories of immigrants and places they work; plus 'Lavorare Uccide' (Working Kills; 2008), a novel about working place deaths.
[www.marcorovelli.it/
it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marco_Rovelli
www.arivista.org/?nr=348&pag=57.htm
arcimontefortino.org/2013/2/6/una-sera-danarchia-intervista-marco-rovelli/]

1970 - Stuart Christie's home raided with explosives warrant. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1971 - The occuption of Alcatraz insland is brought to an end [see 20 Nov]

X1973 - General Strike in Pamplona against General Franco.X [see: Jun. 14]

[C] 1978 - 150 white mainly skinhead youths rampage through Brick Lane shouting "Kill the black bastards" and smashing Bengali shop windows.
[libcom.org/files/Brick-Lane-1978.pdf]

1984 - Matilde Saiz Alonso (b. 1917), Spanish anarchist and miliciana, who fought with the Columna Roja i Negra and was the partner of fellow anarchist Francisco Sansano Navarro, dies. [see: Apr. 11]

[D] 1990 - Bulgaria: June 11-18, barricades and anarchists in the streets of Sofia against the election manipulations of the various political forces.
[williamblum.org/chapters/killing-hope/bulgaria-albania
www.novinite.com/articles/164650/Bulgaria's+Democracy+Turns+25
articles.latimes.com/1990-06-14/news/mn-223_1_soldiers-fire]

[A] 1990 - The Woolf Inquiry into the Strangeways prison uprising begins.

2001 - Jeff Luers sentenced to 22 years for burning 3 SUVs.

2007 - Vicki Ama Garvin (b. 1915), African-American communist, liberation activist, pan-africanist and internationalist, dies. [see: Dec. 18]

2012 - Ann Sanderson, aged 37, was shot by a police marksman in a deserted Sevenoaks department store car park.

2013 - Three FEMEN members - Pauline Hillier and Marguerite Stern, both French, and a German, Josephine Markmann - are convicted of public indecency, offending public morals and threatening public order while protesting for the release of Amina Tyler, a Tunisian woman who had caused outrage after posting a topless photo on Facebook following her arrest for painting 'FEMEN' on a cemetery wall in Kairouan to protest against the annual congress of Salafi party Ansar al-Sharia. All three were released on June 26, 2013 after a Tunisian court lifted their prison sentence. following apologies from all three. However, at a press conference the following day upon their return to Paris, they retracted their apology and said that they had only made it after being told that they would have to serve the full four months of their sentences unless they made an expression of regret. So, surprised at the length of sentenced they faced and not wanting to spend any more time in the hellholes that are Tunisian prisons, they spoke the words that the court required to set them free.
12
[F] June 12 - World Day Against Child Labour.
Launched in 2002 by the International Labour Organisation to focus attention on the global extent of child labour, and the action and efforts needed to eliminate it.
[www.ilo.org/ipec/Campaignandadvocacy/wdacl/2002/lang--en/index.htm
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Day_Against_Child_Labour]

1381 - Peasants' Revolt / Wat Tyler's Rebellion: Both groups of peasants had reached London. The Kent peasants camped at Blackheath, and the Essex peasants at Mile End, north of the River Thames. Their numbers are hard to estimate, but both groups could have been made up of up to 50,000 people. A message was sent into the city, demanding a meeting with the king. It was arranged that he would meet them at Rotherhithe, on the Thames, that afternoon.
Richard travelled downriver in the royal barge, but at the sight of the huge crowd of peasants, Richard's advisers would not let him land. He returned to the Tower of London, leaving the peasants angry and frustrated.
That night the peasants closed in on London. They were able to enter because the gates of the city, and London Bridge were opened by townspeople sympathetic to their cause, although they later claimed they had been forced to do it. [+Spartacus]
Elsewhere in the South-East and East of England the uprising continues to spread. In Essex one group of rebels, led by John Wrawe, attacked Sir Richard Lyons' property at Overhall, advancing on to Cavendish and Bury St Edmunds in west Suffolk the next day, gathering further support as they went.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peasants'_Revolt
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wat_Tyler
spartacus-educational.com/YALDchronology.htm
www.marxists.org/history/england/peasants-revolt/story.htm
morrisedition.lib.uiowa.edu/dreamJohnBallWrightHistoricalIntro.html
www.historic-uk.com/HistoryUK/HistoryofEngland/Wat-Tyler-the-Peasants-Revolt/]

1653 - The Ormée of Bordeaux asks Oliver Cromwell protection. He sends two officers, Sexby and Arundel
[fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/1653_en_France]

1856 - [N.S. Jun. 24] Anna Vasilevna Yakimova-Dikovsky (Анна Васильевна Якимова-Диковская; d. 1942), Russian anarchist-influenced revolutionary, member of Zemlya i Volya (Land and Liberty), of the Executive Committee of Narodnaya Volya (People's Will), its fighting group Freedom or Death (Свобода или Смерть), and the Socialist Revolutionary Party, writer and historian, born. [see: Jun. 24]

1873 - Pasquale Binazzi (d. 1944), Italian anarchist, secretary of the Chambre du Travail and organiser of the Syndicat de l'Arsenal in Spezia, born. Founded the weekly magazine 'Il Libertario' in 1903, which printed 10,000 copies at its peak until closed by the Fascists in 1922. He died whilst helping organise anarchist guerilla groups in Liguria and Tuscany.
[www.ephemanar.net/mars05.html#binazzi
en.anarchopedia.org/Pasquale_Binazzi
ita.anarchopedia.org/Pasquale_Binazzi]

1874 - [N.S. Jun. 24] Yelena Nikolayevna Oshanina [Елена Николаевна Ошанина] (d. unknown), Russian teacher and Narodnista revolutionary, who was the daughter of prominent Narodista revolutionary Maria Nikolaevna Olovennikova [Мария Николаевна Оловенникова], born. [see: Jun 24]

1876 - Leonor Villegas de Magnón (d. 1955), Mexican anarchist, teacher and journalist, who founded the international Mexican American relief service, La Cruz Blanca, in 1913 during the Mexican revolution, born. [expand]
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonor_Villegas_de_Magnón
www.estelnegre.org/anarcoefemerides/1206.html
www.chihuahuamexico.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=3009&Itemid=40
archon.lib.uh.edu/?p=creators/creator&id=213
www.informate.com.mx/especiales/la-cruz-blanca-de-leonor-villegas-de-magnon.html]

1885 - Adrienne Montégudet (born Victorine Valentine Augustine Amélie Valdant; d. 1948), French teacher, militant communist, revolutionary syndicalist and ultimately a libertarian, born.
[www.ephemanar.net/aout23.html#montegudet
militants-anarchistes.info/spip.php?article6743
www.estelnegre.org/anarcoefemerides/1206.html
anarchie23.centerblog.net/5645685-Une-Anarchiste-Aubussonnaise-]

1900 - Jules Regis (aka Siger) (b. 1858), Turkish-born revolutionary socialist and anarchist, dies. [see: May 10]

1905 - [O.S. May 29] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Labour unrest in Odessa turns violent.
[cnparm.home.texas.net/Nat/Rus/Rus02.htm]

[E] 1915 - [O.S. May 30] A crowd of local women from the industrial town of Orekhovo (Оре́хово), mostly soldatki (soldiers' wives), wrecked the stalls in the trading rows in protest against the high price of eggs and other products; one of numerous women's food riots across Eastern Europe during WWI.
[libcom.org/history/subsistence-riots-russia-during-world-war-i-barbara-engel]

[D] [1921 - Tambov Rebellion: Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky (Михаил Тухачевский) signs order number 0116 on the use of chemical weapons against the rebels.
[ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Тамбовское_восстание_(1920—1921)
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tambov_Rebellion
ria.ru/history_spravki/20100616/246962919.html
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Продразвёрстка
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prodrazvyorstka
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Продналог
n.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prodnalog
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Тухачевский,_Михаил_Николаевич
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mikhail_Tukhachevsky]

[B] 1921 - Luis García-Berlanga Martí (d. 2010), Spanish screenwriter, film director, actor and anarchist, born. The son and grandson of republican politicians and land owners, his family fled to Tangiers after criticising the anarchists, and was later arrested by fascist regime following Franco's victory. García Berlanga was called up to fight and found himself at the Battle of Teruel. He later volunteered for the División Azul, it was claimed in order to save his father from the death penalty (elsewhere he claimed it was to stay with his falanguist friends), and fought on the Eastern Front. In 1951 he directed his first film, 'Esa Pareja Feliz' (That Happy Couple) with Juan Antonio Bardem, released in 1953, as was his first solo effort 'Bienvenido Mister Marshall' (Welcome Mr. Marshall; 1953). Many of his films, such as 'El Verdugo' (The Executioner; 1963), ended up with him being hauled before Franco's censors to explain. Following Franco's death he released his trilogy 'La Escopeta Nacional' (The National Shotgun; 1977), 'Patrimonio Nacional' (National Heritage; 1981) and 'Nacional III' (National III; 1982), whose philosophy was contrary to family, church and nation - everything Franco stood for.
[es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luis_García_Berlanga
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luis_Garc%C3%ADa_Berlanga
www.aurorafundacion.org/?El-anarquismo-subyacente-de-Luis
www.lahaine.org/index.php?p=49375
www.imdb.com/name/nm0305557/
www.guardian.co.uk/film/2010/nov/14/luis-garcia-berlanga
www.religionenlibertad.com/articulo.asp?idarticulo=15157
www.alasbarricadas.org/forums/viewtopic.php?f=25&t=48574]

1923 - June Uprising [Юнско въстание]: Insurgent peasants fight heavy battles against the army and police from the Ganchovets (Ганчовец) and Sokolov (Соколово) stations in the area Mochura (Мочура).
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulgarian_coup_d'état_of_1923
bg.wikipedia.org/wiki/Юнско_въстание
ikonomov.a-bg.net/kilifarevsko.html
www.kultura.bg/bg/article/view/16487
bezlogo.com/2011/06/заради-преврата-от-9-юни-1923-г-килифарево-е.html
www.kilifarevo.eu/kilifarevo-komunisticheska-krepost-1983.html
www.anarkismo.net/article/9678]

1931 - In Avellaneda, Argentina, a group of anarchists led by Juan Antonio Moran kills Major Rosasco, a zealous servant of the dictatorship of General Uriburu who was responsible for the deaths of many militants, as he dines in a restaurant. The anarchist Lacunza aka Bébé dies during the operation.

1936 - Grève Générale en Belgique: Much of Belgium is now at a standstill, with the Liège coal-mining area completely paralyzed and the women workers of FN-Herstal, near Liège, having occupied the works – the first major company occupation from Belgian social history.

1936 - Bruno Misefari (also known by the anagrammatical pseudonym Furio Sbarnemi; b. 1892), Italian anarchist , philosopher, poet, author, engineer and deserter, dies. [see: Jan. 17]

1942 - Anna Vasilevna Yakimova-Dikovsky (Анна Васильевна Якимова-Диковская; b. 1856), Russian anarchist-influenced revolutionary, member of Zemlya i Volya (Land and Liberty), of the Executive Committee of Narodnaya Volya (People's Will), its fighting group Freedom or Death (Свобода или Смерть), and the Socialist Revolutionary Party, writer and historian, dies. [see: Jun. 24]

1943 - Hanns Heinz Ewers (Hans Heinrich Ewers; b. 1871), German writer, poet, novelist, playwright, song writer, filmmaker, globetrotter, comedian and Stirnerite individualist, dies. [see: Nov. 3]

1946 - Karel Toman (pen name of Antonín Bernášek; b. 1877), Czech poet, journalist, translator (from French) and representative of the generation of Anarchističtí Buřiči, dies. [see: Feb. 25]

[C] 1963 - Medgar Wiley Evers (b. 1925), African American civil rights activist from Mississippi involved in efforts to overturn segregation at the University of Mississippi, is shot in the back by Byron De La Beckwith, a member of the White Citizens' Council, as he pulls into his driveway after returning from a meeting with NAACP lawyers in the early morning, just hours after President John F. Kennedy's speech on national television in support of civil rights. [see: Jul. 2]

1964 - Nelson Mandela sentenced to life imprisonment for sabotage.

1964 - Antoine Bertrand (b. 1877), French anarcho-syndicalist and member of La Jeunesse Libre (Free Youth) group, dies. [see: Mar. 16]

1966 - Division Street Riots: Following the Puerto Rican Day Parade, a youth was shot in the leg by police precipitating two days of rioting in Chicago.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Division_Street_riots
via.library.depaul.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1018&context=dialogo]

1968 - Herbert Read (b. 1893), English poet, art critic, anarchist and political philosopher, born. Wrote 'Anarchy & Order; Poetry & Anarchism' (1938); 'Philosophy of Anarchism' (1940); 'Revolution & Reason' (1953); 'My Anarchism' (1966), etc. Early champion of Surrealism. Accepted a knighthood which caused much consternation and ridicule among the anarchist milieu.

1968 - France '68: Henri Blanchet dies in the hospital following a beating at the hands of the CRS.
The government orders the dissolution of various ultra-leftist groups, including the Mouvement du 22 Mars, and prohibits all events during the election period.

1971 - Police and death squads kill 43 student protesters in México City.

[A] 1982 - The peace camp outside Faslane nuclear submarine base in Scotland is established. It is still going 30 years later.

2002 - The International Labour Organisation establishes the annual World Day Against Child Labour to raise international awareness about and activism to prevent child labour.
[www.ilo.org/ipec/Campaignandadvocacy/wdacl/2002/lang--en/index.htm
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Day_Against_Child_Labour]

2009 - Christopher Wardally, a 25-year-old black Londoner with a history of mental problems and had been constantly shuttled between prisons, including one incident where he had been moved to HMP Pentonville to avoid his presence during a HM Prisons Inspectorate visit, was found hanged in his cell at Wandsworth Prison in south-west London.

[AA] 2011 - During visiting a fight broke out in El Rodeo I, part of the El Rodeo prison complex near Caracas in Venezuela. It leaves 19 dead and 14 injured with gunshot wounds. More than 3,500 National Guards fail to regain control of the prison, and 400 heavily armed paratroopers are drafted in.

2013 - Three FEMEN members - Pauline Hillier and Marguerite Stern, both French, and a German, Josephine Markmann - are convicted of public indecency while protesting for the release of Amina Tyler (a Tunisian woman who had caused outrage after posting a topless photo on Facebook following her arrest for painting 'FEMEN' on a cemetery wall in Kairouan to protest against the annual congress of Salafi party Ansar al-Sharia. All three were released on June 26, 2013 after a Tunisian court lifted their prison sentence.
13
1381 - Peasants' Revolt / Wat Tyler's Rebellion:The rebels were loose in the city and remain in control of the capital for two days. Fleet Prison was broken open, many lawyers were killed in the Temple, and a number of foreign merchants, seen a usurers and having exploited the ecomomic malaise to enrich themselves, murdered. Despite this, most peasants were peaceful, and little damage was done to the city, on the orders of Wat Tyler.
A group of peasants marched west from the city to the magnificent Savoy Palace, home of John of Gaunt. It caught fire as they ransacked it. Fortunately, John of Gaunt was in Scotland at this time, and escaped the rebels. As the flames lit the sky, Richard agreed to meet the rebels at Mile End the following day. He hoped that this would draw the peasants out of the city. [+Spartacus]
Elsewhere in England, the revolt had began to stir in St Albans in Hertfordshire when news broke of the events in London. There had been long-running disagreements in St Albans between the town and the local abbey, which had extensive privileges in the region.
Having attacked Sir Richard Lyons' property at Overhall the previous day, the group of Essex rebels led by John Wrawe moved on to Cavendish and Bury St Edmunds in west Suffolk, gathering further support as they went. John Cambridge, the Prior of the wealthy Bury St Edmunds Abbey, was disliked in the town, and Wrawe allied himself with the townspeople and stormed the abbey. The Prior escaped, but was found two days later and beheaded.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peasants'_Revolt
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wat_Tyler
spartacus-educational.com/YALDchronology.htm
www.marxists.org/history/england/peasants-revolt/story.htm
morrisedition.lib.uiowa.edu/dreamJohnBallWrightHistoricalIntro.html
www.historic-uk.com/HistoryUK/HistoryofEngland/Wat-Tyler-the-Peasants-Revolt/]

1837 - Tolpuddle Martyrs: Having delayed his departure from Van Diemen’s Land until January 30, 1837, several months after being informed of the six's free pardons, waiting until he was certain his wife Elizabeth had not set sail to join him, George Loveless arrives back in England on board the Eveline.

[B] 1870 - Alexandru Bogdan-Piteşti (also known as Ion Doican, Ion Duican and Al Dodan; d. 1922), Romanian Symbolist poet, essayist, art and literary critic, journalist and anarchist, born.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexandru_Bogdan-Piteşti
www.istoria-artei.ro/resources/files/RRHA 2011-Art 04-C. Teaca.pdf]

[BB] 1888 - Fernando Pessoa, born Fernando António Nogueira de Seabra Pessoa (d. 1935), Portuguese Modernist poet, writer, literary critic translator, publisher, philosopher and individualist, who dabbled in automatic writing and occultism, born. Published under a huge number (at least 72) of heteronyms (literary alter egos), a number of which e.g. Barão de Teive were used exclusively for his individualist works. The vast majority of his oeuvre remained unpublished upon his death, including his most renowned work 'Livro do Desassossego' (The Book of Disquiet; 1982), a "factless autobiography" found in an envelope and written under the name Bernardo Soares; 'O Banqueiro Anarquista' (The Anarchist Banker; 1996) and 'Educação do Stoica' (The Education of the Stoic: The Only Manuscript of the Baron of Teive; 2002).

"Tenho tanto sentimento
Que é freqüente persuadir-me
De que sou sentimental,
Mas reconheço, ao medir-me,
Que tudo isso é pensamento,
Que não senti afinal.

Temos, todos que vivemos,
Uma vida que é vivida
E outra vida que é pensada,
E a única vida que temos
É essa que é dividida
Entre a verdadeira e a errada.

Qual porém é a verdadeira
E qual errada, ninguém
Nos saberá explicar;
E vivemos de maneira
Que a vida que a gente tem
É a que tem que pensar."

(I have so much feeling
Which often persuades me
That I am sentimental,
But I recognise when measuring myself,
This is all thought,
I did not feel it at all.

We all have to live,
A life that is lived
And another life that is thought,
And the only life we ​​have
Is that this which is divided
Between right and wrong.

But what is the right
And what is wrong, no one
In the know can explain;
And so we live
The life we ​​have
You have to believe that.)

- 'Tenho tanto sentimento'

[* verdadeira: true, real; actual; natural, rightful; sincere, truthful; unfeigned, veracious; veritable.
errada: incorrect, wrong; awry, amiss.]

[www.kirjasto.sci.fi/pessoa.htm
estudoslusofonos.blogspot.co.uk/2011/04/o-banqueiro-anarquista-de-fernando.html]

1892 - Ramon Plarromaní Mas aka 'Romaní' (d. 1957), Catalan textile worker and anarcho-syndicalist, born. He joined the CNT in the 1920s and during the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera took part in the fighting against the pistolers of the Sindicat Lliure. In one of these incidents, he was shot in the lung and serious injured, something that has life-long health consequences. In March 1933, he was a representative of the Sindicat Únic de Treballadors (SUT) in Gironella at the plemary of the Regional de Sindicats Únics of the CNT in Catalonia. In October 1936, he was appointed by the CNT to the Consell Municipal Provisional and later took charge of the Ministry of Work. With Franco's victory, he went to France and from 1949 to 1957 lived in the Colònia de Malalts i Mutilats d'Aymare in Aquitaine, a libertarian agricultural community organised by the CNT and the SIA to welcome comrades who suffered from disabilities or old age.
[www.estelnegre.org/anarcoefemerides/2808.html]

1897 - The first issue of the anarchist periodical 'La Protesta Humana', created by the Catalan cabinetmaker Gregorio Inglán Lafarga, is published in Buenos Aires. Initially published fortnightly, it changes its name to 'La Protesta' and is published daily from April 1, 1904.

[D] 1900 - Yihetuan [義和拳] or Boxer Rebellion: The Boxer Rebellon errupts into violence. At the Yongding gate, the secretary of the Japanese legation, Sugiyama Akira (杉山 彬), is attacked and killed by the Muslim soldiers of the pro-Boxer General Dǒng Fùxiáng (董福祥), who were guarding the southern part of the Beijing walled city.
The same day the first Boxer, a young boy dressed in his finery, is seen in the Legation Quarter. Inexplicably, he is captured and executed by the German Minister, Clemens von Ketteler, and a number of German soldiers. In response, thousands of Boxers burst into the walled city of Beijing that afternoon and burned many of the Christian churches and cathedrals in the city, burning some victims alive. American and British missionaries had taken refuge in the Methodist Mission and an attack there was repulsed by American Marines. The soldiers at the British Embassy and German Legations shot and killed several Boxers, alienating the Chinese population of the city and nudging the Qing government toward support of the Boxers. The Muslim Gansu braves and Boxers, along with other Chinese then attacked and killed Chinese Christians around the legations in revenge for foreign attacks on Chinese.
"Take away your missionaries and your opium and you will be welcome." - a Chinese official [quoted in Larry Clinton Thompson - 'William Scott Ament and the Boxer Rebellion: Heroism, Hubris, and the "Ideal Missionary"', 2009]
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_the_International_Legations
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boxer_Rebellion]

1901 - Jean Prévost (d. 1944), French writer, journalist, and Résistance fighter under the nom de guerre Captaine Goderville, born. He joined the underground National Committee of Writers, created by Louis Aragon and his wife Elsa Troilet, and took part in the creation of the clandestine newspaper 'Les Étoiles' at the end of 1942, He was killed in a German ambush at the Pont Charvin, in Sassenage, whilst fighting with the Maquis du Vercors in August 1944.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Prévost
fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Prévost
actualitte.com/blog/hervebel/2014/05/un-ecrivain-francais-quil-faut-connaitre-jean-prevost-1901-1944/
resistanceenisere.eklablog.com/jean-prevost-et-le-maquis-du-vercors-a108209870
www.guiderama-guide-accompagnateur.com/jean-prevost-resistance.htm]

1903 - Vicente Ballester Tinoco (d. 1936), Spanish carpenter, cabinetmaker, writer, journalist, and prominent Andalusian anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, born. In 1920' he was a member of the anarchist group Fermín Salvochea, along with José Bonat, and in 1921 was a delegate in Cádiz anarchist underground plenum El Arahal, where it was decided that the anarchist groupings would enter the CNT. The following year he was named vice president of Ateneo Obrero and participated in the editorial group of the journal 'Alba Roja'. During the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, he became the president of the Sindicato de la Construcción of the CNT in Cadiz in 1924 and in 1926 joined the Fermin Salvochea Freemason lodge, where he was active until 1930, leaving following the trade union conference held in Seville in October.
In 1927, he married Ramona Sierra Estudillo whom he had five children (Aurora, Rafael Joaquin, Jose Antonio) and the following year was a member of the anarchist group Germinal, with Bonat, Elias Garcia, Lucero and Galé among others. He was arrested for the first time at Jerez in 1929 and was imprisoned for a month and a half. In 1930 he was Vice President of the Ateneo Popular Enciclopèdic where he hosted debates and lectured on Esperanto. In September 1932, he was appointed secretary of the Regional Committee of the CNT in Andalusia and Extremadura. During the insurrection of January 1933, Rafael Peña García (CNT) and Juan Arcas Moreda (FIJL), he was a member of the Comité Revolucionario Andaluz (Revolutionary Committee Andalusian). It was during this period that the massacre in Casas Viejas of 25 people, including Francisco Cruz 'Seisdedos', were burned alive by the Republican Guard assault, a crime that inspired his most famous work 'Han Hasado los Bárbaros. La Verdad Sobre Casas Viejas' (Gone are the barbarians. The Truth about Casas Viejas; 1933). Editor of 'CNT', he was arrested in 1934 in Madrid following the Asturian revolution and in 1935 he was one of the reorganisers of the CNT in Cadiz alongside Manuel Pérez.
In 1936 he lived 2 Calle de la Libertad in Cadiz and in May took part in a rally in the arena alongside the Socialist leader Largo Caballero. He was then Secretary of CR Andalusian. The same month of May was one of the delegates to the Congress of Cadiz CNT in Zaragoza where he participated in the development of the motion on libertarian communism came at the meeting and closing of the conference.
On July 18, 1936 shortly after the outbreak of the Civil War, his son Rafael warned him of the imminent arrival of the Assault Guards and he went into hiding, where he would live for several months in different houses. In the early morning of 19 September, he was arrested following his betrayal. He was summarily tried by court martial and shot that afternoon in the trenches of Las Puertas de Tierra.
His literary work includes the children's story 'Pepin' (1927) and the novels 'La Voz de la Sangre' (The Voice of Blood; 1930), 'El último Cacique' (The Last Political Boss; 1930), 'El asalto' (The assault; 1932), 'Escoria social' (Social Scum; 1932), 'Han Hasado los Bárbaros. La Verdad Sobre Casas Viejas' (1933) and 'La tragedia vulgar de un hombre libre' (The Tragedy of a Vulgar Free Man; 1934).
[es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vicente_Ballester_Tinoco
militants-anarchistes.info/spip.php?article1681
www.estelnegre.org/documents/ballestertinoco/ballestertinoco.html
puertoreal.cnt.es/es/bilbiografias-anarquistas/2109-vicente-ballester-tinoco-anarquista-de-cadiz.html
www.ephemanar.net/septembre19.html]

[F] 1909 - Congress of the labour federation Solidaridad Obrera today votes overwhelmingly to accept the general strike as a tactic of struggle, always "dependant upon the circumstances", marking the move towards the now dominant anarcho-syndicalist faction.
[brevehistoriadelmovimientoanarquista.blogspot.co.uk/2012/09/confederacion-regional-de-sociedades-de.html
lasoli.cnt.cat/2011-2015/historia/historia/114-solidaridad-obrera-una-historica-federacion.html]

1910 - Fernand Rude (aka Pierre Froment; d. 1990), French social historian, sympathetic to libertarian and anarchist movements, born. Campaigned for the Communist Party in 1929 and visited the USSR a number of times, studying history and making translations. [expand]
[www.ephemanar.net/juin13.html#13]

[A] 1910 - In Paris, confrontations take place at Faubourg Saint-Anthony between cabinetmakers and police. The anarchist Henri Cler is wounded and dies from head injuries at the hospital Saint-Antoine on June 21.

1921 - Rome's Communist deputy Francesco Misiano is beaten, forcibly shaved and paraded through the streets with a sign around his neck - "The country should be served and I'm fascist" - whilst the squadristi revile and spit upon him. This is their idea of 'heroic' action. [pic]
[www.wumingfoundation.com/giap/?p=17162]

1923 - June Uprising [Юнско въстание]: At Kilifarevo newly arrives artillery pieces begin firing on the last positions of the rebels in the Usoynata (Усойната) and Butora (Бутора) areas. In the following days the uprising is suppressed. The remaining guerrillas immediately set about forming the Kilifarevo Band (Килифаревската чета [четата]), a sort of insurrectionary 'united front', that would remain active for the next couple of years despite the loss of leading lights such as Georgi Popov (Георги С. Попов) and Georgi Sheytanov (Георги Шейтанов).
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulgarian_coup_d'état_of_1923
bg.wikipedia.org/wiki/Юнско_въстание
ikonomov.a-bg.net/kilifarevsko.html
www.kultura.bg/bg/article/view/16487
bezlogo.com/2011/06/заради-преврата-от-9-юни-1923-г-килифарево-е.html
www.kilifarevo.eu/kilifarevo-komunisticheska-krepost-1983.html
www.anarkismo.net/article/9678]

1936 - Grève Générale en Belgique: The general strike had become a tidal wave. In Liège, the strike had become general across the steel and other metallurgical industries. Given the scale of the movement, the socialist and Christian unions meet and sign a joint program of demands, including paid holidays.

[E] 1964 - Lola Amorós (Dolors Amorós Santmartí; b. unknown), Catalan textile worker, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies in exile in Mexico. A militant in the Confederación Nacional del Trebajo, she was also partner of Domingo Rojas Fuentes (José Torres) and mother of the anarchist militants Eliseo and Floreal Rojas Amorós. With the defeat of the Republic, the family crossed the Pyrenees, settling in Perpignan. In 1940 her family was able to cross the Atlantic and settled in Havana, Cuba in 1942, and from 1943 in Mexico. In 1944 she participated in the founding of the editorial group of the Mexican newspaper 'Tierra y Libertad', taking care of correspondence and of various publishing tasks.
[www.estelnegre.org/anarcoefemerides/1306.html
militants-anarchistes.info/spip.php?article10875]

1969 - Andreas Baader, Gudrun Ensslin, Horst Söhnlein, and Thorwald Proll are released from prison pending review of their cases after their October 1968 sentencing to three years in prison for the April 2, 1968 Frankfurt am Main department store arsons. When their appeal is denied, Baader, Ensslin and Proll go on the run and are smuggled out of the country by sympathisers.

[C] 1976 - 7,000 people, many carrying placards stating "Powell is a murderer" and "We are here to stay", take part in a 'One Race - Human Race' march in Southall in the aftermath of the murder of Gurdip Singh Chaggar. [see: Jun. 4]
[archive.spectator.co.uk/article/19th-june-1976/11/summer-in-southall
www.itnsource.com/shotlist/RTV/1976/06/07/510050126/
livesrunning.wordpress.com/tag/southall/
hatfulofhistory.wordpress.com/2014/04/23/35-years-since-southall-1979/
randompottins.blogspot.co.uk/2010/04/southall-two-murders-no-conviction-and.html
www.sikhsangat.com/index.php?/topic/43783-30-years-on-southall-riots/
www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2009/apr/26/police-blair-peach
libcom.org/files/politics of asian youth movement.pdf]

1977 - Grunwick Dispute: Police kick and punch women on a picket line at the Grunwick photo processing plant in Willesden, North West London, dragging some women by their hair as they were arrested. By the end of the day the police had arrested more than 80 women. The mainly female Asian workforce walked out in 1976 over wages and working conditions, were all fired, and were on the picket line for two years.

1979 - Blair Peach's funeral. [see: Apr. 23]
[www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2010/apr/27/blair-peach-policing-lessons
livesrunning.wordpress.com/2014/03/24/blair-peach-in-the-press-8000-mourn-blair-peach-13-june-1979/
homersykes.photoshelter.com/gallery/BLAIR-PEACH-FUNERAL-LYING-IN-STATE-SOUTHALL-LONDON-1970s/G0000ngLU7fpQdbs/C0000_5qMC9953Ww]

1982 - André Claudot (b. 1892), French anarchist, artist and teacher, dies. [see: Feb. 14]

1996 - Valerio Isca (b. 1900), Italian-American anarchist, co-founder of the Libertarian Book Club, dies. [see: Dec. 22]

2011 - Valerie Powles (Valerie Gay Powles; b. 1950), English teacher, vocational historian, local activist and anarcho-individualist, dies. [see: May 14]
14
1381 - Peasants' Revolt / Wat Tyler's Rebellion: Richard rode to the meeting at Mile End. There, Wat Tyler put forward the peasants demands:
-land rents were reduced to reasonable levels.
-the Poll Tax was to be abolished.
-free pardons for all rebels.
-charters would be qiven to the peasants laying down a number of rights and privileges.
-all "traitors" were to be put to death.
Richard agreed to all these demands, but added that only a royal court could decide if a person was a traitor or not. He thought that this was the best policy, in order to allow the peasants to go home. A group of thirty or so clerks began to copy out charters for the peasants to take home.
However, the King had been outwitted by Wat Tyler. A group of peasants, taking advantage of the King's absence at Mile End, raided the Tower of London. Here, they found three of their most hated people; Simon Sudbury, (Archbishop of Canterbury), Sir Robert Hailes (King's treasurer) and John Legge (the creator of the Poll Tax). They were dragged out onto Tower Hill, and beheaded. [+Spartacus]
Elsewhere, in St. Albans protesters met with the Abbot, Thomas de la Mare, in St. Albans and demanded their freedom from the abbey. A group of townsmen under the leadership of William Grindecobbe travelled to London, where they appealed to the King for the rights of the abbey to be abolished. Wat Tyler, then still in control of the city, granted them authority in the meantime to take direct action against the abbey.
In East Anglia John Battisford and Thomas Sampson independently led a revolt near Ipswich. They took the town without opposition and looted the properties of the archdeacon and local tax officials. The violence spread out further, with attacks on many properties and the burning of the local court records. One official, Edmund Lakenheath, was forced to flee from the Suffolk coast by boat.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peasants'_Revolt
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wat_Tyler
spartacus-educational.com/YALDchronology.htm
www.marxists.org/history/england/peasants-revolt/story.htm
morrisedition.lib.uiowa.edu/dreamJohnBallWrightHistoricalIntro.html
www.historic-uk.com/HistoryUK/HistoryofEngland/Wat-Tyler-the-Peasants-Revolt/]

1791 - Loi Le Chapelier: A law establishing 'Délit de Coalition' (the Offence of Coalition), which forbids workers' organisations, most notably trade guilds of the period, but also peasant and worker assemblies as well as 'compagnonnage' is promulgated in France. It was repealled by the Loi Ollivier of May 25, 1864.
[fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loi_Le_Chapelier
fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Délit_de_coalition
fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loi_Ollivier]

[D] 1849 - Palatine Uprising: At Kirchheimbolanden the poorly armed and vastly outclassed revolutionary troops of the people's militia are all killed or captured by an army of 19,000 Prussian soldiers under Moritz von Hirschfeld. The provisional government flees, and many Bavarian officials return to their positions.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palatine_uprising
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revolutions_of_1848_in_the_German_states]

1865 - Bernard Lazare (Lazare Marcus Manassé Bernard; d. 1903), French author, journalist, anarchist, polemicist and Dreyfusard, born. Collaborated on the journals 'Les Entretiens Politiques et Littéraires' and 'Temps Nouveaux'. Co-authored, with Ephraïm Mikhaël, 'La Fiancée de Corinthe' (1888), a mythological drama in three acts. He later became a literary critic and in his journalism he defended the anarchists Jean Grave and Félix Fénéon during the Procès des Trente in 1894, covered the 1895 miners’ revolt in Carmaux and, during the 1896 Socialist Congress in London, he denounced Karl Marx as "a jealous authoritarian, unfaithful to his own ideas, driving the Internationale away from its goals". His other works include: 'L’Antisémitisme, son Histoire et ses Cause' (Anti-semitism, its History and Causes; 1894) and the postumous 'Le Fumier de Job' (Job's Dungheap; 1998).
[www.increvables-anarchistes.org/articles/themes/biographies/bernard-lazare
kropot.free.fr/Lazare-antisemcauses.htm
assr.revues.org/20577?lang=en
acontretemps.org/spip.php?article56]

1872 (or poss. 1878) - Jules-César Rozental (d. 1903), Bulgarian militant anarchist and poet, born. Son of a Polish-born Russian revolutionary, doctor and refugee in Bulgaria, he became a libertarian partisan in Macedonia with the Stara Zagora group led by Nicolas Detchev. On the night of September 11 to 12, 1903, the local Macedonian population revolted together with various insurgent groups and engaged a battle near the village of Loukovo. More than 400 were killed along with 113 Turkish Bulgarian militia including Nicolas Detchev. Julius Caesar Rozental was also wounded and died a few days later on September 14. His poetry collection, 'Unfinished Songs' was posthumously published in 1904.
[militants-anarchistes.info/spip.php?article5315
anarcoefemerides.balearweb.net/archives/20120914]

1873 - Rebelión Cantonal / Revolución Cantonal in Sanlúcar: A manifesto addressed to all workers in the city, written on behalf of the Local Federation of the AIT (International Association of Workers), and signed by Antonio Cuevas Jurado and fourteen other comrades, is published in Sanlúcar de Barrameda in answer to the one previously published the mayor González Peña. In it, they refuted one by one, each of the 'consejos' (pronouncements) that the mayor had offered the city's workers. It labelled the mayor González Peña as being a capitalist, because, having aquired some capital, he could afford to live without work. It also attacked his ideology, affirming, among other things: that he was nothing but a representative of authoritarian power; that, when anarchy arrived, he would know that there would no longer be any mayors of barrios; that he should not lose sight of the fact that the workers had declared war against the monopolisers of capital; that if the landlords risked something, the workers risked more having to work 10 to 15 hours a day; that private property was nothing more than legalised robbery; that only concord between labour and capital would be possible when it was the property of workers' collectivities; that there would be poor and rich while the poor failed to realise that the rich lived on the backs of the workers and the exploitation of the poor; that when it all resides in the hands of the workers' communities, it would only be necessary to work for 4 to 5 hours, leaving time for education and discovery ... The manifesto ended with a call to the workers to unite, thus enhancing the triumph of anarchy and of collectivism, and achieving the disappearance of all tyrannies (religious, political and economic), and build on their ruins "un mundo nuevo de productores libres".
[ordenanarquista.wordpress.com/2016/10/07/la-revolucion-cantonal-en-sanlucar/
www.historiadeespananivelmedio.com/19-17-16-gobierno-figueras/
www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1873/bakunin/
ccec.revues.org/5455?lang=en
es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primera_República_Española]

[E] 1895 - Sara Rosenfeld Ehrmann (d. 1993), US housewife and mother of two children, who became a prominent campaigner against capital punishment in Massachusetts and countrywide, having gotten to know Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti during their trial when her husband Herbert worked on their defence as associate counsel, born. As a key member of the board of the Massachusetts Council for the Abolition of the Death Penalty (1928-69) she led the battle to abolish and then prevent the return of capital punishment in the state. In 1951, she also played a major role in the creation of Massachusetts' 'Mercy Law', which allowed juries to opt out of the death penalty on first-degree murder cases. In 1949, she became leader of the American League to Abolish Capital Punishment (1949-69). She was also active in organisations supporting prisoners, notably the United Prison Association of Massachusetts, which she helped form in 1939. On June 15, 1985, the day after Sara's birthday, the Massachusetts legislature proclaimed Sara Ehrmann Day.
Sara R. Ehrmann died of natural causes at the age of 97 on March 18, 1993.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sara_R._Ehrmann
www.library.neu.edu/archives/collect/findaids/m39findbioghist.htm
werehistory.org/sara-ehrmann]

1896 - Jean Le Gall (d. 1956), militant French libertarian and anarcho-syndicalist, born. Militant trades union leader of the SGOP (Syndicat général des ouvriers du port), the independent dockworkers union in Le Harve.

1906 - [O.S. Jun. 1] Białystok Pogrom [Белостокский погром]: Two hundred Jews are killed and 700 injured, and 169 shops and houses plundered, with 8 streets completely ransacked, in a pogrom in Białystok (Jun. 14-16). The Jews offer stout resistance; the police and troops aid looters and attack Jewish self-defence forces. The Deputy-Governor of Grodno and commissioner of police in Bialystok are promoted.
[cnparm.home.texas.net/Nat/Rus/Rus04.htm
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Белостокский_погром
veniamin1.livejournal.com/244613.html
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Białystok_pogrom
www.museumoffamilyhistory.com/ajc-yb-v08-pogroms.htm]

1911 - Los Angeles police arrest the anarchists Ricardo and Enrique Flores Magón for violation of the US neutrality law.

1914 - Settimana Rossa di Ancona: 'The Red Week of Ancona' general strike ends with the complicity of the Socialists and their trade union. Errico Malatesta, escaping the police, is forced again to flee into exile, to London. [see: Jun. 21]

1914 - Ruthven Campbell Todd (d. 1978), Scottish poet, artist, novelist and writer of children's books, who also wrote detective fiction under the pseudonym R. T. Campbell, born. A conscientious objector during WWII, he was a member of the post-war New Apocalyptics poetry group. His novel 'Over the Mountain' (1939) is a satire on fascism where its hero travels to a 'Lost World' style dystopian country with an oppressive government.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthven_Todd]

1919 - Trotsky drafts an order banning the Makhnovist Congress, accusing them of opposing Soviet power in the Ukraine. Trotsky calls for the arrest of the delegates.

1920 - Anna Maria 'Marianna' Mozzoni (b. 1837 ), Italian journalist, socialist and militant feminist, dies. [see: May 5]

1928 - Emmeline Pankhurst (Emmeline Goulden; 15 July 1858), British suffragette leader and socialist, who was the mother of three other prominent suffragettes, Christabel, Sylvia, and Adela Pankhurst, dies. [see: Jul. 15]

1930 - The first issue of the weekly anarchist newspaper 'El Productor' is published in Barcelona. Only six issues will appear, the last dated 19 July 1930.

1930 - The first issue of the Italian language fortnightly 'L'Avanguardia Libertaria' is published in Melbourne.

1936 - Grève Générale en Belgique: The strike extends to all sectors including public services. The Centrale des Mineurs takes the decision to join the general strike.

1940 - The first transport of 728 Polish prisoners, which includes 20 Jews, arrives at the Nazi extermination camp of Auschwitz. 3,000,000 will die there.

1942 - Johann Heinrich Vogeler (b. 1872), German painter, printmaker, architect, designer, educator, writer and communitarian, dies. [see: Dec. 12]

[C] 1944 - Jules Le Gall (b. 1881), French boilermaker, journalist, ironmonger, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and Freemason, dies at Buchenwald after deportation for his masonic membership. [see: Dec. 13]

[B] 1947 - Yves Fremion (Yves Frémion-Danet), French author and former editor of the French science fiction magazine 'Univers', born. He has written under a range of psedonyms: Art(h)ur Conan Doc, Batteste Monokini, Bethsabée Mouchot, Hassen Seffaf, Yvan E. Frémov, Jean-Edern Hyerestation-du-RER, Laurent Tharbes, Les Frères L. et D. Corson de Rojayheart, Max de Blé, Noël Hobalcon et Paco Tison, Théophraste Épistolier, Yves Frémion de la Fermez, Yves Mousse, and under the collective pseudonym, Colonel Durruti, in his collaboration with Emmanuel Jouanne. Fremion is also the author of 'Orgasms of History: 3000 Years of Spontaneous Insurrection' (2002) and 'Léauthier l'Anarchiste, De la Propagande par le Fait à la Révolte des Bagnards (1893-1894)' (2011), the story of Leon Léauthier, his attentat and his fate on the Island of St. Joseph, Guyana; as well as editing a number of anthologies and having his work appear in 'Anarchy Comics'. Member of the political party The Greens , MEP (1989-94), and regional councilor of Île-de-France (1998-2010).

1964 - The Merry Pranksters begin their tour of America.

[A] 1966 - Major Provo riots in Amsterdam.

1968 - Rirette Maîtrejean (Anna Henriette Estorges; b. 1887), French individualist anarchist activist and propagandist, dies. [see: Aug. 14]

1970 - Bradley Roland 'Brad' Will (d. 2006), US anarchist, poet, documentary filmmaker and a journalist with Indymedia New York City, born. He was shot and killed on October 27, 2006 during the teachers' strike in the Mexican city of Oaxaca.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brad_Will
greenpolitics.wikia.com/wiki/Brad_Will
news.infoshop.org/article.php?story=20061104102149491
poetryproject.org/wp-content/uploads/n210.pdf]

[F] 1991 - Schweizer Frauenstreik [Swiss Women's Strike]: Half a million Swiss women stop work for the day as part of a protest movement launched by the Swiss Trade Union Federation in order to campaign for the enforcement of the federal constitutional article on gender equality included by popular vote ten years before on June 14, 1981.
[de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frauenstreik
fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grève_des_femmes_du_14_juin_1991
www.sozialarchiv.ch/2016/06/01/vor-25-jahren-der-frauenstreiktag-vom-14-juni-1991/
www.swissinfo.ch/eng/25-years-of-the-women-s-strike_june-14--1991--a-historic-day/42219810]

2001 - Police lay siege to the Hvitfeldtska Gymnasiet convergence centre during the Goteburg EU Summit in order to prevent demonstrators from reaching the anti-Bush rally.

2002 - Jacky Toublet (b. 1940), French anarcho-syndicalist, militant, director of the weekly 'Le Monde Libertaire', son of Julien Toublet, dies. [see: Nov. 12]

2005 - Marie 'Mimi' Parent (b. 1924), Canadian surrealist artist, dies. [see: Sep. 8]

2006 - Huelga de Maestros / Oaxaca Teachers' Strike & Protests: The crisis reached a new level early on the morning of June 14, when 3,000 Oaxacan police made a surprise attack on the encampment of the teachers and students living in the Zócalo. Helicopters attacked from above with pepper spray and tear gas bombs and police officers shot tear gas canisters directly into the crowds of protesters. The street battle lasted for several hours and resulted in more than one hundred protestors being hospitalised. Media reports at the time said at least four people had died in the clashes – a claim denied by the local authorities. That night, police destroyed the building that housed Radio Plantón, dismantling the station. Students and teachers respond by taking over Radio Universidad, at the Independent University Benito Juárez.
[expand]
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2006_Oaxaca_protests
news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/6102018.stm
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asamblea_popular_de_los_pueblos_de_Oaxaca
es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asamblea_Popular_de_los_Pueblos_de_Oaxaca
www.tomzap.com/OAXgo.html
biiacs-dspace.cide.edu/handle/10089/15841
www.jornada.unam.mx/2006/11/21/index.php?section=opinion&article=027a1pol]

2006 - Vicente Marti (b. 1926), Spanish militant anarchist and member Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (FIJL), dies. In the 1960s Marti was responsible for getting weapons from France into Spain to aid guerrilla actions against the fascist government.
[www.ephemanar.net/juin14.html
libcom.org/history/marti-vicente-1926-2006
www.atelierdecreationlibertaire.com/SALUT-VICENTE.html]

2013 - Turkish protester Ethem Sarısülük (b. 1986), shot in the head by police on June 1 during the Gezi Park Protests, dies in hospital after spending 14 days in intensive care.
[tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethem_Sarısülük]
15
1381 - Peasants' Revolt / Wat Tyler's Rebellion: Following the granting of charters the previous day, many peasants began to leave London and return home, believing that their demands had been met. However, Wat Tyler (b. 1350) and a hard core of peasants remained behind, and they demanded another meeting with the King, to deliver even more demands.
The King agreed to a meeting at Smithfield, an open space within the city walls.
When the King's party arrived, Wat Tyler rode up and greeted them in an insolent manner. What happened next is unclear, but was probably a pre-arranged plot. Tyler was rude to the King, refusing to dismount, and spitting in front of him. The Lord Mayor of London, William Walworth, drew his sword and attacked Tyler, wounding him. A squire finished him off as he lay on the ground.
This was a crucial moment, before the peasants realised what had happened. The young King rode forward, shouting out that all their demands were to be met, and that they should follow him out of the city, where charters would be forthcoming. Trustingly, the rebels followed him, and most were persuaded to return home.
Richard reneged on his promises and hanged 1,500 of the rebels, including John Ball and Jack Straw [possibly a pseudonym for John Wrawe or even Tyler himself]. [+Spartacus]
Following their visit to London the previous day to appealed for the rights of St Albans abbey to be abolished, William Grindecobbe and the rebels returned to St Albans, where they found the Prior had already fled. The rebels broke open the abbey gaol, destroyed the fences marking out the abbey lands and burnt the abbey records in the town square. The following day Thomas de la Mare was forced to surrender St Albans abbey's rights in a charter. The revolt against the abbey spread out over the next few days, with abbey property and financial records being destroyed across the county.
Elsewhere, the Prior of the wealthy Bury St Edmunds Abbey, who escaped rebel hands two days ago, is found and beheaded. In East Anglia, a small band of John Wrawe's rebels marched further north to Thetford to extort protection money from the town, and another group tracked down Sir John Cavendish, the Chief Justice of the King's Bench and Chancellor of the University of Cambridge. Cavendish was caught in Lakenheath and killed.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peasants'_Revolt
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wat_Tyler
spartacus-educational.com/YALDchronology.htm
www.marxists.org/history/england/peasants-revolt/story.htm
morrisedition.lib.uiowa.edu/dreamJohnBallWrightHistoricalIntro.html
www.historic-uk.com/HistoryUK/HistoryofEngland/Wat-Tyler-the-Peasants-Revolt/]

1844 - Charlotte Despard (Charlotte French; d. 1939), Anglo-Irish novelist, suffragist, Sinn Féin activist, communist, vegetarian and anti-vivisection advocate, who quit the NUWSS for the WSPU because of the former's "votes for ladies" stance and later quit the WSPU to help form the Women's Freedom League because of Emmeline Pankhurst' dictatorial manner, born.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlotte_Despard
spartacus-educational.com/Wdespard.htm]

1853 - [N.S. Jun. 27] Sophia Illarionovna Bardina aka 'Auntie' [Тётенька] (Софья Илларионовна Бардина; b. 1853), Russian anarchist revolutionary in the populist movement of the 1870s, who was influenced Kropotkin and Bakunin, born. [see: Jun. 27]

1869 - [N.S. Jun. 27] Emma Goldman (d. 1940), world citizen, anarchist rebel, feminist, anti-militarist and force of nature, born in Lithuania. [see: Jun. 27]

1871 - 'Émile' Ernest Girault (d. 1933), French typographer, militant anarchist and anti-militarist propagandist, before becoming Communist, born. Active during the Dreyfus affair, he took part in the 1904 founding confrence in Amsterdam of the Association Internationale Antimilitariste. [expand]
[www.ephemanar.net/decembre12.html#girault
militants-anarchistes.info/spip.php?article2237]

1881 - The recently inaugurated statue of Adolphe Thiers in St-Germain-en-Laye is attacked with an anarchist bomb, made from a sardine tin packed with explosives. Unfortunately it does not cause much damage to the statue of the tyrant but this first attempt (failed) hails the beginning in France an era of propaganda by deed, even if it was a provocation organised by the Prefect of Police in Paris, Louis Andrieux, who also financed the anarchist journal 'La Révolution Sociale' with public funds.

1896 - Gérard Duvergé (also known as Fred Durtain, Chevalier à Monségur) (d. 1944), French libertarian teacher, anarchist and anti-fascist résistant, born. Fought in Spain and, as a member of the Résistance, was murdered by the Gestapo.
[www.ephemanar.net/juin15.html
militants-anarchistes.info/spip.php?article1423]

1900 - First issue of 'L'Education Libertaire', in Paris. A monthly international review sponsored by libertarian educational libraries, in conjunction with efforts, in February 1899, to found a libertarian school.

1900 - Première issue of 'Le Réveil des Travailleurs' (The Worker's Alarm Clock; semi-monthly, then weekly until April 1903) in Liège. Among those who ran the paper was the Belgian anarchist George Thonar.

1901 - In Mexico Jesus and Ricardo Flores Magón are arrested for subversive articles.

1901 - The first issue of Juana Belén Gutiérrez de Mendoza and Elisa Acuña Rosete's antiporfirista women's weekly 'Vésper' in Guanajuato, central México.
[es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vésper
www.omni-bus.com/n36/sites.google.com/site/omnibusrevistainterculturaln36/historia/juana-belen-gutierrez-de-mendoza.html]

1905 - [O.S. Jun. 2] Ivanovo Soviet [Иваново-Вознесенский Депутатов] / Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The city is plastered with notices signed by the lieutenant-governor Sazonov (Сазонова) announcing that gatherings at the River Talka (Реки Талка) meeting site are banned. At the same time Sazonov has requested to be allowed to make night-time arrests of the leaders and active participants in the strike, and find a excuse for the use of force the following day.
[ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Иваново-Вознесенский_общегородской_совет_рабочих_депутатов
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Иваново-Вознесенские_стачки
wiki.ivanovoweb.ru/index.php/Первый_общегородской_Совет_рабочих_депутатов
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revolution_of_1905#Ivanovo_Soviet
libcom.org/library/soviets-their-origin-development-functions-andreu-nin
www.johndclare.net/Rempel_Soviet.htm
en.internationalism.org/ir/123_1905
cnparm.home.texas.net/Nat/Rus/Rus02.htm]

1906 - [O.S. Jun. 2] Białystok Pogrom [Белостокский погром]: The Duma criticises the government’s reaction to the Białystok pogrom.
[cnparm.home.texas.net/Nat/Rus/Rus04.htm
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Белостокский_погром
veniamin1.livejournal.com/244613.html
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Białystok_pogrom
www.museumoffamilyhistory.com/ajc-yb-v08-pogroms.htm]

[D] 1906 - [O.S. Jun. 2] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Minister of Internal Affairs Pyotr Stolypin (Пётр Столы́пин) warns that the Kronstadt naval base has become a centre of revolutionary activity. The government attempts to counter radical influences among its troops and sailors by indoctrinating them with right-wing propaganda.
[cnparm.home.texas.net/Nat/Rus/Rus04.htm
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Столыпин,_Пётр_Аркадьевич
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyotr_Stolypin
www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/567065/Pyotr-Arkadyevich-Stolypin]

1906 - Léon Joseph Marie Ignace Degrelle (d. 1994), Belgian Walloon National Socialist and historical revisionist, who founded the nationalist Parti Rexiste and later joined the Waffen SS (becoming a leader of its Walloon contingent) which were front-line troops in the fight against the Soviet Union, born. After WWII, he was a prominent figure in fascist movements after having been granted refuge in Francoist Spain.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Léon_Degrelle]

[E] 1912 - Fanny Schoonheyt aka 'la reina de la ametralladora' (the queen of the machine gun), Hans G. Rink & Fanny Lopez (Fernanda Maria Wilhelmina Albertina Schoonheyt; d. 1961), Dutch foreign correspondent, anti-fascist and miliciana (with the PSUC) during the Spanish Civil War, born. She fought on the Aragón front from July/August 1936 until the November, when she was wounded, and took part in the 1937 Hechos de Mayo Stalinist repression of the anachist and POUM forces in Barcelona.
In the late spring of 1938 Fanny tries to get her Dutch passport renewed at the consulate of the Netherlands in Barcelona. Her request is denied and after a period in France (mid 1938 to early 1940), she ended up in the Dominican Republic in February 1940, where she gave birth to a daughter, Marisa, in 1940 and, after taking the name Fanny Lopez, made a living as a photographer. Due to health problems, Fanny returned to Rotterdam around 1957, where she died of a heart attack at the age of 49.
[www.albavolunteer.org/2011/12/queen-of-the-machine-gun-fanny-schoonheyt-dutch-miliciana/
resources.huygens.knaw.nl/vrouwenlexicon/lemmata/data/Schoonheyt
www.groene.nl/artikel/de-koningin-van-de-mitrailleur
www.onvoltooidverleden.nl/index.php?id=409]

[DD] [1913 - [N.S. Jun. 28] Tikveš Uprising [Тиквешко въстание (Bul) / Тиквешко востание (Mkd)]: An uprising against the Serbian government in Vardar Macedonia, planned by the by the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation to take place behind the Serbian lines during the Second Balkan War after the Bulgarian Army had begun operations in the Tikveš region of Macedonia, starts prematurely after the secret uprising conspiracy had been betrayed to the local Serbian authorities.
bg.wikipedia.org/wiki/Тиквешко_въстание
mk.wikipedia.org/wiki/Тиквешко_востание
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tikveš_Uprising
www.savanne.ch/svoboda/anarchy/history/IlindPreobr.html]

1917 - Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman are arrested during a raid of their offices which yields "a wagon load of anarchist records and propaganda" for the authorities according to 'The New York Times'. The pair were charged with conspiracy to "induce persons not to register" under the newly enacted Espionage Act, and were held on US$25,000 bail each. Defending herself and Berkman during their trial, Goldman invoked the First Amendment, asking how the government could claim to fight for democracy abroad while suppressing free speech at home:
We say that if America has entered the war to make the world safe for democracy, she must first make democracy safe in America. How else is the world to take America seriously, when democracy at home is daily being outraged, free speech suppressed, peaceable assemblies broken up by overbearing and brutal gangsters in uniform; when free press is curtailed and every independent opinion gagged? Verily, poor as we are in democracy, how can we give of it to the world?
However, the jury found Goldman and Berkman guilty. Judge Julius Marshuetz Mayer imposed the maximum sentence: two years' imprisonment, a $10,000 fine each, and the possibility of deportation after their release from prison. Goldman was released on September 27, 1919 and Berkman on October 1, 1919, looking "haggard and pale"; according to Goldman - he had spent seven months in solitary confinement in the Atlanta Federal Penitentiary for protesting the beating of other inmates.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emma_Goldman
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Berkman
query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9D01EFDA123BE03ABC4E52DFB066838C609EDE]

1918 - The anarchist Jules Durand, sentenced to death in November 1910 - a victim of corrupt witnesses and vilification by the local press for a crime he did not commit - is found innocent in a new trial.

1919 - Founding of the Federation of Anarchist Communists of Bulgaria (Федерация на анархо-комунистите в България), in Sofia, June 15-17th. Federation members included Ivan Nicolov, one of its most popular speakers and polemicists, and Gueorgui Cheitanov, a popular speaker and guerrilla. (Both were murdered by the fascist government in 1925.) The Federation published the theoretical review, 'Free Society' (Свободно общество).
[bg.wikipedia.org/wiki/Федерация_на_анархо-комунистите_в_България]

1920 - Liberto Sarrau Royes (d. 2001), Spanish militant anarchist, anti-fascist fighter and writer, born. Active in the labour movement as a member of the anarcho-syndicalist CNT. Member of the Juventudes Libertarias (JJLL) and the famed Durruti Column. Liberto Sarrau whose regular column 'Retractos al minuto' (up to the minute portraits) gave a sort of tongue in cheek biographies of swollen headed libertarian militants or ones who had slipped down what Sébastien Faure called the "slippery slope." Along with Amador Franco, Liberto Sarrau made up the youngest duo of writers whose work appeared in 'Ruta', whose columns featured the finest pens of anarchist thinking during the 30s. A member of the anti-fascist resistance movement in Barcelona, in 1946 Liberto, his partner Joaquina Dorado and Raúl Carballeira formed the group 3 de Mayo. In 1948, he was arrested, tortured and sent to prison.
Sarrau appears in the film 'Vivir la Utopia' (Living Utopia) by Juan Gamero: "Liberto Sarrau evokes the injustice that led to the condemnation of Francisco Ferrer who was innocent of the crimes that were attributed to him. He praises the schools and the quality of teaching inspired by Ferrer. Sarrau then provides a logical explanation of the reasons for burning down some churches, which occurred only with priests who joined the police and soldiers shooting — from bell towers (as one can see in Ken Loach’s film, 'Tierra y Libertad') — anyone they could aim at, including women and children, instead of shooting armed enemies.
[www.estelnegre.org/documents/sarrau/sarrau.html
libcom.org/history/royes-liberto-sarrau-1920-2002
autogestionacrata.blogspot.co.uk/2012/10/sarrau-royes-liberto-1920-2001.html
macoca.org/liberto-sarrau-royes-y-joaquina]

1921 - Isidre Guàrdia Abella aka Leopoldo Arribas, 'Codine', Juan Lorenzo, 'Viriato', Juan Ibérico, 'Isigual', etc. (d. 2012), Spanish writer, autodidact, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, born. Orphaned at 10 years old, he was forced to work in numerous jobs (bellhop, busboy (waiter's assistant), apprentice barber, labourer, cashier, etc.), all the time trying to make up for his lack of schooling. In 1935 he joined the Sindicat Gastronòmic of the CNT. With the fascist coup in 1936, he joined the militia and was a member of the Joventuts Llibertàries in the Barri del Centre de València. On 2 August 1936, he participated in the assault on the headquarters of the Regiment de Cavalleria Lleuger Cuirassat (Light Armored Cavalry Regiment) 'Lusitania' No. 8, located on Passeig d'Àlbers in Valencia. During the civil war, he fought as a volunteer in the Primera Columna Confederal de Llevant and, following the militarisation of the brigades, he was appointed, aged 17, a sergeant in the 82 Mixed Brigade on the Teruel front, also writing for the brigades news sheet under the pseudonym Isigual. After Franco's victory, he was held in the Utiel concentration camp. After his release, he joined the clandestine struggle, becoming a member of the Comité Provincial del Movimiento Libertario in Valencia and, from November 1939, head of the Organización del Comité Provincial de la Agrupación Libertaria (which included the CNT, FAI and FIJL). On his 19th birthday, he was arrested by Franco's police for his involvement in the distribution of an Alianza Democrática Española manifesto that Francisco Ponzán Vidal had printed in France. On 8 November 1941, along with 32 members of the CNT and the FIJL, he was tried by court martial and sentenced to death for "conspiracy against the regime" and membership of the Agrupació Llibertària. The sentence was commuted to 30 years in prison in January 1942. During the 8½ years he spent in the central prison of San Miguel de los Reyes in Valencia, he was secretary of the Juventudes Libertarias for 4 years and a member of the prison's Comité Libertario for 4 years. In this period, in addition to expand his knowledge of French and Italian, he studied accounting, published the Boletín de CNT (Bulletin of CNT), edited the newspaper of the Juventudes Libertarias and was a correspondent with the anarchist press in exile, thanks to the assistance of Castor Garcia Rojo, a prison official who smuggled out his mail. He was released on October 7, 1950, after serving ten years, three months and twenty three days. In 1974, his testimony (under the pseudonym Juan Lorenzo) was included in the Cuadernos de Ruedo Ibérico (Journal of Iberian Arean ) entitled 'El movimiento libertario español' (The Spanish libertarian movement). After the death of Franco, he participated in the reconstruction of the CNT and, from 1976, he was director of a chemical company, the same year as he was amongst the 10 finalists for the Planeta Prize for his unpublished autobiographical novel 'Saca', later published as 'Otoño de 1941' (1977). He was involved in various agricultural enterprises and continued to write for many libertarian publications e.g. 'España Libre',' Comunidad Iberica', 'Frente Libertario', 'Revista Iberoamericana de Autogestión y Acción Comunal', 'Sindicalismo', 'Umbral', 'La Verdad', etc. He is also author of 'Entre el ensayo y la historia' (Between phases and history; 1976); 'La CNT ante el presente, pasado y perspectiva' (The CNT to the past, present and perspective; 1977); 'Conversaciones sobre el movimiento obrero: Entrevistas con militantes de la CNT' (Talk about the labour movement: Interviews with members of the CNT; 1978); 'Escritos del silencio' (Writings of silence; 2005, articles written in prison); and 'Entre muros y sombras' (Between walls and shadows; 2006).
[www.estelnegre.org/anarcoefemerides/2808.html
losdelasierra.info/spip.php?article3472
www.estelnegre.org/documents/guardiaabella/guardiaabella.html
www.brigadamixta.com/?p=6159]

1930 - The first issue of the anarchist journal 'Libre Examen', financed by donation, is published in Buenos Aires. A total of 121 issues are published up til Jan. 23, 1932.

1930 - The first issue of the fortnightly anarcho-syndicalist newspaper 'El Sembrador' is published in Igualada, Barcelona.

1936 - Grève Générale en Belgique: The movement grew rapidly: first in Wallonia, where the strike was widespread across the labour centres by June 15 and then in Flanders and Brussels. The centres of gravity were in Antwerp, Liege and the Borinage, where the clay miners had called for a general strike. The Borinage call was echoed by miners from all sectors across Belgium. Miners in the Limburg were called out on strike by the Centrale des Francs-Mineurs. The strike by metalworkers in Liège had now extended to Ghent, and textile workers in Mouscron, Templeuve, etc. are also on strike. Attempts by the bosses and government to sow community divisions are answered by the slogan emblazoned on a poster of the strikers: "Votre prénom est Wallon ou Flamand. Mais votre nom de famille est ouvrier " (Your first name is Walloon or Flemish. Your surname is a worker.)
By this date there are an estimated 150,000 strikers across the country.
[www.lcr-lagauche.be/cm/index.php?view=article&id=606:la-greve-de-1936-en-belgique&option=com_content&Itemid=53
romaincourcelles.wordpress.com/2011/07/09/belgique-dans-solidaire-comment-les-travailleurs-belges-ont-fo-nde-la-securite-sociale/
deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/50989/215.pdf;jsessionid=D3720CF399E8FCE653807B8C873C5DAF?sequence=1
solidaire.org/articles/1936-les-travailleurs-la-conquete-du-temps
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_strikes_in_Belgium
nvdatabase.swarthmore.edu/content/belgian-workers-strike-minimum-wage-paid-vacations-40-hour-work-week-and-union-rights-1936
www.larevuetoudi.org/en/story/belgian-walloon-general-strikes
mocliege.be/IMG/pdf/reg059_dossier.pdf
www.skynet.be/actu-sports/dossier/1621328/les-plus-grandes-greves-de-l-histoire-en-belgique/1621331/2-juin-1936]

1942 - Vera Nikolayevna Figner (Ве́ра Никола́евна Фи́гнер; b. 1852), Russian revolutionary, Bakuninist socialist, poet and memoirist, who plotted to blow up the Tsar and later directed the Kropotkin Museum, dies in Moscow at age 89. [see: Jul. 7]

1943 - Jules Dumont (b. 1888), French Communist militant, who fought in the Spanish Civil War and in the Résistance during WWII, is shot by the Germans at the Fort du Mont-Valérien, Suresnes, near Paris. [see: Jan. 1]

1952 - Maria Krystyna Janina Skarbek aka Christine Granville (b. 1908), Polish agent of the British Special Operations Executive, who fought in poland and France, is stabbed to death by Dennis Muldowney, a man whose advances she had rejected. He was convicted of her murder and hanged in HMP Pentonville on September 30, 1952. [see: May 1]

1966 - End of three days of Dutch Provo rioting, Amsterdam.

1968 - As part of their campus-wide medical struggle (izen gakutō), medical students occupy Yasuda Hall clock tower, the hub of the university, the administrative heart, containing the office of the University President as well as the main auditorium.
[ses.library.usyd.edu.au/bitstream/2123/2443/8/08chapter6.pdf]

1970 - José Sobral de Almada Negreiros (b. 1893), leading Portuguese modernist artist, poet, novelist, futurist and Marxist individualist, dies. [see: Apr. 7]

1971 - RAF members Ulrike Meinhof and Gerhard Müller are arrested in an apartment in Hanover.

1974 - Sara Bard Field (b. 1882), American poet, pacifist, suffragist, Christian socialist and anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Sep. 1]

[A] 1974 - Kevin Gately (b. 1953), a Warwick University student, is killed by a blow from a mounted policeman's baton during an anti-National Front demonstration in Red Lion Square, London. [see below]

[C] 1974 - As part of their 'Stop the Asian Invasion' campaign, the NF holds a 'Send Them Back' march in London which is planned to culminate in a rally at Conway Hall in Red lion Square. Opposition was organised by the London Area Council of Liberation (formerly the Movement for Colonial Freedom) in the form of a counter-demonstration supported by the IMG, IS, CPGB and various anti-fascist and anarchist groups. The counter-demonstration assembled on the Embankment and marched to Red Lion Square without incident. They planned to hold an open-air meeting on the north side of the Square, away from Conway Hall. However, the IMG had planned a mass picket at the main entrance of the hall, thereby denying the NF access and, when their part of the march reached the police cordon blocking off access to the front of the Hall, the IMG tried to break through the cordon. pushing and scuffling followed. There were several charges and counter-charges. Special Patrol Group and mounted police reiforced the cordon and, after an order to disperse was ignored, the police charged the crowd.
It was during this charge that Kevin Gately (b. 1953), a Warwick University student on his very first demonstration, was struck by a blow from a mounted policeman's baton that resulted in a cerebral haemorrhage, from which he later died in University College Hospital. Kevin was not a member of any political group but had joined the IMG section of the march as many of the Warwick University contingent were IMG members and photos of the demonstration show him appearing to try and flee the fighting.
The police then forcibly cleared all remaining demonstrators from the Square just in time for the arrival of the NF march. The two sides were kept apart by a police cordon and, after a few minutes, the counter-demonstrators gathered at the junction of Vernon Place and Southampton Row were charged by mounted police from the direction of the Square. They and police on foot indiscriminately truncheoned the crowd, who were effectively trapped between 2 police lines. While this was happening, the National Front were allowed to enter Red Lion Square and go into Conway Hall. Events that day exposed deep divisions on the Left on the 'correct' tactics that should be used in countering the fascists.
Further clashes between police and anti-fascist demonstrators occurred throughout the day, with the end result being that one person died, 46 policemen and at least 12 demonstrators were injured, 51 people arrested and the whole police operation had cost an estimated £15,000. In the ensuing Scarman Inquiry into Gately's death, the tribunal would largely absolved the police of any wrongdoing.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death_of_Kevin_Gately
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_Lion_Square_disorders
hatfulofhistory.wordpress.com/2013/06/15/red-lion-square-and-the-death-of-kevin-gately/
www.academia.edu/197826/A_Bulwark_Diminished_The_Communist_Party_the_SWP_and_Anti-Fascism_in_the_1970s
antifascistarchive.org/tag/international-marxist-group/
news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/june/15/newsid_2512000/2512725.stm
www.theguardian.com/theguardian/2010/jun/17/archive-dead-student-fell-under-the-crowd-1974
afaarchive.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/a-bulwark-diminished.pdf]

1981 - Andrew Brons, NF Chairman, is ambushed by anti-fascists as he is on his way to work at Harrogate College of Further Education, where he is a lecturer in government and politics.
[afaarchive.files.wordpress.com/2012/02/heroes-or-villains.pdf]

1984 - U.K. Miners' Strike: Joe Green, an underground worker from Kellingley Colliery, is struck by a lorry trailer and killed on the picket outside Ferrybridge A Power Station whilst trying to dissuade lorries from delivering fuel.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Orgreave
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UK_miners'_strike_(1984–85)]

[F] 1990 - Janitors for Justice Strike: During a strike against International Service Systems that had begun on May 29, janitors in Los Angeles are brutally beaten by police during a peaceful demonstration in the Century City district. The incident generated public outrage and the janitors subsequently won their first union contract. The Justice for Janitors campaign has helped hundreds of thousands of janitors in cities across the country raise industry standards and transform poverty wages into livable wages.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Justice_for_Janitors
nvdatabase.swarthmore.edu/content/los-angleles-justice-janitors-campaign-economic-justice-century-city-1989-1990
socialjusticehistory.org/projects/justiceforjanitors/timeline]

2001 - Large-scale riot in Kungsportsavenyn during the Goteburg EU Summit. Later that day, police fire shots during Reclaim the Streets at Vasaplatsen, critically injuring a rioter.

[B] 2003 - Enrico Baj (b. 1924), Italian anarchist painter, sculptor, writer and activist, best known for his collages of ridiculous-looking generals made from shards of glass, scraps of flowery material and shells, dies aged 79. [see: Oct. 31]

2015 - Magdalena Cäcilia Kopp (b. 1948), German photographer, member of the Frankfurt Revolutionären Zellen (Revolutionary Cells) and partner of Ilich Ramírez Sánchez aka 'Carlos the Jackal', dies. [see: Apr. 2]
16
[F] June 16 - International Domestic Workers Day
Marks the adoption of the International Labour Organisation Convention No. 189 on Decent Work for Domestic Workers on June 16, 2011. The convention establishes the first global standards for the estimated 50-100 million domestic workers worldwide, the vast majority of whom are women and girls.
[www.idwfed.org/en/campaigns/ratify-c189/june-16-international-domestic-workers-day
www.hrw.org/news/2016/06/16/international-domestic-workers-day-turn-rights-reality]

1381 - Peasants' Revolt: Thomas de la Mare is forced to surrender St Albans abbey's rights in a charter. The revolt against the abbey spread out over the next few days, with abbey property and financial records being destroyed across the county.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peasants'_Revolt]

1827 - Élie Reclus (Jean-Pierre Michel Reclus; d. 1904), anthropologist, journalist and militant anarchist. Participated in the Commune of Paris in 1871, born. Member of the great generational anarchist family, including Élisée Reclus and Paul Reclus.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Élie_Reclus
dwardmac.pitzer.edu/Anarchist_Archives/bright/reclus/ishill/ishill46-50.html
www.saintefoylagrandehistoire.com/galeries/oeuvre.php?val=137_18_elie+reclus+1827-1904]

1836 - The London Working Men's Association is formed, beginning of the Chartist movement.

1869 - In the small French mining town of Ricamarie troops are called in to suppress a workers' strike. They open fire on demonstrators protesting the arrest of 40 workers, killing 14 (including a 17-month-old girl in her mothers arms) and wound about 60 (including 10 children).

1870 - Louis Segaud (d. unknown), French anarchist, member of Les Révoltés and correspondent for Émile Pouget's 'Père Peinard', born. Persecuted for his activities, in 1891 he took refuge in Luxembourg and England to avoid conscription, returning in 1903 to head the Syndicat des Ouvriers Couvreurs (Roofers Union) in Roanne.

1883 - The first issue of the Czech language anarchist newspaper 'Budoucnost' (The Future) is published in Chicago. It will be banned by the authorities in May 1886 during the repression that followed the Haymarket incident.

1894 - In Rome the anarchist Paolo Lega attempts to shoot the Italian prime minister, Francesco Crispi. Upon his first shot the pistol refuses to fire. The second shot misses and Lega is arrested. At his trial on July 19, 1894, he is sentenced to 20 years and 17 days in prison. [see: Dec. 9]

1903 - Lucien Bernizet (d. 1992), French militant anarchist, pacifist and Mason, born. Secretary of the Romans (Drôme) libertarian group and treasurer of the local Bourse du Travail. [expand]
[militants-anarchistes.info/spip.php?article2063
anarcoefemerides.balearweb.net/post/110280]

[B] 1904 - James Joyce meets Nora Barnacle, a chambermaid at Finn's Hotel, Dublin, and takes her for a walk. This is the day (Bloomsday) of Leopold Bloom's fictional odyssey through Dublin in Ulysses.

1905 - [O.S. Jun. 3] Ivanovo Soviet [Иваново-Вознесенский Депутатов] / Russian Revolution of 1905-07: In defiance of the order banning meetings by the River Talka (Реки Талка), 3,000 workers gather for a meeting at which 2 Cossacks order them to disperse. The workers refuse. Half an hour later a group of soldiers and Cossacks headed by the police chief Kozhelovsky (Кожеловский) arrived, ready to attack the workers, who responded by throwing stones. The troops retreated to nearby trees and opened fire, forcing the workers to flee. Those that did not manage to flee were beaten by the soldiers and Cossacks, who did not distinguish between men and women. 20 people were arrested there. News of the beatings brought thousands of people out onto the streets. Clashes broke out with the police and workers start sabotaging telephone wires and burnt down a mill and the police chief's house. 80 people were arrested and many were injured, some fatally (some sources claim 28 women and children are killed during this and further clashes).
[ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Иваново-Вознесенский_общегородской_совет_рабочих_депутатов
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Иваново-Вознесенские_стачки
wiki.ivanovoweb.ru/index.php/Первый_общегородской_Совет_рабочих_депутатов
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revolution_of_1905#Ivanovo_Soviet
libcom.org/library/soviets-their-origin-development-functions-andreu-nin
www.johndclare.net/Rempel_Soviet.htm
en.internationalism.org/ir/123_1905
cnparm.home.texas.net/Nat/Rus/Rus02.htm]

1907 - Italian anarchists meet in congress in Rome (16-20).

1909 - The first issue of the fortnightly anarcho-syndicalist newspaper 'Nueva Aurora' (New Dawn), "Organo de las Sociedades Obreras", is published in Malaga.

1913 - Emma Goldman begins a lecture tour (June 16-July 9) in Los Angeles on anarchism and modern drama. General lecture topics include 'Friedrich Nietzsche, the Anti-Governmentalist', 'The Social Evil', and 'The Child and Its Enemies: The Revolutionary Developments in Modern Education'. Dramatists discussed include Henrik Ibsen, Hermann Sudermann, Otto Hartleben, J. M. Synge, William Butler Yeats, Lady Isabella Gregory, Lennox Robinson, Thomas C. Murray, and E. N. Chirikov.

1917 - Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman plead not guilty on conspiracy charges; bail set at $25,000 each. Emma Goldman disappointed by Ben Reitman's failure to return to New York to support their pending trial.

1921 - The first issue of the fortnightly magazine 'Pagine Libertarie' is published in Milan.

[A] 1923 - In Buenos Aires the anarchist Kurt Gustav Wilckens is shot in his cell by a fanatical right-wing prison guard. He dies the following day and, despite government attempts to cover up the crime, a countrywide General Strike is called in protest.

1929 - Ronald Creagh, Anglo-French historian of the American anarchist movement, born. Author of 'Histoire de l'Anarchisme aux USA' (1981), 'Laboratoires de l'Utopie: Les Communautés Libertaires aux Etats Unis' (Laboratory of Utopia, Libertarian Communities in the United States; 1983), 'Sacco et Vanzetti' (1984), 'Terrorisme: Entre Spectacle et Sacré, Éléments pour un Débat' (Terrorism: Between Spectacle and Sacred, Elements for a Debate; 2001), 'Utopies Américaines - Expériences Libertaires du XIXe Siècle à Nos Jours' (American Utopias, Libertarians Experience of the Nineteenth Century to the Present Day; 2009), etc.
[raforum.info/article.php3?id_article=1579&var_recherche=Creagh]

1936 - Grèves en Alsace: At 09:00 workers at Kiener, a large textile company in Colmar employing 1,100 workers, also go out on strike. A banner declaring " Pain, paix, bonheur et liberté" appears as do a number of red flag. The strikers occupy the factory day and night until an agreement is reached on June 24.
[www.chrono-france.com/france.php?langue=&motclef=&&debut=45383
fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grèves_de_mai-juin_1936_en_Alsace
www.calixo.net/~knarf/fructus/greve/greve.htm]

1936 - Grève Générale en Belgique: There are now 250,000 workers on strike and the repression against them is increasingly heavy. In Quaregnon, the gendarmerie fired for half an hour on strikers who gathered in the union offices.
The strike continued to spread, and became practically general in the Liège region.
[www.lcr-lagauche.be/cm/index.php?view=article&id=606:la-greve-de-1936-en-belgique&option=com_content&Itemid=53
romaincourcelles.wordpress.com/2011/07/09/belgique-dans-solidaire-comment-les-travailleurs-belges-ont-fo-nde-la-securite-sociale/
deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/50989/215.pdf;jsessionid=D3720CF399E8FCE653807B8C873C5DAF?sequence=1
solidaire.org/articles/1936-les-travailleurs-la-conquete-du-temps
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_strikes_in_Belgium
nvdatabase.swarthmore.edu/content/belgian-workers-strike-minimum-wage-paid-vacations-40-hour-work-week-and-union-rights-1936
www.larevuetoudi.org/en/story/belgian-walloon-general-strikes
mocliege.be/IMG/pdf/reg059_dossier.pdf
www.skynet.be/actu-sports/dossier/1621328/les-plus-grandes-greves-de-l-histoire-en-belgique/1621331/2-juin-1936]

1937 - In Spain members of the POUM Executive Committee and foreign activists are rounded up. POUM is outlawed and its militants persecuted by the Stalinists and the Republic's police.

1938 - Anastasia Alekseevna Bitsenko (Анастасии Алексеевна Биценко; b. 1875), prominent Russian revolutionary, is shot by a firing squad, having been found guilty of belonging to a S-R terrorist organisation. [see: Nov. 10]

[E] 1944 - Liliana Delfino, aka 'La Alemana', Argentine psychologist, member of the PRT-El Combatiente and an Ejército Revolucionario del Pueblo (People 's Revolutionary Army) guerrilla, who was kidnapped on July 19, 1976 in the town of Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires and 'disappeared', born. Like Ana Maria Lanzilotto [see: Apr. 22] who was one of the three people (plus Delfino's two children) who detained with her, she was six months pregnant at the time and it is believed that Delfino was taken to clandestine El Campito detention centre called located inside the military garrison of Campo de Mayo, where she would have given birth. After the delivery, she would have been transferred to the concentration camp called Vesuvius, which was located in the town of Ciudad Evita and was used by the Army to hold, torture and dispatch the disappeared.
[es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liliana_Marta_Delfino]

1955 - Navy and Air Force fighters bombed Plaza de Mayo, wounding or killing several hundreds of civilians. In retaliation, extremist Peronist groups attacked and burned several churches that night, allegedly instigated by Vice-President Alberto Teisaire.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bombing_of_Plaza_de_Mayo]

[C] 1960 - Francis Parker Yockey (b. 1917), US fascist, devotee of Oswald Spengler and international conspirator, commits suicide by swallowing cyanide whilst in jail in San Francisco under FBI supervision, after having been arrested on charges of using false passports.

1968 - Paris police clear the Sorbonne of some 200 occupying students.

1969 - Marie Mayoux (aka Joséphine Bourgon; b. 1878), French teacher, militant syndicalist, pacifist and anarchist, dies. [see: Apr. 24]
[www.ephemanar.net/juin16.html#16
autogestionacrata.blogspot.co.uk/2012/09/marie-y-francois-mayoux.html
recollectionbooks.com/bleed/Encyclopedia/MayouxMarie.htm]

1970 - Elsa Yur'evna Triolet (born Ella Kagan; b. 1896), Russian-born French writer, one-time Futurist, Surrealist muse, communist and Resistance fighter, dies. [see: Sep. 12]

1972 - Ulrike Meinhof is captured by West German police.

[D] 1976 - Student uprising in Soweto. [expand]
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soweto_uprising
www.sahistory.org.za/topic/june-16-soweto-youth-uprising
libcom.org/history/1976-the-soweto-riots]

1986 - In South Africa, and despite arrests, millions stay home in a black trade union strike on the 10th anniversary of the Soweto uprising.

1995 - Ramón Domingo (b. 1901), Spanish anarchist propagandist and Civil War combattant, dies. [see: Aug. 31]

2001 - Heavily armed anti-terrorist police brutalise a hundred young protesters at the Schillerska Grammar School in Goteburg, under the pretext of a 'terrorist alert', forcing them to lay face-down on the ground for several hours.

2010 - Wayne Hamilton, aged 24, was found dead in a Sheffield canal. He had been reported missing by his worried family on June 11 when a friend rang them to say the last time he had seen Wayne he was running off with police officers chasing him the day before (10th).

2012 - 13 prisoners die from smoke inhalation at Sanliurfa prison in south-east Turkey after inmates set fire to their bedding in protest at poor conditions.

2013 - Berkin Elvan, a 14-year-old Turkish boy is hit in the head by a police tear-gas canister during the Gezi Park anti-government demonstrations as he goes out to buy bread for his family. He laspes into a coma and dies 269 days later.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2013_protests_in_Turkey]
17
1381 - Peasants' Revolt: In Norfolk, the revolt was led by Geoffrey Litster, a weaver, and Sir Roger Bacon, a local lord with ties to the Suffolk rebels. Litster began sending out messengers across the county in a call to arms on June 14, and isolated outbreaks of violence occurred.
The rebels assembled outside Norwich on June 17 and killed Sir Robert Salle, who was in charge of the city defences and had attempted to negotiate a settlement. The people of the town then opened the gates to let the rebels in, where they began looting buildings and killed Reginald Eccles, a local official. William de Ufford, the Earl of Suffolk fled his estates and travelled in disguise to London. The other leading members of the local gentry were captured and forced to play out the roles of a royal household, working for Litster. Violence spread out across the county, as gaols were opened, Flemish immigrants killed, court records burned, and property looted and destroyed.
As news of the initial events in London also reach York, attacks break out on the properties of the Dominican friars, the Franciscan friaries and other religious institutions. The violence continued over the coming weeks, and on July 1 a group of armed men, under the command of John de Gisbourne, forced their way into the city and attempted to seize control. The mayor, Simon de Quixlay, gradually began to reclaim authority, but order was not properly restored until 1382. 
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peasants'_Revolt]

[1812 - Food riot at Horbury, West Yorkshire
[ludditebicentenary.blogspot.co.uk/2012/06/17th-june-1812-food-riot-at-horbury.html]

1851* - [N.S. Jun 29] Elizaveta Nikolayevna Kovalskaya (Елизавета Николаевна Ковальская; d. 1943), Russian revolutionary, member of the Tchaikovsky (чайковцы) circle, Zemlya i Volya (Land and Liberty) and a founding member of Black Repartition (Чёрный передел), born. [see: Jun. 29]
[* NB. Some sources give the year as 1849.]

[E] 1856 - Nannie Florence Dryhurst (Hannah Ann Robinson; d. 1930), Irish school governess, teacher, translator, anarchist communist and atheist, born in Dublin. Following her marriage, she moved to London, where she taught at the International School, the anarchist free school set up at 19 Fitzroy Square in the early 1890s by the French anarchist and Communard Louise Michel, and became involved in the Freedom group, becoming a close friend of Charlotte Wilsonand Peter Kropotkin. A French, German, and Irish Gaelic speaker, she used her language skills to translate article for 'Freedom' (also becoming its editor for a short period) and translated Kropotkin’s book 'The Great French Revolution' into English. Her articles regulalry appeared in both the anarchist and irish press under the penname N.F. Dryhurst.
[libcom.org/history/dryhurst-nannie-florence-1856-1930]

1876 - Bologna anarchist trial ends. Malatesta and six others acquitted.

1905 - [O.S. Jun. 4] Ivanovo Soviet [Иваново-Вознесенский Депутатов] / Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Following yesterday's clashes, angry gatherings of workers take place across Ivanovo-Voznesensk (Иваново-Вознесенский). Protest letter are submitted to the governor who givers the workers permission to hold two rallies on the banks of the River Talka (Реки Талка). The attempt to use force has been counter-productive, and the strike is even stronger.
[ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Иваново-Вознесенский_общегородской_совет_рабочих_депутатов
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Иваново-Вознесенские_стачки
wiki.ivanovoweb.ru/index.php/Первый_общегородской_Совет_рабочих_депутатов
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revolution_of_1905#Ivanovo_Soviet
libcom.org/library/soviets-their-origin-development-functions-andreu-nin
www.johndclare.net/Rempel_Soviet.htm
en.internationalism.org/ir/123_1905
cnparm.home.texas.net/Nat/Rus/Rus02.htm]

1906 - Alexander Berkman released from prison for attempted murder of Henry Clay Frick. Emma Goldman and others address a crowd of 2,000 people who gather to greet Berkman.

[F] 1921 - Evelio Boal, Secretary General of the CNT, assassinated (ley de fugas) by the government. Part of the bloody repression of the anarcho-syndicalist union in the early 1920s, large numbers of cenetista leaders being jailed and/or assassinated.

1921 - The anarcho-syndicalist Salvador Sala Salsench attempts to assassinate Antonio Martínez Domingo, the mayor of Barcelona, in the Plaça St Jaume. The plan had been for a group of cenetistas to attack Severiano Martínez Anido, the Governor of Barcelona and the promoter of the ley de fugas, but he failed to show.

1923 - In Argentina Kurt Wilckens (b. 1886) dies after being shot in his prison cell yesterday by a rightwing guard. German anarchist, member of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), he was responsible for the attack on Varela (known as the 'Killer of Patagonia'). [see: Nov. 3]

[EE] 1926 - Eve Adams (or Addams) aka Eva Kotchever (Chava Zlocower; 1891 - 1943), a Polish-American Jew, lesbian and anarchist, is arrested in the lesbian speakeasy and tea room, Eve’s Hangout (it had a sign on the door that announced: "Men are admitted, but not welcome"), that she ran with her partner Ruth Norlander at 129 MacDougal Street in Greenwich Village. Friends of Emma Goldman, the couple had also previously run a gay-friendly anarchist café in Chicago called The Gray Cottage.
Eve's crime? Showing an undercover female police officer a collection of short stories she was writing called 'Lesbian Love'. Arrested as part of a mid-1920’s police crackdown on gay and lesbian clubs in the Village, Eve was charges with 'disorderly conduct' for allegedly making homosexual advances toward the officer, and her manuscript along with twelve other 'objectionable' books in her possession were seized as obscene material. Eve was sentenced to a year in the workhouse and was deported France in December 1926. There she ran a lesbian nightclub in Montmartre and later sold queer literature and porn to make ends meet, befriending Henry Miller and Anaiis Nin along the way. She later moved to Spain during the Civil War and, upon her subsequent return to France, studied at the Sorbonne. Rounded-up as a Jew, on December 17, 1943, Eve was deported from Drancy to Auchwitz where she was murdered.
[www.politicalscience.hawaii.edu/emmagoldman/
kheldara.tumblr.com/post/80492303736/so-can-we-talk-about-eve-addams-aka-the-next-queer
lostwomynsspace.blogspot.co.uk/2011_05_01_archive.html
gvshp.org/blog/2014/10/30/lgbtq-history-macdougal-street/]

1932 - Angelo Pellegrino Sbardellotto (b. 1907), Italian anarchist and antifascist, summarily tried and executed by a fascist firing squad, having admitted to the Fascist Special Tribunal (for the Defence of the State) his plan to assassinate Mussolini. His final words: "Viva Anarchia!" [see: Aug. 1]

1936 - Grèves en Alsace: A strike breaks out in the Alsace potash mines in the Wittelsheim region, with the occupation of two pits. The strike across the region continued until employers agreed to respect the Matignon Agreements and to negotiate collective agreements with their workers.
[www.chrono-france.com/france.php?langue=&motclef=&&debut=45383
fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grèves_de_mai-juin_1936_en_Alsace]

1936 - Grève Générale en Belgique: More than 400,000 workers are now on strike, with the textile factories of Ghent having stopped operating, followed by those of across Flanders.
In an attempt to end the general strike, the government called representatives of employers, syndicates and government together at the first Conférence nationale du travail (National Labour Conference), the first "tripartite consultation" in Belgian social history. In the end, the bosses, unions and government signed an agreement that guaranteed workers the introduction of the 40-hour week, an increase in the minimum wage and 6 days of annual paid leave.
[www.lcr-lagauche.be/cm/index.php?view=article&id=606:la-greve-de-1936-en-belgique&option=com_content&Itemid=53
romaincourcelles.wordpress.com/2011/07/09/belgique-dans-solidaire-comment-les-travailleurs-belges-ont-fo-nde-la-securite-sociale/
deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/50989/215.pdf;jsessionid=D3720CF399E8FCE653807B8C873C5DAF?sequence=1
solidaire.org/articles/1936-les-travailleurs-la-conquete-du-temps
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_strikes_in_Belgium
nvdatabase.swarthmore.edu/content/belgian-workers-strike-minimum-wage-paid-vacations-40-hour-work-week-and-union-rights-1936
www.larevuetoudi.org/en/story/belgian-walloon-general-strikes
mocliege.be/IMG/pdf/reg059_dossier.pdf
www.skynet.be/actu-sports/dossier/1621328/les-plus-grandes-greves-de-l-histoire-en-belgique/1621331/2-juin-1936]

1937 - The Austrian anarchist Katia (or Katja) Landau (Julia Lipschutz; 1895 or 1905 - unknown) is amongst those POUM members arrested by the NKVD in the post-May Days crackdown on the opponents of the Stalinisation of the Revolution, including those amongst the anarchists and left communists opposing the militarisation of the militia. Prominent amongst them is Katia's partner, the prominent Austrian Marxist Kurt Landau, whom they hope to lure out of hiding - he was given refuge in the Barcelona CNT headquarters, secured for him by Augustin Souchy. Katia and the other POUM members were brutally tortured and attempts made to force them to sign various forms of confessions (being foreign agents, counter-revolutionaries, etc.).
On September 23, 1937, Kurt Landau was discovered hiding in the house of a POUM comrade, Carlotta Duran, and disappeared. In prison Katia Landau's prolonged attempts to gain news about the fate of her 'disappeared' husband fall on deaf ears and on November 8 she is forced to resort to a hunger strike. 500 other women, mostly Germans, in Barcelona's Carcel de Mujeres with her, mount hunger strike in solidarity. A visit to the prison by an international commissions of enquiry into the situation in the state prisons, the circumstances in which several foreign representatives of worker’s organisations, including Erwin Wolf, Marc Rhein and Kurt Landau, had disappeared, as well as the disappearance of Andrés Nin, was greeted by the singing of the 'Internationale' by hundreds of women prisoners – all "Fascist agents" according to the Stalinists.
[www.nodo50.org/despage/not_prensa/opinion/pepe_gutierrez/Katia Landau/katia_landau.htm
old.kaosenlared.net/noticia/kurt-katia-landau-historia-para-no-olvidar
de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurt_Landau_(Politiker)
chsprod.hypotheses.org/espagne-poum
www.matierevolution.fr/spip.php?article1353
spanjestrijders.nl/bio/schoonheyt-fanny
www.marxists.org/history/etol/document/spain/spain08.htm
www.marxists.org/history/etol/document/spain/spain09.htm
theanarchistlibrary.org/library/emma-goldman-political-persecution-in-republican-spain
www.marxists.org/archive/broue/1988/xx/landau.html
www.marxists.org/history/etol/revhist/backiss/vol4/no1-2/schafra.htm]

1939 - Eugene Weldman is the last person to be guillotined in France.

[CC] 1939 - Voyage of the Damned: The MS St. Louis, carrying 915 refugees seeking asylum from Nazi persecution in Germany, docks at Antwerp, Belgium, after negotiations between US, British and European officials, which resulted in the UK agreeing to take 288 of the passengers and, eventually after much negotiation by the St. Louis' captain, Gustav Schröder, the remaining 619 passengers were allowed to disembark at Antwerp, with 224 being accepted by France, 214 by Belgium, and 181 by the Netherlands. Many of these 619 inevitably ended up in the Nazi death camps. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum research found that only 87 managed to emigrate before the Nazis invaded the countries accepting them, 254 died in the camps (mostly in Auschwitz and Sobibór) and 365 survived the war.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MS_St._Louis
www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/stlouis.html]

1943 - Fritz Teufel (d. 2010), West Berlin Communard, political activist, author and active participant in the West German anti-authoritarian student movement in the 1960s, born.
With Dieter Kunzelmann and Rainer Langhans, he was one of the founders of Kommune 1 which directed its activities against the prevailing social conditions and, mainly due to these deliberately provocative actions, attracted worldwide attention. He was also a leading member of the Bewegung 2. Juni (2nd June Movement). [expand]
[de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fritz_Teufel
www.dadaweb.de/wiki/Fritz_Teufel_-_Gedenkseite
www.faz.net/aktuell/feuilleton/zum-tod-von-fritz-teufel-die-spaesse-die-ihr-kennt-11009216.html
www.independent.co.uk/news/obituaries/fritz-teufel-german-radical-who-helped-to-establish-the-fun-guerrilla-movement-2042354.html
www.spiegel.de/kultur/literatur/anarchisten-der-clown-mit-der-schrotflinte-a-281705.html
www.spiegel.de/spiegel/print/d-13530933.html]

1945 - Luigi Francesco Giovanni Parmeggiani aka Louis Marcy (d. 1945), Italian anarchist individualist expropriator, one-time apprentice typographer, shoemaker, and latterly a journalist, publisher, antiques dealer and forger of medieval and Renaissance caskets, jewellery and reliquaries, dies. [see: Apr. 2]

[A/D] 1953 - A workers Uprising in East Berlin and Leipzig sparks revolt all over East Germany; workers strike for democracy; revolutionary currents oppose Russian imperialism; USSR invades, sending in tanks "to restore law and order".
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uprising_of_1953_in_East_Germany
libcom.org/history/workers-resistance-demise-east-germany-jeffrey-kopstein
libcom.org/library/1953-working-class-uprising-east-germany-cajo-brendel
www.leftcom.org/en/articles/2013-07-05/remembering-the-workers’-rising-in-east-germany-1953
www.opendemocracy.net/node/1325
adst.org/2013/06/the-east-berlin-uprising-june-16-17-1953/]

1955 - Ida Aalle-Teljo (Ida Sofia Ahlstedt; b. 1875), Finnish baker, seamstress, socialist, feminist and MP, dies. [see: May 6]

[B] 1958 - Jello Biafra (Eric Reed Boucher), American hardcore musician, spoken words artist, political activist and former lead singer and songwriter for San Francisco punk rock band Dead Kennedys, born. A self-declared anarchist who sees no contradictions in working with the Green Party.
[lexikon.freenet.de/Jello_Biafra
en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Jello_Biafra]

1963 - John Cowper Powys (b. 1872), Welsh novelist, essayist, poet and individualist anarchist, dies. [see: Oct. 8]

1968 - Riot police force Tokyo University medical students occupying the Yasuda Hall clock tower out. [see: Jun. 15]
[ses.library.usyd.edu.au/bitstream/2123/2443/8/08chapter6.pdf]

1968 - Aleksei Eliseevich Kruchenykh (Russian: Алексе́й Елисе́евич Кручёных) (b. 1886), Russian Cubo-Futurist or zaum (‘transrational language') poet, critic and anarchist, dies. [see: Feb. 21]

1972 - Five people are arrested during the fourth attempted break-in at the Democratic Party headquarters in the Watergate complex, Washington DC.

[C] 1981 - Icchak Cukierma aka 'Antek' (b. 1915), Polish Jewish socialist member of Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa (ŻOB; Jewish Combat Organization), who was one of the leaders of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising 1943 and a fighter in the Warsaw Uprising 1944, dies. [see: Dec. 13]

[AA] 2011 - Venezuelan authorities manage to retake El Rodeo I, leaving 2 soldiers dead and more than 18 injured. Attempts to search the smaller El Rodeo II for contraband weapons are resisted by the 1,300 prisoners housed there and a stand-off ensues between soldiers with assault rifles and tanks and the armed prisoners.
18
1849 - Palatine Uprising: Following the Battle of Ludwigshafen on June 15th and the Battle of Rinnthal two days later, the Palatine revolutionary army retreats over the Knielingen Rhine bridge towards Baden. Fighting on Palatine soil is practically over, as the revolutionary army's rearguard, the Willich Freikorps, follows it on June 19th.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palatine_uprising
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revolutions_of_1848_in_the_German_states]

1853 - [N.S. Jun. 30] Olga Spiridonovna Lyubatovich (Ольга Спиридоновна Любатович) aka 'Shaeek' (Акула), Olga Doroshenko (Ольга Дорошенко), (Maria Svyatskaya) Мария Святская (d. 1917), Russian anarchist-influenced revolutionary, narodnitsa and member of the Executive Committee of Narodnaya Volya (Земля и воля / People's Will), born. [see: Jun. 30]

[E] 1858 - Lakshmibai, the Rani of Jhansi (Manikarnika; b. 1828), queen of the Maratha-ruled Jhansi State in north-central India and military leader during India’s First War of Independence, whose death in battle is the subject of many heroic legends, is killed in battle at Kotah-ki-Serai as she leads a large Indian force against the 8th (King's Royal Irish) Hussars. Various versions of her demise exist, including one that says that Lakshmibai put on a sowar's uniform and attacked one of the hussars, was wounded and later dispatched by the same soldiers as she shot at him. Another has her dressed as a cavalry leader being badly wounded and, not wishing the British to capture her body, telling a hermit to burn it; or being shot on the ramparts of Gwalior Fort. [see: Nov. 19]

[F] 1870 - Primer Congreso Obrero Español: At the Congreso Obrero de Barcelona at the Teatro Circo de Barcelona attended by 89 delegates, 74 of them from various Catalan workers' societies, representing 15,000 members, the Federación Regional Española of the AIT (FRE de la AIT) is founded.
[es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federación_Regional_Española_de_la_AIT
es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congreso_Obrero_de_Barcelona_de_1870
brevehistoriadelmovimientoanarquista.blogspot.co.uk/2013/01/primer-congreso-obrero-espanol.html
brevehistoriadelmovimientoanarquista.blogspot.co.uk/2012/09/1868-1870-los-primeros-anos.html
brevehistoriadelmovimientoanarquista.blogspot.co.uk/2012/09/1870-1873-la-fre-de-la-ait-del-congreso.html
www.rojoynegro.info/sites/default/files/El anarcosindicalismo y sus Congresos.Completo.pdf
madrid.cnt.es/historia/la-federacion-regional-espanola/]

1873 - Marie Julienne Capderoque aka Marion Bachmann (d. unkown), French milliner, syndicalist, feminist and anarchist, born. In 1893 Capderoque founded the Comité d'Études des Femmes Socialistes Révolutionnaires.
[militants-anarchistes.info/spip.php?article7833
www.estelnegre.org/anarcoefemerides/1806.html]

1882 - La Bande Noire: At the beginning of 1882, the Montcellian workers' world was in turmoil following the great strike of Roanne in March 1882. Indeed, at the end of this one, a young worker, Fournier, had shot at his boss . This event, glorified by the anarchist press, is considered by the libertarians as the first authentic act of "propaganda by the fact" in France. It is in this context that the Bande Noire takes action against the religious and political oppression of the Chagots, the owners of the local mines, who stood at the head of the oppressive semi-fuedal paternalism of "le système Chagot". From June 1882, the Bandes Noire's main target would be the privileged auxiliary of the Chagots: the local clergy.
The first attack takes place during the night of June 17-18, when altars prepared for a religious procession are thrown into a local pond.
[fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/La_Bande_noire_(Montceau-les-Mines)
fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Montceau-les-mines
revuesshs.u-bourgogne.fr/dissidences/document.php?id=1838&format=print
raforum.info/dissertations/spip.php?rubrique71]

1892 - The first issue of the fortnightly newspaper 'Solidarity' is published in New York.

[D] 1905 - [N.S. Jul. 1] Łódź Insurrection [Powstanie Łódzkie] / June Days [Dni Czerwca]: Cossacks attacked several thousand workers returning from a demonstration in the Łagiewniki forest (Lesie Łagiewnickim) as they march between the chapel of St. Anthony toward Bałucki Market Square (Bałuckiego Rynku) in Łódź. Around 10 people are killed.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Łódź_insurrection_(1905)
pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Powstanie_łódzkie
wolnemedia.net/historia/powstanie-lodzkie-1905-roku/
rewolucja1905.pl/tagi/powstanie-lodzkie/]

1906 - [O.S. Jun. 5] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Fifty Jews are killed in a pogrom at Staroselts, near Grodno.
[cnparm.home.texas.net/Nat/Rus/Rus04.htm
www.museumoffamilyhistory.com/ajc-yb-v08-pogroms.htm]

1912 - Railwayman Fred Crowsley is tried at the Hampshire Assizes for distributing copies of the 'Open Letter to British Soldiers' that he had reprinted as a leaflet at his own expense and personally distributed copies to soldiers at Aldershot, Hyde Park Comer and Hounslow barracks. He was found guilty and sentenced to four months imprisonment with hard labour, subsequently reduced to two months without hard labour. [see: Mar. 19]

1913 - Stanisław Marusarz (d. 1993), Polish Nordic skiing competitor in the 1930s, born. After the German attack on Poland in 1939, he joined the Armia Krajowa (AK; Home Army) and fought for Poland's independence until 1940, when he was captured and, having refused to cooperate with the occupiers, who proposed him a job as a coach, he was sentenced to death. However, Marusarz successfully escaped from a German prison and fled to Hungary, where he stayed until the end of the war.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stanisław_Marusarz
pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stanisław_Marusarz]

1917 - [Jul 1 N.S.] Kerensky Offensive and anti-Provisional Government demonstrations. [see: Jul. 1]

1921 - José Martínez Guerricabeitia (aka Felipe de Orero) (d. 1986), Spanish anarchist and founder of the Ruedo Ibérico (Iberian Circle) publishing house in 1961, born. Active in the Spanish underground 1945-1947.
[es.wikipedia.org/wiki/José_Martínez_Guerricabeitia
losdelasierra.info/spip.php?article4848
www.arteylibertad.org/articulo-212/martinez-guerricabeitia]

1923 - On Saturday June 16 in Buenos Aires the German-born anarchist Kurt Gustav Wilckens (b. 1886), the assassin of Lt. Colonel Héctor Varela, 'the butcher of Patagonia' (during the Patagonia Rebelde agricultural workers strike and insurrection in 1920 he had been responsible for the summary executions of more than 1500 strikers and ordinary workers), had been shot in his cell by a fanatical right-wing prison guard. He died the following day and, despite government attempts to cover up the crime, a countrywide General Strike was immediately called in protest by the Bonaerense Federación Obrera Local (FOL), which today paralyses Argentina. In Buenos Aires the protest demonstration in the Plaza Once turns into a shoot-out when police attempt to raid the local offices of the anarcho-syndicalist FORA (Federación Obrera Regional Argentina). Two workers are killed, 17 wounded (including the Spanish anarchist Enrique Gombas) and 163 arrested; one policeman is killed and three wounded. The widely distrusted Unión Sindical Argentina [formed by the FORA del IX Congreso (socialist and communist minority group that had split from the anarchist majority FORA del V Congreso in 1915) together with several smaller unions in 1922], which was held to have betrayed the workers during the Patagonia Rebelde and had belatedly announced its support for the general strike on June 18 (calling its members out the following day at 18:00!), but quickly withdrew that support under pressure from the bourgeois press and Partido Comunista de la Argentina, leaving the Bonaerense FOL and FORA to continue with the fight. However, on June 20, the FOL and FORA decided to call and end to the strike for 18:00 the following day.
[boletinlaovejanegra.blogspot.be/2016/06/memoria-la-huelga-solidaria-con-kurt.html
www.anarkismo.net/article/23727]

[FF] 1935 - Battle of Ballantyne Pier: In 1912 the International Longshoremen’s Association had begun organising amongst waterfront workers in Canada, and alongside the Lumber Handlers’ Union in Vancouver, going up against the employers association, the Shipping Federation, in a series of strikes won by the workers that resulted in wage increases. In 1923, with the Shipping Federation determined to break the power of the ILA, the employers association provoked a strike in October 1923, which saw 1400 men joining picket lines at the Vancouver waterfront. They were faced by 350 hired thugs armed with shotguns who had been housed on a ship Vancouver the harbour. Intimidated and unable to stop ships from being loaded and unloaded by numerous scabs who had also been drafted in, the strike collapsed within two months. The 1923 strike destroyed the ILA, and it was soon replaced the bosses' own tame union, the Vancouver and District Waterfront Workers' Association. However, the VDWWA soon began to take a confrontational stance towards the Shipping Federation. By 1935, nearly every port in British Columbia had been organised by the VDWWA and, following the template of the destruction of the ILA, the Shipping Federation provoked another major strike in the spring of 1935, locking out 50 casual dockers at the port at Powell River on May 16, 1935, after they had organised, demanded wage increases and better working conditions. On June 4, after longshoremen at Ballantyne pier refuse to load paper from Powell River on to the vessel Anten, the 900 workers on the Vancouver waterfront is locked out by four companies and the collective agreement is unilaterally terminated by the employer. Vancouver Mayor, Gerry McGeer declares that "longshoremen are communists". On June 15, all Canadian vessels are declared 'hot' and dockworkers refuse to handle them and dockers across the border in Seattle also refused to unload ships coming from Vancouver and Powell River that were manned by non-union workers.
Just after noon on June 18, 1935, about 1500 striking longshoremen and their supporters, mainly men, left the Longshore Union hall on East Hastings to peacefully march to Ballantyne Pier with the intention of 'talking down' the replacement workers that were working on the ships in the dock. In the past the Union had been somewhat successful in convincing the scabs of the error of their ways. The strikers had been locked out since June 4th, and the employers had taken on scabs that they had been busy recruiting for several months.
The employers' group, the Shipping Federation, along with the Vancouver Citizens League, the Local, Provincial and Federal Governments, the Vancouver Police, the Provincial Police and the RCMP, had a long-established plan in place to deal with the waterfront situation. Developed long before the Shipping Federation lock-out, it included the hiring of scabs, police specials, and the co-ordination of the military and the official police forces to break up any demonstrations that would occur. They were trained in the handling of tear gas, light weapons and even had machine guns ready for use. The Shipping Federation was also paying for full time police and private investigators from eight different companies to spy on longshoremen at work and in their meetings.
Organisers of the demonstration expected police would try and stop the march, and wanted to project an image of striking longshoremen as a respectable lot that included men like Michael James 'Mickey' O’Rourke VC who had fought during the Great War and now deserved a 'fair shake'. This was to counter the image painted by politicians and the fascist Citizens’ League of striking longshoremen as troublemakers and the dupes of Moscow.
Men, including many veterans from the First World War with medals pinned to their chests, walked, peacefully by all accounts, towards the Pier.
When the longshoremen and their supporters, many dressed in their Sunday-best and the WWI veterans with their medals pinned to their chests, arrived at Ballantyne Pier they were greeted by hundreds of city police, with Provincial police hiding behind boxcars with Thompson machine guns. RCMP officers carrying long batons, and mounted on horses, rounded out the heavies.
Tear gas was fired and the mounted police rode into the crowd of marchers, swinging long clubs. The police pursued the fleeing marchers through the surrounding streets, even riding up the steps of houses where women and children were gathered.
"1:20 p.m. Tear gas bombs were fired by Royal Canadian Mounted Police over the heads of the crowd, mounted city and Provincial police charged them at full gallop and foot police swung into action with batons this afternoon when thousands of longshore strikers and sympathisers tried to break through the guard and march onto Ballantyne Pier." ['The Vancouver Sun', March 18, 1935]
At day's end, over 100 marchers were treated in hospitals. Many others were injured but afraid to go to hospitals or doctors. At least two were shot. No one was killed.
In the end, the strike dragged on til December, when it was finally broken - the fifth time the employers had done so since 1909, but the workers would have the last say with the formation of the International Longshore and Warehouse Union in 1937.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Ballantyne_Pier
libcom.org/history/1935-battle-ballantyne-pier
ilwu.ca/battle-of-ballantyne-memorial-june-18-2015/
ilwu.ca/wp-content/uploads/WFN-Sept-2009-N2cLow-Res.pdf
pasttensevancouver.wordpress.com/tag/battle-of-ballantyne-pier/
www.vancouversun.com/news/This+Week+History+1935+Battle+Ballantyne+Pier/11151809/story.html]

1936 - Grève Générale en Belgique: With half a million, both in the north and south of the country, have downed tools and gone out on strike. The three Walloon provinces are in a situation of general strike. Brabant, in turn, began to follow the movement. In Quaregnon (Borinage), a woman is killed by random firing by gendarmes following a previous confrontation with strikers. Another person is wounded.
[www.lcr-lagauche.be/cm/index.php?view=article&id=606:la-greve-de-1936-en-belgique&option=com_content&Itemid=53
romaincourcelles.wordpress.com/2011/07/09/belgique-dans-solidaire-comment-les-travailleurs-belges-ont-fo-nde-la-securite-sociale/
deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/50989/215.pdf;jsessionid=D3720CF399E8FCE653807B8C873C5DAF?sequence=1
solidaire.org/articles/1936-les-travailleurs-la-conquete-du-temps
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_strikes_in_Belgium
nvdatabase.swarthmore.edu/content/belgian-workers-strike-minimum-wage-paid-vacations-40-hour-work-week-and-union-rights-1936
www.larevuetoudi.org/en/story/belgian-walloon-general-strikes
mocliege.be/IMG/pdf/reg059_dossier.pdf
www.skynet.be/actu-sports/dossier/1621328/les-plus-grandes-greves-de-l-histoire-en-belgique/1621331/2-juin-1936
archives.chicagotribune.com/1936/06/19/page/15/article/one-dead-5-hurt-in-belgian-strikes]

[C] 1942 - Having been betrayed by one Karel Čurda, the Czechosolvak partisans whose ambush of SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich on May 27 had led to his death on June 4, are tracked to the Church of St. Cyril and St. Methodious in Prague. At 16:15, the church is besieged by 800 soldiers of the Wehrmacht Heer and Waffen-SS. After a seven-hours fight, the outnumbered group of paratroopers, which included Gabčík, Kubiš, Opálka and Valčík, together with fellow combattants Josef Bublík, Jan Hrubý and Jaroslav Švarc, fell. All died, with Adolf Opálka committing suicide after having being injured by shrapnel. [see: May 27]

1954 - US-CIA supported invasion of Guatemala by Carlos Castillo Armas takes place following the democratically elected Arbenz government's nationalisation of the United Fruit Company's property. Protecting American 'interests' in their own inimitable fashion yet again.

1970 - Lambeth Court, home of the Archbishop of Canterbury, is firebombed. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1977 - John Lydon aka Johnny Rotten is attacked in the street by a crazed bunch of pro-royalists in revenge for 'God Save the Queen'. Lydon is stabbed in the hand several times, damaging tendons.

1977 - Fighting breaks out between National Front and Socialist Workers Party activists by the Clock Tower in Lewisham Town Centre, where both groups were selling papers. A socialist teacher from Deptford is knocked unconscious.
[lewisham77.blogspot.co.uk/2007/07/battle-of-lewisham-chronology.html]

1978 - In response to the previous weekend's rampage by skinheads through Brick Lane and the racist murder of Altab Ali, 4,000 people take part in an ANL and Bengali Youth Movement Against Racist Attacks, a short-lived alliance between three major Bengali youth organisations, hold a march in Tower Hamlets.
[www.dkrenton.co.uk/anl/1970s.html]

[AA] 1984 - Battle of Orgreave / U.K.Miners' Strike: Police attack striking miners at the Orgreave coke plant in South Yorkshire on a picket organised to mark the 100th day of their strike. 95 miners are arrested, all later had their charges dropped. The official casualty count was 72 policemen given hospital treatment and 51 pickets injured, though many injured pickets avoided seeking medical treatment as it was an effective guarantee of arrest.

[A] 1999 - The Carnival against Capital shuts down the City of London. There are solidarity protests in 40 other countries.

2007 - Vilma Espín (Vilma Lucila Espín Guillois; b. 1930), Cuban revolutionary, feminist, and chemical engineer, who was the partner of Raúl Castro, dies following a long illness. [see: Apr. 7]

[B] 2010 - José de Sousa Saramago (b. 1922), Portuguese writer of novels, short stories, poetry, plays, memoirs and travelogues, atheist and libertarian communist, dies. [see: Nov. 16]
19
1381 - Peasants' Revolt: In the Somerset town of Bridgwater, an uprising breaks out led by Thomas Ingleby and Adam Brugge. The crowds attacks the local Augustine house and forces their master to give up his local privileges and pay a ransom. The rebels then turned on the properties of John Sydenham, a local merchant and official, looting his manor and burning paperwork, before executing Walter Baron, a local man. The Ilchester gaol was stormed, and one unpopular prisoner executed.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peasants'_Revolt]

1821 - [O.S. Jun. 7] Greek Revolution [Ελληνική Επανάσταση] or Greek War of Independence: Following the dashing of Alexander Ypsilantis' hope that the Russians would intervene on his side (he had in fact been denounced by the Tsar, kicked out of the Russian army and ordered to lay down his arms) and the crossing of the Danube by 30,000 Ottomans troops, there followed a series of major battles that lead to the defeat of the Eteria's forces, culminating in the final defeat of Ypsilantis' Sacred Band (Ἱερὸς Λόχος) battalion at Drăgăşani on June 7 (O.S.). Ypsilantis fled to Austria with the remnants of his followers where, having failed to gain permission to cross the frontier despite several days negotiations with the Austrian authorities, and fearing capture by the Turks, he crossed in Austria and was promptly arrested. Ypsilantis was subsequently kept in close confinement for seven years.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_War_of_Independence
el.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ελληνική_Επανάσταση_του_1821]

1843 - Rebecca Riots: In May 1843 gates within the town of Carmarthen were attacked for the first time. The authorities warned that harsh penalties would be meted out to anyone found to be involved with "Rebecca", but Hugh Williams and others defended the riots in the local newspapers and, indeed, the activities of "Rebecca" not only continued but widened to include not only the Toll Gates but the property of people who spoke out against the rioting. The rioting also became more violent with gunshots being fired at Special Constables in the village of Blaen-y-Coed near Carmarthen.
The supporters of "Rebecca" now felt strong enough to march in daylight to Carmarthen to present a petition to the Magistrates at the Guildhall and "Rebecca" led a march of around 2000 people to the town on June 19, 1843 and were joined by some of the poor people of the town. In Carmarthen they marched to the Workhouse and demanded to be let in. The Master had little option but to open the gates to the yard and once inside the rioters laid hold of the Matron, Mrs Evans, and took the keys to the house from her. They then attacked the Master, broke up the contents of the house and ordered the children outside. They were preparing to burn the Workhouse when a rumour spread that soldiers were approaching. Meanwhile, the increased violence and the spread of the riots had eventually caused the Government to send in troops and a troop of the 4th Light Dragoons was sent from Cardiff to Carmarthen. They were approaching the town when they heard of the attack on the Workhouse and proceeded at a gallop, riding into town to find the destruction of the building taking place. The rioters panicked at the approach of the Dragoons and stampeded, some 60 being taken prisoner by the troops.
[www.llandeilo.org/dp_rebecca.php]

1867 - In México Emperor Maximilian, overthrown on May 15, is executed.

1870 - Constituent Congress of the Spanish section of the First International: The Federación Española Región the Federación Regional Española (FRE) takes place (19-26 June) in the Circo theatre in Barcelona.

1881 - František Gellner (d. 1914), Czech poet, short story writer, artist and Bohemian anarchist, born. Wrote for 'Nový Kult' and was involved in Prague anarchist circles with S.K. Neumann, Karel Toman, Fráňa Šrámek and Marie Majerová. His poetry was deeply ironic and provocatively recorded his fleeting sexual exploits as well as being critical of society in terms similar to French anarchist chanson. Gellner died in the trenches of WWI and his body was never recovered.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/František_Gellner]

[BB] 1884 - Georges Ribemont-Dessaignes (d. 1974), French writer (plays, poetry, manifestos and opera librettos), painter and libertarian associated with the Dada movement, born. One of the forefathers, along with Marcel Duchamp and Francis Picabia, of Paris Dada, following the arrival of Tristan Tzara and Hans Arp who carried the seeds of the Cabaret Voltaire from Zurich. His great-grandfather Jean-Philibert Dessaignes helped found the school of Vendôme. Close to Marcel Duchamp and Francis Picabia, he worked with the later on his '391' magazine in 1917, and the three founded the magazine 'Littérature' in May 1918. Ribemont-Dessaignes was involved in the bizarre trial of the reactionary and anti-Semitic writer Maurice Barrès, reluctantly playing the role of prosecutor, that signalled the end of Dada. He said afterwards, "Dada could be a criminal, a coward, a destroyer or a thief, but not a judge." He did not join the exodus to Surrealism in 1924 but went on to found the politics, arts and philosophy magazine 'BIFUR' in 1930, which brought together some of the writers excommunicated by the surrealist movement, as well as Marxist and anarchist contributors, both French and non-French. Condemned by Benjamin Péret as the Grand-Rat-Déjeté following his criticism of Péret's post-war pamphlet 'Le Déshonneur des Poètes' (1945) and his attack on those who stayed in France during WWII.
”We know what Dadaism had done with politics, it had destroyed it with a stroke of the pen, ignored it. The movement revolted against power of all sorts,in favor of liberties of all sorts”
[fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georges_Ribemont-Dessaignes
www.marxists.org/francais/peret/works/1945/02/poetes.htm
www.monde-libertaire.fr/expressions/15003-benjamin-peret-poete-et-revolutionnaire
fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/L'Honneur_des_poètes]

[E] 1885 - Adela Pankhurst (Adela Constantia Mary Pankhurst; d. 1961), British-Australian suffragette, political organiser, and co-founder of both the Communist Party of Australia and the proto-fascist Australia First Movement, born. Daughter of Emmeline Pankhurst and sister of Sylvia and Christabel, she was a member of the WSPU but, estranged from her family, Adela emigrated to Australia in 1914. During World War I, she as an organiser for the Women's Peace Army in Melbourne, writing anti-war pamphlets and the book 'Put Up the Sword' (1915). In 1917, she married Tom Walsh of the Federated Seamen's Union of Australasia and, in 1920, became a founding member of the Communist Party of Australia, from which she was later expelled. Disillusioned with communism, she founded the anti-communist Australian Women's Guild of Empire in 1927 and in 1941 became a founding member of the nationalist Australia First Movement. The following year she was interned for advocating peace with Japan.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adela_Pankhurst
adb.anu.edu.au/biography/pankhurst-adela-constantia-9275]

[A] 1886 - Kangaroo trial of eight anarchists for the Haymarket bombing begins, Chicago.

1888 - [N.S. Jul. 1] Serafim Ivanovna Deryabin (Серафима Ивановна Дерябина; d. 1920), Russian revolutionary and Bolshevik, who escaped from the White Army's notorious 'train of death', born. [see: Jul. 1]

1889 - London Gasworkers Strike: South Met.'s Board minuted that a deputation of men had attended the old offices to discuss petitions concerning the eight hour day
[marysgasbook.blogspot.co.uk/2013/04/south-met-gas-1889-strike-part-1.html
greenwichpeninsulahistory.wordpress.com/2013/08/01/the-gas-workers-strike-in-south-london/]

[B] 1891 - Helmut Franz Joseph Herzfeld (John Heartfield) (d. 1968), German painter, graphic artist, photomontage artist, anti-fascist propagandist, Dadaist and stage designer, born. His father was the anarchist poet, playwright and novelist Franz Held (pen name of Franz Herzfeld). Worked in printing designing advertising until he enlisted in the German army in 1915 but faked mental illness to be discharged (De. 1915). To protest the war and especially the propaganda against England, he Anglicised his name in 1916 to John Heartfield and later joined the Kommunistischen Partei Deutschlands (KPD) though had strong anarchist sympathies. In 1917, Heartfield became a member of Berlin Club Dada, helping to organise the Erste Internationale Dada-Messe (First International Dada Fair) in Berlin in 1920. In 1917 he co-founded the Malik-Verlag publishing house in Berlin with his brother Wieland Herzfelde. He would go on to design dust jackets and covers for Malik-Verlag and also built theatre sets for Erwin Piscator and Bertolt Brecht.
In 1919, Heartfield was dismissed from the Reichswehr film service because of his support for the strike that followed the assassination of Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg. With George Grosz, he founded the satirical magazine 'Die Pleite' (Bankruptcy; 1919-1924) and would later edit the satirical (KPD) magazine 'Der Knüppel' (The Truncheon).
His experiments with Grosz led to his political photomontage discoveries, honed at two publications: the daily 'Die Rote Fahne' and the weekly 'Arbeiter-Illustrierte-Zeitung' (AIZ). On April 4, 1933, the SS broke into his apartment, and he barely escaped by jumping from his balcony and fled to Czechoslovakia, where he continued his anti-fascist propaganda work (the work he left behind was confiscated and destroyed). With the imminent German occupation of Czechoslovakia, he fled to England, where he was interned for a time in England as an enemy alien, and his health began to seriously deteriorate. His brother Wieland was refused an English residency permit in 1939 and, with his family, left for the United States. John wished to accompany his brother but was refused entry.
He returned to East Berlin in 1950 but was unable to work as a artist and was denied health benefits as he was suspected of "collaboration" by the authorities. It was only through the intervention of Bertoldt Brecht and Stefan Heym that, after eight years of official neglect, Heartfield was formally admitted to the East German Akademie der Kúnste (Academy of the Arts) in 1956. However his health has deteriorated and, although he subsequently produced some memorable montages, he was never as prolific again.
[www.johnheartfield.com/HTML/john_heartfield_PHOTOMONTEUR_BIOGRAPHY.html
www.dhm.de/lemo/html/biografien/HeartfieldJohn/
www.trouw.nl/tr/nl/4324/Nieuws/archief/article/detail/1746448/2004/03/01/En-toen-wijzigde-Helmut-Herzfeld-uit-protest-zijn-naam.dhtml
www.photoquotations.com/a/305/John+Heartfield
slackbastard.anarchobase.com/?p=12683]

1900 - María Ascaso Budría (d. 1955), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist activist, who was imprisoned several times in Zaragoza then Barcelona for her anarchist activities, born. Cousin of the Asacaso Abadia family, María Ascaso Budría was the sister of the prominent anarcho-syndicalist Joaquín and of José Ascaso, and her son Miguel Jiménez Herrero would also become an anarcho-syndicalist militant. Her partner was the prominent FAI activist Miguel Jimenez Herrero, with whom she went into exile in France during the Retirada. After the Liberation she settled with him in Paris and died at the Broussais hospital in Paris on December 16, 1955.
Numerous sources confuse her with Maria Ascaso Abadia, the sister of Francisco and Domingo Ascaso, who was exiled in Mexico.
[militants-anarchistes.info/spip.php?article11975]

1902 - Harriette Vyda Simms Moore (d. 1952), African-American teacher and civil rights worker, born. She was the wife of Harry T. Moore (November 18, 1905 – December 25, 1951), founded the first branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in Brevard County, Florida. On Christmas night, 1951, she Moore and her husband were fatally injured at home by a bomb that went off beneath their house. It was the Moores' twenty-fifth wedding anniversary. Harry Moore died on the way to the hospital in Sanford, Florida. Harriette died from her injuries nine days later. In its 2005-2006 re-investigation, the State of Florida concluded that the murder of the Moores by bombing their home had been the work of violent members of a central Florida Ku Klux Klan group and it named the chief suspects
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harriette_Moore]

1903 - Hans Achim Litten (d. 1938), German lawyer who represented opponents of the Nazis at important political trials between 1929 and 1932, defending the rights of workers during the Weimar Republic. During one trial in 1931, Litten subpoenaed Adolf Hitler, to appear as a witness, where Litten then cross-examined Hitler for three hours. Hitler was so rattled by the experience that, years later, he would not allow Litten's name to be mentioned in his presence. In retaliation, Litten was arrested on the night of the Reichstag Fire along with other progressive lawyers and leftists. Litten spent the rest of his life in one Nazi concentration camp or another, enduring torture and many interrogations. After five years and a move to Dachau, where his treatment worsened and he was cut off from all outside communication, he committed suicide.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hans_Litten]

1905 - [O.S. Jun. 6] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The Tsar meets with liberals for the first time. Sergei Trubetskoy’s Zemstvo delegation urges the formation of a popularly elected legislature to avoid a revolution. The Tsar responds: "Cast away your doubts", and pledges to call an assembly.
[cnparm.home.texas.net/Nat/Rus/Rus02.htm
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Трубецкой,_Сергей
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sergei_Nikolaevich_Trubetskoy]

1906 - [O.S. Jun. 6] Project 33 [проект 33-х]: In the Duma, a Draft Law of the Land, developed the private meeting of deputies of the Workers' group and based on the Project 104 (проект 104-х) draft, ir put forward by the SR faction. It calls for the immediate and complete abolition of private ownership of land, declared the equal right of all citizens to use the land (nationalisation) and the principle of communal land use with egalitarian redistribution of land for the normal uses of the workers, without compensation.
[www.ido.rudn.ru/ffec/hist/chrest/x6_5_18.html
www.ngpedia.ru/id651258p3.html
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Государственная_дума_Российской_империи_I_созыва
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Государственная_дума_Российской_империи]

[1913 - [N.S. Jul. 1] Tikveš Uprising [Тиквешко въстание (Bul) / Тиквешко востание (Mkd)]: Serbian and Turkish forces are defeated by the rebels and retreat towards Velez (Велес).
[bg.wikipedia.org/wiki/Тиквешко_въстание
mk.wikipedia.org/wiki/Тиквешко_востание
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tikveš_Uprising
www.savanne.ch/svoboda/anarchy/history/IlindPreobr.html]

1914 - Revolución Mexicana: Zapatistas ratify the Plan de Ayala, whilst Pancho Villa and his forces arrive at Calera to begin the siege of Zacatecas.

1914 - Luísa Do Carmo Franco Elias Adão (d. 1999), Portuguese anarchist and nurse, born. Daughter of the anarchist Francisco Franco and life-long partner of militant anarcho-syndicalist Acácio Tomás de Aquino.

[D] [1917 - [O.S. Jun. 6] In Sevastopol sailors arrest and disarm their officers as the Russian Black Sea fleet mutinies. [expand]

1922 - La Grève du Havre: A 110-day long strike by metalworkers in Le Havre begins following the decision by factory owners, who had gottten shamelessly rich through the war and buying up German companies under receivership cheaply, to cut workers wages.
In early June, the Chambre Syndicale Patronale de la Métallurgie (Metallurgy Employers Trade Association) in Le Havre informed its workers that, from June 22nd, wages will be reduced by 10% on average. However, despite an already long revolutionary tradition, the metal workers in the city are not unionised. Furthermore, it begins at almost the same time as the founding congress of the CGTU signals the first major split in the French labour movement since 1914, dividing between a reformist CGT, headed by former anarchist Jouhaux, and the new confederation, founded by the minority of the organisation, communists and libertarians. The latter quickly establishes a metallurgy syndicate in Le Havre, which is still run by revolutionary trade unionists, as the Communists are still in the minority, which helps co-ordinate the strike.
On Tuesday June 20, workers form a strike committee and the next day, 900 steelworkers on strike hold their first public meeting. The initial response of the bosses' Comité des Forges is to refuse to negotiate, betting on the strike's swift collapse. Additionally, the Préfet prohibits any public gatherings, to try and thwart the strikers' attempts at organising wider support for their actions.
On June 23, 10,000 people, men and women march peacefully through the streets of Le Havre in what is the first of a long series of street protests. In the following days, the movement spreads quickly to all major sites in Le Havre. In protest against the military being summoned to the city and the ban on demonstrations, a general strike breaks out on August 25. Driven by a huge wave of solidarity, the city's radical socialist mayor and Freemason, Léon Meyer, pressed the municipality into running a free canteen to feed the children of strikers (and giving free milk to the under fours). And at the start of the school holidays, the old union tactic of having the children of strikers welcomed into the homes of supporters in surrounding towns, especially in Rouen and Quevilly, but even as far afield as Paris, was employed.
as the steelworkers of Le Havre seek to continue their brave and stubborn struggle against the Forges Committee, as well as the combined forces of the state and its watchdogs, police, military and judiciary.
On August 26, the Salle Franklin - the traditional seat of the Bourse du Travail and the trade unions - is ordered closed. As protesters gather outside the building, mounted police charge into crowds. The strikers respond by throwing stones and troops are ordered fix bayonets and load their rifles. The mounted police charge results in the death of three demonstrators aged 18, 21 and 22. A fourth died of his injuries a few days later. Many others are left injured. The following day many of the strike organisers are arrested and the city is placed in state of siege.
With the closure of the Salle Franklin, steelworkers are forced to hold their meetings in the Forêt de Montgeon, the 'trou des métallos' (steelworkers hole), a grassed arena able to accomodate up to 20,000 people, and now a municipal park. The general strike in solidarity with the steelworkers continued until September 1st; but, with the prospect of the new school year and the threat of schools not opening their doors to the children of workers who had not returned to work, together with a hardeneding in the positions of some employers and their friends, including the landlords of some workers who threatened to evict them if they continued their strike, the Strike Committee decided that it was time to stop the struugle.
The strike by the steelworkers of Le Harve however continued until October 9, 1922, when they to returned to work, after 110 days on strike, not having gained any concessions.
[www.ephemanar.net/decembre02.html
bataillesocialiste.wordpress.com/2011/09/02/la-greve-du-havre-monatte-1922/
revuesshs.u-bourgogne.fr/dissidences/document.php?id=1444
www.cnt-f.org/nautreecole/?Le-Havre-1922-la-grande-greve-de]

1923 - John Colin Campbell Jordan (d. 2009), British anti-Semite, white suprematist and neo-Nazi politician, who advocated a pan-Aryan "Universal Nazism", born. Member of the British Peoples Party; formed the White Defence League in 1956, which merged with the National Labour Party to form the British National Party in 1960; co-founded, with John Tyndall, the National Socialist Movement (part of the World Union of National Socialists) in 1962, and the illegal paramilitary group Spearhead. The NSM later became the British Movement in 1968, of which he lost control in 1974. In June 1974, he was arrested for shoplifting three pairs of women's red knickers from Tesco's in Leamington Spa; he was found guilty and fined £50, to add to his 1962 sentence of 9 months imprisonment for attempting to set up a paramilitary force [Spearhead] and 18 months in 1967 for breaking the 1965 Race Relations Act. In 2001, he charged with publishing racist literature, but the judge ruled that his serious heart condition made him unfit to stand trial. [see also: Apr. 9]
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colin_Jordan
www.thejc.com/lifestyle/lifestyle-features/neo-nazi-leader-colin-jordans-legacy]

[F] 1925 - Hong Kong General Strike [省港大罷工]: In order to support the people of Shanghai May Thirtieth anti-imperialist movement, workers in Guangzhou and Hong Kong come out on strike in a protest that would last for 16 months, one of the largest and longest strikes in China during the Revolution of 1925–27, involving more than 250,000 people.
[zh.wikipedia.org/zh-hant/省港大罷工
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canton–Hong_Kong_strike
baike.baidu.com/view/200614.htm
zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/五卅慘案
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/May_Thirtieth_Movement
baike.baidu.com/view/59626.htm]

1937 - Women’s Day Massacre / Little Steel Strike: Police use tear gas on women and children, many of them sitting on chairs, on a picket line during a strike at Republic Steel in Youngstown, Ohio, instigating a battle that leaves two strikers dead. One union organiser later recalled, "When I got there I thought the Great War had started over again. Gas was flying all over the place and shots flying and flares going up and it was the first time I had ever seen anything like it in my life."

1938 - Bloody Sunday: A month-long sitdown strike by unemployed men at the main post office in Vancouver, British Columbia, together with the Hotel Georgia and the Vancouver Art Gallery, both occupied on the afternoon of May 20, 1938, ends with a 05:00 assault on the post office building by the RCMP. The occupiers respond to the first round of tear gas by smashing the windows for ventilation and arming themselves with whatever projectiles they could find. The RCMP then entered the building and forcibly ejected the men, who were forced to run the gauntlet of a cordon of police armed with batons upon leaving the building. City police outside assisted the Mounties. Of the 42 hospitalised, only five were police and all of those were Vancouver police constables.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bloody_Sunday_(1938)]

1945 - Tragedia del Humo [Tragedy of the Smoke]: Considered to be the most serious industrial accident (with regard to the number killed) to have occurred in a metal ore mine worldwide, it took place at Braden Copper Company's El Teniente Mine in Chile and left 355 workers dead. They were killed by the carbon monoxide produced by the fire of a forge located in one of the mine's access portals that, combined with a lack of ventilation, suffocated all 355.
[es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tragedia_del_humo]

1953 - Julius and Ethel Rosenberg electrocuted in Sing-Sing Prison, Ossining, NY, for alleged sale of atomic secrets to Russians.

1956 - Bataille d'Alger [Battle of Algiers]: Following the execution of another 2 FLN members, guillotined in Barberousse Prison, Abane Ramdane orders immediate reprisals against the French. Yacef Saâdi, who had assumed command in Algiers the arrest of Rabah Bitat in March 1955 is ordered to "Descendez n'importe quel Européen de 18 à 54 ans, pas de femmes, pas de vieux" (shoot down any European, from 18 to 54, no women, no children, no elders). Four days of random attacks in the city follow, with 49 civilians shot by the FLN between June 21-24. [see: Mar. 19 & Sep. 30]
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Algiers_(1956–57)
fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bataille_d'Alger
www.histoire-en-questions.fr/guerre algerie/alger-attentats-execution.html
www.histoire-en-questions.fr/guerre algerie/alger-attentats-rue-de-thebes.html
anidom.blog.lemonde.fr/2010/10/23/francois-mitterrand-et-ses-heures-noires/]

1981 - Senya (Simon) Fléchine (b. 1894), Ukranian anarchist activist, propagandist and photographer, dies. [see: Dec. 19]

1991 - Tanong Po-arn (ทนง โพธิ์อ่าน; b. 1936), Thai labour union leader and president of the Labour Congress of Thailand (สภาองค์การลูกจ้างสภาแรงงานแห่งประเทศไทย), disappears following the National Peace Keeping Council's 1991 military coup against the elected government.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tanong_Po-arn
infogalactic.com/info/Labour_Congress_of_Thailand
voicelabour.org/ทนง-โพธิ์อ่าน-ผู้นำแรงงา/]

1993 - Paul (Pol or Paulo) Chenard (b. 1932), French anarcho-individualist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: May 1]

1993 - Marcel Béalu (b. 1908), French poet, writer and anarchist, dies. [see: Oct. 30]

1997 - Cops raid anarchist centres and homes across Italy. The Italian Anarchist Federation denounces the raids as a thinly veiled attempt to intimidate and criminalise the movement. At least 29 arrest warrants were issued and at least 39 people were informed that they were under official investigation including Jean Weir, Antonio Budini, Christos Stratigopulos, Eva Tziutzia and Carlo Tesseri, who were already in prison following a 1994 bank robbery near Trento.

[C] 2004 - Nikolai Mikhailovich Girenko (Николай Михайлович Гиренко; b. 1940), Russian ethnologist and human rights activist, is murdered, shot with a rifle by two or more neo-Nazi youths as he answers his St. Petersburg apartment door. Girenko was widely respected for his work and research on racism and discrimination in the Russian Federation. Head of the Minority Rights Commission at the St Petersburg Scientific Union and had conducted several studies for Moscow and St Petersburg authorities on neo-Nazi and skinhead groups in the Russian Federation and had repeatedly warned that such groups were on the rise. Shortly his death, Girenko had testified about Русское Национальное Единство (Russian National Unity) in a court case and a number of neo-Nazi groups had passed a "death sentence" on him and posted it on the internet.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikolai_Girenko
www.amnesty.org.uk/press-releases/russian-federation-brutal-killing-human-rights-defender-nikolai-girenko]
20
1549 - Fences are torn down in Attleborough as a forewarning of the Kett's Rebellion. [see: July 9]

1786 - Marceline Desbordes-Valmore (d. 1859), French poet, actress, singer and cantatrice, who was sympathetic to the Saint-Simonianist movement of Claude Henri de Rouvroy, born. Nicknamed 'Notre-Dame-Des-Pleurs', she was one of the founders of French Romantic poetry, despite her dark and difficult themes. She also had strong modernist traits and was the only female writer Paul Verlaine included in the famous 'Les Poètes Maudits' anthology published in 1884. Her 1839 collection of poems 'Pauvres Fleurs' contained many works inspired by the Lyon silk workers' insurrection of 1834, including 'Par un jour funèbre de Lyon'
[fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marceline_Desbordes-Valmore
merlerene.canalblog.com/archives/2014/08/23/30487437.html
republiquedescanuts.free.fr/canuts.htm
poesie.webnet.fr/lesgrandsclassiques/poemes/marceline_desbordes_valmore/marceline_desbordes_valmore.html]

[D] 1791 - Fuite à Varennes [Flight to Varennes]: Louis XVI and family try to do a runner during the night of June 20–21 as part of a plan that began to be put in place following the forcible transfer of the royal family from the Palace of Versailles to the Tuileries in the wake of the Journées des 5 et 6 Octobre 1789 and the Marche des Femmes, when a group of Parisian women infuriated by the chronic shortage and high price of bread armed themselves and marched on Versailles and attacked the palace. Remove to the Tuileries, the royals were virtual prisoners, their guards also acting as their captors, keeping them under constant surveillance.
The flight was an important episode of the French Revolution during which the King of France Louis XVI , his wife Marie Antoinette, and their immediate family tried to reach the royalist stronghold of Montmédy, from which Louis hope to launch a coup of his own. Before his escape from the Tuileries he National Assembly had been ready to allow Louis to remain in position as a figurehead constitutional monarch, however the flight put and end to that and put him and Marie Antoinette on the inevitable path towards the guillotine.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flight_to_Varennes
fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fuite_de_Louis_XVI_et_arrestation_à_Varennes]

1792 - Journée Révolutionnaire du 20 juin 1792 [Demonstration of 20 June 1792]: The last peaceful attempt made by the people of Paris to persuade King Louis XVI of France to abandon his policy of duplicity and to govern in sympathy.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demonstration_of_20_June_1792
fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Journée_du_20_juin_1792
fr.vikidia.org/wiki/Journée_du_20_juin_1792
www.herodote.net/20_juin_1792-evenement-17920620.php]

1848 - Journées de Juin [June Days Uprising]: The commission exécutive of the Assemblée Constituante adopt a decree drawn up on May ordering the closure of the Ateliers Nationaux (National Workshops). Costing nearly 200,000 francs a day to 'employ' its 115,000 registered workers at a time of continuing economic and social upheaval, the Ateliers Nationaux are a moral disgrace in the eyes of the ruling classes. Created by the Second Republic in order to provide work and a source of income for the unemployed, despite the fact that only low pay, dead-end jobs were provided, which barely provided enough money to survive, the workers of France have no option to protest their closure.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/June_Days_Uprising
fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Journées_de_Juin
marxists.anu.edu.au/archive/marx/works/1848/06/28a.htm]

1848 - Albert Richard Parsons (d. 1887), American anarchist, Haymarket Martyr, husband of Lucy Parsons, born.
[libcom.org/library/autobiography-parsons
www.ephemanar.net/juin20.html#20]

[E] 1871 - Margarete Hilferding (Margarete Hönigsberg; d. 1942), Austrian Jewish teacher, doctor, individual psychologist, socialist and feminist advocate of birth control and the liberalisation of abortion provision, born. In 1903, she was the first woman to graduate from the medical school at the University of Vienna. The following year she married the Austro-Marxist economist Rudolf Hilferding, who later became Minister of Finance of the Weimar Republic, but they separated in 1909. She was also the first female member of Sigmund Freud's Mittwochgesellschaft (Wednesday Society), later the Wiener Psychoanalytische Vereinigung (Vienna Psychoanalytic Society). After WWI, she was active in the fields of science policy and social and educational provison, particulalry for women, in Rotes Wien (Red Vienna), when the city was run by the Sozialdemokratische Arbeiterpartei (Social Democratic Labour Party) from 1918-34. Persecuted by the Nazis, on June 28, 1942, she was deported to the Theresienstadt concentration camp and on September 23, 1942, died on the transport between Theresienstadt concentration camp and Maly Trostenets extermination camp.
[de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margarete_Hilferding
www.fraueninbewegung.onb.ac.at/Pages/PersonDetail.aspx?p_iPersonenID=8674748]

1874 - Maria Vérone (d. 1938), French, lawyer, journalist and editor, pacifist, feminist and suffragist, born. She was the president of the Ligue Française pour le Droit des Femmes (French League for Women's Rights) from 1919 to 1938.
[fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maria_Vérone]

1887 - Kurt Hermann Eduard Karl Julius Schwitters (d. 1948), German dadaist artist, whose unique collage work and sound poetry he labelled Merz, born.

1888 - Pedro Alvarez Sierra (d. 1969), Spanish woodworker, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, who was opposed to the use of vilonce, born. Delegate at the founding congress of the CNT in Barcelona in 1910, he was very active in the anarchist press and was editor, often alongside Quintanilla, of a number of tiles including 'Solidaridad', 'El Libertario' (1912), 'Accion Libertaria', 'La Cuña' (paper of the Federation of Woodworkers, 1915-17, 22 issues), 'Renovacion', etc.
[www.militants-anarchistes.info/spip.php?article5603
puertoreal.cnt.es/es/bilbiografias-anarquistas/2137-pedro-sierra-alvarez-discipulo-de-ricardo-mella.html]

1888 - The first issue of the weekly newspaper 'L'Attaque', "Organe socialiste révolutionnaire de la jeunesse" (changed to "Organe hebdomadaire Anarchiste" July 25, 1889) is published in Paris. Its editor Ernest Gégout will be charged alongside Charles Malato for articles in the newspaper.
"Nous commençons L' ATTAQUE, Attaque contre les intriguants politiques, les corrompus et les traîtres, comme les exploiteurs du peuple, les oppresseurs de la classe ouvrières, ..."

1893 - Fasci Siciliani Uprising: Dr Nicola Barbato is released from prison following the widespread outcry raised after his May 12th arrested. [see: May 12]

1893 - The American Railway Union (ARU) is formally founded at a convention in Chicago by locomotive fireman Eugene V. Debs and other railway workers. A week-long convention attended by 24 delegates representing many of the numerous railway brotherhoods had held at Chicago's Greene Hotel from April 11-17, 1893, at which the constitution and by-laws for the new organisation had been adopted and the union's officers formally elected. These included Debs, Firemen Secretary-Treasurer of the Brotherhood of Locomotive and 'Locomotive Firemen's Magazine' editor, as President; George W. Howard, former Grand Chief of the Brotherhood of Railway Conductors, as Vice President; and Sylvester Keliher, Secretary-Treasurer of the Brotherhood of Railway Carmen as Secretary-Treasurer of the ARU. The June 20 convention was set up to introduce the new union to the broader public and to build organisational momentum, along side a mass meeting of railroad employees at Uhlich's Hall in Chicago the same evening.
The ARU was an industrial union for railway workers, regardless of craft or service. Within a year, the ARU had 125 locals and very quickly grew to become the country’s largest union.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Railway_Union
www.marxists.org/archive/debs/aru/index.htm
www.marxists.org/archive/debs/works/1893/930428-nysun-debsdefeatsblfexpulsion.pdf]

1905 - [N.S. Jul. 2] Łódź Insurrection [Powstanie Łódzkie] / June Days [Dni Czerwca]: Funerals of the victims of June 18 [N.S. Jul. 1], which are attended by large crowds, are held today and tomorrow. They escalate into major demonstrations.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Łódź_insurrection_(1905)
pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Powstanie_łódzkie
wolnemedia.net/historia/powstanie-lodzkie-1905-roku/
rewolucja1905.pl/tagi/powstanie-lodzkie/]

1906 - [O.S. Jun. 9] Life Guards Regiment Mutiny: The elite Preobrazhensky Life Guards stage a mutiny in St. Petersburg following the dispatch of the Second Battalion of the Life Guards Regiment to combat potential unrest in the Kronstadt garrison. After evening roll call, the First Battalion soldiers began to gather in groups as rumours spread that they too might be sent to combat any Kronstadt rebellion. When ordered to disperse by an officer, Captain Starytsky (Старицкий), they refused to obey and began shouting at him and there was talk of drawing up a petition to present to Nicholas II, who they were then guarding. Reports of the incident reached the head of the 1st Guards Infantry Division, General Sergey Ozerov (Сергей Озеров) and he in turn contacted his superior, General Dmitri Trepov (Дми́трий Тре́пов), the chief of police and gendarme corps. Ozerov was ordered to do nothing as the hierarchy believed that the incident could be hushed up.
It should be noted that the increased activities of political agitators had at the time so expanded their activities that revolutionary circles even began to appear in some of the Guards regiments, something that the military top brass were deeply concerned about given the mutinies in other regiments and the navy.
[cnparm.home.texas.net/Nat/Rus/Rus04.htm]
gulevich.net/pirsonaly.files/gulevichaa2.htm
old.redstar.ru/2006/08/23_08/6_01.html
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Трепов,_Дмитрий_Фёдорович
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dmitri_Feodorovich_Trepov
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Преображенский_лейб-гвардии_полк
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Гадон,_Владимир_Сергеевич
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Васильчиков,_Сергей_Илларионович]

[B] 1912 - Voltairine de Cleyre (b. 1866), anarchist-feminist, atheist, poet and free-thinker, dies. Two thousand attended the funeral at Waldheim cemetery where she was buried next to the Haymarket Martyrs. [see: Nov. 17]

1913 - [N.S. Jul. 2] Tikveš Uprising [Тиквешко въстание (Bul) / Тиквешко востание (Mkd)]: On the same day that a new Bulgarian government is chosen, about 30,000 Serbian army troops and irregulars led by Vasilije Trbić are sent to crush the uprising.
[bg.wikipedia.org/wiki/Тиквешко_въстание
mk.wikipedia.org/wiki/Тиквешко_востание
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tikveš_Uprising
www.savanne.ch/svoboda/anarchy/history/IlindPreobr.html]

[F] 1917 - Spokane-based Lumber Workers Industrial Union, IWW, formally begins what will become a statewide loggers' strike orginally called for July 1st. [expand]
In September, the IWW, with many of its key leaders and organisers in jail under criminal syndicalism and/or sedition laws, suddenly called off the formal strike. Loggers returned to work. Some lumber companies (especially in Eastern Washington) accepted the eight-hour day and attempted to improve conditions. But many firms started up again on the 10-hour day. IWW loggers, now back to work, continued to resist, at some camps quitting work after eight hours, at other camps working as inefficiently as possible to produce only eight hours of work in the 10 hours spent on the job.
[www.historylink.org/File/7342
northidahopastpresent.com/2017/03/13/1917-when-the-wobblies-walked-out-of-the-woods/]

1920 - Police shoot 14 Wobblies during a labour clash in Butte, Montana. [expand]

1921 - Buckingham and Carnatic Mills Strike: On May 20 1921, the workers in the Spinning Department of the Buckingham and Carnatic Mills in the city of Madras (now called Chennai), India refused to work until the management of Binny and Co., the owners, agreed to discuss their wage rise demands. The protest reached serious proportions when an official strike was declared on June 20. The striking workers were led by Congressman V. Kalyanasundaram Mudaliar. The Indian National Congress convened a meeting in Madras on July 10 1921; in this meeting, C. Rajagopalachari moved for a resolution sympathising with the workers of the Buckingham and Carnatic Mills and supporting their cause.
The management retaliated by instigating a caste war through recruitment of workers from 'low' castes to fill the strikers’ vacancies. The strike turned into a caste clash between two warring groups, in response to which the authorities had adopted a ruthless policy to suppress the workers and any distrubances. On August 29, 1921, police opened fire on strikers near the Mills’ premises in Perambur, killing seven people. During their funeral procession, some agitators threw stones, leading to another round of caste violence. Two more uses of live fire by the police – on September 19 and October 21 – followed. After six months, the strike came to an end, having failed to meet any of its objectives.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1921_Buckingham_and_Carnatic_Mills_strike
www.marxists.org/archive/glading/1930/07/x01.htm]

1922 - La Grève du Havre: Le Harve steelworkers form a strike committee. [see: Jun. 19]

1925 - Vassil Ikonomov (b. 1898), a significant figure in the Bulgarian anarchist movement and an anti-fascist partisan against the dictatorship of Stambolijski, dies. Tracked down by the army and paramilitary groups, the revolutionary guerilla is killed under mysterious circumstances today while bathing in a river close to the village of Bélitsa. [see: Aug. 9]

1933 - Clara Zetkin (Clara Josephine Eissner; b. 1857), German Marxist theorist, communist activist, and advocate for women's rights, who in 1889 first proposed an International Women's Day to be celebrated on the same day across the world, dies in exile in Arkhangelskoye, near Moscow following a long illness. [see: Jul. 5]

1935 - Vi Subversa (Frances Sokolov; June 20 1935 - February 19 2016), English ceramicist, social worker, cabaret artist anarcha-feminist, and singer and guitarist of British anarcho-punk band Poison Girls, born.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vi_Subversa
www.independent.co.uk/news/obituaries/vi-subversa-inspirational-elder-stateswoman-of-punk-who-co-founded-poison-girls-denizens-of-its-a6889691.html
www.theguardian.com/music/musicblog/2016/feb/22/vi-subversa-music-poison-girls-flesh-and-blood-and-punk
www.poisongirls.co.uk/history.html]

1942 - The mass extermination of Jews at Auschwitz camp begins.

1945 - François Le Levé (b. 1882), French militant anarcho-syndicalist, dies on his way home after being released from internment. One of the 15 who signed The Manifeste des Seize, along with Kropotkin, Grave and others, favouring the Allies during WWI. A member of the Resistance during WWII, he was captured and interned. [see: Nov. 13]

[C] 1981 - The Specials organise a 'Peaceful Protest Against Racism' concert at the Butts athletic stadium in Coventry to demonstrate their stance against race hate and to raise money for Satnam Singh Gill's family and for the Coventry Committee Against Racism and other anti-racist groups. It is also the day that their classic single 'Ghost Town' was released.
[ripitupfootnotes.blogspot.co.uk/2008/11/footnotes-16-chapter-15-ghost-dance-2.html
www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-13780074
www.ukrockfestivals.com/festival-list-1981.htm
www.socialistparty.org.uk/keyword/Art/article/12437/20-07-2011/music-review-this-place-is-coming-like-a-ghost-town]0

[A] 1985 - The TGV train lines are sabotaged in France in support of countrywide prison mutinies.

1991 - Residents chase poll tax bailiffs out of the Marsh estate, Lancaster.

1992 - Nicolas Faucier (b. 1900), French anarchiste, trade unionist and pacifist, dies. Faucier ran the bookshop La Librairie Sociale and, with Louis Lecoin, formed the Comité pour l'Espagne Libre, later the SIA (Solidarité Internationale Antifasciste). [see: Mar. 30]

2001 - An Allied air strike kills 23 at a football match in Iraq.
21
[E] 1852 - Maria Luisa 'Gigia' Minguzzi (d. 1911), Italian seamstress, anarchist and feminist, who was an important figure in the Italian anarchist movement, and played a leading role in the development of the female workers' movement in Italy, born. The long-term companion of Francesco Pezzi, their house in Florence was the stopping off point for numerous international visitors as well as a meeting place for local craft and tobacco workers, many of whom would go on to play in 1872, she helped found the women's section of the International (AIT). With Assunta Pedoni and Amalia Migliorini, she wrote the 'Manifesto a tutte le operaie d'Italia' (Manifesto to all Italian Women Workers), which appeared in the October 1876 edition of 'La Plebe' and was a key text of the first big cigarette strike in Florence, which she also helped organise.
"Comrades, victims, just like us, of privileges and prejudiced; Kept as we, in ignorance and damned to work at a job that wears us out and doesn't feed us, you will, we believe, lend us a friendly ear to our words, and following our example, join us, because the cause of the oppressed is everywhere the same; their rights are the same everywhere; and to effectively enforce them, we have to strive everywhere. What do we want? Nothing but what we must have; what nature gave us and society denies us. We want our rights as human beings recognised; our dignity respected; our love and our standing as women properly appreciated; Our freedom and our life assured through our work. But it is not the woman's bourgeois emancipation what we want; But human emancipation - the same for which workers around the world join today to fight tomorrow. We want it - the fruits of our work Being assured - our life is no longer at the mercy of the case and the whims of men; But we can live instead free and equal. We want to love: to be affectionate companions of men, whose inclination drives us; Be allied to them in the struggles they will have against the privileges; But do not be slaves. [...] Present day society demands it of us: or we will go hungry. Or have to sell ourselves. The society of the future tells us: Live, work and love."
[ita.anarchopedia.org/Maria_Luisa_Minguzzi
www.arivista.org/?nr=310&pag=65.htm
www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/luisa-minguzzi_(Dizionario_Biografico)/
www.archiviobiograficomovimentooperaio.org/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item&id=26146:minguzzi-maria-luisa-in-pezzi-gigia&lang=it
www.ravennanotizie.it/articoli/2014/10/03/amore-e-anarchia-al-vulkano-di-s.-bartolo-la-storia-di-maria-luisa-minguzzi-e-francesco-pezzi.html
www.anarca-bolo.ch/cbach/biografie.php?id=1036
cretastorie.blogspot.co.uk/2011/04/anarchicini-maria-luisa-minguzzi-1852.html]

1855 - Primera Huelga General de España: The Military Governor of Catalonia, Capitán General Juan Zapatero y Navas, orders the dissolution of all 'illegal' societats obreres (workers' unions). [see: Jul. 2]

1864 - Émile Louvigny (d. unknown), Franco-Belgian anarchist and socialist activist, born.
[www.ephemanar.net/juin21.html
militants-anarchistes.info/spip.php?article3483]

1874 - The IV Congreso de la Federación Regional Española de la AIT is held clandestinely in Madrid [Jun. 21-27] in the wake of the Pavía coup on January 3, 1874, after which workers' associations in general and the FRE de la AIT in particular had been banned. Attended by representatives of 47 of the 320 local federations comprising the FRE. In order to deal an the underground FRE, it decides to organise over 10 regions (Eastern Andalusia, Western Andalusia, Aragon, Catalonia, New Castile, Old Castile, Extramadura, Murcia, Valencia, and Basque-Navarra-Santanderina). And instead of the congresses of the FRE, one would hold regional conferences to which a delegate of the Federal Commission would attend. It also ratified the agreements reached at the Geneva Congress of the Saint-Imier International held in September of the previous year.
[es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congreso_de_Madrid
es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federación_Regional_Española_de_la_AIT
brevehistoriadelmovimientoanarquista.blogspot.co.uk/2013/01/iv-congreso-de-la-federacion-regional.html
brevehistoriadelmovimientoanarquista.blogspot.co.uk/2012/09/1870-1873-la-fre-de-la-ait-del-congreso.html
www.rojoynegro.info/sites/default/files/El anarcosindicalismo y sus Congresos.Completo.pdf]

1876 - Émilie Lamotte (d. 1909), French lecturer, educator, artist, activist, anarchist and neo-Malthusian, dies. In 1905, she worked on the anarchist newspapers 'Le Libertaire' and 'L'Anarchie'. In 1906 she helped found the libertarian colony Saint-Germain-en-Laye with her partner, the anarchist propagandist and free thinker André Lorulot.
[militants-anarchistes.info/spip.php?article3072
www.estelnegre.org/anarcoefemerides/2106.html
www.infokiosques.net/imprimersans2.php?id_article=335
fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Émilie_Lamotte]

1882 - Rockwell Kent (d. 1971), US painter, printmaker, illustrator, writer anti-fascist and anarchist sympathiser, born. [expand]
[encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Rockwell+Kent
rockwellkentwinona.org/events/symposium/docs/Kent_Passport_Lecture.pdf
www.the-art-usa.com/the-twentieth-century/rockwell-kent/
news.google.com/newspapers?
nid=1946&dat=19420620&id=FXYtAAAAIBAJ&sjid=f5gFAAAAIBAJ&pg=3558,3745205]

[B] 1886 - [ERROR see: Jun. 22]

1892 - Ravachol returns to court at the Loire Court of Assizes, two months after his April 26 for the restaurant Véry bombing. This time his is charged with the murder of the old hermit Chambles at St Étienne (18 June 1891), which he admits, and two others which he denies emphatically. He is convicted of all three and sentenced to death. He will be guillotined on July 11, 1892. Beala and Mariette Soubère who were tried as accomplices are acquitted.

1896 - Joan Ferrer i Farriol (d. 1978), anarchist and prominent Catalan anarcho-syndicalist leader, who was a regular contributor to the libertarian press and author of several books, born. [expand]
[ca.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joan_Ferrer_i_Farriol
www.estelnegre.org/documents/ferrerfarriol/ferrerfarriol.html
www.jesusaller.com/la-revuelta-permanente-memorias-de-joan-ferrer-farriol-recogidas-por-baltasar-porcel/
www.visat.cat/traduccions-literatura-catalana/eng/articles/89/22john-l.getman.html]

[A] 1903 - In London, anarchists organise a massive demonstration among the Jewish labour movement to protest the Russian pogrom in Kishineff.

[D] 1905 - [N.S. Jul. 3] Łódź Insurrection [Powstanie Łódzkie] / June Days [Dni Czerwca]: The first armed workers uprising in Poland against the Russian Empire, and a key event during the 1905 Revolution, breaks out.
Funerals of the victims of June 18 [N.S. Jul. 1] continue. Rumours quickly spreas that one of the victims of Sunday's clashes was secretly buried by police. Outraged, within a few hours Łódź workers manage to get an estimated 50,000–70,000 people out on the streets. A demonstration forms and marches through the city centre. At the corner of Piotrkowska (ulica Piotrkowskiej) and Żwirki (ulica Żwirki) Streets they clash with Cossack cavalry, in what the demonstrators claim is a pre-prepared ambush. The crowd begins throwing stones, and the Russian cavalry returned fire, killing 25 people and wounding hundreds, many in the paniiced stampede that follows. As a result of the massacre, Socjaldemokracja Królestwa Polskiego i Litwy (Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania / SDKPiL) called for a general strike on June 23 [N.S. Jul. 6].
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Łódź_insurrection_(1905)
pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Powstanie_łódzkie
wolnemedia.net/historia/powstanie-lodzkie-1905-roku/
rewolucja1905.pl/tagi/powstanie-lodzkie/]

1905 - Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (d. 1980), French novelist, playwright, Marxist existentialist philosopher and literary critic, born.

1906 - [O.S. Jun. 8] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: There are angry debates in the Duma on the government's involvement in the anti-Semitic pogroms. Meanwhile, the Council of Ministers decides to dissolve the State Duma in the event of any further escalating in the situation around the agrarian question, as the wide-ranging discussion in the Duma has led to increased public debate and the strengthening of the revolutionary movement. [see: May 23 & Jun. 19]
[cnparm.home.texas.net/Nat/Rus/Rus04.htm
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Государственная_дума_Российской_империи]

1908 - Women's Sunday: WSPU organise their first 'set-piece' demonstration and mass meeting in London's Hyde Park. Advertised in 'Votes for Women' as a 'monster meeting', special trains were chartered to bring in thousands of suffragettes from all over Britain. The event consisted of seven processions accompanied through London by 30 bands, culminating in a rally in Hyde Park. Crowds gathered to watch different groups of suffragettes parade 700 handmade banners and to hear 80 women give speeches from 20 temporary platforms around the park. [pics]
[www.kent.ac.uk/sspssr/womenshistorykent/themes/suffrage/womenssunday.html
www.johndclare.net/Women1_SuffragetteActions_Rosen.htm]

1908 - Yun Bong-gil (윤봉길; d. 1932), Korean independence activist, teacher and poet, best known for orchestrating the deadly bombing of a gathering of Japanese dignitaries in the Shanghai International Settlement in April 29, 1932, the Japanese Emperor’s birthday, born. Yun was arrested at the scene and convicted by the Japanese military court in Shanghai on May 25. He was transferred to Osaka prison on 18 November, and executed in Kanazawa on December 19, 1932. Shot in the forehead by a single bullet, he took 13 minutes to die.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yun_Bong-gil
ko.wikipedia.org/wiki/윤봉길
yunbonggil.or.kr/language/english.html]

1910 - Henri Cler (b. 1862), French cabinet maker and anarchist, dies following a blow to the head, delivered by the police during a strike protest on June 13. Thes of thousands attend his funeral on June 26. [see: Sep. 21]
[www.ephemanar.net/juin21.html#cler]

1914 - Errico Malatesta, wanted for his role in the Settimana Rossa, manages to flee Italy en route to Geneva, where his will work on Luigi Bertoni's 'Le Réveil - Il Risveglio' before leaving for London.

1914 - Arthur Moyse (d. 2003), English anarchist, artist, bus conductor and stalwart of Freedom (Press, Bookshop and newspaper), born.

1914 - Bertha Felicitas Sophie Freifrau von Suttner (b. 1843), Czech-Austrian pacifist, novelist and journalist, who in 1905 was the first woman to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, dies of cancer a few weeks before the war that she fought against broke out. [see: Jun. 9]

1916 - Battle of Carrizal / Revolución Mexicana: Skirmish between Americans and Carrancista garrison. 24-45 Mexicans killed and 43 to 53 wounded; 11 Americans killed, 11 wounded and 24 captured.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Carrizal]

1918 - Edward Abramowski (b. 1868), Libertarian socialist, cooperativist, psychologist and philosopher, born. Author of 'Socialism & State'; 'The Republic of Friends' and 'General Collusion Against the Government'..

1920 - Herrin Massacre: Several hundred armed UMWA strikers laid siege to a non-union mine. After an afternoon of gunfire by both sides, three of the besieging strikers were dead or mortally wounded. [expand]
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herrin_massacre
www.lib.niu.edu/2001/ihy010235.html
www.lib.niu.edu/1997/ihy971204.html
www.mihp.org/2013/05/bloody-williamsons-history-of-mine-massacres/]

1922 - La Grève du Havre: 900 striking Le Harve steelworkers hold their first public meeting. [see: Jun. 19]

1934 - El Juicio a los Campesinos de Casas Viejas [The Trial of the Casas Viejas Peasants]: The preliminary taking of the prosecution evidence takes place before the Consejo de Guerra (court-martial) in the Castillo de San Roque in Cadiz. [see: Jun. 25 & 26]

1936 - Grève Générale en Belgique: Vooruit described how a horde on horseback scattered women and children in the narrow Donkersteeg of Ghent: "We hear everywhere:" They are bastards! If only we had weapons! "Weeping with anger, the workers questioned us" What do you think of that? And you, Balthazar (the successor of Eedje Anseele, leader of the POB - Belgian Workers' Party - Ghent, Editor's note), you see now, you who still called us calm!
the unions announced the end of the strike
[www.lcr-lagauche.be/cm/index.php?view=article&id=606:la-greve-de-1936-en-belgique&option=com_content&Itemid=53
romaincourcelles.wordpress.com/2011/07/09/belgique-dans-solidaire-comment-les-travailleurs-belges-ont-fo-nde-la-securite-sociale/
deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/50989/215.pdf;jsessionid=D3720CF399E8FCE653807B8C873C5DAF?sequence=1
solidaire.org/articles/1936-les-travailleurs-la-conquete-du-temps
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_strikes_in_Belgium
nvdatabase.swarthmore.edu/content/belgian-workers-strike-minimum-wage-paid-vacations-40-hour-work-week-and-union-rights-1936
www.larevuetoudi.org/en/story/belgian-walloon-general-strikes
mocliege.be/IMG/pdf/reg059_dossier.pdf
www.skynet.be/actu-sports/dossier/1621328/les-plus-grandes-greves-de-l-histoire-en-belgique/1621331/2-juin-1936]

1937 - In Spain Andrés Nin, leader of the POUM, is murdered by Russian agents.

1939 - Salvador Gómez Talón aka 'Felipe de la Cruz Torres', Juan Baeza Delgado and José Tarín Marchuet, return to Spain to attempt to free Talon's brother Rafael and others from prison. Francisco Ponzán Vidal, aka 'Paco', 'Gurriato' & 'El gafas', and Juan Manuel Molina Mateo, aka 'Juanelo' (delegate of the Comissió General of the Moviment Llibertari Espanyol for the French concentration camps) had drawn up a plan to help. They were accompanied into Spain by three members of the Ponzán network - Pascual López Lagarta aka 'El Navarro', Francisco Ponzán and the guide Joan Català Balañà. As well as freeing prisoners, the job of the Gómez Talón group was to prepare the ground for CNT activity outside Barcelona. The printer Mario Marcelino Goyeneche and the engraver Manuel Benet Beltrán forged seals, stamps and official documents for the group. The cost of this was funded from hold ups the group carried out. Using the forged papers and dressed as Guardia Civil, the group managed to free dozens of prisoners. Eventually they were discovered and two soldiers were killed in the ensuing shoot out. The group then took to freeing prisoners as they were on the way to prison or were being transferred between prisons. One time ten prisoners on their way to execution were released from a van driven by Guardia Civil. On September 8, 1939, the group were arrested along with others, including Gomez's brother whom they had managed to free.
[losdelasierra.info/spip.php?article3243
www.christiebooks.com/ChristieBooksWP/2011/12/francisco-ponzan-vidalthe-anarchist-pimpernelb-oviedo-1911-d-buzet-sur-tarn-17-august-1944/
www.portaloaca.com/historia/biografias/516-la-historia-de-francisco-ponzan-vidal-qel-maestro-de-huescaq-un-heroe-de-la-resistencia-al-nazismo.html
ca.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juan_Manuel_Molina_Mateo
losdelasierra.info/spip.php?article5212
www.christiebooks.com/ChristieBooksWP/2013/02/joan-catala-balana-1913-2012/
losdelasierra.info/spip.php?article3426
losdelasierra.info/spip.php?article841]

1942 - Agustín Remiro Manero (b. 1904), Spanish anarchist and member of the Durruti Column, is killed during an attempted escape from Madrid's Porlier prison. He was instrumental in setting up the guerrilla unit 'Los Iguales'. [see: Aug. 28]

1964 - Three American civil rights' workers - James Earl Chaney, a 21-year-old black man from nearby Meridian, Mississippi, Andrew Goodman, a 20-year-old white Jewish anthropology student from New York, and Michael 'Mickey' Schwerner, a 24-year-old white Jewish Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) organiser and former social worker from New York - are lynched on the night of June 21–22, 1964 by members of the Mississippi White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, the Neshoba County's Sheriff Office and the Philadelphia Police Department located in Philadelphia, Mississippi. The three had been working on the "Freedom Summer" campaign, attempting to register African Americans to vote.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mississippi_civil_rights_workers_murders]

1974 - 'Nada', Claude Chabrol's classic film about an anarchist group's kidnapping of an American Ambassador, is released.

[C] 1975 - Jolanda Palladino, a young PCI anti-Fascist is burnt to death after a MSI fascist throws a petrol bomb into his car which was part motorcade celebrating the victory of the Communist Party in municipal elections.

1977 - The Red Army Faction shoot Professor Remo Cacciafest, dean of the Rome University Economic Department, in the legs during a lecture for teaching students to be part of an immoral society, Rome.

[F] 1997 - 100,000 Union members and supporters march in solidarity with striking 'Detroit News' and 'Detroit Free Press' newspaper workers.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Detroit_newspaper_strike_of_1995–97]

2002 - 75th anniversary of the foundation of the Federación Anarquista Ibérica (FAI) in Spain.

2002 - The congress (21-23 June) and 30th anniversary celebration of the anarcho-pacifist monthly 'Graswurzelrevolution' (GWR) is held in Münster.

2014 - Members of an Polish nationalist group, Zjednoczeni Emigranci (United Immigrants) attack a small music festival being held in Markfield Park, Tottenham with rocks and flares. Following the unprovoked neo-Nazi attack on festival-goers including children and families, one man was taken to hospital with stab wounds and one of the fascists was arrested for religiously and racially aggravated common assault following an attack on a Jewish man.
[www.tottenhamjournal.co.uk/news/crime-court/man_stabbed_as_neo_nazis_attack_tottenham_community_music_festival_1_3652881
www.standard.co.uk/news/crime/man-stabbed-during-violence-as-polish-neonazis-storm-tottenham-music-festival-9556346.html
www.haringeyindependent.co.uk/news/11294094.Man_stabbed_in_alleged_Neo_Nazi_attack/?ref=mr]
22
1836 - Gaston Crémieux (Isaac Louis Gaston; d. 1871), French radical Républican, Proudhonian socialist and member of the Commune de Marseille, born. Court-martialled and executed on November 30, 1871.
[www.ephemanar.net/juin22.html#cremieux]

1846 - The saxophone is patented.

1848 - Journées de Juin [June Days Uprising]: The Comte de Falloux's commission du travail of the Assemblée Constituante issue a decree, published in the 'Le Moniteur' (The Official Gazette), stating that the Ateliers Nationaux (National Workshops), only set up on February 26, will be closed in three days time and that the options for its 115,000 registered workers are that young men (18-27 years old) could join the army, provincials could return home or they could simply be dismissed. That same day, the workers demonstrate against the 'décret de proscription' (decree of proscription) but they fail to wrest any concessions.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/June_Days_Uprising
fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Journées_de_Juin
marxists.anu.edu.au/archive/marx/works/1848/06/28a.htm]

1859 - The Association of Organised Trades of Sheffield and Neighbourhood, the forerunner of the Sheffield Trades and Labour Council, is founded.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sheffield_Trades_and_Labour_Council
www.sheffieldhistory.co.uk/forums/topic/6194-whitaker39s-sheffield-almanac-january-to-june-1/
www.sheffield.gov.uk/content/dam/sheffield/docs/libraries-and-archives/archives-and-local-studies/research/Outrages Study Guide v1-4.pdf]

1861 - Félix Fénéon (d. 1944), French art critic, anarchist and friend of Seurat, Paul Signac, Theo van Rysselberghe, Henri-Edmond Cross, André Gide, et al., born. The remarkable Fénéon was the first French publisher of James Joyce and the 'discoverer' of the artist Seurat - he coined the term neo-Impressionsits to identify the group of artists around Seurat, when he wrote his 'Les Impressionnistes en 1886'.
Fénéon worked in the Ministry of War between 1881 to 1894, where he put his talent for writing to use creating reports on a wide range of subjects, all in perfect 'administrativese'. From 1886 he also worked for numerous anarchist newspapers and magazines including 'L' Endehors' (assuming the editorship when Zo d'Axa was in exile in London), 'La Renaissance', 'La Revue Anarchiste', etc.. He also co-founded 'La Libre Revue' and 'La Revue Indépendante' (1884); one of the main editors of the C19th literary magazine 'Vogue'; writer, translator and copy editor for the 'La Revue Blanche' (1894 - 1903; see below); as well as collaborating on 'La Revue Moderniste', 'Le Symboliste', 'La Cravache', 'La Plume', 'Le Chat Noir'; 'Les Entretiens Politiques et Littéraires' with the Symbolist poet Francis Vielé-Griffin; and on Émile Pouget's anarchist weekly newspaper, 'Père Peinard'. He helped discover or first published authors such as Jules Laforgue, Alfred Jarry, Mallarmé, Apollinaire, Rimbaud, etc..
Instigator of the April 4, 1894 bomb attack on the Foyot restaurant, he was arrested when a search of his home and his office at the War Department discovered materials, including mercury, which the police claimed could be used to build a bomb, and stood trial in the Procès des Trente. Numerous authors including Stéphane Mallarmé and Octave Mirbeau, gave evidence in his defence whilst Fénéon himself ridiculed the prosecution. He was acquitted but fired by the Ministry of Defence.
His lawyer at the trial Thadee Natanson, co-owner of the 'La Revue Blanche', hired him as a copy editor on the basis of his performance in the witness box, later becoming the managing editor of the magazine, one of the most important literary journals of its time. Fénéon was also involved in the defence of Alfred Dreyfus and later started writing his grand guignol stories of true crime, suicide and everyday occurrences, which appeared anonymously in 'Le Matin' and 'Le Figaro', later collected in 'Nouvelles en Trois Lignes' (News in Three Lines; 2007).
Giving up journalism in late 1906, he became director of the Bernheim-Jeune art gallery (until 1925) and helped raise awareness initially about established artists such as Seurat (he saw Seurat's 'La Grande Jatte' at the eighth and final Impressionist exhibition in 1886) and Pissarro, and subsequently Pierre Bonnard, Paul Signac, Van Dongen, Henri Matisse, Maurice Denis, Émile Compard. etc..
"Strange as it might seem to us now, many artists, including Paul Signac, Camille Pissarro and Lucien Pissarro, Maximilien Luce, Théo van Rysselberghe, and others not only justified and glorified Anarchists, but supported them financially."
[recollectionbooks.com/bleed/Encyclopedia/FeneonFelix.htm
fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Félix_Fénéon
www.ephemanar.net/fevrier29.html#29
www.thewhitereview.org/features/felix-feneon-bomb-thrower/
revueblanche.over-blog.com/article-28013058.html]

1875 - Johannes Baader (d. 1955), German writer, artist, agent provocteur, Oberdada and member of Berlin Dada, born. The crowned prince of Dada clowns, Baader politically had a distinctly individualist anarchist outlook, which he pursued under the auspices of Dada and its associated anarchist and socialist-based publications. Additionally, his diagnosis of manic depression allowed for him to act out his ideas and desires to the hilt.
Originally trained as a stonemason and studied architecture, he moved to Berlin in 1905 where he met Raoul Hausmann, with whom he formed a distinctly anarchist faction within Berlin Dada (as opposed to the communist faction around Grosz and the brothers Herzfelde), and began designing utopian architecture such as his World Temple for interdenominational harmony, a 1500m high building and, later on designs, for an unbuilt zoo. [expand]
[www.dada-companion.com/baader/
www.nga.gov/exhibitions/2006/dada/artists/baadertext.htm
www.tate.org.uk/research/publications/tate-papers/behold-buffoon-dada-nietzsches-ecce-homo-and-sublime#footnote1_z0qkppy
writershistory.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=526&Itemid=28
www.bibliothekderfreien.de/texte/totalaufstand-gegen-die-besthende-ordnung.html
ur.dadaweb.de/dabuch.htm]

[E] 1880 - Maria Paulina Orsetti (d. 1957), Polish educator, Doctor of Social Sciences, pioneer of the cooperatives movement, theorist of cooperativism, socialist and anarchist sympathiser, who co-founded the Cooperatives League (Ligi Kooperatystek) in Poland, born. She used the pseudonym of Edward Godwin for her translations of Peter Kropotkin, 'Państwo i jego rola historyczna' (The state and its historical role; 1924), 'Zdobycie chleba' (The Conquest of Bread; 1925), and 'Spólnictwo a socjalizm wolnościowy' (Community and libertarian socialism; 1930). [expand]
[pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maria_Orsetti
www.ipsb.nina.gov.pl/index.php/a/maria-paulina-orsetti]

[B] 1882 - José Rodrigues Oiticica (d. 1957), Brazilian anarchist, poet and activist, born. He was founder and editor of the anarchist journal 'Ação Direta' (Direct Action). [expand]

1883 - Louise Michel, who was arrested following the looting of Paris bakeries on March 9, appears before the Seine Court of Assizes.
Le président: "Vous prenez donc part à toutes les manifestations?" (So you took part in all the events?)
Louise: "Hélas ! oui... je suis toujours avec les misérables. (...) Le peuple meurt de faim, et il n'a pas même le droit de dire qu'il meurt de faim. Eh bien! moi, j'ai pris le drapeau noir et j'ai été dire que le peuple était sans travail et sans pain. Voilà mon crime; vous le jugerez comme vous voudrez." (Alas, yes ... I'm still with the miserable. (...) The people are starving, and they did not even have the right to say they are starving. Well! me, I took the black flag, and I was saying that the people were without work and without bread. It's my crime, judge me as you like.)
She is sentenced to six years in prison, followed by 10 years monitoring by the haute (political) police.

1886 - [N.S. Jul. 4] Olga Vladimirovna Rozanova (Ольга Владимировна Розанова; d. 1918), Russian Cubo-Futurist and Suprematist artist, painter, graphic artist, illustrator, designer, art theorist and poet, born. [see: Jul. 4]

1905 - [N.S. Jul. 5] Łódź Insurrection [Powstanie Łódzkie] / June Days [Dni Czerwca]: During the evening, an armed uprising breaks out. On Eastern Street (ul. Wschodniej), insurgents attack a company of infantry and 50 Cossacks. During the night (June 22-23 [N.S. Jul. 5-6]) the first of more than 100 barricades begin to appear in the streets of Łódź. Six regiments of infantry, two cavalry regiments and a regiment of Cossacks are hastily dispatched to the city to help put down the insurrection.
In the area of ​​East street workers opened fire on a group of Russian soldiers and cavalrymen, and on South Street was surrounded by the entire Russian Military Police unit. Located in several fires broke out as workers set fire to warehouses of alcohol. Soon after, government forces have made the first assault on the barricades, at first without a clear success.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Łódź_insurrection_(1905)
pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Powstanie_łódzkie
wolnemedia.net/historia/powstanie-lodzkie-1905-roku/
rewolucja1905.pl/tagi/powstanie-lodzkie/]

1907 - First appearance of the Chinese anarchist weekly 'Hsin Shih-chi' (or 'Xin Shiji' - The New Century) in Paris.

1908 - Tokyo anarchists, after meeting a friend being released from jail, mount a demonstration and are attacked by police. 14 participants are arrested and imprisoned; they begin conspiring in what was to become 'The High Treason Incident'. [see: May 20 1910]

[D] 1911 - Revolución Mexicana / Second Battle of Tijuana: Outnumbered and outflanked by a large federal force, and seriously low on supplies, the Magónistas [150 Wobblies and 75 Mexicans led by Jack Mosby] holding Tijuana fought hard but are routed in only three hours as Tijuana is recaptured by 560 of Diaz's former Federal troops, now lead by Madero. The American Magónista Foreign Legion fled north to California and across the border where they were interned, having decided to surrender to the United States Army rather than facing a Madero firing squad. Among those getting away is Mosby's fellow IWW member, the famed hobo songwriter Joe Hill. Mosby was arrested and, having refused to incriminate Magón in court, was shot supposedly trying to escape - the the infamous ley de fuega excuse.
The Mexican Magónista's, who included some native Americans in their number, slipped away into the surrounding countryside. In the battle only a few federal troops had been wounded but the Magónistas had suffered over thirty dead, most of whom were left on the battlefield when the Magónistas retreated.
With the Partido Liberal Mexicano's power base in serious decline, Ricardo Flores Magón is told that: "It would take a forest of trees to hang all the Judases." Magón's dream of Baja California becoming the launching ground of an International Anarchist revolution had turned into a nightmare.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Battle_of_Tijuana
www.sandiegohistory.org/journal/88winter/postcardsimages.htm
www.todopormexico.org/t6806-invasion-filibustera-a-baja-california
www.aftguild.org/free_speech/history/magonista-revolt.html
www.pacarinadelsur.com/home/oleajes/694-la-revuelta-magonista-de-1911-en-baja-california]

1913 - [N.S. Jul. 4] Tikveš Uprising [Тиквешко въстание (Bul) / Тиквешко востание (Mkd)]: The rebels are reinforced by the arrival of the insurrgents of the Hristo Chernopeev (Христо Чернопеев), and the Chaulev (Чаулев Чекаларов) and Vasil Chekalarov (Васил Чекаларов) groups. The Serbian army begins to burn many Bulgarian villages, and the villagers flee to Kavadarci, whilst he rebels fight fierce battles in the heights above the village of Palikura (Паликура) and along the Black (Черна) and Luda Mara (Луда Мара) Rivers.
[bg.wikipedia.org/wiki/Тиквешко_въстание
mk.wikipedia.org/wiki/Тиквешко_востание
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tikveš_Uprising
www.savanne.ch/svoboda/anarchy/history/IlindPreobr.html]

1914 - After numerous calls by some of the anarchist press for revenge on Standard Oil for the Ludlow Massacre, a bomb intended for the Rockefeller Mansion unintentionally detonates in the Ferrer Center today, killing three anarchists.

1920 - Bartolomeo Vanzetti goes on trial for the Bridgewater robbery.

[F] 1920 - Herrin Massacre: The 50 or so besieged strikebreakers agree to surrender their arms in exchange for a guarantee of safe passage out of the county. After the disarmed strikebreakers left the mine, 19 were killed by the strikers in various ways; some were killed in the town cemetery, in front of a crowd of about 1,000 cheering townspeople. Some were tied up and repeatedly shot at close range; some had their throats slit.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herrin_massacre
www.lib.niu.edu/2001/ihy010235.html
www.lib.niu.edu/1997/ihy971204.html
www.mihp.org/2013/05/bloody-williamsons-history-of-mine-massacres/]

1921 - In the Sacco and Vanzetti trial, the defence begins to present their case.

[C] 1921 - Ludwig-Karl Ratschiller (d. 2004), Italian geologist and anti-Nazi partisan in North-Eastern Italy during WWII, is born in the South Tyrol.
[www.anpi.it/donne-e-uomini/ludwig-karl-ratschiller/
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ludwig-Karl_Ratschiller
it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ludwig_Karl_Ratschiller]

1927 - Stan Iverson (d. 1985), US anarchist, ex-communist and ex-Trotskyite, born. Co-founder in 1971 of Mother Earth Books and of Red & Black Books Collective in 1973.

1934 - El Juicio a los Campesinos de Casas Viejas [The Trial of the Casas Viejas Peasants]: "Once, when barbarism rules over the world after the Courts came sometimes the bonfires. Now are the bonfires, crimes, murders, preceding sentences. Casas Viejas was destroyed by the police. Casas Viejas witnessed terrified the murder of twenty peasants. who were the dead? According to Casares, according to Azaña, according to Rojas himself, it was the rebels, those who fired at the headquarters of the Guardia Civil, who caused the death of a sergeant and a guard. But those twenty corpses that were intended to avenge the death of two guards were not enough. They had to find more responsible; had to find someone to unload the full weight of the law upon. And they sought amongst who escaped, amongst those who had managed to escape death, among those who taken to the mountains to avoid the flames they reached them and shot ... " - Eduardo de Guzmán in 'Tierra', June 22, 1934
[historiacasasviejas.blogspot.co.uk/2011/06/el-juicio-de-junio-del-34-los_24.html]

1936 - Grève Générale en Belgique: There are more than 500,000 participants in the strike throughout the country. However, the beginning of the end of the general strike movement is signalled when Antwerp's dockers return to work in advance of the final text of the negotiations with the government.
Having received the final text, and with the strike committee still remaining suspicious, it convenes a congress for later in the day. The delegates are convinced of the benefits obtained, the commitments made by the government and the majority considered that the aims of the strike have been achieved for the vast majority of workers. They decide to call for work to be resumed on Wednesday June 24.
[www.lcr-lagauche.be/cm/index.php?view=article&id=606:la-greve-de-1936-en-belgique&option=com_content&Itemid=53
romaincourcelles.wordpress.com/2011/07/09/belgique-dans-solidaire-comment-les-travailleurs-belges-ont-fo-nde-la-securite-sociale/
deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/50989/215.pdf;jsessionid=D3720CF399E8FCE653807B8C873C5DAF?sequence=1
solidaire.org/articles/1936-les-travailleurs-la-conquete-du-temps
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_strikes_in_Belgium
nvdatabase.swarthmore.edu/content/belgian-workers-strike-minimum-wage-paid-vacations-40-hour-work-week-and-union-rights-1936
www.larevuetoudi.org/en/story/belgian-walloon-general-strikes
mocliege.be/IMG/pdf/reg059_dossier.pdf
www.skynet.be/actu-sports/dossier/1621328/les-plus-grandes-greves-de-l-histoire-en-belgique/1621331/2-juin-1936]

1939 - Benjamin Tucker (b. 1854), American individualist anarchist, publisher and journalist, dies in Monaco. [see: Apr. 17]

1940 - Walter Hasenclever (b. 1890), radical German Expressionist poet, playwright, anti-militarist and anarchist fellow traveller, commits suicide in a Vichy detention camp rather than falling into the hands of the Nazis.

1941 - Folie de grandeur: Germany invades Russia.

1955 - Grèves des Métallurgistes à Nantes et Saint-Nazaire: A wave of labour strikes begin in France. Sparked by a wage dispute amongst soldiers in Saint-Nazaire, they developed into a major dispute in Nantes and Saint-Nazaire. [expand]
[hirsutefanzine.wordpress.com/2015/03/11/les-greves-de-lete-1955-a-saint-nazaire-et-nantes/
chrhc.revues.org/3923?lang=fr
www.zones-subversives.com/2016/07/revolte-ouvriere-a-saint-nazaire-en-1955.html
le-libertaire.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/Grves_de_Nantes_et_St_Nazaire_1955.pdf
mondialisme.org/spip.php?article1571
libcom.org/library/workers-against-bureaucracy]

1956 - Consuelo Zavala y Castillo (b. 1874), Mexican feminist teacher, who was the founder of the first secular private school for women in Yucatan that now bears her name, dies in Merida, the city of her birth. After teaching at various schools in the state in 1902 founded her own school basing the curriculum on secular, scientific education methods. She was President of the Board of Directors for the Organizing Committee of the First Feminist Congress in Mexico held in 1916.
[es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consuelo_Zavala
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consuelo_Zavala]

[1973 - Huelga General de Pamplona: ]
[memoriasdelviejopamplona.com/2014/08/conflictividad-social-y-politica-en-la.html
gerindabaibi.blogspot.co.uk/2013/06/40-anos-de-la-huelga-de-motor-iberica.html
ddd.uab.cat/pub/ppc/CNTinf/CNTinf_a1973m7.pdf
amnistiapresos.blogspot.co.uk/2016/09/cuando-la-huelga-general-en-nafarroa-de.html]

1976 - Robert Relf is freed from prison after a 45-day 'hunger strike' [he was being fed Complan by sympathetic screws].
[www.runnymedetrust.org/histories/race-equality/41/race-rebel-freed-after-hunger-strike.html]

[A] 1987 - 10,000 protesters form 10 mile long human chain around US airbase in Okinawa.

1993 - Josephine Witt (Josephine Marckmann), German philosophy student, feminist activist and former FEMEN member, born.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Josephine_Witt
www.josephine-witt.com]

1995 - Luciano Farinelli (b. 1931), Italian journalist and anarchist militant, dies. [see: Sep. 24]

1998 - Pierre Martin (b. 1912), French writer, ecomonist, libertarian and peace activist, dies.
[www.ephemanar.net/juin22.html
ccivs.org/New-SiteCCSVI/CcivsOverview/Documents/Ccivs-origins-Baye-Martin.htm]

2002 - Première of 'Voyage', the first part of Tom Stoppard's trilogy of plays, 'The Coast of Utopia' ('Shipwreck' and 'Salvage' being the other 2 plays), set in Tsarist Russia amongst a group of 19th-century Russian revolutionaries - Mikhail Bakunin, Alexander Herzen, Ivan Turgenev, and Vissarion Belinsky, at the National Theatre's Olivier auditorium.

2008 - Albert Cossery (b. 1913), Egyptian-born French novelist, self-proclaimed anarchist and "lazy old sod", writing only one book per decade, dies. [see: Nov. 3]
23
1381 - Peasants' Revolt: Richard II and his army arrive in Waltham from London. Richard II's announces that he has cancelled the charters that he issued in London on June 14th.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peasants'_Revolt]

1381 - Peasants' Revolt: The news of the southern revolt reaches Scarborough where riots break out against the ruling elite, with the rebels dressed in white hoods with a red tail at the back. Members of the local government were deposed from office, and one tax collector was nearly lynched. By 1382 the elite had re-established power.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peasants'_Revolt]

[D] 1653 - The radical anti-monarchist Ormée seize the Hôtel de Ville (City Hall) in Bordeaux, the peak of revolutionary activity during the Bordeaux Fronde (1651-1653). [NB. Date sometimes given as June 25, 1652]
[fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parti_de_l'Ormée
fr.wikisource.org/wiki/Étude_critique_sur_l’Ormée_à_Bordeaux_et_le_journal_de_J._de_Filhot
www.bordeaux-gazette.com/La-Republique-de-l-Ormee-une.html
aborddormeelaverite.blogspot.co.uk/2014/09/revolisation-bordeaux-lassemblee-de.html
bertrand.meallet.pagesperso-orange.fr/isle/histoire/la_fronde.htm]

1725 - The Shawfield or Malt tax riots take place in Glasgow as the Excise offices are occupied in order to prevent the imposition of a new duty on malt. Glasgow MP Daniel Campbell's house is attacked after he calls the army in, who subsequently fire on the mob. Campbell is later compensated for damage to his house by the imposition of a tax on Glasgow's ale, which enabled him to buy the island of Islay.

1744* - Micaela Bastidas y Puyucava (d. 1781), Peruvian revolutionary and indigenous freedom fighter, and wife of Tupac Amaru II (Jose Gabriel Condorcanqui Noguera), who was the chief political and military strategist of the uprising against the Spanish colonialists, born. [see: May. 18]
[* The exact date is disputed and the years 1742 and 1745 are also commonly cited.]

1751 - Gregoria Apaza Nina (d. 1782), indigenous Aymara leader, who led a major indigenous revolt, along side her brother, Julián Apasa Nina (Túpac Katari), and sister-in-law, Bartolina Sisa, against Spanish colonial rule in Bolivia, born. She and Bartolina took over the leadership of the rebels following the capture and death of Túpac Katari in November 1781.
[es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gregoria_Apaza
ciudadrebelde.blogspot.co.uk/2015/12/biografia-de-gregoria-apaza.html]

1787 - The Marquis de Sade begins writing his novel 'Justine'.

1841 - Benoît Malon (d. 1893), French Bakuninist, member of the International, Communard and then a socialist, born. Author of the Commune history 'La Troisième Défaite du Prolétariat Français' (1871).
[www.ephemanar.net/septembre13.html
www.universalis.fr/encyclopedie/benoit-malon/]

[A/DD] 1848 - Journées de Juin [June Days Uprising]: On June 20 the commission exécutive of the Assemblée Constituante had adopted a decree drawn up on May 15 ordering the closure of the Ateliers Nationaux (National Workshops). Costing nearly 200,000 francs a day to 'employ' its 115,000 registered workers at a time of continuing economic and social upheaval, the Ateliers Nationaux were a moral disgrace in the eyes of the ruling classes. Created by the Second Republic in order to provide work and a source of income for the unemployed, despite the fact that only low pay, dead-end jobs were provided, which barely provided enough money to survive, the workers of France have no option to protest their closure.
On the 22nd, the Comte de Falloux's commission du travail of the Assemblée Constituante issued a decree, published in the 'Le Moniteur' (The Official Gazette), stating that the Ateliers Nationaux (National Workshops), only set up on February 26, would be closed within three days and that the options for its 115,000 registered workers were that young men (18-27 years old) could join the army, provincials could return home or they could simply be dismissed. That same day, the workers demonstrated against the 'décret de proscription' (decree of proscription) but they failed to wrest any concessions.
Following a large rally outside the Bastille on the morning of June 23, hundreds of barricades were thrown up across Eastern Paris (thirty-eight in Rue Saint-Jacques alone, more than four hundred in all), blocking communications and halting movement. Spontaneous in character, the workers' uprising lacked leadership save for the the former seminarian Sergeant Pujol and the junior officers of the Garde Nationale units who had gone over to the uprising. "Du pain ou du plomb" (Bread or lead) quickly became the rallying call of the insurgents as sections of Paris began to burn. With only 3,000 members, the Parisian police were helpless to intervene and the Garde Nationale was called out to halt the rioting; this sparked fighting once the guard and protesters clashed in bloody fighting. The labourers had now become insurgents and were breaking stones to use as barricades.
The numbers involved on the military's side were estimated to be well over 40,000 [at his disposal, General Louis Eugène Cavaignac had 25 000 soldiers of the French army, largely sons of peasants; 17,000 Gardes Nationale (shopkeepers and the bourgeois of Paris and its province), 15,000 gardes mobiles (recruited from the poorest parts of the Parisian proletariat) and 2,500 Garde Républicaine (ex-municipal) police]; however, the number of insurgents was estimated to be higher and grew as they travelled from house to house recruiting other citizens to join them, threatening them with death if they refused. The insurgents also seized many armouries to gather weapons, regardless they were still running low on ammunition. However, the revolutionaries would rather die than to return to their lives of poverty.
Large amounts of blood were shed on the streets as the National Guard fired on the barricades, but the Gardes Nationale's men were not the only ones firing. The insurgents also inflicted heavy casualties to the Gardes, who lost many of their men.
The Journées de Juin would last until the 26th, with some of the fiercest fighting of the 4 days having taken place in and around the Faubourg St. Antoine, the Place Maubert, and in the vicinity of the Pantheon, ending with the fall of the last barricade, located in the Faubourg Saint-Antoine. The revolution was over.
The number of insurgents killed in the fighting has been estimated between 3000 and 5000 people, with approximately 1,500 shot without trial. There were about 25,000 arrests and 11,000 prison sentences, including deported to Algeria .
According to the Police Commissioner Franz Joseph Ducoux in a report of October 8, fighting had left ​​1,460 dead, of which two thirds were from the army and the National Guard. The losses of the Garde Républicaine were 92, including two senior officers. Seven generals were killed and five injured .
On July 3, General Cavaignac said that the number of insurgents were at most 50,000 and that the losses of the army are 703 dead or wounded .
According to Ernest Lavisse and Philippe Sagnac ['Histoire de France contemporaine depuis la révolution jusqu'à la paix de 1919', 1922], the losses of the army were 800 dead and 1,500 wounded, those of the gardes mobiles 100 dead and 600 wounded, while those of the Gardes Nationale and insurgents are unknown .
For Alain Bauer and Christophe Soullez ['Une histoire criminelle de la France', 2002], losses totalled 15,000 killed and wounded, including 1,800 deaths and 4000 injured on the side of the forces of law and order, and for the insurgents 25 000 fighters killed.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/June_Days_Uprising
fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Journées_de_Juin
marxists.anu.edu.au/archive/marx/works/1848/06/28a.htm
www.commune-rougerie.fr/juin-1848--linsurrection,fr,8,47.cfm
docil-cocktail.org/_1848/l_insurection_du_23_juin_18.html]

[E] 1817 - Anne-Josèphe Théroigne de Méricourt (Anne-Josèphe Terwagne; b. 1762), French singer, orator and prominent personality during the French Revolution for which the Parisian royalist press caricatured her as a "patriots' whore", dies in the Hôpital de la Salpêtrière in Paris, having spent the last 23 years of her life in asylums, driven mad by her fearing of being guillotine (as Olympe de Gouges and Madame Roland had been in November 1793). [see: Aug. 13]

1871 - Marc Pierrot (d. 1950), French doctor of medicine, anarchist propagandist and publisher of the long-running libertarian review 'Plus Loin', born. One of the main collaborators on Jean Grave's 'Les Temps Nouveaux' newspaper. Signatory of the Manifeste des Seize in 1916. He revived 'Les Temps Nouveaux' between 1919 and 1921, and later founded the magazine 'Plus Loin' that ran from 1925 to 1939. In 1936 he went to Spain and took part in SIA (International Solidarity Antifascist) created by Louis Lecoin. During WWII, he was (wrongly) denounced as a Jew and he and his Lithuanian doctor wife had to go into hiding.
[www.ephemanar.net/juin23.html#23
recollectionbooks.com/bleed/Encyclopedia/PierrotMarc.htm]
anarlivres.free.fr/pages/biographies/bio_Pierrot.html]

[B] 1884 - José Martins Fontes (d. 1937), Brazilian doctor, lecturer, prolific poet, anarchist, militant activist in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, born.

[F] 1888 - London Match Girls' Strike: Annie Besant's article 'White Slavery in London' appears in her newspaper 'The Link', lighting the blue touch paper of what would become the Match Girls' Strike. In the article, she likening the Bow Road factory to a "prison-house" and describing the match girls, many of them only 13, as "white wage slaves" – "undersized", "helpless” and "oppressed", working a 14-hour day on wages of between 4 and 8 Shillings [20 - 40p] a week, only to be "flung aside as soon as worked out, who cares if they die or go on to the streets provided only that Bryant and May shareholders get their 23 per cent." Their situation was made worse by the unfair fines they faced. If they were late for work [fined a half-day's pay], caught talking, caught going to the toilet without permission or accidentally dropping matches they were fined. Annie Besant also discovered that the health of the women had been severely affected by the phosphorous that they used to make the matches. This caused yellowing of the skin and hair loss and phossy jaw, a form of bone cancer. The whole side of the face turned green and then black, discharging foul-smelling pus and finally death.
The company reacted by attempting to force their workers to sign a statement that they were happy with their working conditions. When a group of women refused to sign, the organisers of the group was sacked. The response was immediate; 1400 of the women at Bryant & May went on strike. The strike was quickly settled, with the Bryan and May directors having lost the media battle, and in 1908 the British government banned the use of white phosphorus in matches.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/London_matchgirls_strike_of_1888
www.bbc.co.uk/legacies/work/england/london/article_1.shtml
www.mernick.org.uk/thhol/thelink.html
www.eastlondonhistory.co.uk/bryant-may-strike-bow-east-london/
www.unionhistory.info/matchworkers/matchworkers.php
libcom.org/history/matchgirls-strike-1888-john-simkin
www.phm.org.uk/our-collection/object-of-the-month/november-2015-print-of-the-match-girls-during-their-strike-1888/
spartacus-educational.com/TUmatchgirls.htm
www.marxist.com/britain-matchgirls-strike.htm
www.bl.uk/learning/timeline/item106451.html]

1888 - Mabel Henrietta Capper (d. 1966), British WSPU 'soldier', who was imprisoned six times and was one of the first Suffragettes to be forcibly fed whilst on hunger strike, born. [expand]
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mabel_Capper]

1889 - Anna Akhmatova (Анна Ахматова;), pen name of Anna Andreyevna Gorenko (d. 1966), Russian modernist poet and important figure in the so-called Silver Age of Russian Poetry, who is widely recognised as the greatest woman poet in Russian literature, born. She suffered greatly under Stalinism and one of her most famous works is the lyrical cycle 'Requiem' (1935–40), where "one hundred million voices shout" through her "tortured mouth", giving witness to the Stalinist terror.
Her early poetry was championed by the founder of Mystical Anarchism, Georgy Chulkov, and his fellow poet and foolwer Vyacheslav Ivanov, and she was involved in the circle around 'Anarkhiia' and had poems published in its pages. Following the 1917 Revolution and the success of the Bolshevik takeover, she refused to leave the country unlike many she knew and her first husband,the influential poet Nikolay Gumilev (or Gumilyov) and anti-Bolshevik, was arrested and executed by Cheka in 1921 as part of the non-existent monarchist conspiracy Tagantsev conspiracy that was fabricated to cover up the post-Kronstadt uprising repression. Her son by Gumilev, Lev, was imprisoned on numerous occasions through the 1930s by the Stalinist regime, accused of counter-revolutionary activity because of his parentage. At the end of 1949 he was again arrested and sentenced to 10 years in a Siberian prison camp. Many of her friends and associates, included her close friend and fellow poet Mandelstam (who died in the gulags), were also sent to the camps, often dying there, or committed suicide to avoid the purges.
Akhmatova's poetry was deemed to represent an introspective "bourgeois aesthetic", reflecting only trivial "female" preoccupations, not in keeping with these new revolutionary politics of the time and her work was unofficially banned by a party resolution of 1925. Despite the constant suspicion and persecution by the Soviet authorities, she herself avoided the camps, but a later partner and lifelong friend, the art scholar Nikolai Punin, was also repeatedly arrested and he too died in the Gulags in 1953. Other relationship included marriage to the prominent Assyriologist and poet Vladimir Shilejko and affairs with the poet Osip Mandelstam, possibly the lyric poet Alexander Blok, mosaic artist and poet Boris Anrep, theatre director Mikhail Zimmerman and composer Arthur Lourié.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tagantsev_conspiracy
www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/11577/Anna-Akhmatova
artoftherussias.wordpress.com/2012/05/04/akhmatova-in-art/
max.mmlc.northwestern.edu/~mdenner/Demo/poetpage/akhmatova.html
www.poetryloverspage.com/poets/akhmatova/akhmatova_ind.html
twilightisnotgoodformaidens.blogspot.co.uk/2008/07/anna-akhmatova.html]

1905 - [N.S. Jul. 6] Łódź Insurrection [Powstanie Łódzkie] / June Days [Dni Czerwca]: Across Łódź all markets, workshops, shops and offices are closed and there was open clashes between workers and government forces. In the area of ​​Eastern Street workers opened fire on a group of Russian soldiers and cavalrymen, and on Southern Street another group of workers were surrounded by an entire Russian Military Police unit. Several large fires broke out as workers set fire to alcohol warehouses.
The most bloody battles take place on the barricades erected in the New City (Nowe Miasto) district on the corner of Eastern Street (Ulica Wschodniej) and Southern Street (Ulica Południowej) [now Revolution of 1905 Street (Ulica Rewolucji 1905 roku)], and on Northern Street (Ulica Północnej), near the Rokicińska highway (Szosy Rokicińskiej) and Źródliska Park (Parku Źródliska).
On the same day SDKPiL (Socjaldemokracja Królestwa Polskiego i Litwy / Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania) orders a general strike throughout the Polish Kingdom and the Tsar signs a decree introducing martial law in the city. Six infantry regiments and several regiments of cavalry also arrived from Częstochowa, Warsaw and several summer training camps.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Łódź_insurrection_(1905)
pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Powstanie_łódzkie
wolnemedia.net/historia/powstanie-lodzkie-1905-roku/
rewolucja1905.pl/tagi/powstanie-lodzkie/]

1906 - [O.S. Jun. 10] Life Guards Regiment Mutiny: Following yesterday's protests, General Ozerov arrived in Peterhof, hoping that he would be able to resolve any problems. He met with staff of the First Battalion, but the soldiers' representatives used this meeting to give thim their petition, a list of general demands that for the most part were of an economic nature (improving food, medical treatment, provision of linen, etc.), in addition to their political demands ("impunity for political convictions", "reading rooms for newspapers and magazines", etc.). During the meeting, the general promised that the soldiers would escape prosecution if they behaved according to the oath. This promise was contrary to the unanimous opinion of the regiment's officers, who demanded the arrest of the ringleaders, whose names were well known.
When it was discovered that the soldiers had sent their list of demands to the press, Major General Vladimir Gadon (Владимир Гадо), commander of the Life Guards Regiment, asked Ozerov's permission to arrest the instigators of the rebellion and went for an audience with the Tsar. However, when he returned, the general learned that the Fourth Battalion intended to follow the example of the First. Alarmed, he wrote a report telling Ozerov that the regiment could no longer be trusted. Meanwhile, Ozerov dispatched a special team to disarm the regiment and to escort it back to their quarters. Two ringleaders were also arrested without any resistance on the part of their comrades.
[cnparm.home.texas.net/Nat/Rus/Rus04.htm]
gulevich.net/pirsonaly.files/gulevichaa2.htm
old.redstar.ru/2006/08/23_08/6_01.html
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Преображенский_лейб-гвардии_полк
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Гадон,_Владимир_Сергеевич
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Васильчиков,_Сергей_Илларионович]

1908 - Anti-Diaz Magonista anarchist rebels attack Viesca, Coahuila.

1910 - Jean Marie Lucien Pierre Anouilh (d. 1987), French dramatist, film director, screenplay writer and so-called anarchiste de droite [anti-bourgeois but not anti-state or capital literary movement], born. Best known for his 1943 play 'Antigone', an adaptation of Sophocles' classical drama, that was seen as an attack on Pétain's Vichy government.
[vouloir.hautetfort.com/archive/2011/09/23/anarkhe.html]

1912 - A public meeting takes palce in the Labor Lyceum Hall in Philadelphia to honour the memory of the noted freethinker, anti-militarist and militant anarcha-feminist Voltairine de Cleyre, who had died three days earlier in Chicago.
[www.estelnegre.org/anarcoefemerides/2306.html]

1913 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: Part of a wing of St Andrews University destroyed by fire.

1913 - [N.S. Jul. 5] Tikveš Uprising [Тиквешко въстание (Bul) / Тиквешко востание (Mkd)]: The headquarters of the uprising sent an appeal to the Bulgarian High Command to send help. But rebel detachments received orders to retreat as Bulgarian army retreat to the east.
[bg.wikipedia.org/wiki/Тиквешко_въстание
mk.wikipedia.org/wiki/Тиквешко_востание
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tikveš_Uprising
www.savanne.ch/svoboda/anarchy/history/IlindPreobr.html]

1915 - Jules Lermina (b. 1839), French prolific novelist, journalist and anarchist, whose early novels appeared under the pseudonym William Cobb, dies. [see: Mar. 27]

1925 - Shaji (or Shakee) Massacre [沙基惨案]or Six Hundred & Twenty-three Event [六二三事件]: During a noisy demonstration on the Chinese island of Shamian troops under foreign command kill more than 50 Chinese protesters and wound almost 120 more, further exacerbating tensions that resulted in the Hong Kong General Strike (省港大罷工). [see: May 30 & Jun. 24]
[zh.wikipedia.org/zh/沙基慘案
baike.baidu.com/view/59613.htm]

1934 - El Juicio a los Campesinos de Casas Viejas[(The Trial of the Casas Viejas Peasants]: "The prosecutor read his report exposing the anarchic situation in Spain at the time and referring specifically to the case of Casas Viejas says it was a movement prepared and organised by the leaders who will end pointing and calling the facts under the Code of Military Justice, having carried out constituent acts of aggression against the armed force. Consequently, he requested penalties of twenty-five years' imprisonment for Antonio Cabañas, Cristóbal Toro Domínguez, Francisco Rocha, Manuel Moreno, Salvador Jordan and Sebastian Pavon; six years for Manuel Vera, José Moreno, Antonio Pavón, Francisco Quijada, Miguel Pavón, Manuel Sánchez, Juan Jiménez, José Pérez, José González, Francisco Cantero, Esteban Moreno, Antonio Durán, José Monroy, Jose Rodriguez Quiros, and Francisco Quintero; and three years for Antonio Cornejo, Antonio Cruz and Diego Fernández, Francisco Quijada, Sebastián Cornejo and Sebastián Rodríguez." 'La Época' June 23, 1934
[historiacasasviejas.blogspot.co.uk/2011/06/el-juicio-de-junio-del-34-los.html]

1936 - Grève Générale en Belgique: With the national consultation process having reached conclusions acceptable to both the workers' and employers' side, trade union leaders call for the resumption of work on Wednesday June 24 is made known to the strike movement.

[C] 1937 - Following the Communist suppression of the anarchists and P.O.U.M., George Orwell flees Spain with his wife, Eileen O'Shaughnessy.

1942 - 556 patients from the mental hospitals in Kobierzyn near Cracow and Kalwaria Zebrzydowska were put to death under the euthanasia program.
[www.holocaustresearchproject.org/euthan/kobierzyn.html
en.auschwitz.org/h/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=18&Itemid=1&limit=1&limitstart=1]

1971 - Louis Lecoin (b. 1888), French anti-militarist, pacifist, anarchist, dies. [see: Sep. 30]

1972 - The New Zealand yacht Grant Davidson is rammed by French Navy as it attempts to enter the Mururoa nuclear test site in the South Pacific.

1974 - The first SETI message beamed into space.

1983 - Isabel Hernández Marichal, aka 'La Tabaquera' (The Tobacco Worker) (b. 1914), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist active in the Canary Islands, dies. [see: Feb. 23]

[EE]1990 - Inna Shevchenko [Інна Шевченко], Ukrainian activist and leader of International women's movement FEMEN, born. An early opponent of the topless tactic, she was reluctantly persuaded of its validity but still finds it difficult to bare her breasts before each demonstration. Shevchenko was fired from her job in the Kiev Mayor`s press office after her arrest for taking part in a protest against the absence of women in Prime Minister Mykola Azarov's cabinet in December 2010, and in 2013 she was granted asylum in France from where she runs the FEMEN orgtanisation. When told that she was a major influence on the design of a new French stamp in 2013 featuring the image of Marianne, Inna tweeted "All homophobes, extremists, fascists will have to lick my arse when they want to send a letter".
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inna_Shevchenko
www.inna-shevchenko.com
www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-23320741
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FEMEN
uk.wikipedia.org/wiki/FEMEN]

1997 - Betty Shabazz, aka Betty X (Betty Dean Sanders; b. 1934), African-American nurse, educator and civil rights advocate, who was the wife of Malcolm X, dies of the injuries sustained when her grandson Malcolm set fire to her apartment three weeks previously. [see: May 28]
24
[AA] 1842 - Ambrose Bierce (d. 1914), American newspaper columnist, satirist, essayist, short-story writer, novelist and author of 'The Devil's Dictionary', who disappeared during the Mexican Revolution, born
"PRISON, n. A place of punishments and rewards. The poet assures us that - "Stone walls do not a prison make," but a combination of the stone wall, the political parasite and the moral instructor is no garden of sweets." - 'The Devil's Dictionary', (1911).

1856 - [O.S. Jun. 12] Anna Vasilevna Yakimova-Dikovsky (Анна Васильевна Якимова-Диковская; d. 1942), Russian anarchist-influenced revolutionary, member of Zemlya i Volya (Land and Liberty), of the Executive Committee of Narodnaya Volya (People's Will), its fighting group Freedom or Death (Свобода или Смерть), and the Socialist Revolutionary Party, writer and historian, born. In 1880, she was part of three failed plots to assassinate Tsar Alexander II. In April 1881, she was arrested and tried in the Trial of 20 (процессе 20-ти) on February 21-27 [9-15], 1882, and sentenced to death. Her sentence commuted was to indefinite hard labour in Siberia and in 1899 she was released into the post-penal settlement in Chita. After the 1917 October Revolution, she lived in Moscow and worked for various cooperative organisations.
[spartacus-educational.com/RUS-Anna_Yakimova.htm
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Якимова-Диковская,_Анна_Васильевна
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Земля_и_воля
www.narovol.narod.ru/svs.htm]

1859 - The Battle of Solferino in Italy brings 300,000 soldiers onto the battlefield, with French and Italian troops fighting Austrian troops. Henri Dunant, a Swiss businessman and social activist, tours the battlefield after the battle and is appalled by the suffering of the wounded soldiers left lying on the battlefield. He organises local people to help the injured soldiers, and spends his own money to buy supplies and set up makeshift hospitals. He convinces the people in the area to provide help to all the injured, regardless of what side they were on in the battle, adopting the slogan “Tutti fratelli” (All are brothers) coined by the women of a nearby town. Afterwards, Dunant begins a campaign that leads to the Geneva Conventions and the establishment of the International Committee of the Red Cross.

1874 - [O.S. Jun. 12] Yelena Nikolayevna Oshanina [Елена Николаевна Ошанина] (d. unknown), Russian teacher and Narodnista revolutionary, who was the daughter of prominent Narodista revolutionary Maria Nikolaevna Olovennikova [Мария Николаевна Оловенникова], born. In 1899, she became involved in revolutionary circles, participating in education classes, storing and distributing forbidden literature, and printing revolutinonary propaganda. She was banished for taking part in a political demonstration on May 18 [5], 1902 in Saratov. In 1904 she was arrested again and spent five months in Minusinsk prison. She then fled abroad  to Switzerland, returning to Russia clandestinely in June 1905, joining the Socialist-Revolutionary Party (Партия социалистов-революционеров) and working in the Chernigov and Kazan provinces under the noms de guerre of Катя (Kate) and Анна (Anna). In 1906, she was arrested, spending a year in Kazan prison before her trail, at chich she was sentenced to 4 years in jail for "vagrancy" and to 2 years in a fortress [годам крепости] for anti-government propaganda among the peasants. When her real name was discovered, she was given 3 years hard labour on May 26 [13], 1909 for leaving the country illegally (overturned on appeal). In 1909 she was released and worked as a medical assistant, later joining the Society of Former Political Prisoners and Exiles (Общество бывших политкаторжан и ссыльнопоселенцев) and writing a memoirs, 'Musings on prison: Penal servitude and exile' (Из тюремных скитаний. Каторга и ссылка), 1923. In 1924 she received a pension from the RSFSR (РСФСР) and died some time after 1935.
[ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ошанина,_Елена_Николаевна_(революционерка)]

1880 - Georges Durupt (d. 1941), French anarchist and co-founder of the 'Fédération Révolutionnaire' alongside the likes of Miguel Almereyda, born.

1882 - François Mayoux (d. 1967), French teacher, author, pacifist and libertarian trades unionist, born. Partner of Marie Mayoux and father of Jehan Mayoux. François and Marie joined the socialist SFIO in 1915, earning places in the 'Carnet B'. They were heavily fined and sentenced to 2 years in prison for the pacifist pamphlet 'Les Instituteurs Syndicalistes et la Guerre' (The Teachers Union and War) in 1917 and were excluded from the French Communist party in 1922 during the purge of syndicalists. Both participated in the anarchist press including 'La Revue Anarchiste', 'La Voix Libertaire', 'CQFD', 'Défense de l'Homme', 'Le Monde Libertaire', etc. Excluded from the CGTU in 1929, they went on to support the Spanish Revolution and denounced the Stalinist repression.
[www.ephemanar.net/juin16.html#16
autogestionacrata.blogspot.co.uk/2012/09/marie-y-francois-mayoux.html]

1894 - In Lyon, the Italian anarchist Santo Geronimo Caserio (Sante Jeronimo Caserio) stabs French president Sadi Carnot to avenge the execution of Auguste Vaillant. Carnot dies from the wounds and an hysterical mob plunders Italian stores. Caserio is arrested and guillotined on August 16, 1894.
[Costantini pic]

1899 - The first issue of the weekly newspaper 'L'Homme Libre', "Révolutionnaire, Sociologique, Artistique, Scientifique", is published in Paris by Ernest Girault.

1905 - [N.S. Jul. 7] Łódź Insurrection [Powstanie Łódzkie] / June Days [Dni Czerwca]: At dusk (some sources claim noon on the 25th [Jul. 8]) the last of the barricades, on the Eastern Street and in Źródliska Park, fall to Tsarist troops - according to the sources. Over the following days there were many individual militant actions, such as attacks on police outposts or shooting at individual police patrols.
In most cases, the Łódź insurgents were very poorly armed, fighting with a few revolvers, paving stones, boiling water and acid poured from the windows etc., and it was inevitable that they would succumbed to the overwhelmingly superior Tsarist police forces. They also had to combat the actions of the endecki [Narodowa Demokracja (National Democratic Party)] militias, as there was in effect a mini civil war during the June uprising between the workers associated with the Polska Partia Socjalistyczna (Polish Socialist Party) and the workers supporting the National Democracy movement, who resoundingly denounced the 1905 Revolution.
The number of victims during the fighting is not known. Official reports claim 151 civilian deaths (55 Poles, 79 Jews and 17 Germans) and about 150 wounded, whilst historians estimate at least 200 dead and between 800 and 2,000 wounded.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Łódź_insurrection_(1905)
pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Powstanie_łódzkie
wolnemedia.net/historia/powstanie-lodzkie-1905-roku/
rewolucja1905.pl/tagi/powstanie-lodzkie/]

1912 - At a meeting organised by Ben Reitman in Bute, Montana, Emma Goldman gives one of her most famous and widely discussed lectures: 'Why the poor should not have children'.

1913 - [N.S. Jul. 6] Tikveš Uprising [Тиквешко въстание (Bul) / Тиквешко востание (Mkd)]: Realising that help will not be arriving, the rebels leave their positions and, as Serb troops enter Kavadarci, the entire population and all the refugees gathered there from nearby villages flee into the mountains.
[bg.wikipedia.org/wiki/Тиквешко_въстание
mk.wikipedia.org/wiki/Тиквешко_востание
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tikveš_Uprising
www.savanne.ch/svoboda/anarchy/history/IlindPreobr.html]

1913 - Jan Kubiš (d. 1942), Czech soldier and resistance fighter, one of a team of Czechoslovak British-trained paratroopers who took part in Operation Anthropoid, the assassination of acting Reichsprotektor (Reich-Protector) of Bohemia and Moravia, SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich, on May 27, 1942, born.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jan_Kubiš]

1915 - Revolución Mexicana: Victoriano Huerta and Pascual Orozco, Jr. are arrested in El Paso trying to enter Mexico.

1915 - Charles Gogumus (b. 1873), French shopworker, revolutionary syndicalist militant, anarchist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Aug. 25]

1916 - [N.S. Jul. 7] In the Russian town of Taganrog (Таганрог) in the Don region, a crowd of over one thousand people, identified as mainly soldatki (soldiers' wives), commandeered stores of sugar held by local merchants and distributed them among themselves. Then, when the supply ran out, they set about breaking into shops. The crowd dispersed only after troops were called in and ordered to fire.
[libcom.org/history/subsistence-riots-russia-during-world-war-i-barbara-engel]

1917 - Jean-Louis Pindy (b. 1840), French carpenter, member of the Internationale, communard and anarchist, dies. [see: Jun. 3]

[B] 1924 - Michel Ragon, prolific French writer, poet, novelist, art and architecture critic, art historian, historian of proletarian literature, anarchist and autodidact, born. Author of the controversial 'Dictionnaire de l'Anarchie' (2008).
[www.monde-libertaire.fr/portraits/11483-michel-ragon
www.michelragon.fr/
fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michel_Ragon]

1929 - Australian Timber Workers' Strike: After five months, the strike comes to an end in Queensland, Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania on the basis of a 48-hour week, but with an independent inquiry to be appointed into the financial condition of the industry. New South Wales workers however remained out for eight and a half months until the strike was officially called off in mid October.
On July 22, seven union leaders - John Smith 'Jock' Garden (secretary of the Trades and Labour Council), John Kavanagh (chairman of the Disputes Committee of the Trades and Labour Council). Charles Reeve, Michael Patrick Ryan, Edward Wallace Paton, William Terry, and John Culbert, M.L.C. (members of the Disputes Committee of the Trades and Labour Council) - were charged with three counts of "unlawful conspiracy by violence and threats of violence" in order to prevent timber workers from working. At the end of October a jury acquitted them all those charged. [see: Jan. 3; Oct. 17 & 30]
[trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/51608706]

1935 - Luigi Fabbri (b. 1877), Italian writer, professor and theorist of the Italian anarchist movement, born. Fabbri and Pietro Gori participated in the review 'Il Pensiero'. [see: Dec. 23]

1936 - Grève Générale en Belgique: The Prime Minister Van Zeeland publishes a statement on a comprehensive reform plan resulting from the national consultation. The workers' movement had gained a wage increase of 7%, a minimum wage of 32 francs per day, the 40-hour week, at least six days paid holiday per year, health insurance and an increase in family allowances.
A number of joint committees (for consultation between employers and employees) were also set up in some industrial sectors for the first time. The port workers were promised an additional wage increase. Despite national trade union leaders called for a resumption of work on June 24th, the call went unheeded in a number of sectors; Antwerp ship repairers stalled until the beginning of August and the textile workers from Mouscron until July 6.
Given the length of the strike and the often brutal repression of strikers by the police, it is surprising that only two people were killed during the strike, one a passerby killed by a random shot from a gendarme in Quaregnon.
[www.lcr-lagauche.be/cm/index.php?view=article&id=606:la-greve-de-1936-en-belgique&option=com_content&Itemid=53
romaincourcelles.wordpress.com/2011/07/09/belgique-dans-solidaire-comment-les-travailleurs-belges-ont-fo-nde-la-securite-sociale/
deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/50989/215.pdf;jsessionid=D3720CF399E8FCE653807B8C873C5DAF?sequence=1
solidaire.org/articles/1936-les-travailleurs-la-conquete-du-temps
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_strikes_in_Belgium
nvdatabase.swarthmore.edu/content/belgian-workers-strike-minimum-wage-paid-vacations-40-hour-work-week-and-union-rights-1936
www.larevuetoudi.org/en/story/belgian-walloon-general-strikes
mocliege.be/IMG/pdf/reg059_dossier.pdf
www.skynet.be/actu-sports/dossier/1621328/les-plus-grandes-greves-de-l-histoire-en-belgique/1621331/2-juin-1936]

[E] 1937 - Ilse Schwipper (Ilse Nikolaus; d. 2007), German anarcha-feminist, anti-fascist and anti-imperialist, who was a co-founder of Kommune 3 in Wolfsburg, born. Also know as Ilse Bongartz and Ilse Jandt, having taken various husband's names, and was regulalry called Rote Ilse in the press. The illegitimate child of accountant Clara Schwipper in Berlin, she grew up with her great-aunt and her great uncle. He was an anarchist active in the anti-fascist opposition to the Hitler regime. However, in 1944 her mother married an active Nazi and she and her mother moved to Wolfsburg. Ilse began work as an office junior in the Volkswagenwerk there and, in 1955, married a colleague, Helmut Bongartz, with whom she had four children. In the early 1960s, she began her activism, campaigning about the poor living conditions of Italian guest workers of the VW factory. It was the death of her eldest daughter in 1968 at the age of twelve that sparked the beginning of her political activism, first with Jusos, the SPD's youth organisation, and the SPD itself, but was expelled for collecting signatures for a Deutsche Kommunistische Partei petition. Then, having split with her husband, in March 1970, Ilse decided to set up Kommune 3 (K3) in her former conjugal apartment in Breslauer Strasse in Wolfsburg, putting her growing anarchist political outlook into practice. She became the effective head of the commune, being more than a decade older than her fellow communards. She was also the only woman, living there with her 3 children. The foundation of the commune took place parallel to a campaign to support an imprisoned member of the mens commune in Morse, a village about 5 miles from Wolfsburg. Amid the fluctuation in the membership of the commune, but there was always a solid core of communards. All the members came from a working class background. The group were interested in antiauthoritarian education, self-management, and 'cultural revolution'. They also discussed the ideas of armed struggle.
At the end of 1970, the police in Wolfsburg began to suspect members of the Kommune 3 of committing a number of politically motivated crimes. After a series of actions in April and May 1971, including arson attacks, and bomb threats against neo-nazis, politicians and police, the police raided the commune and a second commune nearby on June 10. Nine members of the commune were arrested and held without bail until their trial. Five of those arrested pleaded guilty, Ilse and two others not guilty. One of the commune members lead the police to a site in the woods in Wolfsburg-Detmerode where small arms and ammunition were hidden.
The court case in Hildersheim, which the press refered to as the 'Bongartz-Prozess', lasted seven weeks, from February to April 1972. The commune's supporters claimed that its members were being targetted because of their political activities, which included helping deserters from the German army, prisoners and runaways from childrens homes. The prosecution claimed that there was no political background to the trial. During the trial Ilse demanded "Freispruch für die Kommune 3 und für das Leben" (acquittal for Kommune 3 and for life) and that she had not committed any offenses and had merely wanted to give children and adolescents an antiauthoritarian education. Ilse was sentenced to 3 years in prison and the young communards, who were tried as juveniles, were given probationary sentences.
On her release from prison in 1973, Ilse started a second commune in an old farm house in Wolfsburg-Hesslingen, the Kommune Bäckergasse. Again, most of the commune members were young people who were active in the radical-left. This second commune had links to the Movement 2nd. June urban guerrillas. After the death in June 1974 of a member of the Bewegung 2. Juni (June 2nd. Movement), Ulrich Schmücker, who had been suspected of being a police agent, Ilse and the five other communards were arrested under suspicion of being connected with the murder. One of the arrested, Jürgen Bodeux, became the chief witness for the prosecution. At the end of the first trial, June 1976, the young commune members were convicted under the JÖSchG 'youth laws' to jail sentences of between 4 and 8 years juvenile detention, and Ilse was given a life sentence. She was released for reasons of bad health in 1982 – of the total of 12 years that she spent in prison, more than 6 were spent in solitary confinement/isolation. After a number of appeals, the 4th court case was finally ended in 1991 with freedom for the accused based on no clear decision of guilt; it was no longer possible to reach a verdict, partly because of the involvement of police agents in the radical left. It had become the longest trial in West German history.
In an interview in the anarcho-pacifist magazine 'Graswurzelrevolution' in 2002 Ilse Schwipper said: "My conditions of imprisonment were 6.5 years of isolation with a total of nearly 12 years, with all the characteristics of the 'Weiße Folter' (Clean i.e. psychological Torture)... These detention conditions have resulted in serious physical and mental disorders, so after I was released in an incompetent manner at 15:15 on May 2, 1982, I became seriously ill. To this day, I often struggle with the flashbacks."
Ilse Schwipper remained a committed anarchist and prisoner support campaigner up til her death in Berlin on September 27, 2007.
[de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ilse_Schwipper
www.dadaweb.de/wiki/Ilse_Schwipper_-_Gedenkseite
de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schmücker-Prozess
www.ic.org/wiki/kommune-3-wolfsburg/]

1957 - František Kupka (b. 1871), Czech Abstract painter, anarchist, satirist, book and magazine illustrator, dies. [see: Sep. 23]

1959 - Boris Vian (b. 1920), French polymath: writer, poet, jazz musician, singer, translator, critic, actor, inventor, engineer and 'apolitical anarchist', dies. [see: Mar. 20]

1971 - The German Socialist Patients' Kollektiv is declared a 'criminal union'.

1972 - Proceso 1001: The leadership of the clanestine communist trades union, the Comisiones Obreras (Workers' Commissions; CC.OO.), is arrested in the convent of the Misioneros Oblatos de María Inmaculada in Pozuelo de Alarcón, Madrid. They stand trial on December 20, 1973, the session coinciding with the assassination of Prime Minister Luis Carrero Blanco, which led to the suspension of proccedings for a few hours) and are sentenced to between 12 and 20 years in prison on December 30, 1973, reduced the following year due to a royal amnesty. [see: Nov. 25 & Dec. 20]
[es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proceso_1001
www.unidadylucha.es/index.php/estado/493-el-proceso-1001
bymundoenfermo.blogspot.co.uk/2012/12/historia-juicio-franquista-el-proceso.html]

1973 - 'A Collective Letter to the Women's Movement' is released by the Weather Underground's Women's Brigade as an attempt to engage the women's movement in debate around feminist politics and how it relates to other struggles.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women's_Brigade_of_Weather_Underground]

[D] 1976 - Czerwiec 1976 [June 1976] / Wydarzenia Radomskie [Radom Events]: The Polish government announces enormous staple food price rises – increases in the prices of meat by 50-70%, sausage by 90%, and sugar by 100% – as well as rent increases. Wages for the lowest paid workers were also raised but, even for those getting the largest increase (23%), this amounted to a large real-term wage cut. Countrywide strikes, public protests and rioting broke out and, as the military authorities were slow to react, it fell to the local police and paramilitary-police ZOMO units to deal with the unrest.
In Radom demonstrators set fire to the provincial PZPR Communist Party headquarters as well as many of the bureaucrats' cars left outside following the hasty evacuation of the building). Barricades were erected as around 20,000 people took on 1543 police officers, who responded with the use live ammunition, water cannons and tear gas. Three protesters were killed and around 200 people injured, including 75 cops. An attempt to seize the local police headquarters failed but another target of the protesters' ire, the local Passport Office, was torched.
Protests also took place in a large tractor factory in Ursus, near Warsaw, and the Mazowiecki Refinery and Petrochemical Works in Plock, though these were less violent than in Radom. In Ursus, 90% of the tractor factory's workers went out on strike, occupying the plant whilst 1000 protesters blocked the main railway lines, with the workers threatening to hold trains 'for ransom' until the prise rises were withdrawn. In Plock, workers at the Masovian Refinery and Petrochemical Plant went out on strike too, holding a protests outside the local PZPR headquarters. Fighting also broke out that evening but was swiftly suppressed. Strikes also took place in almost all of the major industrial areas of the country, with up to 80,000 workers in over 130 factories taking part.
On the evening of June 25, less than 24 hours after the original announcement, the food prices rises were rescinded. However, that was not the end of the events as a mass wave of repression followed. In Radom the police and ZOMO units had arrested 634 people during the protests and the following day 939 people were immediately fired from their positions. Twenty five people were charged as ringleaders of events: eight were sentenced to 8-10 years in prison, eleven received sentences of 5-6 years, and six from 2 to 4 years in prison. In addition, approx. 170 people received lesser misdemeanour sentences. Across the whole of Poland, it is estimated that between 10-20,000 workers were dismissed from work, between 2,500 and 6,000 were arrested, and between 53 (official report) and 5,000 were sentenced by misdemeanour tribunals. Many were fined, given community service sentences, and prison sentences on trumped up charges, which had police officers as the only witnesses. In addition, Operacja Lato 76 (Operation Summer 76) was launched, which initiated the creation of special Milicja Obywatelska (Citizens' Militia) units in provincial police headquarters MO special groups of investigators whose task was surveillance of potential trouble makers. This included the members of Komitet Obrony Robotników (Committee for the Defence of the Workers), a group of intellectuals set up to aid to prisoners and their families in the wake of the June 1976 protests and the ensuing government repression, including those sacked during the crackdown.
[pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Komitet_Obrony_Robotników
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Workers'_Defence_Committee
libcom.org/library/poznan-1956-radom-1976
nvdatabase.swarthmore.edu/content/polish-workers-strike-stop-price-increases-1976
pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Czerwiec_1976
pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wydarzenia_radomskie
www.czerwiec76.ipn.gov.pl/c76/historia/2431,Czerwiec1976.html
karta.org.pl/fotooferty/radom1976/index.htm]

1977 - At a meeting of Lewisham Council for Community Relations, Sybil Phoenix (Pagnell Street Centre) and Alderman Russell Profitt, condemn the police arrests of 21 youths during 'Operation PNH' (Police Nigger Hunt), the latter describing the raids as "scandalous and disgusting - a vicious attack on the black community". ['Kentish Mercury' 30/6.77]
[lewisham77.blogspot.co.uk/2007/07/battle-of-lewisham-chronology.html]

1980 - A general strike in El Salvador protests against the death squads, military or paramilitary units which have been carrying out a vicious campaign of murders and intimidation as part of the Salvadoran government’s ‘counterinsurgency’ strategy. The government and its death squads rely on U.S. support and supplies to repress the population and crush resistance.
[www.connexions.org/CxLibrary/Docs/SeedsofFire-June-24.htm]

1981 - More than 500 student and Anti-Nazi League campaigners march through Harrogate, taking over the college building where Brons is teaching. Six protesters are arrested, some during a fight between NFers and Manchester Squad members. A 'National Front Skins' banner is also taken and burnt to loud cheers from the demo. ['No Retreat']

1989 - Dewsbury Riot: On the same day that copies of Salman Rushdie’s 'The Satanic Verses' are being burnt in Bradford, the BNP had decided to hold a 'Rights for Whites' rally in Dewsbury, cashing in on the decision by some white parents to withdraw their children from a school where most of the pupils were Asian and no doubt hoping that the Scarborough Hotel, the public house where the boycott organisers had been temporary schooling there kids and which also just happenened to be a local thorn of contention between the 'traditional white population' and the local Muslim community (with additional racist undertones adding to the combustible mix), would be a target for local youths angry at the BNP's presence.
Needless to say, they got their wish as the Muslim youths of Savile Town, who had been drawn to the Black Workers Group organised anti-BNP protest and been prevented from reaching the fash by the police, moved back across the Savile bridge over the River Calder into Savile Town and attacked the Scarborough. The interiro of the pub was trashed, as were vehicles in the carpark outside, and furniture set on fire. The pub's customers, who had sought refuge upstairs, managed to escape after the police had moved the crowd off.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1989_Dewsbury_riot
www.newenglishreview.org/Esmerelda_Weatherwax/The_Islamic_Republic_of_Dewsbury_-_Danny_Lockwood/
www.aryanunity.com/memoirs14.html]

[BB] 1995 - André Laude (b. 1936), French anarchist, anti-colonial journalist, Surrealist, Situationist, writer and "soleil noir de la poésie" (black sun of poetry), dies. Barely out of the womb Laude was subject to the torments of history - his communist father went off to Spain in the International Brigades, and then, in 1942, his Polish-Jewish stepmother was sent to Auschwitz (where she died).
In 1953, Laude discovered anarchist ideas and joined the Libertarian Communist Federation. In 1954, as an anti-colonialist journalist, he supported the Algerian revolutionists and was arrested in Paris and imprisoned for a year in a camp in the South-Sahara, where he underwent torture.
When he was freed, Laude joined a news service in Algiers, returning to France only after the fall of Ben Bella (1965) and was again arrested, this time for "collaborating with the enemy". The surrealists, especially Benjamin Péret and André Breton (who testified in his behalf) took up his cause, and Laude joined their movement.
Poetry now became Laude's "raison de vivre", rather than journalism. Politically he was briefly involved with the PSU (Left Socialist Unified), but in 1968, as a friend of Raoul Vaneigem, Guy Debord and Dany Cohn-Bendit, he participated in the l'Internationale Situationniste. He remained, basically, a libertarian and a true poet until his death.
His poetry includes: 'Testament de Ravachol' (1975), 'Le Bleu de la Nuit Crie Au Secours' (The Blue of the Night Crying For Help; 1975), 'Un Temps à S’ouvrir les Veines' (A Time to Open the Veins; 1979), 'Riverain de la Douleur' (Bordering on Pain; 1981), 'Roi Nu Roi Mort' (Naked King Dead King; 1983), 'Journaux de Voyages' (Travel Journals; 1992), 'Feux Cris & Diamants' (Lights, Cries & Diamonds; 1993); as well as short stories: 'Joyeuse Apocalypse' (Joyful Apocalypse; 1973) and 'Rue des Merguez' (1979); and children's books: 'Éléfantaisies' (1974) and 'Les Aventures de Planti l'Ourson' (The Adventures of Planti the Pooh; 1975).

"Je longe le long sillon qui conduit aux morts muets.
Je songe à la neige, aux chevaux de feu,
à l’hiver des paroles.
Je vois des bois brûlés, des vaisseaux échoués,
des mouettes prises par le gel.
Je longe le fleuve de sang et de larmes
qui traverse les inquiétantes ruines.
Je sens l’odeur des prédateurs, l’urine
de la hyène, la matière fécale des jeunes bébés.
J’écris à partir d’un noyau de nuit.
J’écris à partir d’une tranchée noyée de boue.
J’écris corde au cou.
La trappe déjà tremble sous mes pieds.
Je longe le marbre froid qui donne le frisson
et chante une très étrange et vieille chanson,
qui dit qu’aujourd’hui et pour toujours
le ver est dans le fruit."

(I follow the long path that leads to dead silent.
I think of snow, of horses on fire,
of the winter of words.
I see wood burnt, vessels stranded,
seagulls taken by frost.
I follow the river of blood and tears
which crosses the disturbing ruins.
I smell the odour of predators, the urine
Of the hyena, the faeces of young babies.
I write from a night's heart.
I write from a mud-filled trench.
I write the noose around my neck.
The trapdoor already shaking under my feet.
I walked along the cold marble which makes me shiver
and sings a very strange and old song
who say that today and forever
the worm is in the fruit.)

- 'Le ver dans le fruit' (The worm is in the fruit)

"Only the poets who preach disorder are, in my eyes, authentic poets." - 'Comme une Blessure Rapprochée du Soleil' (1979).

[www.ephemanar.net/juin24.html#laude
www.larevuedesressources.org/+-andre-laude,684-+.html]

1997 - Serge Michel (pseudonym of Lucien Douchet; b. 1922), French libertarian journalist, novelist, poet, painter and anti-colonialist, dies. [see: Jul. 22]

2002 - Massive countrywide anarchist CGT demonstrations in Spain.

[A] 2002 - Long-term British anarchist prisoner Mark Barsnley released from prison following his railroading for the 'Pomona Incident'.

[C] 2012 - Gerhard 'Gad' Beck (b. 1923), German educator, author, anti-fascist resister, and the last known gay survivor of the Holocaust, dies just six days before his 89th birthday. [see: Jun. 30]
25
X 1652 - The Ormée seize the Town Hall in Bordeaux. X [some confusion over the date]

1852 - [N.S. Jul. 7] Vera Nikolayevna Figner (Ве́ра Никола́евна Фи́гнер; d. 1942), Russian revolutionary, Bakuninist socialist, poet and memoirist, who plotted to blow up the Tsar and later directed the Kropotkin Museum, born. [see: Jul. 7]
[ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Фигнер,_Вера_Николаевна
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vera_Figner
www.hrono.ru/biograf/bio_f/figner_vn.php
www.famhist.ru/famhist/ulianova_ap/000c3160.htm
narovol.narod.ru/f1.htm
dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enc3p/307646
www.fsmitha.com/h3/figner.htm
spartacus-educational.com/RUSfigner.htm
ita.anarchopedia.org/Vera_Figner]

1856 - Johann Kaspar Schmidt aka Max Stirner (b. 1806), German individualist anarchist and author of 'The Ego & Its Own' (1844) and 'The False Principle of our Education' (1842), dies.

1860 - Gustave Charpentier (d. 1956), French composer, artistic and political radical, born. Best known for his 'worker's' opera' 'Louise' (1900), which depicts Parisian working-class life and tells the story of the love between Louise, a seamstress living with her parents in Paris, and Julien, a young artist, and includes a number of allusions to then current anarchist attentats.

1865 - Robert Henri (d. 1929), American painter, teacher and anarchist sympathiser, who taught Man Ray at the Ferrer Modern School in New York, born. He was a leading figure of the Ashcan School of American realism and an organiser of the group known as The Eight, a loose association of artists who protested the restrictive exhibition practices of the powerful, conservative National Academy of Design. His friend Emma Goldman once called the painter: "an anarchist in his conception of art and its relation to life."
"Art is art whether on a canvas, on stone, on a book cover, on advertisement, or a piece of furniture."
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Henri
www.roberthenripaintings.com/
sullivangoss.com/robert_Henri/]

1875 - The Federación Regional de la República Oriental del Uruguay (Regional Federation of the Eastern Republic of Uruguay) is formed at a meeting in Montevideo. It aligns itself with the anti-authoritarian AIT and in August 1876 becomes a section of the Internationale at the Congress of Verviers.
[donpepebatlle.blogspot.co.uk/2014/12/movimiento-obrero.html
www.alasbarricadas.org/forums/viewtopic.php?f=42&t=47940
affur.org.uy/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Cartilla-Historia.pdf
gredos.usal.es/jspui/bitstream/10366/24435/3/THVI~N69~P54-63.pdf
6touruguaysigloxx.blogspot.co.uk/p/el-movimiento-obrero.html]

1878 - Individualist anarchist Ezra Heywood gets two years hard labour in the USA for advocating free love / sexual emancipation as part of women's rights. Released on 19 December 1878. President Rutherford B. Hayes issued a pardon the following day.

[E] 1881 - Crystal Catherine Eastman (d. 1928), US lawyer, anti-militarist, feminist, socialist, and journalist, best remembered as a leader in the fight for women's suffrage, born. She was the co-founder and co-editor with her brother Max Eastman of the radical arts and politics magazine 'The Liberator', as well as co-founder of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom and, in 1920, co-founder of the American Civil Liberties Union.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crystal_Eastman
www.laborarts.org/exhibits/themasses/bios.cfm?bio=crystal-eastman
www.aclu.org/crystal-eastman]

1893 - The Haymarket Martyrs Monument is dedicated at Forest Home Cemetery in Forest Park, Illinois, to honor those framed and executed for the bombing at Chicago’s Haymarket Square on May 4, 1886. More than 8,000 people attended the dedication ceremony. At the base of the monument are the last words of Haymarket martyr August Spies: "The day will come when our silence will be more powerful than the voices you are throttling today."

1896 - The first issue of the French language 'La Tribune Libre' newspaper, initially subtitled "Organe hebdomadaire des travailleurs de langue française" then from November 17, 1898, "Organe socialiste libertaire", is published in Charleroi, Pennsylvania.

1903 - Eric Arthur Blair (aka George Orwell; d. 1950), born.
"All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others."

1905 - [O.S. Jun. 12] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Widespread industrial strikes sweep Odessa, as the situation grows out of control.
[cnparm.home.texas.net/Nat/Rus/Rus02.htm]

1905 - [O.S. Jun. 12] Ivanovo Soviet [Иваново-Вознесенский Депутатов] / Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The authorities were forced to release 23 prisoners. Many of the mill owners have fled to Moscow. Neither side is willing to give in.
[ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Иваново-Вознесенский_общегородской_совет_рабочих_депутатов
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Иваново-Вознесенские_стачки
wiki.ivanovoweb.ru/index.php/Первый_общегородской_Совет_рабочих_депутатов
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revolution_of_1905#Ivanovo_Soviet
libcom.org/library/soviets-their-origin-development-functions-andreu-nin
www.johndclare.net/Rempel_Soviet.htm
en.internationalism.org/ir/123_1905
cnparm.home.texas.net/Nat/Rus/Rus02.htm]

1913 - [N.S. Jul. 7] Tikveš Uprising [Тиквешко въстание (Bul) / Тиквешко востание (Mkd)]: Early morning and police detachments and the IMRO withdraw towards Begnisht ( Бегнище). The city was plundered and burnt. 60 houses in Dukas (дюкана) were burnt to the ground, and 24 captured people were shot on the spot. Negotino (Неготино) suffered worse, with more than 800 houses and 750 shops burned.
[bg.wikipedia.org/wiki/Тиквешко_въстание
mk.wikipedia.org/wiki/Тиквешко_востание
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tikveš_Uprising
www.savanne.ch/svoboda/anarchy/history/IlindPreobr.html]

1914 - Battle of Orendain / Revolución Mexicana: Alvaro Obregon's Army of the Northwest defeats Victoriano Huerta's forces, who lose 2,000 and many supplies. Revolutionaries enter Guadalajara.

1916 - Clandestine meeting of the Council general of the militant Unione Sindacale Italiana (USI; anarcho-syndicalist labour union) in Florence, Italy, June 25-27. The government has outlawed all opposition to WWI. The Council meeting reaffirms its opposition to the war.

1917 - Joaquina 'Maria' Dorado Pita, Galician anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, who was active in the anti-Franco underground, born.
[www.estelnegre.org/anarcoefemerides/2506.html
gl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joaquina_Dorado_Pita
losdelasierra.info/spip.php?article2140
plus.google.com/109915495419504304431/posts/igwvyFy8dF6
presodelescorts.org/es/testimonis/joaquina-dorado-pita
www.estelnegre.org/documents/sarrau/sarrau.html]

[B] 1921 - In Czechoslovakia the word "robot" enters the world's languages when Karel Capek's play 'R.U.R.' (Rossum's Universal Robots) premières.

1922 - The 1er Congrès of the Confédération Générale du Travail 'Unitaire' is held in Saint-Etienne (Jun. 25 - Jul. 1, 1922), at which the bureau provisoire of the the Comités Syndicalistes Révolutionnaires, established in December the previous year and composed of three members, all of anarchist tendency: Paul Cadeau, Labrousse and Pierre Totti, is removed in favour of a coalition which united unions without joining the SFIC. However, the anarcho-syndicalist minority is effectively sidelined and even ridiculed by Alexandre Lozovski, Secretary General of the RILU, coining the term 'anarcho-réformisme' to refer to the minority.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confédération_générale_du_travail_unitaire
fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confédération_générale_du_travail_unitaire
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Confederation_of_Labour_(France)
fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confédération_générale_du_travail
www.boursedutravail-paris.fr/node/288
www.ihs.cgt.fr/IMG/pdf_26_-_1922_-_Congres_CGTU_Saint_Etienne.pdf]

[D] 1926 - In Paris, three Spanish anarchists are arrested, accused of preparing to assassinate the Spanish king Alphonse XIII: Ascaso, Durruti and Jover. Louis Lecoin mounts a major protest campaign to prevent their extradition and gains their release in July of 1927.

1932 - Elizaveta Nikolaevna Olovennikova (Елизавета Николаевна Оловенникова; b. 1857), Russian revolutionary and Narodnaya Volya (People's Will) activist, who was the sister of fellow Narodnistas Maria [Мария] and Elizaveta [Наталья], dies in Orel (Орёл). [see: Sep. 9]

1934 - El Juicio a los Campesinos de Casas Viejas [The Trial of the Casas Viejas Peasants]: Preliminary evidence from the prosecution side in the trial of those arrested following the January 1933 uprising in Casas Viejas [you'll have to look back at the January 10-12 posts on this for further background] had already begun being taken before the Consejo de Guerra (court-martial) in the Castillo de San Roque in Cadiz on June 21: "The prosecutor read his report exposing the anarchic situation in Spain at the time and referring specifically to the case of Casas Viejas says it was a movement prepared and organised by the leaders who will end pointing and calling the facts under the Code of Military Justice, having carried out constituent acts of aggression against the armed force. Consequently, he requested penalties of twenty-five years' imprisonment for Antonio Cabañas, Cristóbal Toro Domínguez, Francisco Rocha, Manuel Moreno, Salvador Jordan and Sebastian Pavon; six years for Manuel Vera, José Moreno, Antonio Pavón, Francisco Quijada, Miguel Pavón, Manuel Sánchez, Juan Jiménez, José Pérez, José González, Francisco Cantero, Esteban Moreno, Antonio Durán, José Monroy, Jose Rodriguez Quiros, and Francisco Quintero; and three years for Antonio Cornejo, Antonio Cruz and Diego Fernández, Francisco Quijada, Sebastián Cornejo and Sebastián Rodríguez." 'La Época' June 23, 1934.
Now, the Consejo de Guerra begins in earnest. Standing trial are 26 of the 100 or so farmers and peasants that had original been arrested. Two other campesinos, Francisco Gutiérrez Rodríguez aka 'Currestaca' and Juan Rodríguez Guillén, had also been charged but do not take part in the trial. At the end of the two day hearing, the Consejo de Guerra imposed a six year sentence of imprisonment on Antonio Cabañas Salvador aka 'El Gallilnito' (The Cockerel), held to be the most dangerous of the defendants. Manuel Moreno Cabañas (or Cabeza) aka 'Rompemonte', Francisco 'Migel' Rocha (or Rosa) Acevedo, Sebastián Pavón (or Pabón) Pérez and Cristóbal Toro Domínguez [also refered to as Antonio Toro Rodríguez] were sentenced to 5 years each; Salvador Jordán Aragón and José Monroy Romero aka 'Bailaor' (Dancer) got 3 years; José (or Juan) Jiménez Fernández aka 'el Boticario' (the Apothecary), Manuel Vera Moya aka 'Tragarranas', Francisco Cantero (or Quintero) Esquivel aka 'Pinganillo', Francisco Durán Fernández, Esteban Moreno Cano (or Caro) and Miguel Pavón Pérez all received 2 years; and José Moreno Cabeza, Antonio Durán Fernández and José Rodríguez Quiros aka 'Pepe Pareja' received 1 years imprisonment. Diego Fernández Ruiz aka 'el Tullido' (the Cripple), Francisco Quijada Pino, José Pérez Franco aka 'Patas de Paño', José González Pérez aka 'Pepe Pilar', Manuel Sánchez Olivencia aka 'Sardiguera', Antonio Pavón Pérez, Antonio Cornejo Delgado, Antonio Cruz García aka 'Tariero', Sebastián Cornejo Bancalero and Sebastián Rodríguez Quiros aka 'Pareja' were all acquitted. Those farmers who had been sentenced to two years or more, were sent to the prisons of Ocaña and Puerto de Santa María.
[historiacasasviejas.blogspot.co.uk/2009/06/los-26-procesados-en-el-juicio-los.html
historiacasasviejas.blogspot.co.uk/2009/06/el-juicio-los-campesinos-de-casas.html
historiacasasviejas.blogspot.co.uk/2011/06/el-juicio-de-junio-del-34-los_24.html
historiacasasviejas.blogspot.co.uk/2011/06/el-juicio-de-junio-del-34-los.html
www.benalupcasasviejas.es/opencms/export/sites/default/benalup/GaleriaFicheros/LISTADO_BOLSA_GENERAL_GRUPO_3.pdf]

1936 - Grève Générale en France: In Graville district of Le Havre, weavers and other workers in the spinning mills there come out on strike, occupying the mills until August 14. This last wave of strikes proves to be on a much smaller scale than the two previous ones.
[www.cairn.info/revue-le-mouvement-social-2002-3-page-33.htm]

1937 - José Martins Fontes (b. 1884), Brazilian doctor, lecturer, poet, anarchist militant activist, dies. [see: Jun. 23]

[C] 1943 - Częstochowa Ghetto Uprising: Resistance fighters in Częstochowa's Small Ghetto did not know the exact date of the impending Aktion and were caught unaware as the ghetto was surrounded by a much greater number of SS and police over the 3 days between June 23-25. On the 25th the selection began, and the poorly armed ŻOB (Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa / Jewish Fighting Organisation) members began their last-ditch but all-out demonstration of military resistance, barricading themselves in bunkers along Nadrzeczna Street. In the fighting and subsequent massacres 1,500 Jews died. Those who were captured, were immediately deported to Treblinka. The leader of the uprising, Mordechaj Zylberberg, committed suicide as the Germans were about to capture his bunker on Nadrzeczna. The uprising was suppressed on June 30, 1943, with additional 500 Jews burned alive or buried beneath the rubble of the Small Ghetto. The remaining 3,900 fugitives were rounded up and sent to a camp in Warta or incarcerated at the nearby work prisons, HASAG-Peltzery (the biggest forced labour camp in Częstochowa with a steel mill and textile factories) and Huta Częstochowa (another large steel mill). However, the Germans did not raze the ghetto, which had several factories, instead additional Jews were brought in as laborers from another Polish town.
[www.holocaustresearchproject.org/ghettos/czest.html
www.jewishgen.org/yizkor/Czestochowa/cze039.html
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Częstochowa_Ghetto_Uprising
www.deathcamps.org/occupation/czestochowa ghetto.html
www.czestochowajews.org/eng_ghetto.htm
ww.zchor.org/WWII.HTM]

1944 - Eugène Humbert (b. 1870), militant pacifist, néo-Malthusian, anarchist, and companion of Jeanne Humbert, is killed in prison during WWII during an Allied bombing raid, the day before he was due to be released.

1947 - The first issue of 'Juventud Libre', the newspaper of the JJ.LL FIJL in exile, is published in Paris, replacing 'Ruta' which was banned by the French authorities in February 1953. It too will be banned in June 1960.

1955 - The arrest in France of Pierre Morain, militant of the F.C.L. (Fédération Communiste Libertaire). Sentenced to prison for one year, released in March 1956.

1978 - Ishaq Ali, a 50-year-old Bengali resturant worker, is stabbed to death in Hackney in a racist attack, sparking 2 days of angry protests by the local community.

[A] 1984 - Michel Foucault (b. 1926), French philosopher, social theorist and historian of ideas, author of 'Surveiller et Punir: Naissance de la Prison' (Discipline and Punishment: The Birth of the Prison') (1975), dies of AIDS.

1994 - More than 80 are executed in China to mark International Anti-Drug Day tomorrow.

2001 - China executes 60 people, again in honour of International Anti-Drug Day.
26
1839 - Emma Miller (d. 1917), seamstress, pioneering Australian trade union organiser, suffragist, and founder of the Australian Labor Party, born in Chesterfield, England. She emigrated to Australia in 1879 with her four children from a previous marriage. In Queensland, Miller worked as a gentlemen's shirt maker and seamstress. Along with May Jordan McConnel, she formed the first women's union in Brisbane, the Brisbane Women's Union, in September 1890. Miller was a founding member in 1894 of the Women's Equal Franchise Association, which was established in 1894, quickly becoming its president after a split., in which a group left to form the Women's Suffrage League. Later she became president of the Women Workers' Political Organisation and, after resigning, president of the Political Labour Council in Brisbane. She was also active during the 1912 Brisbane General Strike and became president of the anti-conscription Women's Peace Army during WWI.
Emma Miller died of cancer on January 22, 1917 in Toowomba, Queensland. The epitaph on her gravestone reads: "The world is my country; to do good is my religion."
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emma_Miller
adb.anu.edu.au/biography/miller-emma-7583
www.australianworkersheritagecentre.com.au/10_pdf/miller.pdf]

1848 - Journées de Juin [June Days Uprising]: Having seen some of the fiercest fighting of the 4 days, principally near the Faubourg St. Antoine, the Place Maubert, and in the vicinity of the Pantheon, the revolt ends with the fall of the last barricade, located in the Faubourg Saint-Antoine. The revolution was over.
The number of insurgents killed in the fighting has been estimated between 3000 and 5000 people, with approximately 1,500 shot without trial. There were about 25,000 arrests and 11,000 prison sentences, including deported to Algeria .
According to the Police Commissioner Franz Joseph Ducoux in a report of October 8, fighting had left ​​1,460 dead, of which two thirds were from the army and the National Guard. The losses of the Garde Républicaine were 92, including two senior officers. Seven generals were killed and five injured .
On July 3, General Cavaignac said that the number of insurgents were at most 50,000 and that the losses of the army are 703 dead or wounded .
According to Ernest Lavisse and Philippe Sagnac ['Histoire de France contemporaine depuis la révolution jusqu'à la paix de 1919', 1922], the losses of the army were 800 dead and 1,500 wounded, those of the gardes mobiles 100 dead and 600 wounded, while those of the Gardes Nationale and insurgents are unknown .
For Alain Bauer and Christophe Soullez ['Une histoire criminelle de la France', 2002], losses totaled 15,000 killed and wounded, including 1,800 deaths and 4000 injured on the side of the forces of law and order, and for the insurgents 25 000 fighters killed.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/June_Days_Uprising
fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Journées_de_Juin
marxists.anu.edu.au/archive/marx/works/1848/06/28a.htm]

1862 - [N.S. Jul. 8] Olga Afanasevna Varentsova [Ольга Афанасьевна Варенцова], aka 'Maria Ivanovna' [Мария Ивановна] & 'Ekaterina Nikolaevna' [Екатерина Николаевна](d. 1950), Russian historian, revolutionary, member of Narodnaya Volya (People's Will), and later a Bolshevik and a Soviet party and state leader, born. [see: Jul. 8]

1873 - Rebelión Cantonal / Revolución Cantonal in Sanlúcar: Little by little, Antonio Cuevas Jurado had taken over the office of mayor and, as laid out in the manifesto of June 26, 1873, now became president of the Comité Republicano Federal Social (Republican Federal Social Committee), along with Juan Millán as secretary and six vocales (speakers), after the committee had been elected by popular vote. Realising that their position was not an easy one, and conscious of the internationalist's 'ill-repute', the mainfesto laid out their strong belief that the republican cause had to exist in alliance with modern socialism. Therefore, in order for libertarian communism to triumph in Sanlúcar, it was necessary for everyone to unite all under the flag of the Federal Social Republic, from the most ardent internationalist to the mildest Republican.
Having made their ideological declaration was made, the manifesto laid out their program of action, under the motto: "Libertad, Igualdad, Fraternidad, Verdad, Justicia y Moral" (Freedom, Equality, Fraternity, Truth, Justice and Morality). The objectives: to fight the protagonists of obscurantism, reproach and the shame of the century; arm and enlist all the Voluntarios de la República; dedicate two Companies to fight those who burned, killed and robbed in the name of a God of peace; to support unconditionally a city council that was republican-federal-social; not to vote in the next elections for any individual who did not share these ideas. They planned to make it possible for workers to receive the whole product of their work; establish a jury that understood the disputes between workers and capitalists; create as many adult schools as there were unused buildings in the city; create agricultural banks to end the business of the usurers; to decentralise the government; to secularise the cemetery, since the Church-State separation was already an unquestionable fact. The manifesto concluded by making a call to the working class not to abandon the Republican Federal Social Committee, because it was a form of government that could guarantee the rights of workers who were in danger, subject to the action of fanaticism, to those who call themselves the people of order, to the hypocrites, to the same ambitious Republicans, who are capable of demolishing the very foundations of the Republic.
[ordenanarquista.wordpress.com/2016/10/07/la-revolucion-cantonal-en-sanlucar/
www.historiadeespananivelmedio.com/19-17-16-gobierno-figueras/
www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1873/bakunin/
ccec.revues.org/5455?lang=en
es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primera_República_Española]

1878 - [N.S. Jul. 7] Anna Krasteva Maymunkova [Ана Кръстева Маймункова] aka Anna May [Ана Май] (d. 1925), Bulgarian teacher, journalist and prominent communist activist and the Bulgarian female revolutionary movement, born. [see: Jul. 7]

1880 - Aurèle Patorni (d. 1955), French anarchist, writer (plays, operettas, etc.), journalist, pacifist and néo-Malthusien, born. Collaborated on many, many journals and reviews, including Eugène Humbert's 'La Grande Réforme', with Louis Lecoin on 'SIA' (organe de la Solidarité Internationale Antifasciste), Louis Louvet's 'CQFD' and Lecoin's 'Défense de l'Homme'.
[militants-anarchistes.info/spip.php?article4489
anarlivres.free.fr/pages/biographies/bio_Patorni.html
www.ephemanar.net/decembre25.html]

1886 - Charles Gallo, in court for sentencing for his attack of March 5, 1886 on the Stock Exchange, is expelled from the courtroom shouting "Death to bourgeois judges! Long live dynamite! Long live anarchy!" On July 15 Gallo receives a 20-year prison sentence.

1889 - London Gasworkers Strike: Notices went up at the various works of the company announcing possible changes in the shift system and asking men at each works to decide among themselves which system - eight or twelve hours - would be preferred by a majority of men there. The Company said that working practices would be made as universal as possible throughout the company although this might mean lost privileges at some works (the company was still rationalising working practices between the three amalgamated companies). It was also made a condition that regular men would be required to give a month's notice.
[marysgasbook.blogspot.co.uk/2013/04/south-met-gas-1889-strike-part-1.html
greenwichpeninsulahistory.wordpress.com/2013/08/01/the-gas-workers-strike-in-south-london/]

1892 - Taiji Yamaga (山鹿泰治; d. 1970), Japanese printer, manga artist, advocate of Esperanto, militant and long-time secretary of international relations for the Anarchist Federation of Japan, born.
[libcom.org/history/anarcho-syndicalism-japan-1911-1934-philippe-pelletier
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiji_Yamaga
es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiji_Yamaga
militants-anarchistes.info/spip.php?article6344
s1gnal.org/post/35775084991/signal-02-excerpt-the-yamaga-manga
ita.anarchopedia.org/Taiji_Yamaga
www.ephemanar.net/decembre06.html#yamaga]

1893 - The Imprisoned Haymarket anarchists - Oscar Neebe, Michael Schwab and Samuel Fielden - not executed the previous November (or, in the case of Louis Lingg, dead at their ownd hands) are pardoned by Illinois Governor Altgeld.

1894 - Pullman Strike: The American Railway Union members launch a boycott in support of the Pullman strikers, refusing to run trains containing Pullman cars. That night ARU members blockade of the Grand Crossing in Chicago.
Within four days, 125,000 workers on twenty-nine railroads had 'walked off' the job rather than handle Pullman cars.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pullman_Strike
www.connexions.org/CxLibrary/Docs/CxP-Pullman_Strike.htm
libcom.org/history/articles/pullman-railway-strike-chicago-1894
libcom.org/history/pullman-strike-1894-jeremy-brecher
www.kansasheritage.org/pullman/
www.lib.niu.edu/1994/ihy941208.html]

[A] 1897 - Royal Jubilee bonfires are prematurely ignited by anti-monarchist arsonists at Frinton-on-Sea, Walton-on-the-Naze (Essex) and Cleeve Cloud (Cotswolds).

1903 - Paul Louis Joseph Estève (d. 1987), French trade unionist and bricklayer's mate, secretary of the Anarchist Federation of Languedoc (1926), born.
[militants-anarchistes.info/spip.php?article1491]

1905 - [O.S. Jun. 13]: Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Large scale rioting begins in Odessa. [expand]
[cnparm.home.texas.net/Nat/Rus/Rus02.htm]

1905 - [O.S. Jun. 13] Ivanovo Soviet [Иваново-Вознесенский Депутатов] / Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The Workers' Council convenes a meeting of the strikers, which adopts a resolution demanding the trial of the chief of police before a people's court and the release of all those arrested. Fearing complications, the authorities release 29 more people.
The manufacturers decide to begin making partial concessions to: reduce the working day on average by an hour, raise wages by 7-10%. Then, seeing that this is not enough, they go on to declard that they will replace winter prices with those of summer, which means an increase in earnings of another 5%. The governor also cancelt his order prohibiting meetings at the Talka, but with the condition of political issues remain undiscussed. The strikers gathered at the Talka and decided to continue the struggle.
[ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Иваново-Вознесенский_общегородской_совет_рабочих_депутатов
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Иваново-Вознесенские_стачки
wiki.ivanovoweb.ru/index.php/Первый_общегородской_Совет_рабочих_депутатов
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revolution_of_1905#Ivanovo_Soviet
libcom.org/library/soviets-their-origin-development-functions-andreu-nin
www.johndclare.net/Rempel_Soviet.htm
en.internationalism.org/ir/123_1905
cnparm.home.texas.net/Nat/Rus/Rus02.htm]

1906 - [O.S. Jun. 13] Life Guards Regiment Mutiny: Having returned to barracks, the battalion now became a target for those jealous of the privileges of the Life Guards Regiment, with demands for a show trial. The instigators and participants of the meeting with Major General Gadon on June 23rd appeared before a military court. Of the 400 psoldiers in the First Battalion, 190 were found guilty and sentenced to 1-3 years in a penal battalion. The First Battalion of the regiment was renamed the Independent Infantry Battalion (отдельный пехотный батальон), and deprived of all the privileges of the Guards and sent to the village of Medved (Медведь ) in the Novgorod (Новгородской) province.
After a few months in Medved, the battalion's officers were allowed to retire or transfer to other army units and civilian agencies. The commander of the Guards Corps Prince Sergei Vasilchikov (Серге́й Васи́льчиков) was dismissed, and generals Gadon and Ozerov were expelled from the Tsar's retinue and dismissed without the right to wear the uniform.
[cnparm.home.texas.net/Nat/Rus/Rus04.htm]
gulevich.net/pirsonaly.files/gulevichaa2.htm
old.redstar.ru/2006/08/23_08/6_01.html
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Преображенский_лейб-гвардии_полк
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Гадон,_Владимир_Сергеевич
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Васильчиков,_Сергей_Илларионович]

1907 - [O.S. Jun. 3] The Bolsheviks stage an ‘expropriation’ in Tiflis, led by Kamo and directed by Stalin, that nets 250,000 rubles - the act produces a very sharp reaction among socialists; Lenin is denounced, Stalin is expelled from the RSDRP
[cnparm.home.texas.net/Nat/Rus/Rus05.htm]

1910 - In Paris, at the Pantin cemetary, funeral ceremonies are held for the anarchiste Henri Cler (killed during a series of confrontations between police and striking cabinetmakers on June 13) are marked by violence, once again, by a mass of police attempting to disperse the thousands of people present.
[www.estelnegre.org/documents/henricler/henricler.html]

[F] 1919 - Winnipeg General Strike: The general strike, begun on May 15, ends today as the Winnipeg Labour Council "officially" declares the strike over at 11 o'clock.

1919 - Pura Arcos (Purificació Pérez Benavent; 1995), Spanish nurse, author and anarcha-feminist militant, who worked as a teacher and tram driver during the Civil War as well as being active within Mujeres Libres, born.
[www.estelnegre.org/documents/puraarcos/puraarcos.html
theanarchistlibrary.org/library/various-authors-pura-arcos-1919-1995
struggle.ws/spain/pura.html
www.fifthestate.org/archive/395-winter-2016-50th-anniversary/the-spanish-revolution-pura-federico-arcos-the-fifth-estate/]

[C] 1920 - Troops revolt in Ancona, Italy, refusing to fight in Albania. Armed insurgents and sympathisers occupy city hall and new troops are ordered in to suppress the revolt.

1926 - The first issue of the fortnightly Italian language newspaper 'La Diana' is published by exiled Italian militants Paolo Schicci et Renato Siglich in Paris.

1934 - El Juicio a los Campesinos de Casas Viejas [The Trial of the Casas Viejas Peasants]: At the end of the two-day trial, the Consejo de Guerra impose a six year sentence of imprisonment on Antonio Cabañas Salvador aka 'El Gallilnito' (The Cockerel), held to be the most dangerous of the defendants. Manuel Moreno Cabañas (or Cabeza) aka 'Rompemonte', Francisco 'Migel' Rocha (or Rosa) Acevedo, Sebastián Pavón (or Pabón) Pérez and Cristóbal Toro Domínguez [also refered to as Antonio Toro Rodríguez] are sentenced to 5 years each; Salvador Jordán Aragón and José Monroy Romero aka 'Bailaor' (Dancer) get 3 years; José (or Juan) Jiménez Fernández aka 'el Boticario' (the Apothecary), Manuel Vera Moya aka 'Tragarranas', Francisco Cantero (or Quintero) Esquivel aka 'Pinganillo', Francisco Durán Fernández, Esteban Moreno Cano (or Caro) and Miguel Pavón Pérez all receive 2 years; and José Moreno Cabeza, Antonio Durán Fernández and José Rodríguez Quiros aka 'Pepe Pareja' receive 1 years imprisonment. Diego Fernández Ruiz aka 'el Tullido' (the Cripple), Francisco Quijada Pino, José Pérez Franco aka 'Patas de Paño', José González Pérez aka 'Pepe Pilar', Manuel Sánchez Olivencia aka 'Sardiguera', Antonio Pavón Pérez, Antonio Cornejo Delgado, Antonio Cruz García aka 'Tariero', Sebastián Cornejo Bancalero and Sebastián Rodríguez Quiros aka 'Pareja' are all acquitted. Those farmers who had been sentenced to two years or more, were sent to the prisons of Ocaña and Puerto de Santa María.
[historiacasasviejas.blogspot.co.uk/2009/06/los-26-procesados-en-el-juicio-los.html
historiacasasviejas.blogspot.co.uk/2009/06/el-juicio-los-campesinos-de-casas.html
historiacasasviejas.blogspot.co.uk/2011/06/el-juicio-de-junio-del-34-los_24.html
historiacasasviejas.blogspot.co.uk/2011/06/el-juicio-de-junio-del-34-los.html
www.benalupcasasviejas.es/opencms/export/sites/default/benalup/GaleriaFicheros/LISTADO_BOLSA_GENERAL_GRUPO_3.pdf]

1936 - Grève Générale en Belgique: By a small majority the miners vote to return to work. In Seraing, Herstal and elsewhere, the strike continues for a few days.

1936 - Régis Meunier (b. 1864), French militant syndicalist and anarchist propagandist, dies. [see: Apr. 26]

1937 - Showing solidarity with P.O.U.M. militants being persecuted by the Stalinists and the Republic's police, the Bolshevik-Leninist Section calls for concerted action by the Section, the left of the P.O.U.M. and the anarchist Friends of Durruti.

1938 - Thomas H. Keell (b. 1866), British anarchist and one-time editor of 'Freedom', dies. [see: Sep. 24]

1943 - Częstochowa Ghetto Uprising: As the Germans attempt the final liqidation of the ghetto, fighters from the Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa (ŻOB; Jewish Combat Organization) put up heavy resistance defending improvised bunkers in Nadrzeczna Street. In the ensuing fighting and the mass executions over the following 4 days, 1,500 Jews die.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Częstochowa_Ghetto_Uprising
pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Getto_w_Częstochowie
www.sztetl.org.pl/en/article/czestochowa/]

[E] 1943 - Naomi Esther Jaffe, US former member of the Weather Underground Organisation and Executive Director of the anti-racist women’s organisation Holding Our Own, born.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naomi_Jaffe]

1948 - Raul Carbeillera Lacunza (b. 1918 [or poss. 1917]), an Argentinian anarchist who led CNT action groups against Franco's fascist state, is surrounded by police and the Guardia Civil in Barcelona's Montjuïc gardens, and dies at his own hands rather than face recapture by the police. Carbeillera had several times slipped into Spain to fight with the Resistance. [see: Feb. 28]

[D] 1954 - The Kengir Uprising ends after 40 days of freedom after the camp is stormed by Soviet tanks, leaving up to 700 prisoners dead.

[B] 1957 - Bruno Alfred Döblin (b. 1878), German Expressionist novelist, essayist, doctor, and Landauerian Christian socialist with a strong affiliation with anarchist thought, especially Kropotkin (though he was never active), dies. [see: Aug. 10]

1957 - Ilona Tóth (b. 1932) Hungarian medical intern, who was a member of the Voluntary Rescue Service as well as the illegal underground resistance, is hung having been framed in a show trial in the wake of the 1956 Revolution. [see: Oct. 23]

1959 - The Boycott Movement was founded in London on 26 June 1959 at a meeting of South African exiles and their supporters. Following the Sharpeville massacre on March 21, 1960, the organisation was renamed the Anti-Apartheid Movement and, instead of just a consumer boycott, the group would now "co-ordinate all the anti-apartheid work and keep South Africa's apartheid policy in the forefront of British politics", and campaign for the total isolation of apartheid South Africa, including economic sanctions.
The organisation would become a regular target for fascist and neo-Nazi violence, particularly the South Africa House picket in Trafalgar Square.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anti-Apartheid_Movement
www.actsa.org/page-1438-AAM.html]

1959 - Joëlle Aubron (d. 2006), French libertarian member of Action Directe, born. On April 9, 1982, she was arrested and imprisoned for possession of weapons. Released, she resumed the armed struggle and barely escaped another arrest in December 1984. On January 25, 1985, she was a member of the commando that shot the General Audran, Director of International Affairs at the Ministère de la Défense (responsible for the sales of French arms) and on November 17, 1986, the CEO of Renault, Georges Besse.
On February 21, 1987, at a farm at Vitry-aux-Loges, Loiret, Aubron was arrested along with Nathalie Ménigon, Georges Cipriani and Jean-Marc Rouillan, all members of AD. At thrials in 1898 and 1994, she was sentenced to life in prison, with a minimum of 18 years.
After undergoing operations for a brain tumour, she was released on June 16, 2004 and her sentence suspended for medical reasons. She died two years later on March 1, 2006, of cancer.
[fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joëlle_Aubron
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joëlle_Aubron
www.ephemanar.net/mars01.html#aubron
www.estelnegre.org/anarcoefemerides/2606.html]

1974 - Georges Hugnet (b. 1906), French poet, writer, playwright, graphic designer and filmmaker, who was the first historian of the Dada movement who was also involved with the Surrealist Group, dies. [see: Jul. 11]

1975 - Shootout in which two FBI agents, Jack Coler and Ronald Williams, and AIM member Joe Stuntz are killed, for which Leonard Peltier gets 2 life sentences.

1991 - The Anarchist Youth Federation (F.A.M.) pickets at Bulgarian DS (State Security) for the release of A. Radionov and A. Kuznetsov, two young Russian anarchists,members of Anarcho-Radical Union of Youth (A.R.O.M.), who were arrested in Moscow in February.

1991 - The verdicts against the Maguire Seven were quashed by the Court of Appeals.

2002 - Philip Whalen (b. 1923), America Beat poet and Zen anarchist, dies. [see: Oct. 20]
27
1846 - Ludovico Giardino Nabruzzi (d. 1920), Italian anarchist lawyer, known as Rubicone Nabruzzi or Rubicone, born.
[anarcoefemerides.balearweb.net/post/110449
www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/lodovico-nabruzzi_(Dizionario_Biografico)/
www.anarca-bolo.ch/cbach/biografie.php?id=594&PHPSESSID=d371af3f4620082e346e97c4b3e356c2]

1853 - [O.S. Jun. 15] Sophia Illarionovna Bardina aka 'Auntie' [Тётенька] (Софья Илларионовна Бардина; d. 1883), Russian anarchist revolutionary in the populist movement of the 1870s, who was influenced Kropotkin and Bakunin, born. Like many young Russian women of this period, she had to go to Switzerland to study, joining the medical faculty of the University of Zurich with her friend Olga Liubatovich. There she became part of the Fritsche circle, a group of young Russian radical women, including Vera and Lydia Figner, Olga Liubatovich, Anna Toporkova, Berta Kaminskaya, Alexandra Khorzhevskaya, Anna and Vera Lyubatovich, and the Subbotina sisters Evgeniya, Maria and Nadezhda, some of whom like her would become important members of the All-Russian Social Revolutionary Organisation (Muscovites Circle) [Всероссийской социально-революционной организации (Кружок москвичей)]. Older than her 17-18 year old comrades, she quickly earned the nickname 'Auntie' (Тётенька) and became the de facto leader.
At the end of 1874, like many of her fellow Fritsche circle members, she returned to Russia following an edict from the Russian government banning attendance at foreign univerities to conduct revolutionary propaganda amongst the workers, in her case whilst working in a Moscow factory.
Arrested on April 16 [4], 1875 , she became a party to the Trial of the 50 (процесса 50-ти) aka "The case of various persons accused of the state crime of creating an illegal organisation and the dissemination of criminal works" (Дело о разных лицах, обвиняемых в государственном преступлении по составлению противозаконнаго сообщества и распространению преступных сочинений), which took place from March 5 [Feb. 21] to March 26 [14], 1877, in the Special Tribunal of the Ruling Senate (Особого Присутствия Правительствующего Сената). On March 21 [9], 1877, she delivered her famous speech at the trial; "I am convinced that our country, now asleep, will awake, and its awakening will be terrible.... It will no longer allow its rights to be trampled under foot, and its children to be buried alive in the mines of Siberia.... Society will shake off its infamous yoke, and avenge us. And this revenge will be terrible.... Persecute, assassinate us, judges and executioners, as long as you command material force, we shall resist you with moral force ;... for we have with us the ideas of liberty and equality, and your bayonets cannot pierce them!"
She was sentenced to ten years of hard labour, but at the confirmation hearing, this verdict was replaced by a exile to Siberia. She arrived in Ishim (Ишиме) in the Tobolsk (Тобольской) province on January 21 [9], 1878, where she "refused any financial help in exile from her parents or from prisoners' aid organizations, and she existed for three years in a Siberian village in utter poverty." [Cathy Porter - 'Fathers and Daughters: Russian Women in Revolution' (1976)] On January 8 1881 [Dec. 27, 1880] "she managed to escape to Kazan where, broken in spirits and health, she wandered for a few months around the countryside. All her old optimism had gone, and she was unwilling to return to her friends who were so eagerly awaiting her in the capital. In three years political events had moved far beyond her moderate socialist ideals, and she felt totally isolated from the revolutionary movement. In the spring she left for Geneva, and this time she did not return." [ibid]
In an interview in 'L'Express' whilst in her self-imposed exile, she defended the 1881 attentat against Alexander II i, saying that "for us, anarchy does not signify disorder, but harmony in all social relations; for us, anarchy is nothing but the negation of oppressions which stifle the development of free societies".
Sophia Bardina committed suicide in Geneva on April 14, 1883, shooting herself in the head.
[ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Бардина,_Софья_Илларионовна
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sophia_Bardina
spartacus-educational.com/RUS-Sophia_Bardina.htm
beautifulnihilism.libertarian-labyrinth.org/2016/06/26/russian-revolutionary-heroines-sophia-bardina-1881/
archive.org/stream/secretsocietieso02heckuoft/secretsocietieso02heckuoft_djvu.txt]

1869 - [O.S. Jun. 15] Emma Goldman (d. 1940), world citizen, anarchist rebel, feminist, anti-militarist and force of nature, born in Lithuania. Author of 'Anarchism and Other Essays' (1910), which contained the essay 'The Modern Drama: A Powerful Disseminator of Radical Thought'; 'My Disillusionment in Russia' (1923) and 'Living My Life' (1931).
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emma_Goldman
spartacus-educational.com/USAgoldman.htm
dwardmac.pitzer.edu/Anarchist_Archives/goldman/Goldmanbio.html
www.spunk.org/texts/people/goldman/sp001520/emmabio.html
wwww.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Emma_Goldman.html
jwa.org/womenofvalor/goldman
theanarchistlibrary.org/authors/emma-goldman]

[E] 1880 - Helen Adams Keller (d. 1968), deafblind American author, lecturer, suffragette, pacifist, birth control advocate, and member of the Socialist Party of America and the Industrial Workers of the World, born.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helen_Keller
www.helenkellerfoundation.org/helen-keller/
www.iww.org/history/library/HKeller/why_I_became_an_IWW
www.rds.hawaii.edu/ojs/index.php/journal/article/view/13]

1890 - Jacques Raoul Pierre Émile Long aka Jacklon (d. 1921), French anarchist and partner of Jane Morand, born. [expand]
[www.ephemanar.net/juin27.html#long
militants-anarchistes.info/spip.php?article7586]

1905 - Founding convention of the radical syndicalist union Industrial Workers of the World begins in Brand's Hall, Chicago, Illinois.

1905 - [O.S. Jun. 14] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The French military attaché in St. Petersburg reports that Russian Chief of Staff Sakharov has said "If we were to get into a war with Germany... there would be nothing for us to do but kneel down and beg for mercy."
[cnparm.home.texas.net/Nat/Rus/Rus02.htm]

1905 - [O.S. Jun. 14] Ivanovo Soviet [Иваново-Вознесенский Депутатов] / Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Another 7 arrestees are released and the police chief Kozhelovsky (Кожеловский) is relieved of duty.
[ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Иваново-Вознесенский_общегородской_совет_рабочих_депутатов
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Иваново-Вознесенские_стачки
wiki.ivanovoweb.ru/index.php/Первый_общегородской_Совет_рабочих_депутатов
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revolution_of_1905#Ivanovo_Soviet
libcom.org/library/soviets-their-origin-development-functions-andreu-nin
www.johndclare.net/Rempel_Soviet.htm
en.internationalism.org/ir/123_1905
cnparm.home.texas.net/Nat/Rus/Rus02.htm]

[D] 1905 - [O.S. Jun. 14] Potemkin Mutiny [Потемкин Мятеж]: In what was the first case of armed rebellion in an entire military unit during the course of the 1905 Revolution, the crew of the Russian battleship Prince Potemkin Tavrichesky (Князь Потёмкин-Таври́ческий) mutinies in the early afternoon (13:00-15:00).
Whilst on gunnery practice near Tendra Island off the Ukrainian coast many of Potemkin's enlisted men refused to eat borscht made from rotten meat partially infested with maggots when it was delivered to the warship by the Potemkin‍'​s escort, the destroyer No. 267 [sometimes referred to as the Ismail (Измаил)]. The ship's doctor Smirnov (Смирновым) was sent to inspect the meat and declared it fit for human consumption. The sailors, dissatisfied with this verdict, sent a deputation, headed by Grigory Vakulenchuk (Григо́рий Вакуленчу́к), a sailor and a member of the ship's RSDLP organisation (the Tsentralka [централка]), to Captain Evgeny Golikov (Евгений Голиков). A confrontation followed when Ippolit Giliarovsky (Ипполи́т Гиляро́вский), the ship's second in command, threatened to shoot crew members for their refusal. He summoned the ship's marine guards as well as a tarpaulin to protect the ship's deck from any blood in an attempt to intimidate the crew. The captain ordered that the ringleaders to be shot but the marines refused to carry out the order. Giliarovsky then shot and killed Vakulinchuk, sparking the revolt, during which seven of the Potemkin‍'​s eighteen officers, including Golikov, Giliarovsky and the ship's doctor, were killed or thrown overboard, and the Ismail captured. The rest of the officers were locked in one of the cabins.
They organised a people’s committee of 25 sailors, led by Afanasy Matushenko (Афана́сий Матюше́нко), a torpedo quartermaster and one of leaders of the ship's Social Democrats, to run the battleship and hoisted the red flag. The Potemkin left Sébastopol enroute to Odessa, accompanied by the destroyer No. 267, which had also mutinies, where the crew hoped to get support from striking workers, entering the harbour at 22:00.
[ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Восстание_на_броненосце_«Потёмкин»
topwar.ru/15356-vosstanie-na-bronenosce-potemkin.html
koshkindom.com.ua/html/see/potemkin.html
www.litmir.info/br/?b=213373
flot.sevastopol.info/history/potemkin.htm
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Вакуленчук,_Григорий_Никитич
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Матюшенко,_Афанасий_Николаевич
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Голиков,_Евгений_Николаевич
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Гиляровский,_Ипполит_Иванович
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_battleship_Potemkin#The_mutiny
acelmonstrum.host22.com/pot.html
www.carleton.edu/curricular/MEDA/classes/media110/Severson/essay.htm
www.marxist.com/revolt-armoured-cruiser-potemkin.htm
www.historytoday.com/richard-cavendish/mutiny-potemkin
cnparm.home.texas.net/Nat/Rus/Rus02.htm]

[F] 1905 - Founding convention of the radical syndicalist union Industrial Workers of the World begins in Brand's Hall, Chicago, Illinois. It is attended by 203 radical trade unionists representing 43 organisations, of which there are 70 delegates from 23 organisations [including the Western Federation of Miners (27,000 members), American Labor Union (16,750 members), United Metal Workers (3,000 members), United Brotherhood of Railway Employees (2,087 members), and the Socialist Trade and Labor Alliance (1,450 members)] with a total membership of 51,430, who are authorised to install their organisations in the industrial union that was to be founded at the convention. 72 additional delegates from the other 20 organisations were only present to take notes on the proceedings and report back. The other 61 delegates did not represent any organisation.
[www.iww.org/de/about/founding/part1
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Convention_of_the_Industrial_Workers_of_the_World]

1913 - [N.S. Jul. 9] Tikveš Uprising [Тиквешко въстание (Bul) / Тиквешко востание (Mkd)]: Those remaining at the Uprising's HQ quietly return home and, despite assurances on their safety negotiated by the priest Grigor Hadzhiyordanov (Григор Хаджийорданов), they are subjected to bloody reprisals: in Moklishte (Моклище) 18 people are killed; in Koreshnitsa (Корешница) - 19, and in Ribartsi (Рибарци) - 16. In Kavadarci (Кавадарци) 150 people are tied to stakes left for 30 hours without water and finally killed and left unburied. According to other sources, 363 civilians were killed in Kavadarci, 230 in Negotino (Неготино), and 40 in Vatasha (Ваташа).
[bg.wikipedia.org/wiki/Тиквешко_въстание
mk.wikipedia.org/wiki/Тиквешко_востание
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tikveš_Uprising
www.savanne.ch/svoboda/anarchy/history/IlindPreobr.html]

1916 - [N.S. Jul. 10] A group of fifty to sixty soldatki in the Russian village of Morshansk (Морша́нск), Samara province, having received their government stipends, went to the dry goods shop of a local merchant and demanded that he sell them fabric at prewar prices. While he argued with them, the size of the crowd grew and the women became increasingly insistent. Eventually, one of the soldatki leaped up onto his counter and began to throw bolts of fabric onto the floor; others followed her example. The women carted off the goods and then proceeded to another shop where they repeated their actions.
[libcom.org/history/subsistence-riots-russia-during-world-war-i-barbara-engel]

1917 - Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman act as independent counsels in their conspiracy trial for anti-war activities; Emma denies the charge that she stated, "We believe in violence and we will use violence" at a May 18 meeting.

1918 - The anarcho-syndicalist and anti-militarist Dr. Marie D. Equi makes an anti-war speech in an IWW union Hall in Portland, Oregon, for which she was secretly indicted two days later, charged with insulting the flag, soldiers, and the ally Great Britain. At her nine day trial, which bagan on November 12, she found guilty of sedition and sentenced to three years in prison.
[theanarchistlibrary.org/library/nancy-krieger-queen-of-the-bolsheviks]

1921 - Wenceslao Jimenez Orive aka 'Wences' or 'Jimeno' (d. 1950), Zaragozan anarchist member of the 'Los Maños' guerrilla group in the resistance to Franco following the fascist victory in the Civil War, born. [expand]
[losdelasierra.info/spip.php?article5871
www.diagonalperiodico.net/blogs/imanol/manos.html]

1925 - On her birthday, Emma Goldman marries James Colton, an elderly anarchist acquaintence and trade unionist from Wales, who had offered to marry her and provide British citizenship so she could avoid deportation from England.

1936 - Grève Générale en Belgique: The Belgian parliament passes the bill that the government presented to it on freedom of association, paid leave, the 40-hour week.

1936 - Stalinist legislation reverses most of the provisions of the Bolshevik's 1920 'Decree on the Protection of Women’s Health' (Об охране здоровья женщин) with the 'Decree on the Prohibition of Abortions, the Improvement of Material Aid to Women in Childbirth, the Establishment of State Assistance to Parents of Large Families, and the Extension of the Network of Lying-in Homes, Nursery schools and Kindergartens, the Tightening-up of Criminal Punishment for the Non-payment of Alimony, and on Certain Modifications in Divorce Legislation' (О запрещении абортов, увеличении материальной помощи роженицам, установлении государственной помощи многосемейным, расширении сети родильных домов, детских яслей и детских садов, усилении уголовной ответственности за неплатеж алиментов и о некоторых изменениях в законодательстве о разводах), making abortion except in cases where the mother's life is endangered or "severe hereditary diseases of the parents". In the wake of famines of the 1920's and 30s that his collectivisation policies had largely created, Stalin decided that there was a need to increase population growth, as well as the party's greater emphasis on the importance of the family unit to communism. After Stalin’s death in 1953, the Soviet government revoked the 1936 laws and issued a new law on abortion, 'Decree of the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Council of 23.11.1955 on the abolition of the prohibition of abortion' (Указ Президиума ВС СССР от 23.11.1955 об отмене запрещения абортов).
[www.marxists.org/history/erol/ca.firstwave/cpl-abortion/section5.htm
www.marxists.org/reference/archive/field-alice/protect/ch04.html
www.revolutionarydemocracy.org/archive/abort.htm
mianews.ru/ru/2016/11/22/vmeste-s-vodoj-pochemu-stalin-ukreplyal-semyu-a-xrushhyov-razreshil-aborty/
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abortion_in_Russia]

[C] 1950 - Milada Horakova (b. 1901), Czech lawyer, social democrat, anti-fascist fighter, anti-Communist and a prominent feminist, is hanged with three others in Prague’s Pankrac Prison as a spy and traitor to the Czechoslovak Communist government.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milada_Horáková
www.ustrcr.cz/en/milada-horakova-en
www.radio.cz/en/section/archives/milada-horakova-dignity-in-the-face-of-fanaticism-1
coldwarradios.blogspot.co.uk/2010/11/i-leave-this-world-without-hatred.html]

1960 - Pierre Monatte (aka Lémont Pierre; b. 1881), a central figure of French anarcho-syndicalist movement, dies. Influenced by Émile Pouget, friends with Albert Camus, and a former Communist Party member, he fought the Stalinist influence and reformist positions of the trade unions. [see: Jan. 15]

[B] 1961 - Harry Hooton (b. 1908), Australian poet, philosopher, anarchist, Wobbly and pacifist, dies. [see: Oct. 9]

1962 - Ralf Burnicki, German educator, author, post-anarchist theorist and poet, born.
[de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ralf_Burnicki]

1973 - Ida Mett [Ида Метт] (Ida Meyerovna Gilman [Ида Мееровна Гилман]; b. 1901), Belarusian-born anarchist, syndicalist and author, dies. [see: Aug. 2]

[A] 1973 - The American Indian Movement occupies Wounded Knee, South Dakota.
28
[D] 1381 - Peasants' Revolt: King's soldiers defeat Essex rebels at Billericay. About 500 rebels are killed in the battle.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peasants'_Revolt]

[E] 1748 - Marretje Arents aka Mat van den Nieuwendijk, and 'het limoenwijf' (the limewoman) (b. ca. 1712), Dutch fishwife and vegetable seller, who was one of the three leaders of the 1748 Pachtersoproer (Pachter riots) peasant revolt, is hung after confessing (under threat of torture) to participating in the looting. She also claimed that there were plans to sieze the Amsterdam city hall and declare a revolution.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marretje_Arents
nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marretje_Arents
resources.huygens.knaw.nl/vrouwenlexicon/lemmata/data/Arents
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pachtersoproer
nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pachtersoproer]

1816 - Luddite Timeline: Luddite attack on Heathcoat and Boden's Mill at Loughborough.

1816 - After several gamekeepers have been clubbed to death, five men from Mill Pond, Ely, are hanged for poaching. Soon after the hangings, the butcher who owned the gallows cart is found suffocated head first in his own cess-pit and the coffin-maker is found dead in a large water pipe.

1819 - María Antonia Santos Plata (b. 1782), Neogranadine peasant and Colombian Independence leader, who organised and led the rebel guerrillas in the Province of El Socorro against the invading Spanish troops during the Reconquista of the New Granada, having been found guilty of lese-majesty and high treason, is shot in by firing squad in Socorro. [see: Apr. 10]

1846 - Marie Huot (Mathilde Marie Constance Ménétrier; d. 1930), French poet, writer, journalist, lecturer, anarchist, feminist néo-Maltusian, Theosophist, vegetarian propagandist, and activist for animal rights and against vaccination, who was known as 'La mère aux chats' and wrote uner the penname of Edward Mill, born. The wife of Anatole-Théodore-Marie Huot, editor for the leftist Parisian magazine 'L'Encyclopédie Contemporaine Illustrée', with whom she had a child. At the same time, she maintained an intense relationship that lasted for nearly twenty years with the Swedish Impressionist painter, anarchist and Sufi mystic Ivan Agueli, to whom she dedicated her book of Symbolist poems, 'Missel de Notre-Dame des Solitudes' (1908). [expand]
[www.estelnegre.org/documents/huot/huot.html
fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marie_Huot_(1846-1930)
www.modernamuseet.se/stockholm/en/exhibitions/klee-agueli/biografi-ivan-agueli/]

1873 - Rebelión Cantonal / Revolución Cantonal in Sanlúcar: Backed by police, a Sanlúcar judge crosses town, up the long narrow street that divided the established authority from the menu peuple (common people), to the International’s headquarters. He dramatically entered the workers’ centre and declared all its members outlaws on the grounds that they violated sacred rights to work. A hush fell over the town. The streets emptied. Municipal officials, fearing violence, sent to Sevilla and Cédiz for arms, which arrived the next day. Meanwhile, enraged by the judge’s provocation, large groups of vine workers, agricultural wage labourers, shoemakers, barbers, and other syndicalists assembled in the Plaza, surrounded on three sides by government offices.
By 10:00 that night, all was quiet. Terrified city councilors, large landowners, estate stewards, and the thirteen British merchants who lived in town vanished, leaving the city to those who dated to keep it. Even the Guardia Civil and the excise police, fearing themselves outnumbered, had withdrawn. At around 22:00 that evening, dinner time, the city’s silence was broken only by shouts of "Long live the Revolution"; "Long live the International"; "Down with the city council". One man, a barkeeper, was accidentally shot. The Provincial authorities in Cadiz sent Sanlúcar’s representative, Gutierrez Enriquez, home to set matters straight, but the local petty bourgeoisie and working class, including the peasants who resided in town, were united against him and against Republicans of all kinds. The local FRE leaders seized the town hall and constituted themselves a Committee of Public Safety. Clearly democratic in intent, the committee’s first act was to hold elections to choose a permanent revolutionary commission. The International was now in charge.[ordenanarquista.wordpress.com/2016/10/07/la-revolucion-cantonal-en-sanlucar/
www.historiadeespananivelmedio.com/19-17-16-gobierno-figueras/
www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1873/bakunin/
ccec.revues.org/5455?lang=en
es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primera_República_Española]

[FF] 1892 - Homestead Steel Strike: With the collective bargaining agreement between the Carnegie Steel Company and the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers (AA) at the Homestead Steel Works in Pennsylvania due to end in two days time and the company deadline for negotiations under the Homestead director Henry Clay Frick, whose expressed aim was to break the union, having been reached, Frick locks workers out of the plate mill and one of the open hearth furnaces on the evening of June 28.
With the Carnegie Steel Co. making massive profits – a record $4.5 million the year before – the AA, who represented about 800 of the 3,800 workers at the plant, had asked for pay rise. Frick immediately countered with a 22% wage decrease that would affect nearly half the union's membership and remove a number of positions from the bargaining unit. In mid-June, Frick issued a statement claiming that if the two sides did not come to an agreement by June 24, Carnegie Steel would cease to recognise the union. Meanwhile, he had ordered a 12 foot high fence to be built around the plant – 3 miles in length – with 3 inch holes at shoulder height every 25 feet, signalling preparation for an armed fight with the workers. At the same time Carnegie hired the notorious Pinkerton company to provide armed thugs for the upcoming struggle.
Following his word, on June 25, Frick announced that he would no longer negotiate with the union. Shortly thereafter, he also announced wage cuts for 325 employees.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homestead_Strike
nvdatabase.swarthmore.edu/content/us-homestead-steel-workers-strike-protect-unions-and-wages-1892
libcom.org/history/1892-the-homestead-strike
libcom.org/history/homestead-strike-1892-jeremy-brecher
libcom.org/library/chapter-3-ragged-edge-anarchy
www.loc.gov/rr/news/topics/homestead.html
www.aflcio.org/About/Our-History/Key-Events-in-Labor-History/1892-Homestead-Strike
battleofhomestead.org/bhf/the-battle-of-homestead/
dp.la/primary-source-sets/sets/the-homestead-strike/
scholarship.tricolib.brynmawr.edu/bitstream/handle/10066/1019/2007PickardD.pdf?sequence=1
www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/carnegie/peopleevents/pande04.html]

1894 - The 53rd Congress passed bill S.730 (Chapter Law 118) designating the first Monday in September of each year a legal holiday to celebrate and affirm the contributions and accomplishments of the American workforce.
Following the deaths of workers at the hands of U.S. Army and U.S. Marshals Service during the Pullman Strike of 1894 in Chicago, the U.S. Congress unanimously voted on June 28 to approve legislation to make Labor Day a national holiday and President Grover Cleveland signed it into law six days after the strike had ended on August 3, believing it was a populist move that would help ensure his re-election. It didn't.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Labor_Day
www.dol.gov/general/laborday/history
www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/business-july-dec01-labor_day_9-2/]

1904 - L'Association Internationale Antimilitariste (AIA) is formed following the international anti-militarist conference held in Amsterdam on June 26.

1905 - [O.S. Jun. 15] Potemkin Mutiny [Потемкин Мятеж]: At 06:00, the body of Vakulenchuk was brought ashore by an honour guard and placed on a bier close to the Odessa Steps, a staircase that connected the port and the city, which twenty years afterwards would play an immortal and immensely magnified role in the famous ‘Odessa steps’ sequence of Sergei Eisenstein’s film. A paper pinned on the corpse’s chest said, "This is the body of Valenchuk, killed by the commander for having told the truth. Retribution has been meted out to the commander."
By 10:00, some five thousand Odessans gathered there in support of the sailors, bringing food for the seamen and flowers for the bier. With the port authorities now threatening to disperse the crowd, the ship's crew raised the 'Наш' signal flag, indicating that it was willing to fire on the port if force was used to disperse the crowd. The gathering remained peaceful throughout the day, but toward evening (ca. 17:00) after troops had surrounded the port side, sealing off all the exits, rioting, looting, and arson broke out throughout the harbour front (inside and outside the cordon). The government responded with a violent pogrom against local Jews By 21:30, loyal troops occupied strategic posts in the port and started firing into the crowd, massacring thousands of demonstrators on the dockside. By the early hours of the following morning one quarter of the city has burned.
[ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Восстание_на_броненосце_«Потёмкин»
topwar.ru/15356-vosstanie-na-bronenosce-potemkin.html
koshkindom.com.ua/html/see/potemkin.html
www.litmir.info/br/?b=213373
flot.sevastopol.info/history/potemkin.htm
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Вакуленчук,_Григорий_Никитич
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Матюшенко,_Афанасий_Николаевич
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Голиков,_Евгений_Николаевич
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Гиляровский,_Ипполит_Иванович
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_battleship_Potemkin#The_mutiny
www.carleton.edu/curricular/MEDA/classes/media110/Severson/essay.htm
www.marxist.com/revolt-armoured-cruiser-potemkin.htm
cnparm.home.texas.net/Nat/Rus/Rus02.htm]

1911 - Gaston Couté (b. 1880), French anarchist songster, dies. [see: Sep. 23]

1913 - [O.S. Jun. 15] Tikveš Uprising [Тиквешко въстание (Bul) / Тиквешко востание (Mkd)]: An uprising against the Serbian government in Vardar Macedonia, planned by the by the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation to take place behind the Serbian lines during the Second Balkan War after the Bulgarian Army had begun operations in the Tikveš region of Macedonia, starts prematurely after the secret uprising conspiracy had been betrayed to the local Serbian authorities.
bg.wikipedia.org/wiki/Тиквешко_въстание
mk.wikipedia.org/wiki/Тиквешко_востание
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tikveš_Uprising
www.savanne.ch/svoboda/anarchy/history/IlindPreobr.html]

1914 - Austria's Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, is assassinated by the Bosnian-Serb nationalist Gavrilo Princip. The young revolutionary's two pistol shots are said to have touched off World War I, though the evidence for this is thin.
Princip had been a member of Mlada Bosna (Young Bosnia), a student movement that espoused a heady mix of Nihilism, Pan-Slav nationalism and Russian anarchism, but was in fact a front for Narodna Odbrana (National Defence), a semi-official guerrilla group run by the Serbian government. Narodna Odbrana's terrorist hardcore, Ujedinjenje ili Smrt (Union or Death), better known as Black Hand, had at it head Lieutenant-Colonel Dimitrijevitch, nicknamed Apis (Latin for bee) the head of Serbian army intelligence. It was he that organised the plot and teamed Princip up with two other teenage radicals, Nedeljko Čabrinović and Trifun 'Trifko' Grabež.
When Čabrinović bomb that he had thrown at the Archduke failed to explode, Franz Ferdinand continued with his journey and it fell to Princip to assassinate him with a Browning pistol provided to him from the Serbian military armoury at Krajujevac.
Some twenty five conspirators were brought to trial. Gavrilo Princip was sentenced to 20 years’ hard labour and died of disease and torture. At the trial, Cabribovic declared that his involvement in the assassination has been the result of his anarchist beliefs. He died of hunger and mental illness in prison, at the age of 20. Princip himself confessed at the trial to being a nationalist, yet he also declaimed class-based anarchism, which is where the claim that he was an anarchist originates.
[www.katesharpleylibrary.net/1c5bbd
www.express.co.uk/news/world-war-1/465127/The-killing-of-Franz-Ferdinand-The-single-shot-that-unleashed-hell-on-earth]

1916 - 50,000 workers stage one day protest strike against trial of Karl Leibnecht.

1918 - El Congreso de Sans aka Primer Congreso de la Confederación Regional del Trabajo de Cataluña: Called by the Comité Regional de Cataluña de la Confederación Regional del Trabajo, the congress [Jun. 28 - Jul. 1] is held at the local of the Ateneo Racionalista de Sans, where trade unions and workers' associations throughout Catalonia discussed the most relevant aspects that the Catalan proletariat suffered at that time. There were several decisions reached, but two stand out as amongst the most important of the labour movement: the creation of the revolutionary Sindicato Único (Unified Union), bringing together all the workers from the same industrial sector in a single organisation that served to overcome the lack of solidarity that Capital tried to propagate, and the adhesion of these new workers' organisations to the CNT, which became the most important labour and libertarian organisation in Catalonia. From then on the CNT begins to fight against the bosses and to expand throughout Catalonia, taking on the truly anarchist and revolutionary character that its militants had conferred upon it. The eight-hour day was to be reclaimed and it was decided that professional politicians could never represent workers' societies. It was also recommended that the Juntas Administrativas de los Sindicatos (Administrative Boards of Trade Unions) should become mixed: "... so that women become interested in their struggles and directly defend their economic emancipation."
[es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confederación_Nacional_del_Trabajo
madrid.cnt.es/historia/la-cnt-en-la-segunda-republica/
aivanarquistas.blogspot.co.uk/2009/07/el-congreso-de-sans.html
www.cntvalladolid.es/90-aniversario-del-congreso-de/]

1919 - In reaction to the Treaty of Versailles, Johannes Baader puts out his 'Buch des Weltfriedens' (Book of World Peace), which became known as the 'Handbuch des Oberdada' (HADO).

1921 - In the Sacco and Vanzetti trial, defence expert witnesses testify that Sacco’s gun did not fire the bullet that killed Berardelli. Mr. Kurlansky testifies that Mrs. Andrews had told him she could not identify the defendants but a government agent was forcing her to do so.

1929 - Edward Carpenter (b. 1844), US homosexual and early proponent of gay rights, utopian and anarchist, poet, songwriter, philosopher and pacifist, dies. Sheffield propagandist who ran the Socialist Centre, wrote the socialist marching song 'England Arise', and books such as 'Civilisation, Its Cause and Cure' (1889) and 'Non-Governmental Society' (1911).

1933 - Members of the Green Shirt Movement for Social Credit, a paramilitary movement for social credit that had grown out of the Kibbo Kift, hold a demonstration at the British Union of Fascists' Headquarters in Walworth Road and state that they are "out to discredit and smash Fascism." A rather odd organisation that advocated a form of rural primitivism, with some of their members adhering to conspiracy theories around "international Jewish finance" (though the organisation itself was far from anti-Semetic), and they had taken to turning up at BUF meetings and asking awkward questions about social credit and regularly gotten ito fights with Blackshirt stewards. They had also previously joined an April 1933 'united front' anti-fascist rally in Hyde Park. Mosley ended up banning Greenshirts from BUF meetings. [PR]
[discovery.ucl.ac.uk/1348858/1/327041.pdf
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_Credit_Party_of_Great_Britain_and_Northern_Ireland
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kibbo_Kift]

1934 - Anarchist poet Kenneth Patchen marries his life-long muse Miriam Oikemus.

[B] 1935 - Dieter Schrage (d. 2011), Austrian art historian, ceramicist and anarchist, who was involved in 1976 in the Vienna Arena Movement and went on to become member of and policy wonk for Die Grüne Alternative in 1987, born.
[de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dieter_Schrage
seniorinnen.gruene.at/kunstkultur/artikel/lesen/28953/
diepresse.com/home/kultur/kunst/674158/Dieter-Schrage-der-sanfte-Anarchist-ist-tot]

1936 - In the early hours of the day, unable to continue enduring the physical pain of a longstanding ailment, Alexander Berkman (b. 1870) shoots himself; the bullet lodges in his spinal column, paralysing him. Emma Goldman rushes to Nice to be at his side. He sinks into a coma in the afternoon and dies at 10pm. [see: Nov. 21]

1936 - Valeriano Orobón Fernánez (b. 1901), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist theoretician, trade-union activist, translator and poet, who wrote the lyrics of the CNT anthem 'A Las Barricadas', dies shortly after having been released from prison, his health destroyed by numerous prison sentences and fatally weakened by tuberculosis. [see: Apr. 14]

1936 - Mosley and the BU hold a meeting in Hulme Town Hall. The meeting passes off quietly, but as the fascists try to leave the hall the crowd of 2,000-3,000 anti-fascists outside rush to attack Mosley's car. Police and Blackshirt stewards manage to clear his way but hand-to-hand fighting between fascists and anti-fascists breaks out, and a senior cops is struck in the face by a flying glass. Attempts are also made by the crowd to overturn fascist vans and set them on fire. Mosley and his retinue then went to the new fascist Club in nearby Tominson Street, which was then surrounded by another angry crowd. A Fascist flag was torn down from the building and windows were stoned. Attempts are also made by the crowd to overturn fascist vans and set them on fire. Mosley's car was also stoned as he left and the crowd made an unsuccessful attempt to stop it. All the windows of the club were later smashed with stoned. Besieged fascists in the Town Hall and Fascist Club were later forced to change in plain clothes in order to escape unnoticed. Disturbances in the area continued between fascist and anti-fascists through out the night and it took to the early hours of the next day before police restored order. Manchester Council would respond to what they feared as a potential street war by proscribing political uniforms. [PR]
[newspapers.nl.sg/Digitised/Article/singfreepressb19360710-1.2.34.aspx]

1940 - Matilde Sabaté Grisó (or Gusó) (b. 1904), Catalan teacher and anarcho-syndicalist militant, is shot in Girona cemetry after being condemned to death for "joining the rebellion" as a member of an armed militia, being the secretary of the Comitè Revolucionari de Sils, looting, destroying religious images and having participated in several murders.
[www.estelnegre.org/documents/matildesabate/matildesabate.html]

[C] 1941 - Red Friday: The Nazis burn down the Jewish Chanajki district of Białystok, together with the Great Synagogue, with 800 to 1,000 people locked inside killing about 5,000 Jews.
[www.sztetl.org.pl/en/article/bialystok/]

1944 - French résistance fighters killed Minister of Information and local Milice leader Phillipe Henriot. Milice leader in Lyon, Paul Touvier, was ordered to conduct reprisal killings.

1945 - In their first action, the Vigilantes aka the Secret Committee of Ex-Servicemen, a group of around 40 ex-servicemen, anarchists and anti-fascist activist, squat a house in Roundhill Crescent, Brighton, housing a homeless sailor's wife and her two children. They soon struck again seizing a long empty house in Freshfield road. On Sunday, 8 July they held an open air meeting on the Level which attracted several hundred people. By this stage they already had 400 members. Two days later members went up to a meeting in London where a similar organisation was being formed, as well as in Clacton, Hove, Worthing, and elsewhere, beginning a countrywide squatting movement.
[www.schnews.org.uk/archive/news21.htm
roughlydaily.com/2014/07/02/by-seeing-london-i-have-seen-as-much-of-life-as-the-world-can-show/
pasttenseblog.wordpress.com/2016/09/10/today-in-londons-housing-history-ivanhoe-hotel-squatted-bloomsbury-1946/
trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/50251097]

1947 - Stanislav Kostka Neumann (b. 1875), Czech journalist, poet, literary and art critic, translator and anarchist, dies. [see: Jun. 5]

1950 - Milada Horakova (b. 1901), Czech lawyer, social democrat, anti-fascist fighter, anti-Communist and a prominent feminist, is hanged with three others in Prague’s Pankrac Prison as a spy and traitor to the Czechoslovak Communist government.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milada_Horáková
www.ustrcr.cz/en/milada-horakova-en
www.radio.cz/en/section/archives/milada-horakova-dignity-in-the-face-of-fanaticism-1
coldwarradios.blogspot.co.uk/2010/11/i-leave-this-world-without-hatred.html]

[F] 1956 - A strike begins today in Poznañ with about 100,000 demonstrators shouting "Bread and Freedom". State offices are taken, including prisons, while police shoot from secret police headquarters killing people. The government sends 10,000 soldiers to the city. By tomorrow over 70 people are dead, a hundreds wounded and 700 arrested.

1967 - Oskar Maria Graf (b. 1894), Bavarian author, poet, novelist and anarchist, who occassionally used the pseudonym Oskar Graf-Berg, dies. [see: Jul. 22]

[A] 1969 - A police raid on the Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village sparks the Stonewall Riots.

1974 - Maurice Vandamme (aka Mauricius) (b. 1886), French anarchist, architect's clerk and biologist, born. He was an anarchist individualist candidate in the municipal elections in Clignancourt 1925; discovered the therapeutic properties of the ozone and founded a medical centre in Paris in 1936 working with ozone insufflations. [see: Feb. 24]

1976 - Elena Quinteros (b. 1945), Uruguayan teacher, militant of the Federación Anarquista Uruguaya (FAU) and Partido por la Victoria del Pueblo, is kidnapped on the grounds of the Embassy of Venezuela in Montevideo having escaped from military custody four days earlier. In August 1976 she is last seen in a military detention centre and subjected to torture before she is "disappeared" permanently. [see: Sep. 9]

1989 - Joris Ivens (b. 1898), Dutch communist and documentary filmmaker, who made the pro-Republican propaganda film 'The Spanish Earth' (1937), dies. [see: Nov. 18]

1996 - Prisoners at Tripoli's Abu Salim security jail protest the harsh conditions. They take 2 guards hostage, one of whom dies. Prison guards open fire, killing 6 and wounding 20 prisoners. Prisoners present their demands and agree to further negotiations tomorrow. About 120 sick prisoners are taken away, allegedly for medical care.Instead, many of them are shot and killed. [see tomorrow & Feb 17, 2011]

2005 - The Zapatistas present the Sixth Declaration of the Lacandon Jungle.

2006 - Léo Ferré performs at the Teatro Calabresi in San Benedetto del Tronto.

2009 - Ilya Dzhaparidze, Russian anti-fascist is stabbed to death by Nazis in Moscow. Dzhaparidze was killed the night before a Dinamo FC match, where he he had planned to hang the banner "Football Against Racism".
[eng.kavkaz-uzel.ru/articles/17288/
www.themoscowtimes.com/news/article/nationalist-suspected-in-high-profile-killings-extradited/489332.html]

[CC] 2011 - Seven anti-fascists are convicted of 'conspiracy to commit violent disorder' after a 17 day trial in connection with an altercation on the platform of Welling train station between a couple of the anti-fascists and two fascists from a Blood and Honour gig at the Duchess of Edinburgh pub in Upper Wickham Lane on March 28, 2009. Andy Baker, Sean Cregan, Phil De Sousa and Ravinder Gill were immediately sentenced to 21 months in prison. Thomas Blak and Austen Jackson would later receive 18 and 15 months respectively following sentencing reports. Thoams was also facing deportation at the end of his sentence.
[antifascistprisonersupportuk.wordpress.com/about-2/
leedsabc.org/all-nine-anti-fascists-acquitted-in-second-welling-trial/
transpont.blogspot.co.uk/2011/10/anti-fascists-jailed-after-welling.html]
29
[E] 1851* - [O.S. Nov. 17] Yelizaveta Nikolayevna Kovalskaya (Елизавeта Николaевна Ковaльская; d. 1943), Russian revolutionary, member of the Tchaikovsky (чайковцы) circle, Zemlya i Volya (Land and Liberty) and a founding member of Black Repartition (Чёрный передел), born. In 1880 she took part in organising the Worker's Union of Southern Russia (Южнорусский рабочий союз) in Kiev. Although only involved in propaganda work, she was arrested in 1881, found guilty of being a member of an illegal organisation and sentenced to an open-ended katorga (hard labour in exile) in 1881. She went through several hunger strikes and made two unsuccessful prison escapes as well as knifed a prison guard. In 1891, the life term was replaced by 20 years penal servitude. Released in 1903, she went into exile in Switzerland and France (1903-17) and joined the Socialist-Revolutionary Party. After the February Revolution Koválskaya returned to Russia and worked in the State Archives and served as a member of the editorial board of 'Katorga and Exile' (Каторга и ссылка), the journal of the All-Union Society of former Political Prisoners and Exiles (Всесоюзного общества бывших политкаторжан и ссыльнопоселенцев).
[* NB. Some sources give the year as 1849.]
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yelizaveta_Kovalskaya
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ковальская,_Елизавета_Николаевна
spartacus-educational.com/RUSkovalskaia.htm]

1873 - Rebelión Cantonal / Revolución Cantonal in Sanlúcar: The Interim Revolutionary Board announced to the citizens their start-up agreement: immediate abolition of the ecclesiastical council, that the silverwear of the aforementioned town hall be auctioned, three adult schools (in the Iglesia de San Miguel, in the Iglesia de los Desamparados, and in the Iglesia de San Nicolás), prohibition of the viático público in the streets, reorganisation of the three convents of cloistered nuns into one in the Regina Coeli, the Convents of las Descalzas and Madre de Dios would be turned over for the use of the public, to look sympathetically at the precarious situation of the working classes, to give a relief to the workers at 7:00 in the morning with the funds of the Municipality.

1879 - Pedro Vallina Martinez (d. 1970), Sevillian medical doctor, prominent figure of Andalusian anarchism, Civil War fighter and militant, who was involved in the labour movement and spent much of his life in and out of prison and exile for his opposition to Spanish repression and fascism, born. [expand]
[www.ephemanar.net/juin29.html#vallina
militants-anarchistes.info/spip.php?article7087
ita.anarchopedia.org/Pedro_Vallina_Martínez
libcom.org/history/vallina-pedro-1879-1970
puertoreal.cnt.es/bilbiografias-anarquistas/3218-pedro-vallina-martinez-revolucionario-antimonarquico-y-anarquista.html
es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pedro_Vallina]

1892 - Fasci Siciliani Uprising: The Fascio di Palermo is formed, and many of the local workers associations and mutual aid societies quickly disband and joined the Fascio, which within two months has 7,500 members.
[ita.anarchopedia.org/fasci_siciliani
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fasci_Siciliani
mnemonia.altervista.org/antimafia/fasci.php
www.altritaliani.net/spip.php?page=article&id_article=976
www.controlacrisi.org/notizia/Politica/2013/6/17/34570-il-movimento-dei-fasci-siciliani-una-verita-messa-a-tacere/
www.ilportaledelsud.org/fasci_siciliani.htm
www.centroimpastato.it/publ/online/fasci.php3]

1892 - Homestead Steel Strike: With no collective bargaining agreement having been reached, Henry Clay Frick locks the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers out of the rest of the Homestead plant.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homestead_Strike
nvdatabase.swarthmore.edu/content/us-homestead-steel-workers-strike-protect-unions-and-wages-1892
libcom.org/history/1892-the-homestead-strike
libcom.org/history/homestead-strike-1892-jeremy-brecher
libcom.org/library/chapter-3-ragged-edge-anarchy
www.loc.gov/rr/news/topics/homestead.html
www.aflcio.org/About/Our-History/Key-Events-in-Labor-History/1892-Homestead-Strike
battleofhomestead.org/bhf/the-battle-of-homestead/
dp.la/primary-source-sets/sets/the-homestead-strike/
scholarship.tricolib.brynmawr.edu/bitstream/handle/10066/1019/2007PickardD.pdf?sequence=1
www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/carnegie/peopleevents/pande04.html]

1898 - Michael Schwab (b. 1853), German-American labour organiser, dies from tuberculosis contracted whilst in prison. [see: Aug. 9]

1905 - [O.S. Jun. 16] Potemkin Mutiny [Потемкин Мятеж]: After prolonged negotiations, the authorities allowed the burial of Vakulenchuk and at 14:00 twelve unarmed sailors were sent from the Potemkin as an honour guard. The funeral turned into a political demonstration and, when returning from the funeral, the honour guard of sailors was ambushed and fired upon by an army patrol - two sailors were killed and three arrested. In retaliation, the ship fired two six-inch shells at the theatre where a high-level military meeting was scheduled to take place, but missed.
With the swelling of military numbers in Odessa, the commander of the Odessa Military District ordered artillery units to repare to shell the Potemkin if it try to approach the port. Meanwhile, an approach by the sailors to open negotiations was rejected and late in the day radio operators on board the Potemkin intercepted radio messages between ships of the Black Sea Fleet [three battleships - the Tri Sviatitelia (Три Святителя), Dvenadsat Apostolov (Двенадцать Апостолов), and Georgii Pobedonosets (Георгий Победоносец), the cruiser Kazarsky (Казарского) and four torpedo boats] sent to capture the Potemkin in Odessa. heading towards Odessa.
[ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Восстание_на_броненосце_«Потёмкин»
topwar.ru/15356-vosstanie-na-bronenosce-potemkin.html
koshkindom.com.ua/html/see/potemkin.html
www.litmir.info/br/?b=213373
flot.sevastopol.info/history/potemkin.htm
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Вакуленчук,_Григорий_Никитич
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Матюшенко,_Афанасий_Николаевич
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Голиков,_Евгений_Николаевич
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Гиляровский,_Ипполит_Иванович
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_battleship_Potemkin#The_mutiny
www.carleton.edu/curricular/MEDA/classes/media110/Severson/essay.htm
www.marxist.com/revolt-armoured-cruiser-potemkin.htm
cnparm.home.texas.net/Nat/Rus/Rus02.htm]

1905 - [O.S. Jun. 16] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The Congress of City Councils in Moscow demands an elected legislature and civil liberties.
[cnparm.home.texas.net/Nat/Rus/Rus02.htm]

[B] 1905 - Jean Émile Louis Scutenaire (d. 1987), Belgian poet, anarchist, atheist, surrealist and civil servant, born. One of the central figure in the Belgian Surrealist movement, along with his close friend René Magritte, Paul Nougé, Marcel Lecomte and his wife, Irène Hamoir. Sympathetic to communism during the 1930s and '40s but as the truth about Stalin's regime became more apparent, he grew disenchanted with it and became an anarchist.
[www.sonuma.be/archive/scutenaire-anarchiste-doux-et-implacable
libertaire.pagesperso-orange.fr/portraits/scutenaire.htm
atheisme.free.fr/Citations/Scutenaire.htm
www.quotez.net/french/louis_scutenaire.htm]

1906 - The US Congress renews the 1903 Anarchist Exclusion Act.

1913 - Paterson Silk Strike: Second fatality of the strike. Vincenzo Madonna shot in a street skirmish with a strikebreaker. [see: Jan. 27 & Feb. 24]

1918 - Federal agents raid the apartment of Emma Goldman's associate, M. Eleanor Fitzgerald, seizing mailing lists and other relevant material. Emma's associates, Carl Newlander and William Bales, are arrested for draft evasion following the raid.

1919 - Auguste Spichiger (b. 1842), Swiss militant libertarian, labour activist, a prominent member of the Jura Federation and the (anti-authoritarian) International, dies. One of the leading anarchist figures of the era.
[www.ephemanar.net/juin29.html]

1919 - Pedro Fernández Eleta aka 'El Taxista' (the Driver)(d. 2006), Spanish taxi driver, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist combattant, born. One of eight children, he began work as a baker and then as a mechanic. On 19 July 1936, he and his brother Cándido were distributing leaflets in Zaragoza calling for a general strike as the same time as the fascist uprising occurred. They had to go into hiding from the Fascists in the city for two months and witnessed the executions of their comrades by Franco's troops. On September 30, 1936, a group of 10 members of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT) - among them Pedro and Cándido Fernández, Ángel Marí, Ángel Cebrián, Francisco Sanclemente Bernal, Ramón Maza and Santiago 'el Autobuserico' - armed with two pistols and a revolver, undertook the dangerous task of escaping to the Republican zone along the Utrillas railway line in the direction of Fuendetodos. They managed to reach the town the next day, after coming under machinegun fire from the Carlist militia and thanks to a group of CNT-FAI fighters who came out to meet them - amongst his rescuers was Francisco Fuster, a CNT comrade from Valdealgorfa, Teruel. Having recovered from his wounds, he joined the Regeneración century, the first Confederal Regiment.
A proposal by Saturnino Carod Lerin and Buenaventura Durruti for a Aragonese Hundred of 300 militiamen trained in Puebla de Hijar for guerrilla attacks inside Zaragoza was dismissed by the High Command, in favour of classical war tactics and frontal attacks, which would exhaust all hope of military victory on the Aragon front. With the forced militarisation, he left the front and for Barcelona, ​​whilst his brother Cándido joined the Second Company of the Second Battalion as a lieutenant in the XXV Divisió Ortíz. Cándido Eleta Fernandez, fell in combat, aged 27, fell in La Batalla de Belchite, the failed offensive against Zaragoza in August 1937, during an attempt to take a position on Monte Sillero. Pedro Fernandez, meanwhile, toured all the war fronts as a driver in the Cos de Tren (Train Corps), which later became the Batalló de Transport Confederal. Based between Barcelona and Madrid, he was attached to the Combatiente del Este of the XXVI Divisió Durruti, accompanying two French journalists during the battle of Teruel, he transported supplies and troops from Mora to the Battle of the Ebro, and in the withdrawal tfrom Catalonia, he crossed the French border with a ​​truckload of refugees. Interned in the camps at Agde, St. Cyprian and Argeles, he was a forced labourer building a gunpowder factory in Saint Librade. Later, he was deported to Figueres by train, where everybody in the convoy was handed over to the Guàrdia Civil. Interned in several concentration camps (La Carbonera, Miranda de Ebro and Valdenocada), finally imprisoned in the dreaded Torrero prison in Zaragoza, where he was subjected to court martial and sentenced to death. This was later commuted to 30 years, then to 20 and having served nearly three years, he was released on probation attached to the Batallón Disciplinario no. 35, forced to build the rail connection to the airport. Finally, he was forced to do three years of compulsory military service in Jaca. In 1977, he went with a group of old CNT activists to participate in a rally in Toulouse, where he found colleagues who he had not seen for decades. Working as a taxi driver, he was actively involved in the reconstruction of the CNT in Aragón as a militant in the Sindicat de Transports. His life was the source of inspiration for the novel 'Los inocentes de Ginel' (2005) by the writer Ricardo Vázquez-Prada.
[www.estelnegre.org/anarcoefemerides/2908.html
puertoreal.cnt.es/en/bilbiografias-anarquistas/2177-pedro-fernandez-eleta-en-el-frente-de-aragon.html
aragon.cnt.es/en-memoria-del-companero-pedro-fernandez-eleta/]

1921 - Frédéric Charles Antoine Dard (d. 2000), French writer of romans policiers and so-called anarchiste de droite, born. Has written an unknown number (possibly 200+) of novels - detective fiction, crime novels, suspense, etc. - under a plethora of pseudonyms including F. D. Ricard, Sydeney, Fred Astor, Fred Charles, F.R. Daroux, Frédéric Valmain, San-Antonio, Frédéric Charles, Mr Joos, Alex de la Glunière, R. Fréroux, Frédard, Georges Quatremenon, Alex de la Glunière, Jérôme Patrice, Frédéric Antony, Cousin Jules, Freddy Dor, Jules Albert, Patrice, Ric, Jules Durand, Charles d'Ars, Cornel Milk, Verne Goody, Well Norton, Maxel Beeting, Odette Damaizin, Kill Him, L'Ange Noir, Charly, Antoine, Paul Antoine and Kaput. The plot of his Commissaire San-Antonio novel 'Plein les moustaches' (Full whiskers; 1985) features the hunt for Nazi war criminals.
The French punk band Bérurier Noir are named in part in tribute to the sidekick (Bérurier) of his main fictional character, Commissaire San-Antonio.
"Last year I was a bit pretentious, this year I am perfect."
"(...) au fond de moi, je suis un rebelle, je suis un anarchiste. Il y a anarchie dans ma manière d'écrire : anarchie du style, anarchie de l'intrigue, puisque ce ne sont pas de vrais romans policiers, anarchie dans l'utilisation des gadgets modernes - qu'est-ce que ça peut me foutre qu'une fusée marche à l'hydrogène liquide ou au gruyère râpé ? - il y a anarchie sur toute la ligne. C'est finalement une rébellion contre tout ce que l'on m'a enseigné."
("(...) In my heart, I am a rebel, I'm an anarchist There is anarchy in the way I write. Style anarchy, anarchy of the plot, since it is not real novels police lawlessness in the use of modern gadgets - what can it make me a rocket running on liquid hydrogen or grated cheese - there is anarchy on the line. It is ultimately a rebellion against everything I was taught.")
[fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frédéric_Dard
sanantonio.zanzaman.com/pages_divers/bibliobiographie.html
www.jesuismort.com/biographie_celebrite_chercher/biographie-frederic_dard-3735.php
www.lexpress.fr/culture/livre/la-vie-trepidante-de-frederic-dard-dit-san-antonio_896730.html]

[F] 1936 - Miner and organiser Jesus Pallares, who helped organise 8,000 miners into the Liga Obrera de Habla Espanola, is accused of being a communist and deported as an "undesirable alien" following a strike by Chicano coal miners in Gallup, New Mexico. After the 1935 strike, martial law was declared for six months, miners were evicted from their housing camp, and strike leaders were arrested.
[www.dailykos.com/story/2015/6/29/1397574/-Organizing-in-the-Mines
faculty.utep.edu/LinkClick.aspx?link=Deportation_Pallares.pdf&tabid=31574&mid=166320]

1941 - Laura Clay (b. 1849), prominent US suffragist and orator, who was co-founder and first president of the Kentucky Equal Rights Association, dies. [see: Feb. 9]

1951 - Urbain Gohier (born Urbain Degoulet and used the pen name Isaac Blümchen; b. 1862), French author, journalist, anti-militarist, lawyer, one-time writer for the anarchist 'Le Libertaire' and latterly a rabid anti-Semite, dies. [see: Dec. 17]

1963 - Mass trespass on land at the Porton Down chemical and biological warfare facility.

[C] 1973 - An attempted coup d'etat in Chile - a test run for the real thing on September 11th.

[D] 1992 - Mohammad Boudiaf, the president of Algeria, is assassinated by his bodyguard during his first public appearance, in Annaba. A few seconds after uttering the words: "We are all going to die" ["We must know that the life of a human being is very short. We are all going to die. Why should we cling so much to power? Other peoples have overtaken us by technology and science. Islam -- "] uniformed Lambarek Boumaarafi raised his submachine gun and killed the Algerian head of state. It was his first trip outside Algiers since he took office after a military coup in January. In the confusion and panic that followed, 41 other people were wounded by gunfire and grenades. Boudiaf was succeeded by army officer Liamine Zeroual.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assassination_of_Mohamed_Boudiaf
www.nytimes.com/1992/06/30/world/algerian-president-fatally-shot-at-rally.html]

1992 - Pierre Boujut (b. 1913), French cooper, writer, poet, pacifist and libertarian, dies. [see: Feb. 27]

[A] 1996 - Following yesterday's protests and deaths, nearly 1,200 prisoners in Tripoli's Abu Salim security jail are massacred in revenge for the protests and death of a guard. [see Feb 17, 2011]

2011 - Dieter Schrage (b. 1935), Austrian art historian, ceramicist and anarchist, who was involved in 1976 in the Vienna Arena Movement and went on to become member of and policy wonk for Die Grüne Alternative in 1987, dies. [see: Jun. 28]
30
[F] 1619 - Jamestown Polish Craftsmen's Strike: Disenfranchised Polish craftsmen in the Virginia settlement of Jamestown, who were not allowed to vote in the colony's first election that year, go out on strike – the first recorded strike in North American history.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1619_Jamestown_Polish_craftsmen_strike
nvdatabase.swarthmore.edu/content/polish-artisans-strike-right-vote-jamestown-virginia-1619]

1787 - Calton (or Glasgow) Weavers Strike: The weavers’ strike of 1787 was the first recorded strike in Glasgow’s history. Weaving was the main occupation in Glasgow and surrounding districts (with 19 cotton-mills within 25 miles from Glasgow) at the time after the collapse of the tobacco trade due to the American War of Independence and now, facing the second cut to their income in eight months, weavers were seeking to organise. On June 30, seven thousand attended a meeting on Glasgow Green and on July 4, the terms of a unanimous resolution from the meeting appeared in a letter printed in the 'Glasgow Mercury'. The letter pointed out that the cut suggested by the manufacturers would bring weavers income down by 25% while other trades had been rightfully rising in face of an increase in house rents and other means of subsistence. It also stated that they would not "offer violence to any man or his work". The strike had begun and would last for eight weeks, with protests centring on Glasgow Green in the east end of the city.
As in previous disputes, they seized the materials which had been accepted by some workers at the reduced rates, but these were then returned to their owners. Pressure was put on those still willing to work, and materials in transit to them were also intercepted and sent back to the manufacturers.
After 4 weeks, the manufacturers retaliated by deciding to give out no work whatsoever. However, this ban was not entirely complied with - some work continued to be provided and was undertaken by desperate workers. As time passed, the hardships experienced by the weavers increased and the measures adopted to attempt a resolution of the deadlock became more extreme. It seemed inevitable that violence would erupt. Materials once returned to their owners were seized and publicly burned. Working weavers were increasingly threatened; three Camlachie weavers had their furniture destroyed and at least one was assaulted.
The dispute reached a climax on September 3, when a crowd of weavers gathered in Calton, seized materials from those still working and publicly paraded them. Calton at the time was independent of Glasgow but the Lord Provost himself and other town authorities went to the village and attempted to disperse the weavers. They proved unsuccessful, being forced to retreat under a hail of bricks and stones. The military was called out in support of the authorities, a detachment of the 39th Regiment, and this seemed to have the desired effect initially with the crowd scattering. Later in the day however, it was found that the weavers and their supporters were moving towards the Cathedral in procession with seized cloth which they intended to destroy. They were intercepted by the Glasgow magistrates and the troops near the Drygate. This time when the strikers threw their missiles, the soldiers opened fire, despite the fact that the Riot Act had not been read. Three demonstrators were killed immediately and others were wounded, three fatally. 6000 people attending their funerals.
Although there was some rioting the following day, this was contained and the strike was effectively broken.
James Granger’s trial, he was then aged 38, married and had six children, took place in Edinburgh the following year. It was the first case of "forming illegal combinations" in Scotland. He was found guilty on July 22 and sentenced three days later on Friday 25th. The sentence was that he be carried to the Tollbooth, to remain there until August 13, on which day he would be publicly whipped through the streets of the city at the hands of the Common Executioner; that he should then be set at liberty and allowed till the October 15 to settle his affairs, after which he is to banish himself from Scotland for seven years, under the usual certifications, in case of his again returning during that term. A severe price to pay for trying to prevent a wage cut. James Granger returned and took part in the 1811-1812 strike and lived to the age of 75.
[www.radicalglasgow.me.uk/strugglepedia/index.php?title=The_Weavers'_Strike.
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calton_weavers_strike
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calton_weavers
scottishrepublicans.myfreeforum.org/archive/glasgow-s-first-strike-the-case-of-the-calton-weaverso_tt_454.html
www.glasgowhistory.co.uk/Books/EastGlasgowDictionary/EastGlasgowArticles/WeaversStrike.htm
www.mediamatters.co.uk/media/kc_panel1.html]

[D] 1797 - Richard Parker (b. 1767), once court-marshalled and discharged Royal Navy officer who later re-enlisted, is hung for his role as president of the 'Floating Republic', the May 12-16, 1797 naval mutiny in the North Sea Fleet which took place at the Nore anchorage in the Thames estuary.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Parker_(sailor)
www.napoleonguide.com/richard-parker.htm
www.rmg.co.uk/researchers/library/research-guides/the-royal-navy/research-guide-b8-the-spithead-and-nore-mutinies-of-1797]

1840 - Pierre-Joseph Proudhon's 'Qu'est-ce que la propriété? ou Recherche Sur le Principe du Droit et du Gouvernement' first published.

[E] 1853 - [O.S. Jun. 18] Olga Spiridonovna Lyubatovich [Ольга Спиридоновна Любатович] aka 'Shaeek' [Акула], Olga Doroshenko [Ольга Дорошенко], Maria Svyatskaya [Мария Святская] (d. 1917), Russian anarchist-influenced revolutionary, narodnitsa and member of the Executive Committee of Narodnaya Volya (Земля и воля / People's Will), born. Unable to train as a doctor in Russia, like many other well-to-do young women, in May 1871 she travelled to Switzerland with her sister Vera, where she enrolled in the Medical Faculty of the University of Zurich. There she met Vera Figner and joined the Fritsche circle of young Russian female radicals such as Sofia Bardina, Vera and Lydia Figner, Olga Liubatovich, Anna Toporkova, Berta Kaminskaya, Alexandra Khorzhevskaya, and the Subbotina sisters Evgeniya, Maria and Nadezhda. In 1875, she returned to Russia as an ordinary worker in a cotton mill in the vicinity of Moscow and Tula, where she attempted to spread socialist propaganda among industrial workers. In January 1875 the former Fritsche circle members, who had all by now returned to Russia and engaged in revolutionary activities, began distributing the newspaper, 'Rabotnik' (The Worker), that was being produced in Berne by Mikhail Bakunin, whom the women had met whilst in Zurich. Thier activities had also come to the notice of the Tsarist secret police and Olga, Vera and many of the others were arrested in August that year. They went on to stand trial in the Trial of the 50 (процесса 50-ти) of the members of the All-Russian Social-Revolutionary Organisation (Всероссийской социально-революционной организации) aka the Muscovites Circle (Кружок москвичей). Olga was sentenced to nine years hard labour but this was reduced to banishment to Tobolsk in Siberia, where she was able to use her medical knowledge to help the local people and became known as the "miracle worker". In August 1876, Lyubatovich fled from Yalutorovsk and went into hiding in St. Petersburg and joined the recently formed Zemlya i Volya (Земля и Воля / Land and Liberty). She later went abroad, spending time in the Russian émigré group there, who included Vera Zasulich, who had fled abroad before she could be retried for her assassination attempt on the Police chief of St. Petersburg, General Trepov.
In October 1879, Zemlya i Volya split into two factions. The majority of members, who favoured a policy of terrorism, established Narodnaya Volya (Народной Воли / People's Will). Others, such as George Plekhanov formed Black Partition (Чёрный передел), who rejected terrorism and supported a socialist propaganda campaign among workers and peasants. Olga joined Narodnaya Volya, with a place on its executive committee who, on September 7 [Aug. 26], 1879, decided that the organisation should attempt to assassinate Tsar Alexander II. This led to Lyubatovich taking part in three unsuccessful attempts on the Tsar's life.
In 1880 there was strong disagreement in People's Will about the purposes of terrorism. One group that included Liubatovich and her husband, Nikolai Alexandrovich Morozov (Николай Александрович Морозов), argued that the main objective was to force the government to grant democratic rights to the people of Russia. However, another faction, led by Lev Tikhomirov (Лев Тихомиров), who had been deeply influenced by the ideas of Sergi Nechayev (Сергeй Нечaев), believed that it was possible for a small group of revolutionaries to gain control and then hand over its powers to the people. Lyubatovich and Morozov strongly disagreed with Tikhomirov, and argued that this was an example of Jacobinism and would thus result in the kind of dictatorship seen in the French Revolution. Then pregnant, she and Morozov left Narodnaya Volya and went to live in Geneva. While in exile Morozov wrote 'The Terrorist Struggle' (Террористическая борьба), setting out his and Olga's views.
In October Olga gave birth to a daughter (who would die the following summer of meningitis) whilst Morozov left for Russia to distribute his pamphlet. He was arrested soon after arrival and was then imprisoned in Sulvalki (Сувалки). In May 1881, leaving her daughter with her friends, Lyubatovich returned from abroad to St. Petersburg to try and liberate Morozova, In mid-October, she left for Moscow, where she was arrested on November 18 [6], 1881 in Moscow, at the Grand Hotel under the name of Maria Svyatskaya (Марии Святской). Exiled to Tobolsk province once again, where she remained until 1888. She was finally released following the 1905 Revolution, as part of a political amnesty. After her return to St. Petersburg she wrote her memoirs. Later on she withdrew from public and political activities, remarried and move to Georgia where she died in Tiflis on Jan. 10, 1918 [O.S. Dec. 28, 1917].
[ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Любатович,_Ольга_Спиридоновна
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olga_Lyubatovich
spartacus-educational.com/RUSliubatovich.htm
theanarchistlibrary.org/library/sergei-stepniak-a-female-nihilist-the-true-story-of-the-nihilist-olga-liubatovitch
library.libertarian-labyrinth.org/items/show/2638
www.hrono.ru/biograf/bio_l/lyubatovich.php
www.e-reading.club/chapter.php/1005637/106/Budnickiy_-_Zhenschiny-terroristki_Rossii._Beskorystnye_ubiycy.html]

1873 - Rebelión Cantonal / Revolución Cantonal in Sanlúcar: Not wishing to usurp power longer than necessary, they held the elections at 02:00 on the morning of June 30. It has not been recorded how many of Sanliicar’s citizens were willing or able to overcome fear or sleep to get out and vote, but the newspapers reported that those FRE members who had been deposed by the judge were elected by acclamation. Aware of the consequences of their act, between 1,000 and 1,500 armed townspeopIe began to erect barricades throughout the city, digging in to defend themselves against the army that would certainly come to depose them.
Meanwhile, two provincial Republican delegates, Pedro Bohórquez and Eduardo Gutiérrez Enríquez, had arrived and approved the appointments to interim council of Manuel Galán, Antonio Vázquez, Antonio Galán, Manuel Muñoz, Miguel Cervantes, José Galán, Antonio Rodríguez, Antonio Morales, Alfonso García, Francisco Carrero, Isidro Caparro, José Delgado, Manuel Zafra and Manuel Ávila, as councilmen; Jacinto Domínguez, Juan Millán, Manuel Pedrote, José Enríquez, and José Muñiz, as lieutenants tto the mayor; and Antonio Cuevas Jurado, as acting mayor, the latter being elected by a vote among the councilors, by 19 votes in favour to one against. The new councilors were appointed to take charge of the City until the holding of the next municipal elections scheduled for July 12.
The new mayor accepted petitions from the neighbours and they stated that the owners of the vineyards had to present their property titles and that the assets of those who did not present themselves in the village within the next three days were confiscated. Among the owners were Antonio de Orleans Duke of Montpensier and the Duke of Medina-Sidonia. They also asked for the seizure of Church assets and for 25,000 hard workers to arm themselves. At that moment, the wise neighbours, and some municipal officers began to leave the city, just in time to avoid witnessing the sacking of the city's churches in which furniture and statues were destroyed, and the College of the Piarists razed, amidst claims the the latter building had been given to the city for a high school but that the priests had appropriated the school. The Piarist had also become targets as it was said that the priests had given money to the Carlists, money that belonged to the city.
[ordenanarquista.wordpress.com/2016/10/07/la-revolucion-cantonal-en-sanlucar/
www.historiadeespananivelmedio.com/19-17-16-gobierno-figueras/
www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1873/bakunin/
ccec.revues.org/5455?lang=en
es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primera_República_Española]

1874 - Fritz Brupbacher (d. 1945), Swiss physician, anti-militarist, revolutionary syndicalist and libertarian socialist, born.
[www.ephemanar.net/janvier01.html#brupbacherf]

1882 - Robert Louzon (d. 1976), French engineer, revolutionary syndicalist and anarchist, born.
In August 1936, commissioned by the CNT in Spain, he went to Morocco in order to try and prevent the recruitment of troops by Franco. In February 1937, he joined the Republican army and fought at the front as one of the oldest milicianos. On his return to France, he worked helping Spanish Republicans, as well as Italian and German emigrants as a member of the SIA (International Antifascist Solidarity) and working on its weekly. In 1939, he signed Louis Lecoin's leaflet 'Paix immédiate', which earned him a trial before the council of war despite having been awarded a Légion d'honneur. Arrested in 1940, he was interned in a camp in Algeria for a year. In 1947, he resumed his militant activity in Révolution Prolétarienne.
[fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Louzon
revolutionproletarienne.wordpress.com/biographie-de-louzon/
theanarchistlibrary.org/library/various-authors-news-of-the-spanish-revolution
www.ephemanar.net/juin30.html#30]

1888 - Léon Metchnikoff (Lev Mechnikov; b. 1838), Russian geographer, anarchist and secretary to Élisée Reclus, dies. [see: May 30]

[FF] 1892 - Homestead Steel Strike: At a mass meeting of Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers (AA) members at the Homestead Steel Works, union officers review the final negotiating sessions and announce that the company had broken the contract by locking out workers a day before the contract expired. The Knights of Labor, which had organised the mechanics and transportation workers at Homestead, agreed to walk out alongside the skilled workers of the AA. Workers at Carnegie plants in Pittsburgh, Duquesne, Union Mills and Beaver Falls struck in sympathy the same day.
The strikers were determined to keep the plant closed. They secured a steam-powered river launch and several rowboats to patrol the Monongahela River, which ran alongside the plant. Men also divided themselves into units along military lines. Picket lines were thrown up around the plant and the town, and 24-hour shifts established. Ferries and trains were watched. Strangers were challenged to give explanations for their presence in town; if one was not forthcoming, they were escorted outside the city limits. Telegraph communications with AA locals in other cities were established to keep tabs on the company's attempts to hire replacement workers. Reporters were issued special badges which gave them safe passage through the town, but the badges were withdrawn if it was felt misleading or false information made it into the news. Tavern owners were even asked to prevent excessive drinking.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homestead_Strike
nvdatabase.swarthmore.edu/content/us-homestead-steel-workers-strike-protect-unions-and-wages-1892
libcom.org/history/1892-the-homestead-strike
libcom.org/history/homestead-strike-1892-jeremy-brecher
libcom.org/library/chapter-3-ragged-edge-anarchy
www.loc.gov/rr/news/topics/homestead.html
www.aflcio.org/About/Our-History/Key-Events-in-Labor-History/1892-Homestead-Strike
battleofhomestead.org/bhf/the-battle-of-homestead/
dp.la/primary-source-sets/sets/the-homestead-strike/
scholarship.tricolib.brynmawr.edu/bitstream/handle/10066/1019/2007PickardD.pdf?sequence=1
www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/carnegie/peopleevents/pande04.html]

1905 - [O.S. Jun. 17] Potemkin Mutiny [Потемкин Мятеж] / Silent Battle [Немо́й бой]: At 08:40 the Potemkin sets sail to meet the approaching ships. At 09:00 Potemkin approached the first battleship group [three battleships - the Tri Sviatitelia [Три Святителя](Three Saints), Dvenadsat Apostolov [Двенадцать Апостолов](Twelve Apostles), and Georgii Pobedonosets [Георгий Победоносец](Saint George the Victorious), the cruiser Kazarsky [Казарского] and four torpedo boats] but its commander Rear Admiral F.F. Vishnevetzkogo [Ф. Ф. Вишневецкого] ordered it to turn around. It then rendezvous with the second squadron arrived with the battleships Rostislav [Ростислав] and Sinop [Синоп] and 3 torpedo boats later that morning and Vice Admiral Aleksander Krieger [Александр Кригер], acting commander of the Black Sea Fleet, ordered the ships back to Odessa. The Potemkin sortied again and sailed through the combined squadrons as Krieger failed to order his ships to fire. Suddenly from the upper deck of the Potemkin rang out the cry: "Long live freedom! Hurrah!" In answer to this, a mighty "Hurrah" burst like thunder from the three cruisers. Captain M.N. Kolands [М. Н. Коландс] of the Dvenadsat Apostolov attempted to ram Potemkin and then detonate his ship's magazines, but he was thwarted by members of his crew. Fearing that the mutiny would spread through the whole squadron, Admiral Krieger ordered the squadron to steer at full speed through the open sea to Sébastopol. However, the crew of Georgii Pobedonosets mutinied: "We won't fire! We won't man the guns! We refuse to engage the Potemkin." Dorofey Koshuba [Дорофей Кашуба], a member of the revolutionary Socialist-Democratic (RSDLP) sailors' organisation Tsentralka [Централка], broke into the armoury, ordered Captain Ilya Guzevich [Илья Гузевич] to halt the ship. The ship halted, Guzevich pleaded with the sailors to go to Sébastopol, even offering to let the 70 revolutionaries onto Potemkin. Afanasi Matushenko [Афана́сий Матюше́нко] arrived from the Potemkin with several revolutionaries who made a speech that inspired the sailors to arrest the officers. This was enough to make his second-in-command, Lieutenant Grigorkov [К. К. Григоркова], blow his own brains out. Apart from this, the seizure was bloodless. The sailors elected a committee (Koshuba and nine others), locked the officers in the stateroom and ripped off their epaulettes. The officers were put ashore in Odessa. It was decided that the petty officers should be put ashore too the next day. Senior Boatswain A. O. Kuzmenko [А. О. Кузьменко] became captain. The following afternoon loyalist members of Georgii Pobedonosets retook control of the ship and ran it aground in Odessa harbour and surrendered to the authorities. In August 1905, 75 mutineers were tried. Koshuba and two others were executed and 19 sailors got 185 years of hard labour.
Other ships also began to mutiny and the government decided to temporarily deactivate the Black Sea.
[ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Восстание_на_броненосце_«Потёмкин»
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Немой_бой
militera.lib.ru/h/gavrilov_bi/03.html
topwar.ru/15356-vosstanie-na-bronenosce-potemkin.html
koshkindom.com.ua/html/see/potemkin.html
www.litmir.info/br/?b=213373
flot.sevastopol.info/history/potemkin.htm
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Вакуленчук,_Григорий_Никитич
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Матюшенко,_Афанасий_Николаевич
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Голиков,_Евгений_Николаевич
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Гиляровский,_Ипполит_Иванович
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_battleship_Potemkin#The_mutiny
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_battleship_Georgii_Pobedonosets
www.carleton.edu/curricular/MEDA/classes/media110/Severson/essay.htm
www.marxist.com/revolt-armoured-cruiser-potemkin.htm
cnparm.home.texas.net/Nat/Rus/Rus02.htm]

1908 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: Twenty-seven suffragettes are arrested having taken part in a window-breaking demonstration in Downing Street and thrown stones at No. 10 in protest at the Liberal government's refusal to give women the vote.

1908 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: Following a WSPU demonstration in London, Scottish suffragette Mary Phillips was sentenced to three months imprisonment in Holloway, making her the longest-serving suffragette prisoner. On her release in September the WSPU organised a ‘fine Scottish welcome for her, with tartan and bagpipes’.
[spartacus-educational.com/WphillipsM.htm]

1908 - Mathilde Carré aka 'La Chatte' (Mathilde Lucie Bélard; d. 2007), French nurse and Résistance agent, who was turned, first by the Abwehr and later by SOE/MI5, becoming a double agent for both the Nazis and the Allies, born. She was later found guilty of treason by a french court and sentenced to death on January 7, 1949, commuted three months later to 20 years in prison.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mathilde_Carré
fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mathilde_Carré
mujeres-riot.webcindario.com/Mathilde_Carre.htm]

1912 - In Mexico City, a group formed by Luis Méndez, Jacinto Huitrón and the Colombian anarchist Juan Francisco Moncaleano, takes the name Grupo Luz. This group is responsible for the creation of a school based on the École Moderne model of the Spaniard, Francisco Ferrer, and the publication of the '¡Luz!' (Light) newspaper.

1913 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: The station buildings at Leuchars Junction burnt to the ground.

1913 - Paterson Silk Strike: Elizabeth Gurley Flynn goes on trial after her arrest for a speech given at Turn Hall on February 24. She faces a sentence of one to seven years if found guilty but her jury ends deadlocked. [see: Feb. 24]
[www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/elizabethgurleyflynn.htm]

1913 - Violeta Fernández Saavedra (d. 2005), Spanish-Mexican teacher, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, is born in Mexico. The grandaughter of the anarchist intellectual and pedagogue Abelardo Saavedra del Toro, her parents had been expelled from Spain. [expand]
[www.estelnegre.org/anarcoefemerides/1904.html
www.estelnegre.org/documents/aureliofernandez/aureliofernandez.html]

1920 - Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman travel to Moscow to collect permits necessary for their museum expedition through Russia to gather historical material.

1923 Gerhard 'Gad' Beck (d. 2012), German educator, author, anti-fascist resister, and survivor of the Holocaust, born. Despite his father being Jewish and his mother a Jewish convert from Protestatism, Gad was not deported as were other German Jews (his Mischling, partial Jewish ancestry, saving him). In one incident he borrowed a neighbour’s Hitler Youth uniform, marched into the pre-deportation camp where his lover, Manfred Lewin, had been arrested and detained, asking the commanding officer for the boy's release for use in a construction project. Lewin was released but outside refused to abandon his family - both Lewin and his entire family were later murdered at Auschwitz. Beck joined an underground effort to supply food and hiding places to Jews escaping to neutral Switzerland. In early 1945, a Jewish spy for the Gestapo betrayed him and some of his underground friends. He was subsequently interrogated and interned in a Jewish transit camp in Berlin.
After World War II, Beck helped organise efforts to emigrate Jewish survivors to Palestine, emigrating himself in 1947. Beck returned to Berlin in 1979, where he was the director of the Jewish Adult Education Center in Berlin. In 2000, Beck featured in a HBO documentary film, 'Paragraph 175', which chronicled the lives of gay men and one lesbian women who were persecuted by the Nazis. Also in 2000, Beck published his autobiography 'An Underground Life: Memoirs of a Gay Jew in Nazi Berlin'.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gad_Beck
hmd.org.uk/resources/stories/gad-beck
gaycitynews.com/gad-beck-the-last-gay-holocaust-survivor-is-dead/
www.washingtonpost.com/local/obituaries/one-of-the-last-gay-jewish-survivors-of-the-holocaust/2012/06/26/gJQAlcHQ5V_story.html]

1930 - Francisco Saverio Merlino (b. 1856), Italian lawyer, theorist, propagandist of Italian anarchism, then a libertarian socialist - though he continued to defend anarchists, dies. [see: Sep. 9 or 15]

1934 - 'The Night of the Long Knives' takes place, as Hitler approves the elimination of the entire leadership of the Brownshirts.

1936 - Alexander Berkman is buried in Nice.

[C] 1943 - Częstochowa Ghetto Uprising: The resistance in the Small Ghetto is suppressed and around 500 Jews are burned alive or buried beneath the rubble.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Częstochowa_Ghetto_Uprising
pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Getto_w_Częstochowie
www.sztetl.org.pl/en/article/czestochowa/]

1944 - Milice leader in French city of Lyon, Paul Touvier, selects 7 Jewish prisoners to be executed by firing squad as reprisal for the killing of Minister of Information and local Milice leader Phillipe Henriot two days earlier by the French Résistance.

1950 - Donna Jean Willmott, US radical and Weather Underground associate, who went on the run with her husband, Claude Daniel Marks, following a failed plot to free Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación Nacional leader Oscar Lopez from Leavenworth penitentiary, born. Caught up in an FBI sting operation - the couple had purchased 36 pounds of 'inert' C-4 explosive from undercover FBI agent in 1985 to attempt to bomb the maximum security prison in Leavenworth, Kansas, and land a helicopter in the confusion and spring Lopez – they discovered a hidden FBI bug in their car after having picked up the explosives and, in June 1985, went on the run. Placed on the FBI's Ten Most Wanted List, Donna changed her name to Jo Elliott and Claude to Greg Peters, and spent the following nine years living in Pittsburg. They eventually negotiated their surrender in 1993 and on May 9, 1995, they were sentenced to seven years each on prison escape conspiracy charges.
[en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FBI_Ten_Most_Wanted_Fugitives,_1980s
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fuerzas_Armadas_de_Liberación_Nacional_Puertorriqueña
www.nytimes.com/1994/12/09/us/neighbors-anyone-would-want-and-most-wanted-by-fbi-too.html]

[B] 1952 - During the first showing of Guy Debord's film 'Hurlement en Faveur de Sade' (Howls in Favour of de Sade; 1952; 75mins, with voice-overs by Gil J. Wolman, Guy Debord, Serge Berna, Barbara Rosenthal and Jean-Isidore Isou), which is dedicated to Gil Wolman, a mass brawl involving the audience and the film club managers breaks out after a few minutes, leading to police intervention, and it does not receive a full showing until October 13. Several Lettrists then dissociated themselves from such a crudely extremist film.
[mubi.com/films/howls-for-sade]

1957 - José Rodrigues Oiticica (b. 1882), lawyer, student of medicine, teacher, poet and an influential figure in the Brazilian anarchist and labour movement, dies. [see: Jun. 22]

1970 - Kimber Road Army depot in London is firebombed. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1998 - A group of 100 people manages to enter the buildings of the Constitutional Council of France. One of them seizes an original specimen of the constitution, tears it, declaring: "The dictatorship of capitalism is abolished. The workers declare anarchist communism."

[A] 2001 - International Day to Free Leonard Peltier.

2008 - Nadeem Khan, ages 28, dies in hospital after falling ill with "excited delirium" at Burnley Police Station.

2015 - A riot breaks out at 12:00 at Melbourne's Ravenhall maximum security remand centre over a state-wide smoking ban due to be implemented in prisons across Victori from Wednesday, but which had been introduced a day earlier at Ravenhall. 200 staff were evacuated from the prison and all of the state's prisons went into lockdown as a precaution.
The 15-hour riot, which involved 300 prisoners, caused extensive damage with fires being lit, walls and widows damaged, washbasins and toilets smashed, and furniture destroyed. Heavily armed police carrying shields eventually stormed the prison
[www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2015/jun/30/prisoners-riot-at-melbournes-ravenhall-remand-centre-over-smoking-ban
www.abc.net.au/news/2015-06-30/emergency-services-attend-melbourne-prison-riot/6583778
www.theaustralian.com.au/national-affairs/state-politics/victorian-jails-locked-down-after-prisoners-riot/story-e6frgczx-1227422525699
www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-australia-33358585]
Key:
Daily pick: 2013 [A] 2014 [B] 2015 [C] 2016 [D] 2017 [E] 2018 [F]
Weekly highlight: 2013 [AA] 2014 [BB] 2015 [CC] 2016 [DD] 2017 [EE] 2018 [FF]
Monthly features: 2013 [AAA] 2014 [BBB] 2015 [CCC] 2016 [DDD] 2017 [EEE] 2018 [FFF]
PR: 'Physical Resistance. A Hundred Years of Anti-Fascism' - Dave Hann (2012)





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