1842 - Fermín Salvochea y Álvarez (d. 1907), Andalusian author, teacher and insurrectionist, born. He was briefly mayor of Cadiz with the proclamation of the First Republic; among other measures, he implemented an 8-hour work day before he was forced to flee the country.
"Perhaps the most beloved figure in the Spanish Anarchist movement of the 19th century". - Murray Bookchin in 'The Spanish Anarchists' (1998).
The inspiration for the character Fernando Salvatierra in the novel 'La Bodega' (1905) by Vicente Blasco Ibáñez [author of the much filmed 'Los Cuatro Jinetes del Apocalipsis' (The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse; 1916)].

1880 - [O.S. Feb 17] Stefan Khalturin (Степан Николаевич Халтурин), a Russian revolutionary and member of Narodnaya Volya (Наро́дная во́ля or The People’s Will) attempts to blow up Tsar Alexander II with a mine that he had constructed in the basement of the building under the Tsar's dinning-room. Set to go off at half-past six, the time that Narodnaya Volya had calculated Alexander II would be having his dinner. However, his main guest, Prince Alexander of Battenburg, had arrived late and dinner was delayed and the dinning-room was empty. Alexander was unharmed but sixty-seven people were killed or badly wounded by the explosion.

1883 - Adolf Wolff (d. 1944), Belgian-born American anarchist, poet and sculptor, born. Associate of Man Ray, who he first met at the Ferrer Centre in New York and whose lover, Belgian poet Adon Lacroix (Donna Lecoeur; 1887-1975), went on to become Man Ray's first wife. Wolff also designed the urn that held the ashes of the three anarchists - Lettish (Latvian) Anarchist Red Cross members Carl Hanson and Charles Berg and IWW member Arthur Caron - killed in the Lexington Avenue bomb explosion of July 4, 1914. The urn was in the shape of a pyramid with a clenched fist reaching out of its apex. Wolff, explained the meaning of the design thus: "It conveys three meanings. By the pyramid is indicated [sic] the present unjust gradation of society into classes, with the masses on the bottom and the privileged classes towering above them to the apex, where the clenched fist, symbolical [sic] of the social revolution, indicates the impending vengeance of those free spirits who refuse to be bound by the present social system and rise above it, threatening its destruction. The urn further symbolizes the strength and endurance of the revolution in so solid a base. A third suggestion is that of a mountain in course of eruption, the crude, misshapen stern fist indicating the lava of human indignation which is about to belch forth and carry destruction to the volcano which has given it birth."

'Prison Weeds'

The isles of evil odours
a chain of islands
on the river
like ulcers
on the flesh
the isles of evil odours.

I break stones
in the stone shed
big ones
into little ones
big ones
into little ones
big ones
into little ones
big ones
into little ones
I break stones
in the stone shed.

A row of men
a row of naked men
standing against the wall
a desk,
a scribe,
a centurion,
they are recording
marks of identification:
"deep long scar on right side"
"one on palm of right hand"
"one on back of right hand"
"one on palm of left hand"
"one on back of left hand"
"one on instep of right foot"
"one on sole of right foot"
"one on instep of left foot"
"one on sole of left foot"
a barrel of bones
the bones of last week's stew
the rotten prison stew
it's not a dog
it's not a cat
it's a man
a man
made in the image of God.
I bought twenty-five onions
from a nigger
twenty-five onions
for ten cents
every night
before the lights go out
we each eat an onion
we each eat an onion.

Old men
a line of old men
like so many patriarchs
or fathers of the church
they are the bucket gang
they carry the buckets to the river
in solemn procession
like so many patriarchs
or fathers of the church
they carry the buckets to the river
with heads bowed
with trembling hands
they carry the buckets to the river.

He never speaks
he never reads
he never laughs
always silent
always brooding
always sad
deep sunken eyes
black beard
noble brow
he resembles a German Christ
no one knows why "he's up"
no one knows when he came
no one knows when he'll go
they say
"nobody home".

"The Priest"
"Who wants the priest?"
the keeper calls
"I want the priest"
"Well my son?"
"What my son?"
"the Christ is in the cooler"
The priest passed on
he did not understand.

in the morning
I look out on the river
the little barred window
faces the river
I like to watch
the life on the river
sail boats
and steamships
I watch them gliding
along on the river
some up
some down
some fast
some slow
some noisy
some silent
I watch them gliding
along the river
I like to look
at the life on the river
Late at night
I look out on the river
the little barred window
faces the river.

The warden
he's a nice old man
in uniform
so spic and span
his face is red
his hair is white
his eyes are blue
his smile is bright
his home is swell
his table fine
and I'm quite sure
so is his wine
go away
with nothing
but the best
to say
they're satisfied
beyond expression
the warden
made such good impression.

that I'm soon to be free
another day
another night
that I'm soon to be free
I feel
a strange unease
Maybe the
just before
the expiration of its sentence
on the verge of regaining
the freedom of eternal life
at the thought of separation
from the body
as I feel
at the thought of separation
from my cell.

[written whilst he served a term in the workhouse, a place for drunks and disorderlies on Blackwell’s Island (now Roosevelt Island.)]


[F] 1890 - 'The Worker', the first Australian labour newspaper, is published in Brisbane.

1892 - In Marseille the first edition of the weekly 'L'Agitateur: Organe Anarchiste', is published. Subject to post-Ravachol police repression, it was forced to close but reappeared on Jan. 14, 1893, with the remaining 6 issues printed in Avignon, Toulon, Dijon, and even La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland. Incessant judicial harassment finally causes the newspaper to close but a further two issues appeared in 1897 under the editorship of La Jeunesse Internationale.

1896 - Interned political prisoners on the Italian island of Tremiti riot and an anarchist, Argante Salucci from Santa Croce sull’Arno, is killed by police, and a dozen of his comrades are injured, after they resist brutalisation by the prison guards.

1898 - The first issue (of only 4) of the libertarian naturalist newspaper 'Le Naturien' appears in Paris, "advocating a return to the primitive nature where man comes to meet his needs with only natural resources".

1900 - Nikolas Tchorbadieff (d. 1994), Bulgarian anarchist militant and propagandist, born. Forced into exile, helped found the International Bookshop in Paris and a founder of the French-Bulgarian review 'Iztok' in 1979. Interned in Vernet concentration camp as an enemy alien in 1939 and later joined the Résistance.

[B] 1902 - Tiffany Ellsworth Thayer (Elmer Ellsworth jr.; d. 1959), American actor, author, atheist, anarchist, sceptic and founder of the Fortean Society, born. Author of a number of science fiction/fantasy novels including 'Doctor Arnoldi' (1934), about a world where no one dies and which has been characterised as "one of the most grotesque and repulsive works of science fiction ever written". In fact, the general verdict on his work from critics, including Dorothy Parker and F. Scott Fitzgerald who both took a particular dislike to it. Whilst he only acted in the one film - 'The Devil on Horseback' (1936) - a number of his books were made into films, including 'Strangers of the Evening' (1932), based on 'The Illustrious Corpse' (1930); 'Thirteen Women' (1932), based on the 1930 novel of the same name; 'Call her Savage' (1932), based on the 1931 novel; and 'Chicago Deadline' (1949), based on 'One Woman' (1933).
"He is beyond question a writer of power; and his power lies in his ability to make sex so thoroughly, graphically, and aggressively unattractive that one is fairly shaken to ponder how little one has been missing." - Dorothy Parker's New Yorker review of 'An American Girl' (1933)
"...curious children nosed at the slime of Mr. Tiffany Thayer in the drug-store libraries." - F. Scott Fitzgerald
"...absolutely fascinating...and disgusting... If you ever find a copy, give it to some SF fan you dislike. Your reward will be the baffled misery in his eyes after he's read it." - William Tenn, recalling 'Dr. Arnoldi' more than sixty years after he had read it.

1906 - The first issue of the monthly magazine 'Mother Earth' in the US. This 64 page anarchist publication is dedicated to the social sciences and literature is published by Emma Goldman in collaboration with Max Baginski, Hippolyte Havel and others. A victim of anti-anarchist repression, the last issue is published in August 1917.

1907 - Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) strike in the Portland, Oregon sawmills.

1911 - Rebelión de Baja California / Revolución Mexicana: A Magónista column led by Francisco Vasquez Salinas and Luis Rodriguez crosses the border into Baja California and starts requisitioning the big estates near Tecate.

1911 - Francisco Ponzán Vidal (the 'Anarchist Pimpernel') (d. 1944), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist, anti-fascist guérillero, anti-Francoist and resistance fighter, born. Captured in France in 1943, shot by the Nazis in Buzet-sur-Tarn, near Toulouse.

1912 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: 150 suffragettes armed with toffee hammers and stones break shop and office windows in the Strand, Cockspur Street, Downing Street, Whitehall, Piccadilly, Bond Street and Oxford Street. 270 premises are damaged by the action and over 220 suffragettes arrested.

1912 - In England there is increasing industrial unrest reaches a peak today when miners go on strike to further their demand for a national minimum wage. This is the biggest strike Britain has ever seen to date; according to the Board of Trade over a million workers were involved. The Syndicalist movement was extremely active at this time urging the workers to cease relying upon Parliament, advocating militant trade unionism and Direct Action.

1912 - National Coal Strike: Beginning of the national strike following the action in Derbyshire in which nearly one million miners took part. The Times declared the strike: "The greatest catastrophe that has threatened the country since the Spanish Armada".
Fearing widespread civil unrest, the Government abandoned its stance of non-intervention. Within a month it had rushed a minimum wage bill through Parliament. A week later, prime minister Herbert Asquith broke down in the Commons under the strain.

1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike: The American Woolen Company, Arlington Mills and U.S. Worsted are forced to give in, and offered a 5 percent pay increase effective March 4. Pacific Mills also agree to as yet unspecified changes to wages paid. The AFL's United Textile Workers accepted the offer and returned to work. John Golden, president of the UTW, had been working with the mill owners and actively tried to break the general strike from the beginning. But the Wobblies refuse to accept the offer, although they sent 10 delegates to negotiate with the employers.

[E] 1918 - Marie Louise Berneri (d. 1949), Anglo-Italian anarchist activist and author, born in Italy. The eldest daughter of Camillo and Giovanna Berneri. Best known as editor of 'Freedom', author of 'Neither East Nor West' and 'Journey Through Utopia'. Berneri was also one of the first people in Britain to promote the ideas of Wilhelm Reich. Married to Vernon Richards, she died in childbirth, age 31.

1919 - The first issue of the 'One Big Union Monthly' is published in Chicago by the general executive board of the IWW.
[ Immediate Demands.jpg]

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: The army and navy are continuing to try to keep essential services running, including La Canadenca, Catalana de Gas y Electricidad, Energia Elèctrica de Catalunya and Sociedad General de Agua, as well as operating the trams. Barcelona begins to return to some form of normality. The water, light and electricity companies give an ultimatum to their striking workers: those who do not return to work before the sixth will be sacked. The La Canadenca management also offers to readmit its striking workers (again, after being fired twice), but it will not recognise the union, nor will it reinstate the eight workers whose sacking on February 2nd precipitated the strike.
There remains a shortage of water as the military engineers lack the skills and knowledge of how to operate the service properly. Few trams circulate. Taking advantage of the situation, drivers of rental cars are able to negotiate a new contract that includes a salary increase.

1920 - Biennio Rosso [Red Biennium (1919-20)]: Faced with the ongoing strikes and workshop occupations in the Turin region, which included the Fiat factories and the Mazzonis' cotton mills, with the workers demand the recognition of the newly formed workers councils, forced the city's industrialists to organise. Drawing from the pool of existing industrial organisations, Turin industrialists formed their own puppet Confederazione Generale dell'Industria (General Confederation of Industry), the 'Confindustria', and refused to give in to the workers demands.
One consequence of the workers councils struggle was the sciopero delle lancette (strike of the hands of the clock) in the Fiat factories, when the management tried to introduce a daylight saving plan, which resulted in a general strike in the city that spread across parts of Italy. However, with the workers' councils facing the combined might of the reformists in control of the Partito Socialista Italiano and the Confederazione Generale del Lavoro (General Confederation of Labour), who actively sought to suppress the factories movement and thereby reassert their control over the workers, and the Confindustria succeeded in lobbying for the government to fully deploy the repressive apparatus of the state, the workers' councils were ultimately isolated, if not completely defeated. The Turin metallurgical workers did manage to win substantial wage increases but the promise of their greater participation in the control of the companies proved to be
ephemeral, and was never implemented.

1921 - Kronstadt Rebellion [Кронштадтское восстание]: A mass meeting of 16,000 people is held in Anchor Square, Kronstadt. It votes to adopt the Petropavlovsk Resolution, much to the ire of the Communist Party apparatchiks present.

1921 - In answer to fascist violence and the assassination of Spartaco Lavagnini on February 27, a general strike is called in Trieste and Florence. In the latter, Guardie Regie (Royal Guards i.e. Interior Ministry police) supported by squadristi manage to breach the barricades erected the day previously and the Fascists occupy the headquarters f the Federazione Operaia dei Metallurgi (Federation of Metallurgical Workers).
In nearby Empoli (known as the Fatti di Empoli or L'eccidio di Empoli) where a farcical misunderstanding led to the deaths of, occur resulting in the death of more than 20 with over a hundred people injured. [expand]

1924 - All the referendum ballots having now been counted following the December 27, 1923, motion to hold a referendum on affiliation with the Industrial Workers of the World, members of the Lumber Workers Industrial Union officially decided to affiliate with the IWW.
Following the split, communist members of the Finnish Organisation of Canada (Kanadan Suomalainen Järjestö) in the rump of the LWIU (OBU) decided to form the Lumber Workers' Industrial Union of Canada as an affiliate of Red International of Labour Unions. [see: Dec. 27]

1929 - The first issue of the monthly newspaper 'Lucifer: Organe de Pensée Libre et de Culture Individuelle' is published in Bordeaux. Initially edited by Aristide Lapeyre (who signs his articles 'Lucifer') it suspend publication in August 1931 only to resume between January 1934 and 1935.

1932 - Librado Rivera (b. 1864), Mexican anarchist, school principal and comrade of Enrique and Ricardo Flores Magón, dies from complications following a car accident in the US. [see: Aug. 17]

1934 - At a British Union of Fascists meeting at the Dome, Brighton where William Joyce was due to speak, West Sussex BUF organiser Charles Bentinck-Budd had invited the Labour Party's Walter Faulkner along - BUF had a stronghold in Brighton and regularly invited the opposition along. Faulkner turned up with a small group of friends and family and they were beaten up by some of the 300 Defence Force stewards present [Faulkner was held with his hands behind his back whilst beaten nearly unconscious with a stick and half strangled with his scarf] when they went to leave during the 'National Anthem'. Three Blackshirts were arrested, one was fined £3 plus costs and another bound over. [PR]
"We know that England is crying for a leader, and that leader has emerged in the person of the greatest Englishman I have ever known, Sir Oswald Mosley ... When the history of Europe comes to be written I can assure you that his name will not be second to either Mussolini or Hitler." - William Joyce aka Lord Haw Haw quoted at the meeting

1942 - Biófilo Panclasta (born Vicente Rojas Lizcano; d. 1879), Colombian writer, poet, militant individualist anarchist and agitator, dies. Some sources give the year as 1943. [see: Oct. 26]

1943 - Bjarne Dalland (b.1906), Norwegian trade unionist, politician and communist resistance member, is executed by the Nazis. [see: Aug. 27]

[C] 1951 - Vaga de Tramvies / Huelga de Tranvías [Barcelona Tram Strike / General Strike]: In December 1950, the municipal authorities in Barcelona increased the cost of tram fares by 40% from March 1, 1951. They were already more expensive than in the Spanish capital, Madrid, and working class families were outraged. The cost of living had been rising and the price of food was at an all-time high [up 700% on many items since 1939]. Unemployment, homelessness, starvation and deaths from deficiency diseases were rife, especially in the rural areas such as Andalucia. In Barcelona much of the extensive damage stemming from the Civil War had not been repaired and two-thirds of the population lived without plumbing or electricity.
On February 8, 1951, an anonymous leaflet circulated throughout Barcelona, calling for a boycott of the city’s trams to begin on March 1 until the fares were returned to their regular price. As the date of the boycott approached, citizens from across the city began to make their anger known. On February 22, groups of individuals united in protest and used explosives to dislodge the tramlines. In the week that followed, groups of angry citizens gathered to throw stones at the trams and marched through the streets. The police arrested many of them.
By March 1 the boycott of the trams was in full force. Tram workers stayed home and many individuals walked to their offices and shops. That night hundreds of people took to the streets across the city. The municipal police stormed the downtown area in an attempt to break up the groups of protesting citizens. Though many were arrested, the police could not quiet the masses.
On the first day, around 97% of tram users joined the boycott, and by March 4 this figure had risen to 99%. The streets were filled with people walking, in some cases several miles, to their workplaces. Tram drivers were mostly on strike, attacks were made on trams still running, and police units were stationed around the city to protect them. . Taking it upon himself to set an example for strikebreakers, Governor Baeza Alegria stormed out of a meeting at city hall and boarded a tram, which after several minutes took a wrong turn and drove into a stone barricade. The boycott was so successful in fact, that hopes held by the authorities of it being broken by the thousands of football fans who would travel to Les Corts stadium on Sunday, March 4, were completely dashed. After watching their team win 2-1 against Santander, FC Barcelona supporters chose to walk home through pouring rain instead of catching the trams as usual.
For two weeks, the population massively refused to use public transport, carried out their journeys on foot and participated in numerous protest protests, later sign-up and support militants and others. Several days later the authorities caved, the tram company had lost 5,000,000 pesetas, and the old fares were reinstated. It was also announced that 70 people arrested during the boycott would be released.
The damage had already been done though, and preparations to turn the boycott into a strike to protest more general grievances were already under way. A manifesto calling for a strike had been distributed on March 4, and a meeting held two days later by political and union elements, including those in the lower ranks of the Sindicato Vertical, had decided on a date of March 12. Beginning in the textile mills of the Pueblo Nuevo area, the strike quickly spread to involve workers in metallurgical and chemical plants, communications, construction, government workers, and taxi and tram drivers. 300,000 workers had joined the strike, including many in the nearby cities of Badalona, Sabadell, Tarrasa and Mataro. Initially bewildered by the success of the strike, the authorities again mobilised thousands of police and Civil Guard units. Troops were deployed, and four warships carrying hundreds of marines were docked in Barcelona harbour. Demonstrations and clashes took place across the city, and thousands of strikers were arrested and imprisoned for the duration of the strike. As well as acting as a general protest against the regime, other demands were put forward included wage increases, and a reduction in the cost of living.
Despite Barcelona having been turned into an armed camp, the strikers managed to hold out for fourteen days, after which most workers returned to their jobs. Terrified by the prospect of further unrest, the authorities released the vast majority of those arrested, and ordered employers to pay full wages to those who had been on strike. Although little was done to meet the strikers' demands, the encouragement given by the strike to workers across the country was significant, and the continual outbreak of further disturbances plagued the regime in the following months.

1960 - Irina Konstantinova Kakhovskaya (Ири́на Константи́новна Кахо́вская; b. 1887), Russian revolutionary, memoirist and translator, a member of the Union of Revolutionary-Socialists-Maximalists (Союз социалистов-революционеров-максималистов) ca. 1906 and, after the October 1917 split, the Left Socialist-Revolutionaries [The Party of the Left, Internationalist -Revolutionary-Socialists](Партия левых социалистов-революционеров-интернационалистов) and its combat organisation, dies. [see: Aug. 27]

[D] 1968 - Battaglia di Valle Giulia [Battle of Valle Giulia]: A march by 4,000 students from the Piazza di Spagna in Rome to the University of Rome campus erupts into violence as a group split off along the Valle Giulia and attempt to reoccupy the Faculty of Architecture, which had been cleared by police action the previous day. The student are attacked by units of the Celere (Riot Police) of the Polizia di Stato and the fighting quickly spreads through out the campus. Seizing their opportunity, neo-fascist students of the Avanguardia Nazionale Giovanile (AN), led by the soon to be notorious Stefano Delle Chiaie and supported by some members of the Fronte Universitario d'Azione Nazionale (University Front for National Action) 'Caravella' group and Movimento Sociale Italiano (Italian Social Movement), started attacking the police. The leftist students managed to reoccupy the Architecture department and the fascists occupied the Faculty of Law.148 policemen and 478 students were wounded in the fighting and 232 people arrested. Eight police vehicles were torched.
The MSI Party Secretary Arturo Michelini disowned the students, causing a rift in the neo-fascist movement in Italy that would lead to fighting between members of the MSI's Volontari Nazionali and the AN on March 16 as the former tried to oust the neo-fascist student occupiers.

1969 - 'Hermanos!' by William Herrick first published in the US.

1971 - Bangladeshi General Strike: President Yahya Khan announces the postponement until "a later date" of the Pakistan. National Assembly. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, popularly known as Mujib, leader of the Awami League Mujib reacts and calls for emancipation of Bengalees, declaring as a sign of revolt a general strike in Dhaka on March 2 and the whole of (pre-Bangladesh) East Pakistan on the 3rd.

1979 - Imperial Valley Lettuce Strike: The UFW filed 1153e ULP charges accusing the growers of bad faith bargaining, and there was no further bargaining until August 1979. In September 1979, 15 of the growers reached the Sun Harvest agreement with the UFW in 9/79 that paid lettuce cutters at least $0.75 a carton and settled the ULP charges. [see: Feb. 21 & 28]

1981 - The second IRA Hunger Strike begins in HMP Maze.

1983 - Arthur Koestler (b. 1905) Hungarian-born British novelist, journalist, critic, and a public advocate of euthanasia as Vice President of the Voluntary Euthanasia Society (later renamed Exit), takes his own life in a suicide pact with his wife Cynthia Jefferies. He explains his death in a long suicide note that he is suffering from incurable illness (Parkinson's Disease and leukaemia) and that he does not want to face the inevitable decline. Also in the note, Cynthia Jefferies (1965-83) states that she cannot face life without Koestler.

1997 - 15,000 demonstrate in Lunesburg against shipment of French nuclear waste to site in Gorleben. Over the next several days hundreds of thousands participate in demonstrations and direct actions along the shipping route.

[1-10 1997 - Rebelimi i Vitit 1997 / Kriza Piramidale [Albanian Unrest of 1997 / Pyramid Crisis]: The beginning of the Luftës Civile 10-ditore (10-day Civil War)

2004 - Sidney Solomon (b. 1911), Russian-born American painter, book designer, publisher and long-time anarchist, who lived in New York, dies. [see: Dec. 8]

2006 - Joëlle Aubron (b. 1959), French libertarian member of Action Directe, dies aged 46 from a cancer that had metastasised in her brain. [see: Jun. 26]

[A] 2007 - The Ungdomshuset (Youth House) evicted by Danish police.

2011 - Jolanta Brzeska (Jolanta Krulikowska; b. 1947), Polish social activist in the Polish tenants' movement, is found dead. Her body had been burnt beyond recognition. One of the founders of the Warsaw Tenants' Association, a good speaker and committed activist who went to all demonstrations, who blocked evictions and advised other tenants. She herself was involved in a battle with Warsaw's most notorious slum landlord, Marek Mossokowski, and was the last tenant left in a valuable piece of real estate - privatised ex-public housing in an area undergoing gentrification - that had been at the time of her death.
1791 - London's first great factory, Albion Mills, burnt down to the ground. Arson is suspected.

[B] 1820 - Eduard Douwes Dekker aka Multatuli (Latin for "I have suffered much") (d. 1887), Dutch writer and anarchist, born. Initially employed as an official in the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia), he resigned in disgust at the treatment of the natives, returned to the Netherlans destitute and devoted himself to literature, publishing the anti-colonial and anti-slavery novel 'Max Havelaar, of De koffij-veilingen der Nederlandsche Handel-Maatschappij' (Max Havelaar, or the Coffee Auctions of the Dutch Trading Company) under the pseudonym Multatuli in 1859, followed by other novels and literary essays. In 1866 he emigrated to Germany (initially as a semi-exile as, whilst visiting Germany, he had been tried in absentia for his part in a brawl in a theatre - the sentence was later waived) and added writing for the stage to his repertoire and large literary output. [expand]

[FF] 1821 - Revolta Obrera d'Alcoi [Workers' Revolt in Alcoy] / Motín de Alcoy [Alcoy Mutiny] / Sucesos de Alcoy de 1821 [Events of Alcoy from 1821]: In one of the most famous example of 'ludismo', about 1,200 peasants and day labourers from neighbouring towns who carded and spun wool at their homes (under the putting-out system) smash and set fire to 17 spinning machines in Alcoy. The insurgents further demanded that the remaining machines be dismantled. A cavalry regiment and infantry battalion had to intervene from Játiva and Alicante to restore tranquillity.
One of the most industrialised cities in Barcelona at the time, the cloth manufacturing industry employed around 40,000 workers at that time.

1872 - [N.S. Mar. 14] Lyudmila Nikolayevna Stal (Людмила Николаевна Сталь; d. 1939), Russian revolutionary and member of the RSDLP, who was repeatedly arrested and exiled from the 1890s onwards, born. [see: Mar. 14]

1873 - Inez Haynes Irwin aka Inez Haynes Gillmore (Inez Haynes; d. 1970), American feminist author (novels, short stories, children's books, etc.), journalist, member of the National Women's Party and the Heterodoxy Club, president of the Authors Guild, fiction editor for The Masses and a war correspondent during WWI, born. Her fiction often addressed feminist issues and the plight of women, including divorce, single parenthood and work, and she wrote the "radical feminist Swiftian fantasy" 'Angel Island' (1914), about a group of men stranded on an island occupied by winged women.

1884 - [O.S. Feb. 18] Police seized all copies of Tolstoy's 'What I Believe In' at the printers.

1894 - Laurent Van Praet and his brother Jules François, both members of the Ardennes anarchist group Les Sans Patrie, are expelled from France for the possession of copies of anarchist newspaper in their homes, victims of the lois scélérates.

1895 - Eugen (Eugenio, Eugène or Eugene) Relgis (originally Eisig Siegler Watchel; d. 1987), Romanian writer, pacifist philosopher, anarchist militant, poet and theorist of humanitarianism (though with a distinct eugenicist element later in life), born. Eisig Sigler adopted his new Celanesque name, Eugen D. Relgis, and began an involvement with the Romanian Symbolist publication 'Fronda', and published his first book, a collection of his philosophical essays entitled 'Triumful Nefiinţei' (The Triumph of Non-Being) in 1913. He published two books of his Symbolist poetry during WWI, 'Sonetele Nebuniei' (Sonnets of Madness; 1914) and 'Nebunia' (Madness), illustrated with his own drawings. He was drafted in 1916 when Romania entered the war but, as a conscientious objector, refused to serve and was imprisoned, and eventually discharged because of his deafness).
After the war he pursued a humanitarian and pacifist agenda, contributing to the review 'Umanitatea' (Humanity) and renewed his literary activities with 'Literatura Războiului şi Era Nouă' (Literature, the War and the New Era; 1919). In 1921 he published an abridged translation of 'The Biology of War', a leading pacifist treatise by German physician Georg Friedrich Nicolai. The following year saw 'Umanitarism sau Internaţionala Intelectualilor' (Humanitarianism or the Intellectuals' Internationale) and his principal political work was 'Principiile Umanitariste' (Humanitarian Principles; 1922), which was translated into 17 languages and made Relgis one of the best-known figures in the intellectual world between the world wars. A further 2 collections of essays followed: 'Umanitarismul şi Socialismul' (Humanitarianism and Socialism; 1925) and 'Umanitarismul Biblic' (Biblical Humanitarianism; 1926). Some of his books contained prefaces by such celebrities as Albert Einstein and Romain Rolland.
During this period he also wrote his best known novel 'Petre Arbore' (3 vols., 1924), the novels 'Melodiile Tăcerii' (Melodies of Silence; 1926) and 'Glasuri în Surdin' (Muted Voices; 1927); a poetry collection 'Poezii' (Poems; 1926) and 'Prieteniile lui Miron' (The Friendships of Miron; 1934), a novel chronicling Relgis' difficulties with his post-lingual deafness. He also translated a number of Nietzsche's works into Romanian, Knut Hamsun's 'Slaves of Love' and various books by S. Zweig, E. Armand, etc..
Eugen Relgis was also a contributor to the Bucharest left-wing dailies 'Adevărul' and 'Dimineaţa'. After editing the short-lived gazette 'Cugetul Liber' (Freethought; 1928-29), Relgis put out his own political and cultural review 'Umanitarismul' (Humanitarianism; 1929-30) as well as working with a large number of libertarian journals around the world.
Relgis also set up the First Humanitarianist Group of Romania, as well as a leftist library, Biblioteca Cercului Libertatea (Freedom Circle Library). Joined in such efforts by the veteran anarchists Han Ryner and Panait Muşoiu.
In 1925, he became a member of the War Resisters International and participated in the peace conference of Hodeston (London), and that of Sonntagsberg (Austria) in July 1928. During the Spanish Civil War, he was appointed to the international board of Antifascist Solidarity International (SIA). The mid 1930s saw him release a series of essays on Judaism and his controversial 'Umanitarism şi Eugenism' (Humanitarianism and Eugenism). His political and literary choices inevitably made Relgis an enemy of both fascism and communism: persecuted during World War II (his Biblioteca Cercului Libertatea was banned in 1940, but Relgis secretly moved the books into a stable), he managed to escape arrest, hidden by friends. Post-WWII, he was once again active in the political press and completed his essay on Nazism, The Holocaust and sexuality: 'Eros în al Treilea Reich' (Eros in the Third Reich; 1946), but fearing further persecution and internment by the communist regime, he left Romania 'illegally', and after a brief stay in Paris, eventually took refuge in Uruguay joining his son (who had fled there in 1942). [His works were subsequently included in an official censorship list 'Publicaţii Interzise' (Works Forbidden from Publishing).]
From 1947 to the moment of his death and Relgis earned the respect of South American circles as an anarchist commentator and proponent of solutions to world peace, as well as a promoter of Latin American culture.
In 1950 he founded an international anarchist archive in Montevideo, one of the few political libraries in South America and embarked on a series of university lectures, which carried him throughout Uruguay, Argentina and Brazil. 1950 also saw a Spanish edition of 'Umanitarism şi Eugenism' (Humanitarismo y Eugenismo), renewing the controversy surrounding his view on eugenics, his advocacy of universal birth control and compulsory sterilisation in cases of "degeneration". Less controversial was his in-depth critique of Nazi eugenics 'Las Aberraciones Sexuales en la Alemania Nazi' (Sexual Aberrations in Nazi Germany).
Relgis also circulated an 'Apel Către Toţi Intelectualii Liberi şi Muncitorii Luminaţi' (Appeal to All the Free Intellectuals and the Enlightened Workers). A prolific author, many of his Romanian language works were subsequently translated into Spanish and he carried on writing on various political subjects - such as his acclaimed political essay, 'Perspectivas Culturales en Sudamérica' (Cultural Perspectives in South America; 1958) which received a prize from the Uruguayan Ministry of Public Instruction and Social Prevision, and an eugenics and sexology treatise, 'Historia Sexual de la Humanidad' (The Sexual History of Humanity; 1961).

1902 - Juan (John) Baeza (d. 1939), Spanish anarchist involved in the 1935 Les Stérilisés de Bordeaux affair [see: May 2, 1936] where 'illegal' vasectomies were carried out. Sentenced in absentia to 2 years in prison, a 100 francs fine and 10 years exile, he was never caught. He is believed to have taken part in the action groups and resistance against Franco in Spain after the end of the war. Arrested in September 1939 and sentenced to death on September 11 (with Juan Delgado García), he was executed the next day at Camp Bota in Barcelona.

1907 - The first issue of 'The Industrial Union Bulletin', "Official Publication of the Industrial Workers of the World", is published in Chicago.

1908 - [O.S. Feb. 17] Anna Rasputin [Анна Распутина](Anna Mikhaylovna Shulyatikov [Анна Михайловна Шулятикова]; b. 1874), Russian revolutionary and member of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party (Партия социалистов-революционеров) and its Combat Organisation's (Боева́я организа́ция) 'Northern combat flying squad' (Северный боевой летучий отряд / ЛБО СО ПСР), is hung during the night [17-18] in the village of Lisy Nos (Лисий Нос) near St. Petersburg alongside six of her comrades. [see: Dec. 18]

1908 - [O.S. Feb. 17] Lydia Avgustovna Sture (Лидия Августовна Стуре; b. 1884), Russian revolutionary and member of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party (Партия социалистов-революционеров) and its Combat Organisation's (Боева́я организа́ция) 'Northern combat flying squad' (Северный боевой летучий отряд / ЛБО СО ПСР), is hung during the night [17-18] in the village of Lisy Nos (Лисий Нос) near St. Petersburg alongside six of her comrades. A well-known Russian story 'The Seven Who Were Hanged' (Рассказа о семи повешенных; 1908) by Leonid Andreyev (Леонида Андреева) is based on the case.

1915 - Italian anarchist and member of the Gruppo Gaetano Bresci aka the 'Bresci Circle' Frank Abarno and undercover New York City police officer Amedeo Polignani, who had infiltrated New York anarchist circles in an attempt to find the perpetrators of the October 13, 1914 bombings of St. Patrick's Cathedral and St. Alphonsus church in the Bowery, place two bombs in St. Patrick's. As Arbano was about to light the one of the fuses with his cigar, kept burning especially for that purpose, he was grabbed and arrested by one of the 50 NYPD detectives secreted amongst the cathedral's congregation following Polignani's tip-off. According the 'The Evening World', some of the officers were "disguised as women worshippers, two as scrubwomen [sic], others as ushers". In fact, so many cops needed to be fitted out with disguises that a Broadway theatrical costumer was employed to fit them out with all the necessary disguises. Fellow 'conspirator' Carmine Carbone, who had meant to take part in the planting of the bombs, was arrested the same day at 1341 Third Avenue, the rented apartment in which the bombs were made.
On April 13, 1915, they were both convicted of conspiracy to cause explosions. Six days later on April 19, Frank Abarno and Carmine Carbone were sentenced to six-to-twelve years at Sing Sing Prison. [see: Oct. 13]

1917 - The first edition of the newspaper 'Les Glaneurs: Recueil éclectique mensuel' (The Gleaners: Eclectic monthly reports) is published and continues through the war months of March 1917 to September 1918.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: In an interview with the mayor Manuel Morales Pareja, the committee asks him to forward the three points and gives the government 48 hours to respond. In Madrid, the government responds that the deadline is very short and the attempt at negotiation fails.

[E] 1919 - Jeanne Marie Labourbe (b. 1877), French teacher and communist militant, who actively participated in the October Revolution, is shot by French counterintelligence (Deuxième Bureau) together with other members of the Foreign Collegium some time during the night of March 1-2 for her part in helping organise agitation and mutinies among French soldiers and sailors in the Baltic region. [see: Apr. 8]

1920 - Grande Grève des Cheminots [Great Railwayworkers' Strike]: Overnight [March 1-2] the strike is called off following the intervention of Alexandre Millerand, President of the Council of Ministers, and the railway companies to concede on the final demand, no victimisation of strikers. Many of the companies fail to keep to the bargain and some strikers are sacked. Worse still, some non-strikers on the État, PLM and PO networks are paid a double salary. Wildcat strikes continue in various parts of the rail network. [see: Jan. 27 & Feb. 19]

[AA/D] 1921 - Kronstadt Rebellion [Кронштадтское восстание]: A meeting of sailor, soldier and worker organisation delegates sets up the 15 member Kronstadt Provisional Revolutionary Committee, which endorses the 'Petropavlovsk Resolution'.

1929 - Rothbury Miners Strike: With the colliery owners on the Northern New South Wales coalfields having combined as the Northern Collieries Association, on Thursday February 14, 1929, the mine employers gave their 9,750 employees 14 days' notice, demanding that the miners should now accept the following new conditions: "A wage reduction of 12½ per cent on the contract rates, one shilling ($0.10) a day on the 'day wage' rate; all Lodges must give the colliery managers the right to hire and fire without regard to seniority; all Lodges must agree to discontinue pit-top meetings and pit stoppages". With the miners and their union, the Miners Federation, having refused to accept these terms, and on Saturday March 2, 1929, all miners are now 'locked out' of their employment. They were to remain closed for 15 months. 10,000 miners, pit boys and their families now found themselves without a job, forced to subsist on government handouts and charity. They would remain out until June 1930, when they capitulated and returned to work on reduced contract wages. However, the lockout failed to break the resolve or organisation of the miners union.

1937 - U.S. Steel signs its first collective bargaining agreement with the Steelworkers Organizing Committee (SWOC), averting a strike. The agreement included a substantial wage hike; an eight-hour day and forty-hour week, with overtime; seniority protection; a grievance procedure; and full recognition of SWOC as the workers’ bargaining agent.

1943 - Elaine Brown, African-American prison activist, writer, singer, and former Black Panther Party chair (1974-77), who left the party when Regina Davis, who almost single-handedly operated the Panthers' school in Oakland, was severely beaten by party members, born. A former cocktail waitress at the Pink Pussycat, she joined the party in 1968 and, by 1971, had become a member of the Party’s Central Committee as Minister of Information, effectively second in command to Huey Newton, her often abusive partner. Brown had also been part of the BPP section along with Eldridge Cleaver on the two-and-a-half month US People’s Anti-Imperialist Delegation ("a cross-section of the U.S. radical left") tour of North Korea, North Vietnam, and China in 1970.
In 1974 Brown became the Chairman of the Black Panther Party upon the expulsion of Bobby Seale. She soon became Minister of Defense, replacing Newton who had begun to bring about the disintegration of the party from the within due to his volatile behaviour (and who subsequently fled to Cuba to escape murder and assault charges). It was under her leadership of the "volatile male-dominated inner-core of sexist paramilitaries", as she described the Panthers in her autobiography, that the party's survival programs grew at their most rapid pace and the original ideas of the party hit their strongest mark. Elaine Brown stepped down from chairing the Black Panther Party less than a year after Huey Newton’s return from Cuba in 1977, when Newton authorised the beating of Regina Davis, an administrator at the Panther Liberation School, who had ended up in hospital with a broken jaw after she had reprimanded a co-worker for not carrying out an assignment. In 1992 she wrote 'A Taste of Power: A Black Woman's Story', which has been regarded as one of the best books on the Black Panther party and movement.
Having quit the Panthers, Brown became an advocate of radical prison reform and prisoners support activities, returning to study at the Southwestern University School of Law (1980-83) and in 1998 founded the Michael Lewis Legal Defense Committee, to support Michael Lewis, aka 'Little B', who had been sentenced to life in prison at the age of 14 for a murder that Brown believes he did not commit. Out of that case came her non-fiction novel, 'The Condemnation of Little B: New Age Racism in America' (2002), based on the case. In 1998, Brown co-founded the grassroots group Mothers Advocating Juvenile Justice to campaign around the issue of children being prosecuted as adults in her then home state of Georgia. In 2003, Brown also helped found the National Alliance for Radical Prison Reform, an organisation that helps prisoners on parole find post-release housing, ex-prisoners find employment, provides transport for families on prison visits, and helps fund prisoners' phone calls, etc.. In 2005 she got involved in the Green Party, running against for mayor of Brunswick, Georgia, against the incumbent, Bryan Thompson, after discovering the massive poverty in the city and later in 2007 briefly ran for the Green Party presidential nomination in 2008 before resigning from the party. In 2010, Brown became an important element in the so-called 'Lockdown for Liberty' prison strike in Georgia, when prisoners organised across racial lines and communicated between prisons, and with the press and their supporters outside via contraband mobile phones, and refused to come out of their cells whilst demanding wages for their work in prison workshops (currently compulsory and unpaid), more educational opportunities, better food, decent health care, an end to cruel and unusual punishments, improved visiting rights and an end to excessive telephone charges, and sentencing rules changes. Brown was their adviser and often their only conduit to the media.

1949 - An attempt is made on the life of Eduardo Quintela Boveda, head of the Brigade Politico Sociale police in Barcelona, involving Jossé and Francesc Sabaté Llopart, Simón Gracia Fleringan, Carles Vidal Passanau, Wenceslao Jiménez Orive, José Lluís Facerías and José López Penedo. [expand]

1961 - Norah Dacre Fox aka Norah Elam (Norah Doherty, b. 1878), Anglo-Irish militant suffragette, anti-vivisectionist, feminist and later fascist, dies. A prominent member of the Women's Social and Political Union, she served as general secretary, leading the "campaign against forcible feeding, concentrating particularly on attempts to persuade Church of England bishops to denounce the practice. From May to July 1914 she was imprisoned three times in Holloway Prison for 'acts of terrorism'; she received a WSPU hunger strike medal with three bars. However, with the rapid rightward drift of the leadership of the WSPU after it had agreed to end their militant activities, whilst taking government money to help organise support for the war effort, Norah Dacre Fox's rightward drift never stopped as she became a full-blown fascist, campaigning in 1918 for the internment of enemy aliens in collaboration with the British Empire Union and the National Party. As Norah Elam (taking the name of her new partner Edward Descou Dudley Vallance Elam), she founded the anti-communist Women's Guild of Empire with fellow ex-suffragettes Flora Drummond and Elsie Bowerman at the beginning of the 1930s and later joined Oswald Mosley's British Union of Fascists in 1934, ending up in Holloway Prison again in 1940 as a Defence Regulation 18B detainee.

1969 - Clément Fournier (b. 1904), French anarchist and pacifist, dies. [see: Mar. 8]

1971 - Bangladeshi General Strike: A curfew is declared from dawn to dusk as the general strike begins, but protesters still take to the street. Many are killed by Pakistani troops. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman denounces the firing on unarmed men and declares a province-wide Hartal (general strike) from March 3 to March 6, 1971 during the hours 06:00 to 14:00.

[A] 1972 - Thomas Weisbecker (b. 1949), German militant member of the Anarchist Black Cross and the Movement 2 June, is shot dead (a bullet in the heart) in Augsberg by a trigger-happy member of a police surveillance teams who had been tracking Tommy and his companion, SPK member Carmen Roll, for 4 weeks. [see: Feb. 24]

[C] 1974 - Salvador Puig Antich (b. 1948), Spanish anarchist militant and member of the Movimiento Ibérico de Liberación (MIL), executed by garrote in Barcelona after being tried by a military tribunal and found guilty of the death of a Guardia Civil policeman.

[F] 1989 - 1989 Soviet Miners' Strikes [Забастовки шахтёров СССР в 1989 году]: At the Severnaya (Северная) mine in Vorkuta (Воркута), protests against arbitrary fluctuations in their wages, quickly develop into a short underground hunger strike initially involving 107 workers. They put forward demands for no Sunday working, a six-hour working day, cuts in the management apparatus, the sacking of the director, and enhanced pay for night work; later announcing the formation of an independent trade union, ominously called Solidarnost. Support meetings are held in the city, but the strike is resolved with the usual influx of Party officials and rapid concession of the bulk of the workers’ demands. Following this strike the Vorkuta miners met to establish a City Workers’ Committee on June 10.

1997 - Judi Bari (b. 1949), US environmentalist and labour activist, feminist, musician and the principal organiser of Earth First! campaigns against logging in the ancient redwood forests of Northern California in the 1980s and '90s and also organised efforts through the EF!-IWW Local 1 to bring timber workers and environmentalists together in common cause, dies of breast cancer. [see: Nov. 7]

1998 - Josefina Fierro de Bright (b. 1914), Mexican-American labour organiser, dies. Born in Mexico and grew up on farm labour camps; she was the daughter of an anarchist mother, the bordera Josefina Arancibia, who served meals to migrant workers in Maderna, California and introduced her to the teachings of Ricardo Flores Magón. Josefina gave up her studies at UCLA to become a full-time organiser, and her organizing style was described by veteran longshoremen union leader Bert Corona as "gutsy, flamboyant, and tough." She led boycotts of companies that did business in Mexican American communities but did not hire Mexican American workers.
She became executive secretary of El Congreso (the first national Latino civil rights organisation) in 1939 and organized protests against racism in the Los Angeles Schools, against the exclusion of Mexican-American youths from public swimming pools, and against police brutality. She co-ordinated El Congreso’s support for Mexican workers in the furniture, shoe manufacturing, electrical, garment, and longshoremen’s unions.

2011 - An uprising in Damanhur prison near Alexandra, Egypt leaves 3 prisoners dead and eight with gunshot wounds.
[F] March 3 - International Sex Workers’ Rights Day

1756 - William Godwin (d. 1836), philosopher and proto-anarchist, born. Spouse of Mary Wollstonecraft and father of Mary Shelley, his best known works are 'An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Political Justice' and the novel 'Things as They are; or, the Adventures of Caleb Williams'. His other novels were: 'St. Leon: A Tale of the Sixteenth Century' (1799); 'Fleetwood; or, The New Man of Feeling' (1805); 'Mandeville, a Tale of the Seventeenth Century' (1817), a three volume novels 'Cloudesley: A Tale' (1830) and 'Deloraine' (1833).
"Government is, abstractedly taken, an evil, a usurpation upon the private judgement and individual conscience of mankind." - 'Enquiry Concerning Political Justice' (1793).

1877 - [N.S. Mar. 15] Milly Witkop Rocker (Milly Vitkopski; d. 1955), Ukrainian-America anarcho-syndicalist and anarcha-feminist writer and activist, born. [see: Mar. 15]

1905 - [O.S. Feb. 18] Gurian Peasant Republic / Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The government declares martial law in Georgia and dispatches troops in an attempt to end the 'Gurian Peasant Republic' (Гурийская крестьянская республика), and dispatches a force of 10,000 soldiers in an attempt to regain control of the rebellious province. However, the rebels defeat the expeditionary forces and force their withdrawal in July and the government is unable to regain control until January 1906. [see: Feb. 20]

1905 - [O.S. Feb. 18] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The Tsar publishes the 'Bulygin Rescript' (Булыгин рескрипте), named after the then Minister of Interior, Alexander G. Bulygin (Александр Григорьевич Булыгин), which promises the creation of a State Duma of the Russian Empire but with consultative powers only, religious tolerance, freedom of speech (in the form of language rights for the Polish minority) and a reduction in the peasants' redemption payments. At the same time he issued a contradictory Imperial Decree drawn up by the prominent jurist and well-known reactionary Konstantin Petrovich Pobyedonostsyev (Константи́н Петро́вич Победоно́сцев), who had long been the éminence grise of imperial politics, denouncing reform, whilst also issuing an appeal calling for suggestions by the public for potential reforms.
Neither the Rescript nor the resulting Tsarist manifesto issued on August 19 [O.S. Aug. 9] laying out the final plans for establishment of the promised representative body (the 'Bulygin Duma' as it became known), did anything to cool the revolutionary ardour abroad at the time.

1910 - Josef Peukert (b. 1855), Austrian anarchist advocate of propaganda by deed, dies. [see: Jan. 22]

1912 - Revolución Mexicana: Pascual Orozco rises against Francisco Madero. Orozco rebels load train with explosives and rams it into a train full of federal soldiers at Rellano station.

[B] 1914 - Asger Oluf Jorn (d. 1973), Danish painter, sculptor, ceramic artist, printmaker, author, founding member of the avant-garde movement COBRA and the Situationist International, born.

1913 - Paterson Silk Strike: Paterson's silk workers had been going on strike at the rate of 1,200 a day, and there were now approximately, 24,000 men, women and children in the streets having fully committed to participating in the Paterson silk strike. With the dyer’s helpers and ribbon weavers now out on strike, silk manufacturing in Paterson had effectively come to a halt and the 300 or so mills in the town had been forced to close. The dyer’s helpers and ribbon weavers goals, however, differed from those of the broad-silk weavers, with the dyer’s helpers striking to achieve the 8-hour day/44-hour week, rather than to protest the 'stretch out'. Ribbon weavers joined the strike to protect the right of free speech, which they believed was threatened by the arrest of speakers and peaceful picketers for "disorderly conduct" and "unlawful assembly". [see: Jan. 27 & Feb. 24]

[E] 1914 - María Lozano Molina (also Maria Lozano Mombiola)(d. 2000), Spanish poet and anarchist, who fought with the Columna Durruti, partisans in Grenade (Haute Garonne) during WWII and, in the post-war period, supported Sabaté and the autonomous assault groups of the Movimiento Ibérico de Liberación and Grupos de Acción Revolucionaria Internacionalista, born. Involved with the libertarian movement from the age of fifteen, she had links to the Los Solidarios group through family connections and was also in touch with the brothers Miguel José and Augusto Moisés Alcrudo Solórzano (two Aragonese doctors and prominent anarcho-syndicalists) through the family guesthouse, which much frequented by fellow anarchist militants. With the advent of the revolution in 1936, María was one of the women who took to the streets and with others briefly took over the town of Alcubierre, only to enlist with the Columna Durruti and later became a member of the colectividad de Sariñena. When the civil war finished she endured a concentration camp in Gaillac in the Tarn department of France but managed to escape, joining the partisans in the Haute-Garonne region alongside her partner Ángel Mombiola Allue (who was shot by the Germans on August 20, 1944, with two other CNT militants, Ricardo Garcia and Francisco Aguado, during a sabotage operation on a bridge near Ondes). In 1944-45 María made a clandestine trip back into Spain in search of her daughter and got into difficulties on the return leg as she got lost in the mountains. Having settled in Toulouse, she kept an open house for libertarian activists and later went on to be active in the FIJL, CNT and IWA, as well as actively supporting Francisco 'El Quico' Sabaté Llopart and the autonomous assault groups of MIL and GARI. María was also one of the founders of the CRAS (Centre de Recherche sur l’Alternative Sociale) documentation centre in 1972, which she chaired up until her death. She also mounted a vigorous campaign with the Retonda group against the nuclear power station in Golfech, as well as being a regular at meetings and rallies right up until shortly before she died on February 19, 2000 in Toulouse.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: The 'La Veu de Catalunya' is the only newspaper that continues to write about the strike, and the military are now covering more and more of the work of those who are out on strike.
Workers of the power station of Sant Adrià del Besos join the strike. In Barcelona, ​​a scab that was running a tram was almost lynched for having run over a child (slightly). He defended himself, firing a gun that he carried, injuring one man and ending up under arrest.

1921 - Kronstadt Rebellion [Кронштадтское восстание]: The first issue of the 'Izvestia of the Provisional Revolutionary Committee of Sailors, Red Soldiers and Workers the city of Kronstadt' (Известия Временного Революционного Комитета Матросов, Красноармейцев и Рабочих города Кронштадта) appears. It announces:


Our country is enduring a difficult moment. Hunger, cold and economic ruin have held us in an iron vice these three years already. The Communist Party, which rules the country, has become separated from the masses, and shown itself unable to lead her from her state of general ruin. It has not faced the reality of the disturbances which in recent times have occurred in Petrograd and Moscow. This unrest shows clearly enough that the party has lost the faith of the working masses. Neither has it recognized the demands presented by the workers. It considers them plots of the counterrevolution. It is deeply mistaken.

This unrest, these demands, are the voice of the people in its entirety, of all laborers. All workers, sailors and soldiers see clearly at the present moment that only through common effort, by the common will of the laborers, is it possible to give the country bread, wood, and coal, to dress the barefoot and naked, and to lead the Republic out of this dead end.

This will of all laborers, soldiers and sailors was definitively expressed at the Garrison Meeting of our town on Tuesday, March 1st. At that meeting, the resolution of ships' crews of the 1st and 2nd Brigades was passed unanimously. Among the decisions taken, it was decided to immediately carry out new elections to the Soviet, for these elections to be carried out on a fairer basis, and specifically, in such a way that true representation of the laborers would be found in the Soviet, and that the Soviet would be an active and energetic organ.

On March 2nd of this year, delegates from all sailor, soldier and worker organizations gathered in the House of Education. It was proposed to form at this Conference a basis for new elections, in order to then enter into peaceful work on redesigning the Soviet structure. But in view of the fact that there were grounds to fear repression, and also due to threatening speeches by the representatives of authority, the Conference decided to form a Provisional Revolutionary Committee, to which to give all authority in governing the town and fortress.

The Provisional Revolutionary Committee is located on the battleship. PETROPAVLOVSK.

Comrades and citizens! The Provisional Committee is deeply concerned that there should not be spilled a single drop of blood. It has taken emergency measures for the establishment of revolutionary order in the town and fortress, and at the forts.

Comrades and citizens! Do not stop work. Workers, remain at your machines, sailors and soldiers in your units and at the forts. All Soviet workers and organizations must continue their work. The Provisional Revolutionary Committee calls all workers' organizations, all naval and trade unions, and all naval and military units and individual citizens to give it universal support and aid. The task of the Provisional Revolutionary Committee is a general, comradely effort to organize in the town and fortress means for proper and fair elections to a new Soviet.

And so, comrades, to order, to calm, to restraint, and to a new Socialist construction for the good of all laborers.

Kronstadt, March 2nd, 1921
bttlshp. Petropavlovsk
PETRICHENKO, President of the Prov. Rev. Committee
TUKIN, Secretary

As well as publishing the text of the 15 point resolution adopted by the mass meeting on March 1, it contains the following news

By 9 P.M. on March 2nd, the majority of forts and all army units of the fortress had given their support to the Provisional Revolutionary Committee. All organizations and the Communications Service are occupied by guards from the Revolutionary Committee. From Oranienbaum have arrived representatives, who declared that the Oranienbaum garrison has also given its support to the Provisional Revolutionary Committee.

THERE IS A GENERAL UPRISING IN PETROGRAD. [not, it has to be admitted, quiet the truth]

1927 - Mikhail Petrovich Artsybashev (Михаи́л Петро́вич Арцыба́шев; b. 1878), Russian writer, playwright and individualist anarchist, who was a major proponent of the literary style known as naturalism, dies. [see: Nov. 5]

1929 - Ettore Aguggini (b. 1902), Italian mechanic and anarcho-individualist, one of three anarchists implicated in the bombing of the Teatro Diana in Milan on March 23, 1921, believed manipulated and set up by the Chief of Police as a pretext for the fascists to instigate a general repression against all anarchists, dies in Alghero prison, Sardinia, aged just 27-years-old, his health shattered by form the appalling conditions he endured during his incarceration. [see: Mar. 23]

[C] 1933 - German police thwart an alleged plan to assassinate Hitler the following day as he was due to address a political rally in Königsberg to campaign for his slate of candidates in the March 5 Reichstag elections. Police arrest the members of a communist group led by Kurt Lutter, a ship's carpenter, who a police informer has claimed organised the plot to blow up the speaker's platform while Hitler spoke. No explosives were found and none of the conspirators confessed to the crime of attempted political assassination, which carried the death penalty, so Lutter and his group were ultimately released after being detained for several months.

1936 - André Laude (d. 1995), French anarchist, anti-colonial journalist, Surrealist, Situationist, writer and "soleil noir de la poésie" (black sun of poetry), born. An encounter in 1953 with Michel Donnet, an anarchist teacher and secretary of the newly formed Fédération Communiste Libertaire, introduced Laude to the world of anarchism and led to him contributing his journalism to 'Libertaire' and 'Combat'. He published his first poetry, 'La Couleur Végétale' (The Vegetable Colour), in 1954 and, following a meeting with Serge Wellens, a renown poet and editor of 'Cahiers de l'Orphéon', his poetry collection 'Pétales du Chant' (Petals of Song) was published on the review's imprint in 1956.
Part of a grouping of anarchist poets and painters, he also met André Breton and Benjamin Peret, becoming involved in the Surrealist circle. As a militant anti-colonialist and vocal supporter of the Algerian independence struggle, Laude lived and worked on the periphery of the clandestine resistance, eventually being arrested in Paris and taken to a camp run by paratroopers in the southern Sahara, where he suffered barbaric treatment. Exchanged against five senior French officers, Laude was released after several months of hell. In Tunis he resumed work as a journalist for 'Combat' and l'Algérie-Presse-Service, visited Cuba on behalf of the Algerian nationalists, and only returned to France after the fall of Ahmed Ben Bella in 1965. On his return, Laude was put on trial for "collaboration with the enemy". André Breton came to testify on his behalf.
He now returned to his poetry as well as maintaining his political and journalistic activities, becoming involved with Raoul Vaneigem, Guy Debord and the Situationist International. Laude also became involved with artists around the CoBrA group [included the Revolutionary Surrealist Group] and with photographers like Doisneau and Cartier-Bresson.
Selected bibliography:
'Histoire de la Pensée Libertaire' (A Short History of Libertarian Thought; 1968 [essay]); 'Le Petit Livre Rouge de la Révolution Sexuelle' (The Little Red Book of the Sexual Revolution; 1969); 'Joyeuse Apocalypse' (Joyful Apocalypse; 1973 [novel]); 'Testament de Ravachol' (Ravachol's Legacy; 1975 [poetry]); 'Le Bleu de la Nuit Crie au Secours' (The Blue of the Night Crying for Help 1975 [poetry]); 'Le Surréalisme en Cartes' (A Map of Surrealism; 1976); 'Un Temps à S'ouvrir les Veines' (A Time to Open the Veins; [poetry] 1979); 'Rue des Merguez'; 1979 [novel]); 'Liberté Couleur d'Homme' (Freedom is the Colour of Man; 1980 [fictional autobiography]); 'Riverain de la Douleur' (Bordering the Pain; 1981 [poetry]); 'Roi Nu Roi Mort' (Naked King Dead King; 1983 [poetry]); 'Journaux de Voyages' (Travel Journals; 1990 [poetry]); 'Feux Cris & Diamants' (Sout Fire & Diamonds; 1993 [poetry]); etc...
As well as 'Combat' and 'Libertaire', Laude's journalism appeared in 'Tribune Socialist' (PSU), 'Jeune Afrique', 'Le Monde', 'Les Nouvelles Littéraires', 'Le Nouvel Observateur', 'Actuel', 'Politis', 'Le Fou Parle', 'Hors Jeu', 'Albaroz', 'l'Evénement du Jeudi', 'Art Tension', 'France Culture'… and even for 'Playboy'.

1938 - Samuel Schwartzbard (Sholem-Shmuel Schwarzbard/Samuil Isaakovich Shvartsburd; b. 1886), Russian Jewish watchmaker, anarchist and Yiddish poet, dies in Capetown. Escaped the Russian pogroms in 1905, settled in Paris and active in local anarcho-communist groups with Alexander Berkman, Mollie Steimer, Senya Fleshin and Nestor Makhno. In 1926 he gunned down Simon Petliura, who had directed the Ukrainian pogroms in which some of his family were murdered. He fired three times, announcing: "This, for the pogroms; this for the massacres, this for the victims." Schwartzbard was acquitted by a jury and freed. [see: Aug. 18]

1943 - Otto Luihn (b. 1890), Norwegian newspaper editor, magazine editor, poet and Communist, dies. [see: Mar. 15]

1946 - The first issue of 'L'Amico del Popolo', the fortnightly newspaper of the Italian Federazione Comunista Libertaria Ligure section of the Federazione Anarchica Italiana (FAI), appears in Genoa. From the Nov. 11, 1946 issue it becomes the 'Periodico della Federazione Anarchica Ligure' and continues in publication until Nov. 30, 1948.

1962 - As the war in Algeria is nearing its end, the headquarters and library of the 'Monde Libertaire' at 3 rue Ternaux is destroyed by an attack by the OAS (Organisation Armée Secrète), the fascist paramilitary organisation of the pieds-noirs, French military and politicians aimed at provkoing the Front de Libération Nationale (FLN) into breaking the Evian agreements ceasefire, thereby providing an excuse for the reoccupation of Algeria.

1966 - Augusto Masetti (b. 1888), Italian anarchist and anti-militarist, dies. Famed for his attack as a conscript upon his colonel (Stroppa) on the parade ground of the Cialdini barracks, in Bologna, while shouting out 'Down with the war! Long live Anarchy!' in protest of the war in Libya.

1971 - Bangladeshi General Strike: The province-wide Hartal (general strike) has spread to the rest of the country. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman launches a non-violent non-cooperation movement. There is serious trouble in Chittagong that night when the authorities try to unload the MV Swat which had arrived with troops and a cargo of ammunition. Dock workers spread this news. Soon thousands of people were locked in battle with West Pakistan soldiers and sailors. The trouble gained a new dimension when a unit of the East Pakistan Rifles refused to fire on Bangali demonstrators. This action gave a sharper edge to Bangali resentment.

1975 - Authorities free seven jailed leftists in exchange for West German CDU politician Peter Lorenz, who had been kidnapped by 2nd June Movement members.

[D] 1980 - Tanks on the streets of Amsterdam as the Vondel Free State [Vondelvrijstaat], the squat at Vondelstraat 72 on the corner with Constantijn Huygensstraat, is attacked but resists eviction.

1985 - U.K. Miners' Strike: A Special Delegate Conference of the National Union of Mineworkers in Great Britain votes 98-91 to return to work after the nearly year-long miners’ strike over the announced closure of twenty mines and the loss of 20,000 jobs. Soon after the strike ended, the Thatcher government’s program of 'accelerated closure' was put into practice.

[A] 1991 - L.A. Police savagely beat Rodney King. It is captured on amateur video. The aquittal of the 4 LAPD cops on 29 April the following year precipitates 6 days of rioting.

1996 - Léo Malet (b. 1909), French crime novelist, poet, Surrealist, anarchist and later Trotskyist, and creator of Nestor 'Dynamite' Burma, private detective and ex-anarchist, dies. [see: Mar. 7]

2012 - Anthony Grainger, 36, is shot in the chest after the stolen Audi vehicle, which had false registration plates, he was in was stopped in a car park in Culcheth, Cheshire, by armed police officers. A bullet fired by an officer passed through the windscreen and hit Mr Grainger, from Bolton. He was not holding a gun, no firearms or any weapons were found in the car, nor did Mr Grainger have a history of using firearms. Mr Grainger had wrongly been suspected of stealing a memory stick containing the names of police informants. In January 2014, prosecutors decided that the marksman who killed Mr Grainger should not face charges for murder, manslaughter or misconduct in public office because a jury would be likely to accept that he believed his actions were necessary. A prosecution for health and safety breaches, however, was brought against the Chief Constable of Greater Manchester Police (GMP), Peter Fahy.

2012 - Nadezhda Tolokonnikova and Maria Alyokhina, two members of Pussy Riot [Пусси Райот], are arrested and charged with hooliganism for their part in the February 21 event in Moscow's Cathedral of Christ the Saviour.

2016 - Berta Isabel Cáceres Flores (b. 1971*), Honduran environmental activist, Lenca indigenous community leader, and co-founder and coordinator of the Consejo Cívico de Organizaciones Populares e Indígenas de Honduras (Civic Council of Popular and Indigenous Organizations of Honduras), is murdered in her own home, one of dozens of environmental activists and defenders killed in Honduras in recent years. In Berta's case, she was targeted for her activism against the Agua Zarca Dam, which would have compromised indigenous access to food, water, and medicine. [see: Mar. 4]
[* NB The exact year of her birth is disputed, with some sources also giving it as 1972 or 1973.]
[EE] 1765 - Rose Claire Lacombe (d. unknown), French actress, revolutionary and feminist militant, born. During the insurrection of August 10, 1792, she took part in the storming of the Tuileries Palace and was shot through the arm but kept fighting on, earning herself the lifelong sobriquet, Heroine of August Tenth. For her bravery, Claire Lacombe was awarded a civic crown by the victorious fédérés. In May 1793, Lacombe and fellow female revolutionary, Pauline Léon, founded the Société des Républicaines Révolutionnaires (Society of Revolutionary Republican Women), which was closely associated with the sans-culottes and enragés. She also played a prominent role in Les journées du 31 mai et du 2 juin 1793 (Insurrection of May 31 - June 2 1793), which saw the fall of the Girondins, participating in discussions and pushing the insurgency. That August, she petitions that all nobles be removed from the army and on September 5, asks for the same purging of royals from the government. Unsurprisingly, the Jacobins hit back, accusing her of various trumped-up charges. Arrested on September 16 after being publicly denounced by the Jacobins to the Comité de sûreté générale (Committee of General Security) as being a counter-revolutionary, she is released the same evening. On October 7, 1793, she shows up at the bar of the Convention and denounces the way the government is oppressing women, adding "Nos droits sont ceux du peuple, et si l'on nous opprime, nous saurons opposer la résistance à l'oppression" (Our rights are those of the people, and if one oppresses us, we know how to resist that oppression). On October 30, the Convention ordered that: "clubs and popular societies of women, under whatever denomination, are forbidden".
Barred from any political activity and with the Enragés now being brutally suppressed, Claire Lacombe was in danger and went into hiding. On April 2, 1794, she was arrested, along with with Pauline Léon and Jean Théophile Victor Leclerc, as she prepared to leave for a theatre in Dunkirk. Released on August 18, 1795, she returned to her acting career.

1882 - Joseph Spivak (d. 1971), lifelong anarchist who was involved in founding the Libertarian Book Club in New York in 1927, is born in Russia. He emigrated to the US and briefly returned to Russia during the revolution. During WWI was actively involved around the country in anti-militarist campaigns with Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman.

1895 - Maria Amalia Melli (d. unknown), Italian anarchist, who sister Elena was the companion of Errico Malatesta, born. On October 17, 1915, she emigrated with her husband Isidoro Prati to France and settled in Ate, Provence, and on January 24, 1918, her daughter Armida, who also became a prominent anarchist, was born. Active in Marseille along side Edel Squadrani despite the hardships that she had to suffer. As a member of the Comitato Anarchico Pro Vittime Politiche, she was one of those in charge of support for Angelo Sbardellotto, providing him the lawyer Mario Trozzi among other things, following his arrest on June 4, 1932, in Rome accused of planning to assassinate Benito Mussolini. On October 26, 1936, she and her daughter crossed the border with Spain, along with other prominent anarchists and antifascists (Lucette Bled, Giovanni Dettori, Camillo Lanzillotta, Karl Ernst Teuffel, etc.), to join her partner Edel, whom had enlisted in the mostly anarchist Columna Italiana. On December 10, 1936, she also joined the column but returned to France the following year. In December 1938, she was arrested with Edel Squadrani and sentence to two months in prison for sheltering Edel, who was the subject of a deportation order. He was sentenced to one year in prison. All trace of Maria and Edel is lost shortly after the end of WWII.

1904 - María Suceso Portales Casamar (d. 1999), Spanish militant anarchist and anarcho-feminist, born. Member of the CNT and FIJL in Madrid in the early '30s, she was very active in the development of schools and institutions organised by Mujeres Libres (MM.LL). At the end of the war in 1939 she escaped to Britain aboard the Galatea, participating in resistance activities against the Franco regime whilst in London and worked on the newsletter 'España Fuera de España' (1962-65). Resuming contact with her fellow exiles in France, she began editing the (trilingual) magazine 'Mujeres Libres', organ of the Federation MM.LL in exile. In 1972 she moved to Montadin, near Beziers, where Sara Berenger lived, and was responsible for editing the magazine until 1976. She returned to Spain in 1980 after the death of Franco.

1905 - The first issue of the magazine 'Avenir' (Outlook), "weekly publication of the new horizons of perfection" in Catalan, with some articles in Spanish and French, is published in Barcelona - a mix of anarchism, syndicalism, naturism, progressive intellectualism, Noucentisme (a Catalan anti-Modernist movement) and Catalanism. Only five issues published until 1 April 1905.

1906 - [N.S. Mar. 17] Rosa Luxemburg, together with Leo Jogiches, is arrested and imprisoned for revolutionary activities in Warsaw. On April 11 [N.S. Apr. 24], they were moved to Pavilion X of the Warsaw Citadel, which was notorious for the incarceration of ‘dangerous’ political criminals. Rosa Luxemburg embarked on a hunger strike that lasted six days. In combination with the overcrowded conditions, the hunger strike undermined her health. Her poor health together with the money paid over, ostensibly by her family in Poland, brought her release on bail on July 8 [N.S. Jul. 21], 1906. The money, which had been collected back in Germany by the SPD, was paid against Rosa Luxemburg’s knowledge or wishes. Under the conditions of bail she was required to remain in Warsaw, although her intention before her arrest, with the arrangements already made, had been to return to Berlin. On release from prison she quickly learnt that on her return to Germany she would face prosecution for incitement to Violence based on the speech she had made at the 1905 conference in Jena, where she had drawn the lesson from the events in Russia of ‘when evolution would turn into revolution even in Germany In time it would lead to further imprisonment.

1910 - Spokane Free Speech Fight: IWW begins the Spokane, Washington free speech fight (which they win). [expand]

1911 - Doris Maase (Doris Franck; d. 1979), German doctor, communist and resistance fighter, who survived nine years in various Nazi camps and was one of Ravensbrück’s earliest prisoners, born. In 1931, she was a member of Roten Studentenbund as a medical student but was expelled from the university in the summer of 1933 for being "half Jewish". In October 1933, she emigrated to Switzerland to finish her ​​medical studies and at the end of 1934 she married Klaud Maase, eventually returning to Dusseldorf where they and others they formed a small communist resistance group. Doris and Klaus Maase were arrested on May 27, 1935, accused of disseminating anti-Nazi leaflets. On September 7, 1936, she was sentenced to three years in prison and three years Ehrenverlust (loss of honour) by the people's court in Berlin for "preparation of high treason". Sent to Strafanstalt Ziegenhain (Ziegenhain detention centre), where she remained in solitary confinement. At the end of her sentence she was placed in protective custody. Between June 10 1938 and July 18 1938, she remained in Düsseldorf remand prison before being sent to Lichtenburg women's concentration camp. From April 1939 to July 1941, she was imprisoned as a political prisoner in the Jewish block in Ravensbrück.

[E] 1912 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: British suffragettes take part in a WSPU window-breaking demonstration, walking single file through Whitehall and Knightsbridge targeting official buildings to protest government inaction on votes for women. 200 are arrested and jailed for taking part.

1917 - Kronstadt Rebellion [Кронштадтское восстание]: The Extraordinary Session of the Petrograd Soviet, called to decide the fate of Kronstadt, votes to accept Zinoviev's proposal to force the surrender of Kronstadt sailors upon penalty of death.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: The 'La Veu de Catalunya' and 'La Publicidad' publish a letter from the manager of La Canadenca, Fraser Lawton, which says that the company wants to negotiate with the strike committee, who were sent a letter the previous Saturday, but who have not yet responded.
There are strikes in the workshops of San Feliu de Guixols and Tarragona woodworkers obtain the 8 hour day and a 20% wage increase.

1921 - Kronstadt Rebellion [Кронштадтское восстание]:


Kronstadt is now enduring a moment of tense struggle for freedom. An attack by the Communists can be expected any minute, with the goal of seizing Kronstadt, and again fastening us to their authority, which brings us only to hunger, cold and ruin. We all, to the last man, will staunchly defend the freedom achieved by us. We shall not allow them to seize Kronstadt, and if they should attempt to do so by force of arms, we will give them a worthy repulse.

Therefore, the Provisional Revolutionary Committee forewarns citizens not to give in to panic and fear if it becomes necessary to hear shooting. Only calm and restraint will give us victory.


'Izvestia of the Provisional Revolutionary Committee of Sailors, Red Soldiers and Workers the city of Kronstadt' (Известия Временного Революционного Комитета Матросов, Красноармейцев и Рабочих города Кронштадта) Issue No. 2, Friday, March 4th, 1921

1924 - The first issue of the monthly magazine 'Die Internationale', official publication of the anti-authoritarian International Workingmen's Association (AIT or IAA) appears in Berlin. It continues in publication until 1926, and the same title reappears in 1927 as the paper of the Freie Arbeiter-Union Deutchlands (FAUD), with the subtitle: "Journal for the revolutionary labour movement, social criticism and a new socialist construction".

1928 - Octavio Alberola Suriñach aka 'El Largo' and 'Juan', Spanish anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-Francoist member of the FIJL-MLE, CNT, CGT and Grupo Primero de Mayo, born in the Balearic Islands. In 1939, his family left for Mexico and Octavio began his anarchist militancy as a member of the Juventudes Libertarias and the CNT in exile. In 1962, he became part of the underground organisation Defensa Interior (DI) formed by the Movimiento Libertario Español (MLE) after the 1961 CNT congress. Cipriano Mera, José Pascual Palacios and Octavio Alberola would be responsbile for coordinating DI activies until the organisation was wound up by the 'parental' body at the Montpellier Congress of the MLE in 1965. In 1966, and based in Paris and Brussels, Alberola began coordinating Grupo Primero de Mayo's numerous attacks against the Franco regime as well as its wider activities as part of the growing worldwide resistance to an aggressive and expansionist US foreign policy. On February 9, 1968 in Belgium, after an attempted kidnapping of a minister, he was imprisoned for five months and then palces under house arrest. His father, Jose, was meanwhile killed on May 1, 1967 in Mexico by Franco agents.
In 1971, he secretly returned to France where he worked at the newspaper 'Frente Libertario'. Linked to the Groupes d'Action Révolutionnaire Internationalistes (GARI), in May 1974 he was caught up in the case of the kidnapping of the banker Adolfo Suarez. Arrested at Avignon, he remained imprisoned nearly nine months. After Franco's death, and after the split of the CNT, he worked for the reforming of the CGT and participated in the activities of the COJRA in France. In the years 1980-2000, he hosted the Radio Libertaire program 'Tribuna Latino Americana'. He also became a tireless member of the Grupo por la revisión del proceso Granado-Delgado, which seeks to annul sentences from the Franco era, and active in libertarian iniatives across Europe.

1934 - Joaquín Martínez Delgado (d. 1963), Spanish anarchist militant and Fédération Ibérique des Jeunesses Libertaires (JJ.LL) activist, born. He went with his parents into exile in France, where he became a cabinet maker and TV designer and a member of Defensa Interior, the clandestine section of the JJ.LL. Sent to Spain alongside Francisco Granados in July 1963, they were arrested for the July 29 bombings of the General Directorate of Security and at a Francoist union headquarters. Tortured, they refused to accept admit their guilt, they were tried by military tribunal and garrotted on Aug. 17 in the notorious Carabanchel prison. 35 years later, in 1998, two anarchists Antonio Martin and Sergio Hernandez confessed that they had in fact planted the bombs, but the Spanish authorities refused the famillies' 1999 attempts to get the death penalties overturned.

1937 - The newspaper 'La Noche' carries an announcement introducing the aims, characteristics and membership conditions of the anarchist Friends of Durruti Group. Also, the Generalidad issues a decree winding up the Control Patrols. In 'La Batalla', Nin passes favourable and hopeful comment on an article by Jaime Balius carried in the March 2nd edition of 'La Noche'.

[C] 1943 - The execution in the Berlin-Plötzensee Prison of Heinz Rotholz (b. 1922), Heinz Birnbaum (b. 1920), Hella Hirsch (b. 1921), Hanni Meyer (b. 1921), Marianne Joachim (b. 1922), Lothar Salinger (b. 1920), Helmut Neumann (b. 1922), Hildegard Löwy (b. 1922) and Siegbert Rotholz (b. 1922), members of the anti-Nazi Baum Group who were sentenced to death on December 10, 1942. [see: May 18]

1948 - Antonin Artaud (Antoine Marie Joseph Artaud; b. 1896), French playwright, poet, actor, theatre director, theoretician, who invented the concept of the Théâtre de la Cruauté (Theatre of Cruelty), dies. [see: Sep. 4]

[D] 1957 - Bataille d'Alger [Battle of Algiers]: Following his arrest on February 23, Colonel Marcel Bigeard personally interrogated Larbi Ben M'hidi, refusing to allow him to be tortured. After two weeks of questioning, Ben M'hidi showed no sign of breaking, and Bigeard grew to like and respect his prisoner. General Jacques Massu, however, was frustrated with Bigeard's slow progress, and arranged for Ben M'hidi to be transferred into the custody of Major Paul Aussaresses [of the 11e Choc (11th 'Shock' Paratroop Regiment), the commando unit of the the SDECEE (Service de Documentation Extérieure et de Contre-Espionnagecons-Intelligence Service), France's external intteligence service] on March 3. Under Aussaresses, Ben M'hidi was tortured, and then driven in the early hours of March 4 by men of the 1er Régiment Étranger de Parachutistes (1st Foreign Parachute Regiment) to an isolated farm 18 kilometres south of Algiers, where he was hanged – "to make it look like suicide".
[ algerie/alger-premiere-suicide.html algerie/alger-premiere-arrestation-ben m hidi.html'hidi'hidi]

[B] 1964 - Buñuel's film version of the Octave Mirbeau novel 'Diary of a Chambermaid' first release in France.

1971* - Berta Isabel Cáceres Flores (d. 2016), Honduran environmental activist, Lenca indigenous community leader, and co-founder and coordinator of the Consejo Cívico de Organizaciones Populares e Indígenas de Honduras (Civic Council of Popular and Indigenous Organizations of Honduras), who was targeted and murdered in her home for her activism against the Agua Zarca Dam, which would have compromised indigenous access to food, water, and medicine, born.
[* NB The exact year of her birth is disputed, with some sources also giving it as 1972 or 1973.]

1974 - Acting in collusion and at the behest of striking lead workers, the urban guerrilla People's Revolutionary Army kidnap one of the INSUD plant managers in Argentina. As a result, and in just 22 days, the strikers win compensation for lead poisoning and a reduction of the working day to six hours.

1979 - National Front protest outside Winchester Prison in support of Robert Relf who is inside yet again for publishing racial hatred materials.

1979 - Formed the previous month without permision form the Communist authorities, the existence of the Sindicatul Liber al Oamenilor Muncii din România (Free Trade Union of the Working People of Romania) is announced when the founding declaration, signed by 20 persons, is broadcast by Noël Bernard over Radio Free Europe.

[F] 1985 - Jornadas de Marzo [Working Days of March]: As a result of the fall in the price of metals, the crisis deepened, so were the days of March 1985 when the true magnitude of the workers' opposition to the government's adjustment measures was felt. On March 4, the Central Obrera Boliviana bussed some 12,000 miners into La Paz for a 'march against hunger'. Civilian servants and local unions joined in the march to the presidential palace. With the municipal band at their heels and tossing dynamite into the air, the strikers demanded the improvement of their salaries, President Hernán Siles Zuazo’s immediate resignation and the establishment of workers' rule. The march turned into a 20-day siege of La Paz, which paralysed the city. As food became scarce, Siles ordered out the troops to break the strike. With Siles, the leader of a 'populist revolution' and ally of the working class, facing off against Juan Lechín Oquendo, secretary general of the Federación Sindical de Trabajadores Mineros de Bolivia and leader of the strikers, a bloody clash seemed inevitable, but bishops stepped in and resolved the crisis. After achieving a minimum number of concessions, the workers backed down, with the Siles Government maintaining its popularity and the COB effectively defeated. [see: Mar. 24]

1986 - Ding Ling (丁玲), the pen name of Jiang Bingzhi (蔣冰之; b. 1904 ), once popular Chinese writer, who wrote against filial piety and for women's social and sexual freedom in 'The Diary of Miss Sophie' (莎菲女士的日記; 1927) during the New Culture Movement (新文化運動), dies. [see: Oct. 12]

1989 - 1989 Soviet Miners' Strikes [Забастовки шахтёров СССР в 1989 году]: At the Severnaya mine another 58 people decide to support the strike and refuse to rise to the surface. However, the [see: Mar. 2]

[A] 2009 - Riot at Cereso state prison in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico leaves at least 20 prisoners dead and 15 injured.
1842 - A Mexican force of over 500 men under Rafael Vasquez invaded Texas for the first time since the revolution. They briefly occupied San Antonio, but soon headed back to the Rio Grande.

[D] 1867 - Fenian Rising of 1867 [Éirí Amach na bhFiann, 1867]: Abortive Fenian uprisings organised by the Irish Republican Brotherhood (Bráithreachas Phoblacht na hÉireann) against English rule take place in Cork City, Limerick and Dublin, Ireland. The largest of these engagements took place at Tallaght, when several hundred Fenians, on their way to the meeting point at Tallaght Hill, were attacked by the Irish Constabulary near the police barracks, and were driven off after a firefight. A total of twelve people were killed across the country on the day. When it became apparent that the co-ordinated rising that had been planned was not transpiring, most rebels simply went home.

1871 - [N.S. Mar. 17] Rosa Luxemburg (d. 1919), German philosopher, economist, anti-militarist and revolutionist, born. Founder, with Karl Liebknecht, of the radical Spartacus League in 1916. After the Spartacist uprising in Berlin, they were arrested and murdered by German soldiers. [expand]

1872 - The General Council approves a private circular, 'Fictitious Splits in the International, written by Marx and Engels', which exposes "Bakuninist intrigues and disruptive activity in the International". Part of their campaign to undermine the anti-authoritarian and democratic elements within the international. Published in Geneva as a pamphlet in May.

[E] 1882 - Dora Marsden (d. 1960), British teacher, head mistress individualist anarchist and militant suffragette, born. She grew up in extreme poverty, her father having abandoned the family shortly after Dora's birth, taking his eldest son with him and emigrating to America. Amongst the first generation to benefit from universal free primary education following the Elementary Education Act of 1870, she proved an exceptional student and at the age of thirteen became a probationer and then a pupil-teacher at the local school. In 1900 at the age of eighteen, she entered Owens College (now Victoria University) in Manchester on a scholarship, where she met Christabel Pankhurst, Isabella Ford, Teresa Billington, Eva Gore-Booth and a number of other prominent early feminists. After graduating, became a teacher, firstly in Leeds and then in Colchester and Manchester. In 1908 she was appointed headmistress of the Altrincham Pupil-Teacher Centre, by which time she had already become involved in the suffragette movement in Manchester and joined the Women’s Social and Political Union. She began organising demonstrations and protests, and was soon speaking at public meetings alongside Christabel Pankhurst and Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence.
In March 1909 Marsden resigned as headmistress of the Pupil-Teacher Centre to become a paid organiser of the WSPU and that same month was arrested outside the Houses of Parliament during an attempt to present a petition to the prime minister Herbert Asquith. Marsden was sentenced to a month's imprisonment. On her release Dora became the organiser of the WSPU in North-West Lancashire. Another arrest followed on September 4, 1909 for breaking windows in Old Trafford alongside Emily Wilding Davison, for which she was sentenced to two months in Strangeways, much of the time naked as she refused to wear prison-issue clothing. She was then put in a straight jackets and force fed. Released under the Cat and Mouse Act, the following month she took part in another protest with Mary Gawthorpe and Rona Robinson on October 4. Dressed in the university gowns, they interrupted the chancellor of Owens College and demanded that he speak out against the force-feeding of the college's imprisoned suffragette alumni. They were quickly bundled outside and arrested. Determined to continue her campaign of arrest-imprisonment-hunger strike-force feeding-release in order to gain the maximum publicity, on December 4, 1909 she disrupted an election meeting in Southport for Winston Churchill, soon to be Home Secretary Along with Helen Tolson and Winson Etherley, she broke into the Southport Empire Theatre and hoisted herself up into the cupola and, after fifteen hours wait, heckled Churchill from her position in the ceiling before she was manhandled out onto the steep roof.
As early as 1907, there was a growing group of women within the WSPU, who included Dora in their number, who despaired of Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst's autocratic rule over the organisation and the powerful clique of wealthy women like Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence who had too much influence within the organisation. So, on January 27, 1911, Dora Marsden resigned from the WSPU and with a group of seventy plus dissidents, including Charlotte Despard, Teresa Billington-Greig and Margaret Nevinson, founded the Women's Freedom League. The WFL grew rapidly and soon had sixty branches across the country and, with 4,000 members, was twice the size of the WSPU. More militant than the WSPU, members of the WFL were forthright in their aim to get themselves arrested on demonstrations of for non-payment of taxes but refused to use property damage as a tactic. Dora was soon working for the group's newspaper, 'The Vote' but, following an attempt to get the WFL to finance a new feminist journal, she quit the organisation to start 'The Freewoman' with her close friend Grace Jardine as secretary and Mary Gawthorpe as co-editor. Gawthorpe would soon leave due to ill-health and her objection to Marsden's "philosophical anarchism". The first issue of 'The Freewoman' appeared on November 23, 1911, and the paper was soon causing a stir with its advocacy of free love, communal childcare and co-operative housekeeping, and its urging of women not to get married. One of the most controversial articles was by Rebecca West in the very first issue, in which she claimed: "Marriage had certain commercial advantages. By it the man secures the exclusive right to the woman's body and by it, the woman binds the man to support her during the rest of her life... a more disgraceful bargain was never struck." Many in the suffragist movement were outraged. Mary Humphrey Ward, leader of Anti-Suffrage League claimed that the journal represented "the dark and dangerous side of the Women's Movement", whilst Millicent Fawcett, the leader of the National Union of Suffrage Societies (NUWSS), read the first edition and "thought it so objectionable and mischievous that she tore it up into small pieces".
In September 1912, W.H. Smith banned 'The Freewoman' and, with the journal loosing money and Dora increasingly disillusioned both with the parliamentary system and the campaign for women's suffrage as well as the fact that the journal's articles on capitalism received much less attention than those on sex, she decided to close down 'The Freewoman', despite the clamour from the likes of Edward Carpenter to continue with it and "that its cessation has been real loss to the cause of free and rational discussion of human problems." Its final issue was published on October 10, 1912. Ezra Pound would later become the journal's literary editor.
Dora Marsden was soon back with another journal, 'The New Freewoman: An Individualist Review'. Financed by Harriet Shaw Weaver, it moved away from the radical feminism of 'The Freewoman' to a more anarchist and literary approach, in part under the influence of Rebecca West, who became the paper's assistant editor. The first issue of 'The New Freewoman' came out on June 15, 1913 but only lasted for thirteen issues (the last being dated Dec. 15, 1913).
In the September issue (No. 6 (Sept. 1, 1913) Marsden made it explicit the degree to which Max Stirner's version of individualist anarchism now influenced her political outlook and the trajectory that 'The New Freewoman' would soon take:
""We are freeborn men, and wherever we look we see ourselves made servants of egoists. Are we therefore to become egoists too? Heaven forbid! We want rather to make egoists impossible. We want to make them all 'ragamuffins'; all of us must have nothing, that 'all may have'. So say the Socialists." Thus Stirner, more than half a century ago, [claimed] in the most powerful work that has ever emerged from a single human mind."
Rebecca West was amongst those who disagreed with the direction that the journal was taking and in October 1913 resigned her position. Shortly afterwards at a director's meeting on November 25, it was decided to change the name of the 'The New Freewoman' to 'The Egoist: An Individualist Review'. Volume 1 Number 1 of the new journal came out on January 1, 1914 with Harriet Shaw Weaver along side Dora Marsden as co-editors. It would last for six years and 74 editions until the final issue (Vol. 6, No. 5) in December 1919 and become, on Ezra Pound's insistence an important conduit for modernist literary experimentalism of the likes of Pound himself, T. S. Eliot, D. H. Lawrence, Wyndham Lewis, Herbert Read and James Joyce, with Joyce's 'A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man' (1916) published for the first time as a series in 'The Egoist' between 1914 to 1915. In July 1914, Marsden handed over the editorship of 'The Egoist' to Weaver, staying on as a contributing editor, in order to pursue her philosophical research and writings.
Despite her vociferous criticisms of the WSPU and the various suffragist organisations in the pages of her journals, in 1915 Marsden soon came to echo the position of the WSPU in publicly supporting the war effort through the pages of 'The Egoist' and condemning the feminist pacifists who campaigned against it. Despite the journals diminishing sales, Harriet Shaw Weaver vowed to continue publication and, in 1917, T.S.Eliot became one of its assistant editors. That same year, Weaver set up the Egoist Press to publish James Joyce's 'A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man', which no one else would put into print at the time. 'The Egoist' itself began the serialisation of Joyce's 'Ulysses' in January 1919 but, with the sales down to just 400 copies (from a high of 1000).
With the closure of 'The Egoist', Marsden withdrew from public view to continue her work on her rather odd admixture of philosophy, theology, mathematics, physics and biology, which was eventually published by Harriet Shaw Weaver in two volumes as 'The Definition of the Godhead' in 1928 and 'Mysteries of Christianity' in 1930. Supposedly aiming at "the intellectual rehabilitation of the dogmas of Christian theology in terms of the characters of the first principles of physics" (Marsden in the introduction to 'The Definition'), the first volume was panned and the second was greeted with indifference, and less than 100 were ever sold. Dora Marsden suffered a psychological breakdown in 1930, and on November 26, 1935, Marsden became a patient at the Crichton Royal Hospital in Dumfries. The hospital later stated that she "was not able to communicate rationally, was severely depressed and was diagnosed as suffering from deep melancholia."
Dora Marsden remained isolated in Crichton Royal Hospital with her books for the final 25 years of her life and died of a heart attack on December 13, 1960.

1884 - Pau Sabater i Lliró aka 'el Tero' (d. 1919), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist, secretary of the Sindicato de Tintoreros of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo, one of the most powerful unions in the textile industry, born. [expand]

[A] 1886 - In Paris, the 27-year old anarchist Charles Gallo tosses a bottle of hydrocyanic acid into the Paris Bourse (Stock Exchange). At his trial, where he insisted on addressing the judge as Citizen President, he shouted: "Long live revolution! Long live anarchism! Death to the bourgeois judiciary! Long live dynamite! Bunch of idiots!"

1902 - In France, the National Congress of Miners decided to call for a general strike for an 8-hour day.

[AA] 1903 - French anarchist Paul Roussenq (labelled by the press as the 'anarchist convict') throws a crouton at the head prosecutor during a trial. For this dastardly terrorist act he is conscripted into the disciplinary battalions of Biribi in Africa for five years. Further insubordination leads to a military tribunal condemning Roussenq to 20 years of forced labour in penal colonies at Cayenne in French Guyana on May 5, 1908. There he was involved in a prison uprising, which earns him another 3,779 days in the dungeon. Only after a press campaign and the mobilization of the S.R.I. (International Red Help) is he finally released from prison — in 1932!

1905 - [O.S. Feb. 20] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The Tsar refuses the demands of the workers’ delegates and disbands the Shidlovsky Commission, appointed in the wake of Bloody Sunday "to enquire without delay into the causes of discontent among the workers in the city of St Petersburg and its suburbs", before it had even started work. A wave of protest strikes is followed by a wave of arrests. On the same day, the Tsar authorises a new commission under Kokovtsov to study labour problem.

1906 - [O.S. Feb. 20] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: An Imperial Manifesto is issued on the Duma’s legal structure, restricting its powers and linking it with the government-dominated State Council. The liberal Kadets party are outraged.

1912 - National Coal Strike: Strike pay for the colliers, ten shillings a week for full union members, began on Tuesday 5th March. By the 23rd the Notts Miners' Association had spent about £50,000 out of their total funds of £220,000 and it was estimated that the men `could last out at least another ten weeks. [see: Mar. 1]

[1914 - Selma Cohen (d. 1985) US printmaker, illustrator, mural artist, anarchist and partner of Abe Bluestein]

1917 - Everett Massacre Trial: The trial of Thomas H. Tracy, the first of 74 planned trials following the Everett Massacre, gets under way in Seattle, having been moved from Everett because the Governor believed it would be impossible for any Wobbly to receive a fair trial in Snohomish County. [see: Nov. 5]

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: The economy is suffering and one incident at the municipal market makes its way into the pages of the 'La Publicidad' newspaper, when a grocer hoarding the best quality cabbages in order to force up prices, is himself forced by protesting shoppers to sell all his cabbages at a cut price rate.
Workers from those gas works, especially from La Catalana, who had not gone out now joined the strike. The police respond by laaunching a series of absurd raids on foreigners.

1920 - Victor François Marie Pengam (b. 1883), French anarchist propagandist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Jan. 21]

1921 - Kronstadt Rebellion [Кронштадтское восстание]: In issue no. 3 of the 'Izvestia of the Provisional Revolutionary Committee of Sailors, Red Soldiers and Workers the city of Kronstadt' (Известия Временного Революционного Комитета Матросов, Красноармейцев и Рабочих города Кронштадта) proclaims: "For three days Kronstadt got rid of the nightmare of communist power, just as it had removed four years ago the power of the Tsar, and of the tsarist generals. For three days the citizens of Kronstadt breathed free, freed from the dictatorship of the party. The Kronstadt Communists' "great leaders" ran away disgracefully, like guilty little children. They saved their skins from the danger that the Provisional Revolutionary Committee would resort to that beloved means of extremists, the firing squad."

1921 - Kronstadt Rebellion [Кронштадтское восстание]: Having arrived in Petrograd on March 5, Leon Trotsky issues an ultimatum to rebelling soldiers and sailors in Kronstadt:
"The Workers' and Peasants Government has decreed that Kronstadt and the rebellious ships must immediately submit to the authority of the Soviet Republic. Therefore, I command all who have raised their hands against the socialist fatherland to lay donw their arms at once. The commissars and other members of the government who have been arrested are to be liberated at once. Only those who surrender unconditionally can expect mercy from the Soviet Republic.
"I am simultaneously giving orders to prepare for the suppression of the rebellion and the subjugation of the sailors by armed force. All responsibility for the harm that may be suffered by the peaceful population will rest entirely on the heads of the White Guard mutineers. This warning is final."
'Ultimatum to Kronstadt' - signed by Leon Trotsky (War Commissar), Lev Kamenev (CinC of the Red Army).
This is the ultimatum that was said to be accompanied by a threat that the Bolsheviks would "shoot like partridges" all those who refused to surrender immediately. Only those who did could expect mercy. It is attributed to Trotsky but was in fact issued by Grigory Zinoviev's Petrograd Defence Committee: "You are surrounded on all sides… Kronstadt has neither bread nor fuel. If you insist, we will shoot you like partridges."
The Provisional Revolutionary Committee replied: "The ninth wave of the Toilers' Revolution has risen and will sweep from the face of Soviet Russia the vile slanderers and tyrants with all their corruption. And your leniency, Mr. Trotsky, will not be needed." - 'Izvestia of the Provisional Revolutionary Committee of Sailors, Red Soldiers and Workers the city of Kronstadt' (Известия Временного Революционного Комитета Матросов, Красноармейцев и Рабочих города Кронштадта) No. 5, Monday, March 7, 1921

1922 - Chinese Seamen's Strike: After 52 days of strike by Chinese seamen from Hong Kong and Canton (now Guangzhou) demanding higher wages, the employers finally capitulate and agree to wage increases of 15-30%, despite the Hong Kong government having declared the strike as being illegal. [see: Jan. 12]

1933 - The Nazi Party wins 44 percent of the vote in German parliamentary elections.

1934 - Marie Guillot (b. 1880), French teacher, anarcho-syndicalist, pacifist and feminist activist, dies. [see: Sep. 9]

1939 - The Negrín government is overthrown in an overnight coup (March 5-6) in Madrid; members of the anarcho-syndicalist CNT trade union in the south-central zone are involved in the coup and occupy posts in the new National Council of Defence.

1941 - Edith Mansell Moullin (Edith Ruth Thomas; b. 1858) Anglo-Welsh suffragette, socialist and social activist, who was a founder member of the Anti-Sweating League and the Cymric Suffrage Union, as well as being a member of the WSPU, the Church League for Women's Suffrage and the Women's Freedom League, dies.

1943 - Bernard Baissat, French journalist, pacifist and libertarian film-maker, born. A Professor of Italian and French literature, in 1967 he became a reporter for the ORTF. From 1968 to 1976 he directed in Africa and Lebanon, then returned to France in 1977 where he continued his work as a director for FR3. "A historian of the camera" he produced and directed numerous documentaires of old comrades (and partners) between 1980 and 1998, helping preserve and understand a rich anarchist and pacifist history. André Claudot, Jeanne Humbert, Eugene Bizeau, May Picqueray, Marcel Body, Aguigui Mouna, Robert Jospin, René Dumont, Serge Utgé-Royo and André Bösiger all appeared in his 'Listen' series. He also directed films on the labour movement, the Bourse du Travail and the Paris newspaper 'Le Canard Enchainé'.

1944 - Max Jacob (b. 1876), French poet, painter, writer, critic, queer and anarchist fellow-traveller, dies in Drancy internment camp from bronchial pneumonia. [see: Jul. 12]

1944 - Pasquale Binazzi (b. 1873), Italian anarchist, secretary of the 'chambre du travail' and organiser of the 'syndicat de l'arsenal' in Spezia, dies. Founded the weekly magazine 'Il Libertario' in 1903, which printed 10,000 copies at its peak until closed by the Fascists in 1922. He died whilst helping organise anarchist guerilla groups in Liguria and Tuscany. [see: Jun. 12]

1953 - Uncle Joe dies.

1966 - Anna Akhmatova (Анна Ахматова;), pen name of Anna Andreyevna Gorenko (b. 1889), Russian modernist poet and important figure in the so-called Silver Age of Russian Poetry, who is widely recognised as the greatest woman poet in Russian literature, dies. [see: Jun. 23]

1973 - Durban Mass Strike: In the wake of the wave of strikes in and around Durban, the Western Province Workers' Advice Bureau (WPWAB) is established and an executive committee consisting of exclusively workers in elected.

1984 - U.K. Miners' Strike: First local strikes in Yorkshire following the leaking of plans to close 20 pits with the loss of 20,000 jobs.

1984 - Gérard Lebovici (b. 1932), Radical French publisher, film producer, friend and financial supporter of Guy Debord, dies. [see: Aug. 25]

1998 - The arrest in their Turin squat of the Italian anarchists Edoardo Massari aka 'Baleno' and Silvano Pelissero and the Argentine anarchist Maria Soledad Rosas on eco-terrorrism charges relating to a series of attacks against the TAV high-speed train project. On March 28, Baleno, Maria's partner, would take his own life in the Turin prison. After the suicide of Baleno, Soledad – who had not even been in Italy when the original attacks had taken place – was granted house arrest in Piedmont and, on the night of July 10-11, 1998, hung herself with a bedsheet. On January 31, 2000, Silvano was convicted of subversive association, and various 'ecoterrorist' and explosive charges, and given six years and 10 months in prison. An appeal in Janaury 2991 reduced the sentence by 9 months and another court invalidated the terrorist association conviction in November of that year. He was released in 2002 after the Court of Cassation in Rome finally reduced his sentence to 3 years and 10 months.
[[ ]_La_historia_de_Soledad.html]

[C] 2009 - Jack van der Geest (Jacobus Petrus Cornelis van der Geest; b. 1923), Dutch member of the anti-Nazi resistance in both Holland and France, who was one of only eight people ever to escape from Buchenwald concentration camp, dies. [see: Sep. 17]

2009 - Following the grenade attack on the Exarcheia Immigrants' Social Centre on February 24th and the demonstration 2 days later, a much larger protest takes place in Athens, which erupts into extended street battles between protesters and the riot police forces that had attacked the demo. During the clashes, which spread throughout the city centre, several banks and expensive shops were destroyed, and protesters broke into the offices of the neo-Nazi Golden Dawn (Xrysi Avgi), the para-state organisation responsible for numerous assassination attempts against immigrants, anarchists and the left, as well as a campaign of terror against radical infrastructures. The offices were torched to the ground.

[B] 2010 - 'Exit Through the Gift Shop: A Banksy Film' is released in the UK.

2013 - Hunger strike in Rhodes jail, Greece. Revolt in Nafplio prison, Greece.
1792 - Claire Lacombe, president of the Société des Citoyennes Républicaines Révolutionnaires, goes to the Legislative bar to read an address supported by three hundred twenty Parisian requesting authorisation to organise a women's national guard.

1821 - [Feb. 22 (O.S.)] Greek Revolution [Ελληνική Επανάσταση] or Greek War of Independence: Alexander Ypsilantis, leader of the Filiki Eteria [Φιλική Εταιρεία](or Society of Friends [Εταιρεία των Φιλικών]), a secret organisation dedicated to the overthrow of Ottoman rule in Greece and establish an independent Greek state, crosses the river Prut accompanied by several other Greek officers in Russian service, entering the Danubian Principalities (Moldavia and Wallachia), where he is a herditary prince. This marks the beginning of the Greek Revolution, which would last for more than 11 years. Two days later, at Iaşi he issues a proclamation, announcing that he had "the support of a great power" (meaning Russia), in order to encourage the local Romanian Christians to join him, and calls all Greeks and Christians to rise up against the Ottomans.

1842 - [N.S. Mar. 18] Anna Nikolayevna Shabanova (Анна Николаевна Шабанова; d. 1932), Russian doctor, radical, feminist and writer, born. [see: Mar. 18]

1870 - Eugène Humbert (d. 1944), French anarchist, militant pacifist, néo-Malthusian and companion of Jeanne Humbert, born. He discovered anarchism at an early age, becoming a militant in the Nancy Liberté group, publishes the journal 'L'Indépendant' and is identified by the police as a "dangerous anarchist". In 1896 he became director of Paul Robin's néo-Malthusian magazine 'Régénération', later launching the newspaper 'Génération Consciente' on 1908, and in 1931 'La Grande Réforme'.
During WWI he fled to Barcelona, returning to France in 1919 he was arrested and sentenced May 4 1921 to 5 years in prison for insubordination. On Nov. 5 1921, he was again convicted, with his wife Jeanne Lisieux, to 2 additional years in prison and fined 3,000 francs each for disseminating neo-Malthusian propaganda.
At the outbreak of WWII, he and Jeanne fled Paris again, later to be sentenced to 18 months in prison for providing a book banned by the 1920 law (punishing anti-natalist propaganda). In prison he falls ill and is transferred to hospital but is killed in prison during WWII Allied bombing, the day before his scheduled release.

1879 - The trial of 29-year-old anarchist Giovanni Passannante [sometimes spelled Passanante], who attempted to kill King Humbert I, begins.

1884 - Maria Collazo (d. 1942), Uraguayan educationalist, journalist, educator, journalist, feminist, syndicalist and anarchist activistMaria Collazo, who was known as Abuelita del Pueblo (Grandmother of the People), born. [expand]

[B] 1900 - Henri Jeanson (d. 1970), French libertarian pacifist, journalist, screenwriter, pataphysician and author, born. After working in various odd jobs, he became a potent journalist on 'La Bataille', the newspaper of the then anarcho-syndicalist dominated Confédération Générale du Travail (CGT) union. He would later work as a reporter, interviewer and film critic for the 'Journal du Peuple', 'Hommes du Jour' and 'Le Canard Enchaîné', where he defended his uncompromising pacifist line. He also started scripting films in 1932.
In July 1939 he was sentenced to 18 months in prison for publishing an article in 'Solidarité Internationale Antifasciste' in which he congratulated Herschel Grynszpan for his assassination of Ernst vom Rath, an official of the German embassy in Paris. He was arrested again in November 1939, having already joined his regiment following his call-up, for his pacifist articles and for having signed Louis Lecoin's tract 'Paix Immédiate'. He was sentenced on Dec. 20 1939 by a military tribunal to five years in prison for "calling for disobedience within the ranks".
Imprisoned days before the German army marched into Paris, his lawyer managed to obtain his release and Jeanson became the chief editor of 'Aujourd'hui', a new notionally 'independent' pacifist newspaper, that many comrades argued was effectively a collaborationist organ. The first issue was published on Sept. 10 1940 and by November the German authorities were pressuring him for the paper to take an anti-Jewish and pro-Vichy line. Jeanson resigned and went back to prison, but was freed a few months later through the intervention of an ex-ultra-pacifist and now collaborationist friend. Banned from journalism and film, he continued to script-write in secret for film (and uncredited) and for clandestine pamphlets (narrowly avoiding being rearrested in 1942 for this activity) until the Liberation.
Posy WWII, he regained the editorship of 'Le Canard Enchaîné' and wrote for 'Le Crapouillot', 'Combat' and 'L'Aurore'. In April 1947 he caused a furore by quitting 'Le Canard Enchaîné' following the cutting of an article about Louis Aragon, Elsa Triolet, Maurice Thorez and the PCF, but later returned to publish articles under the pseudonym 'Huguette ex-Micro'. He also wrote for the weekly French cinema magazine 'Cinémonde' and was a television critic for 'L'Aurore'. He quit the cinema in 1965 but remained active in journalism and the political struggle, especially around subjects close to his heart such as pacifism, the freedom of expression and anti-colonialism.
Jeanson wrote the scripts and dialogue for around 90 films, including 'Pépé le Moko' (1937), 'Hôtel du Nord' (1938), 'Les Maudits' (The Damned; 1947), 'Le Crime Ne Paie Pas' (The Gentle Art of Murder; 1962) and 'Paris When It Sizzles' (1964). He also directed one of his own scripts, 'Lady Paname' (1950), wrote a number of plays for the theatre and a handful of books including the posthumous memoir '70 Ans d'Adolescence' (1971).

1908 - Madeleine Lamberet (d. 1999), French anarchist, painter, designer, engraver, illustrator and primary-school teacher, born.
[ LAMBERET&x=0&y=0]

[DD] 1910 - Kileler Rebellion [Κιλελέρ Εξέγερση]: Early in the morning, around 200 crofters (Κολίγος) and farmers had gathered in the village of Kileler (Κιλελέρ) in Thessaly with their red and black flags to travel by train to Larissa (Λάρισα) to attend a large agricultural demonstration with other crofters and farmers from across Thessaly. It was part of their on-going protests against the semi-feudal Chiflik system under which rural areas in the Ottoman Empire were regulated. Their main demand was the expropriation of land from the landlords and its redistribution to farmers.
When they tried to board a train without buying tickets, the director of Thessalian Railways, Politis (Πολίτης), who was on board the train, refuses to allow them to continue to Larissa. He then got some troops that were on the train travelling to Larissa to police the demonstration to push them off the train. Politis then proceeded to insult the farmers, calling them "rabble" and "beasts". The farmers them start stoning the train and the troops were ordered to fire on the farmers, killing Athanasios Ntafouli (Αθανάσιου Νταφούλη) and Athanasios Bocas (Αθανάσιου Μπόκας), and wounding many others. The train quickly pulled out of the station and one kilometre on at the station at Tsoular (Τσουλάρ, today's malia / Μελία), 800 locals were waiting. However, the train was ordered not to stop. Instead, the soldiers fired a warning volley over the heads of the crowd of waitng farmers, who reposned by attacking the train with stones and sticks. The angry crowd was fired on from the train, leaving two more dead and 15 wounded.
When the train arrived in Larissa and news of what had happened in Kileler and Tsoular spread, unarmed demonstrators began battling with the armed forces, who responded with live fire. Two tenant farmers were killed during a cavalry charge. The prefect, the police chief and the garrison commander of Larissa, who had all watched the battle, realised that the suppression of the revolt of crofters was impossible, so the demonstration was allowed to continue peacefully. The rally ended, after having drawn up and approved a resolution which was sent to the Parliament in Athens demanding the immediate passage of the bill for the expropriation of estates and distribution of estate, the strengthening of the Agricultural Fund tax, and expressing deep sorrow for the State's unjust attacking on the people, the unarmed victims of slavery in Thessaly.
The uprising was followed by mass arrests and detention of many farmers. Several were released by decree and 62 of the protesters were tried and acquitted on June 23, 1910 in an attempt to defuse the situation. The uprising in Kileler roused a wave of sympathy across the country and increased the social pressure to solve the agrarian question. However, the measures taken were only piecemeal and it was not until 1923 that the estates were expropriated on a large scale.

1911 - Revolución Mexicana: Francisco Madero's forces attack federal garrison at Casa Grandes and are driven off with 100 out of 800 of his followers being killed. Madero is joined by other local leaders, including a 32 year old local bandit Doroteo Arango, better known as Pancho Villa. Villa's men are mostly miners from the north. His men are known as dorados 'golden ones' because of their golden hued uniforms and rode into battle crying "Viva Villa! Viva la Revolucion!" Famous for their cavalry charges,often led by Villa himself.

[F] 1913 - Joe Hill's song 'There is Power in a Union' first appears in the IWW's 'Little Red Song Book'.

1917 - Derek Stanley Savage (pen name D.S. Savage; d. 2007), English poet, critic and Christian anarcho-pacifist, who became General Secretary of the Anglican Pacifist Fellowship, born. Associated with the post-war New Apocalyptics poetry group.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: Public lighting services remain poor and power failures mean that tram services are interrupted or stopped altogether in Barcelona, whilst the strike movement moves back on to the offensive. The strike has now spread to include the power workers in the hydroelectric power plants in Tordera – which provides electricity to Sabadell and Panadés – and in the city of Tremp in the Pyrennes, supplier for the municipality of Igualada. In the latter the guardia civil take over the plant. In addition, workers in Molins del Rey are on strike and there are rumours that Lérida will also join in.

[D] 1921 - Kronstadt Rebellion [Кронштадтское восстание]: Lev Kamenev and Leon Trotsky issue an ultimatum to rebelling soldiers and sailors in Kronstadt:
"The Workers' and Peasants Government has decreed that Kronstadt and the rebellious ships must immediately submit to the authority of the Soviet Republic. Therefore, I command all who have raised their hands against the socialist fatherland to lay donw their arms at once. The commissars and other members of the government who have been arrested are to be liberated at once. Only those who surrender unconditionally can expect mercy from the Soviet Republic.
"I am simultaneously giving orders to prepare for the suppression of the rebellion and the subjugation of the sailors by armed force. All responsibility for the harm that may be suffered by the peaceful population will rest entirely on the heads of the White Guard mutineers. This warning is final."
'Ultimatum to Kronstadt' - signed by Leon Trotsky (War Commissar), Lev Kamenev (CinC of the Red Army).
This is the ultimatum that was said to be accompanied by a threat that the Bolsheviks would "shoot like partridges" all those who refused to surrender immediately. Only those who did could expect mercy. It is attributed to Trotsky but was in fact issued by Grigory Zinoviev's Petrograd Defence Committee: "You are surrounded on all sides… Kronstadt has neither bread nor fuel. If you insist, we will shoot you like partridges."
The Provisional Revolutionary Committee replied: "The ninth wave of the Toilers' Revolution has risen and will sweep from the face of Soviet Russia the vile slanderers and tyrants with all their corruption-­and your lemency, Mr. Trotsky, will not be needed." - 'Pravda o Kronshtadte' No. 5, Monday, March 7th, 1921

[C] 1921 - Ateo Tommaso Garemi i Gagno (d. 1943), Italian-French communist, then anarchist and anti-fascist combatant, born. As a young man he emigrated with his family to France, where he worked as a lumberjack. When he was 17 he joined as a volunteer in the International Brigades in the Spanish Civil War. In 1940 he joined the French Section of the Communist International (SFIC) and, after the German occupation of France, he joined the Maquis (Francs-tireurs Partisans), fighting in the Marseille region. After the armistice of September 8, 1943, he returned to Italy and became the organiser and commander of the Gruppi di Azione Patriottica (GAP) in Turin. Together with the Turin anarchist Dario Cagno, who profundly influenced Garemi, he ambushed Domenico Giardina, the leader of the Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale (MVSN; Voluntary Militia for National Security), on the morning of October 25, 1943. However, both were betrayed by an informer and arrested 2 days later. They were tortured, prosecuted and sentenced to death by the Special Court of Turin for complicity in the murder of Giardina. Garemi was executed on December 21, 1943 in the courtyard of the Monte Grappa barracks in Turin, and Cagno 2 days later. Resistenza vicentina went on to name a batallion after him.

1925 - Cape Breton Coal Strike: The United Mine Workers of America go on strike to try and restore wage levels to those in place prior to the cuts introduced by the British Empire Steel Corporation in 1922. Twelve thousand miners walked out. BESCO police began terrorizing citizens in mining towns throughout the province, charging even small groups of people on horseback and beating anyone they caught. BESCO, which owned most of the electrical utilities and grocery stores in the mining towns, cut off power and credit. By June, thousands of families were on the verge of starvation.

1931 - Carla Lonzi (d. 1982), Italian art critic, writer and radical feminist theorist, who founded the group Rivolta Femminile and was a proponent of the feminist theories of autocoscienza (self-awareness) and filosofia della differenza (sexual difference), born.

1932 - Renato Lacquaniti (d. 1998), Italian anarchist, anti-militarist and painter, born. One of the co-founders of the artistic group 'Atoma' (created in the local group of the Anarchist Federation of Livorno) and in 1960 painted 'Composizioni Anarchiche'.

1941 - Francisco del Águila Aguilera (b. 1916), Andalusian stonemason, anarchist and anti-fascist member of the FIJL and CNT, is shot in Almeria alongsdie his brothers Juan and Rafael. In 1935, along with Abel Paz, Cueto and others, he was in the military wing of the FIJL, which he represented in the Comitè de Guerra d'Almeria in late September 1936 and in the Comitè Central Antifeixista d'Almeria, and the FAI on the Comitè Permanent del Front Popular d'Almeria (Standing Committee of the Popular Front of Almeria) in late 1936.

1951 - Vaga de Tramvies / Huelga de Tranvías [Barcelona Tram Strike / General Strike]: Following the reversal of the ticket price rise, the Phalangists organsied members to board trams in order to "break the ice". The act merely hardens the workers' position. [see: Mar. 1]

[A] 1970 - Three Weathermen (Diana Oughton, Terry Robbins and Ted Gold) blow themselves up in the basement of a Greenwich Village, NY house.

1970 - Diana Oughton (b. 1942), US member of the Students for a Democratic Society Michigan Chapter, the SDS's radical Jesse James Gang (as well as its full-time organiser) and the Weather Underground, dies in the Greenwich Village townhouse explosion. Her body was not found for four days. [see: Jan. 26]

1971 - Ian Purdie arrested. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1971 - First ­National Women's Liberation Movement march held in London.

1974 - U.K. Miners' Strike: The NUM has called off a four-week strike following a 35% pay offer from the new Labour government in what is being seen as a resounding victory for the miners. Around 260,000 miners have accepted weekly pay rises ranging from £6.71 to £16.31. The offer is worth more than double the figure on offer under Edward Heath's government. Miners will return to work on March 11.

[E] 1974 - The Weather Underground Women's Brigade bomb the San Francisco Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare offices in honour of International Women's Day (March 8) and in remembrance of Weatherman members Diana Oughton, Ted Gold and Terry Robbins. The communique accompanying the action calls for women to take control of daycare, health care, birth control and other aspects of women's daily lives. The seventy members of the Women's Brigade, who initially had called themselves The Proud Eagle Tribe, regarded HEW as the "major government vehicle of social control of women", comparable in its role with that of the Bureau of Indian Affairs towards Native Americans, and the Department became one of their major targets along side their consciousness raising activities within the sphere of feminist politics, such as January 1973's 'Mountain Moving Day' document and the publication of 'A Collective Letter to the Women's Movement' (July 24, 1973).

1984 - Friedrich Gustav Emil Martin Niemöller (b. 1892), German anti-Nazi theologian, Lutheran pastor, pacifist and anti-war activist, dies. [see: Jan. 14]

1992 - Léo Campion (Léon Louis Octave Campion; b. 1905), Franco-Belgian character actor, singer, anarchist, free thinker, Freemason, Régent de l'Institut de Pataphysique and Grand Maître de la Confrérie des Chevaliers du Taste Fesses, dies. [see: Mar. 24]

2000 - Miriam Patchen (Sirkka Miriam Oikemus; b. 1914), peace activist and dedicatee of all the works of her lifelong partner, fellow anarchist and poet, Kenneth Patchen, dies. [see: Sep. 28]

2002 - Ralph Rumney (b. 1934), English artist, writer, lifelong conscientious objector and on of the founders of the Situationist International, dies. [see: Jun. 5]

2007 - Jean Baudrillard (b. 1929), French sociologist, philosopher, cultural theorist and anarchist, dies. [see: Jul. 27]

2007 - Protests in Copenhagen continue as the city demolishes the Ungdomshuset (Youth House) building, an anarchist youth and cultural centre.

2012 - The Longest Unemployment Line In The World: The project holds a large, participatory arts event called 'The Line' in New York, where an estimated 5,000 demonstrators formed a three-mile (five km) line in downtown New York to protest unemployment in the United States.

2013 - Mutiny of prisoners in Patra prison, Greece.

2014 - Three members of Pussy Riot – Nadezhda Tolokonnikova [Наде́жда Толоко́нникова], Maria Alyokhina [Мари́я Алёхина] and Taisia Krugovykh [Таисия Круговых] – in Nizhny Novgorod as part of a campaign for prisoners' rights, are attacked and covered in green paint by a group of unknown men wearing Ribbon of Saint George medals.
1878 - Carlo Frigerio (d. 1966), Italian militant, printer, writer, principal collaborator, along with Camillo Berneri, Luigi Fabbri and Carlo Molaschi, on the Malatesta edited 'Pensiero e Volontà' (Thought & Will), born. One of the princicle protagonists of the anarchist movement in Switzerland. [expand]

1885 - First issue of the weekly magazine 'L'Audace', in Paris, organe communiste-anarchiste, which replaced the newspaper 'Terre et Liberté'. Its epigrams where: "Pour vaincre que faut'il? De l'audace, de l'audace et encore de l'audace" [Danton] and "Meurt s'il le faut mais dis la vérité" [Marat]. (“Audacity, always audacity, still more audacity” and “Die if necessary but speak the truth”)

1892 - François Ravachol and a number of his friends decided to try and bomb the commissariat (police station) in Clichy in revenge for the treatment of the Affaire de Clichy defendants [see: May 1 & Aug. 28]. However they are unable to come close to the commissariat with their bomb, a smelting pot full of fifty dynamite cartridges and scrap iron as grape, and Ravachol will instead targets the home of the presiding judge at the Clichy trial, Edouard Benoit on March 11.

1907 - [N.S. Mar 20] Peter Arshinov (Пётр Арши́нов) shoots Vasilenko, head of the main railroad yard at Aleksandrovsk. A notorious and pitiless oppressor of workers, Vasilenko had turned over to the military tribunal more than 100 workers who were accused of taking part in the armed uprising in Aleksandrovsk in December, 1905; many of them were condemned to death or forced labor because of Vasilenko’s testimony. He was caught and sentenced to death by hanging but, the sentence temporarily postponed, he managed too escape from Aleksandrovsk prison on the night of April 22, 1907.

1908 - Maria Maddalena De Lellis, aka 'la Padovella' (b. 1835), notorious Italian brigante, who was a member of Andrea Santaniello's gang, as well as his lover, dies quietly in her home village where she had found refuge in her last years as the community's nanny, looking after its children as the villagers worked in the fields. [see: Aug. 8]

1909 - Charles Perrone (b.1837), Swiss-born anarchist, militant of the First International, Bakuninist propagandist and cartographer, dies. [see: Dec. 06]

[B] 1909 - Léo Malet (d. 1996), French crime novelist, poet and Surrealist, born. He has written under a number of differnt pseudonyms: Frank Harding , Léo Latimer, Lionel Doucet, Jean de Selneuves, Noël Letam, Omer Refreger, Louis Refreger and, in association with fellow writers Serge Arcouët and Pierre Ayraud, under the collective pseudonym John-Silver Lee.
In his autobiography his tells of his individualist anarchist youth, selling 'Le Libertaire' on the streets of Montpelier and becoming associated with André Colomer, before later becoming a Trotskyist. Moved to Paris and began working as a cabaret singer at La Vache Enragee in Montmartre in 1925, continuing his anarchist associations, as well as becoming a vegan, and working in numerous odd jobs: clerk, labourer, newspaper vendor and occasional journalist (on 'L'En Dehors', 'L'Insurgé', 'Journal de l'Homme aux Sandales', 'la Revue Anarchiste', etc..
He later became a friend of Jacques Prévert, who introduced him to the Surrealists, becoming close friends with André Breton, René Magritte and Yves Tanguy, amongst others. Like many of his fellow Surrealists, he joined Benjamin Peret' Trotskyist POI (Parti Ouvrier Internationaliste) between 1936 to 1939. In 1942 he created his most famous character, Nestor 'Dynamite' Burma, private detective, ex-anarchist, serial monogamist and inveterate pipe smoker, who featured in 33 novels, beginning with the 'Les Nouveaux Mystères de Paris' series and the first novel, '120, Rue de la Gare' in 1943 under the Nazi occupation. The most 'anarchist' of these novels is arguably 'Brouillard au Pont de Tolbiac' (Fog on the Tolbiac Bridge; 1956), where Burma is taken back to his anarchist past by the arrival of a letter addressed to him beginning "Dear Comrade". Unfortunately, Malet also displayed a growing anti-Arab racism in his older writings.
[ a&titre=Léo Malet, une brève biographie&num=40&date=2010-04-25]

1911 - Dolores Vimes Domínguez (d. 2007), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist, is born into an anarchist family. Her father Juan Vimes Durán was one of the founders of a union in her home town Constantina, Sevilla, and during the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera and the Republic he was imprisoned on several occasions. Dolores was already a member of the CNT herself prior to the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic. Her father and brother were killed during the Civil War, and her partner José Teyssiere Gómez, also a centista, was sentenced to death. After the sentence was commuted, Dolores was able to visit the prison in Seville before he was sent to the La Corchuela concentration camp, about eight kilometers from Dos Hermanas, where more than a thousand political prisoners worked on the construction of the Bajo Guadalquivir Canal. In 1942, she married José in the La Corchuela camp in order to get some money and be able to feed her children. On December 28, 1942 Teyssiere managed to escape, and after spending a few days hiding at a comrade's home, Dolores took him to a cottage in the Cuarteros district, where he managed to stay hidden for five years until his situation was normalised. In later life she participated in events recognising and celebrating the historical memory of the 'presos del Canal', the Republican prisoners forced to work constructing the Bajo Guadalquivir Canal. Her testimony is recorded in the collection 'El canal de los presos' (1940-1962) (2004); Mariano Agudo and Eduardo Montero - 'Presos del Silencio' (2004); and, José Luis Gutiérrez Molina - 'La tiza, la tinta y la palabra. José Sánchez Rosa, maestro y anarquista andaluz (1864-1936)' (2005). Dolores Vimes Domínguez died on May 17, 2007.

1911 - The United States sent 20,000 troops to the Mexican border in the wake of the Mexican Revolution.

1913 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: Militant suffragettes Lilian Lenton and Olive Wharry (1886-1947) are sentenced to eighteen months (Lenton in absentia, having absconded after being released after becoming ill due to botched force-feeding) for setting fire to the tea pavilion at Kew Gardens, causing £900 worth of damage. Olive Wharry is sent to Holloway Prison from which she was released on April 8 after having been on hunger strike for 32 days, apparently without the prison authorities noticing. Her usual weight was 7st 11lbs [49kg]; when released she weighed 5st 9lbs [36kg].

1913 - Ramón Álvarez Palomo aka 'Ramonín' (d. 2003), Asturian militant anarcho-syndicalist, born. As a CNT militant, he was involved in the insurrection of 1934 and was imprisoned with Durruti before taking refuge in France. He also fought in Spanish Revolution and was the publisher of 'Acción Libertaria' until 1994. Writer and historian with a number of books to his credit.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: Only 12 of the 1000 La Canadenca strikers have returned to work following the expiry of the deadline. The strikes in the water, gas and electricity industries continue and have spread to several cities including Igualada, Sabadell, Cerdanyola, Villefranche, Molins de Rei and others. The army has failed to normalise gas supplies and Badalona is in the dark because of a strike at the La Propagadora gasworks. González Rothwos, the civil governor, says he wants to end the strike and get back to normal. Some strikes are settled such as coal loaders and cleaning staff, and employees at the Sant Andreu railway station return to work.

1921 - Kronstadt Rebellion [Кронштадтское восстание]: Having arrived in Petrograd on March 5, Leon Trotsky issued an ultimatum to rebelling soldiers and sailors in Kronstadt:
"The Workers' and Peasants Government has decreed that Kronstadt and the rebellious ships must immediately submit to the authority of the Soviet Republic. Therefore, I command all who have raised their hands against the socialist fatherland to lay donw their arms at once. The commissars and other members of the government who have been arrested are to be liberated at once. Only those who surrender unconditionally can expect mercy from the Soviet Republic.
"I am simultaneously giving orders to prepare for the suppression of the rebellion and the subjugation of the sailors by armed force. All responsibility for the harm that may be suffered by the peaceful population will rest entirely on the heads of the White Guard mutineers. This warning is final."
'Ultimatum to Kronstadt' - signed by Leon Trotsky (War Commissar), Lev Kamenev (CinC of the Red Army).
This is the ultimatum that was said to be accompanied by a threat that the Bolsheviks would "shoot like partridges" all those who refused to surrender immediately. Only those who did could expect mercy. It is attributed to Trotsky but was in fact issued by Grigory Zinoviev's Petrograd Defence Committee: "You are surrounded on all sides… Kronstadt has neither bread nor fuel. If you insist, we will shoot you like partridges."
Two days later, the Provisional Revolutionary Committee now reply: "The ninth wave of the Toilers' Revolution has risen and will sweep from the face of Soviet Russia the vile slanderers and tyrants with all their corruption. And your leniency, Mr. Trotsky, will not be needed." - 'Izvestia of the Provisional Revolutionary Committee of Sailors, Red Soldiers and Workers the city of Kronstadt' (Известия Временного Революционного Комитета Матросов, Красноармейцев и Рабочих города Кронштадта) No. 5, Monday, March 7, 1921
At 18:00 that day, some of the 17,600 specially selected forces of the Red Army assembled under the command of Trotsky open fire at 6:45 p.m. on the forts of Kronstadt; the sailors, soldiers, workers and populace of Kronstadt counter-fire and reduce Trotsky's batteries to silence.
Trotsky: "One can't make an omelet without breaking eggs."
Voline: "I see the broken eggs — now where's this omelet of yours?"

1931 - Theo van Doesburg (Christian Emil Marie Küpper; b. 1883), Dutch artist, painter, poet, theorist on art and architecture, who is best known as the founder of De Stijl, dies. [see: Aug. 30]

1935 - Huelga de Marzo: Workers across Cuba launch a revolutionary general strike to overthrow the Batista-Caffery-Mendieta regime. Antonio Guiteras and the Joven Cuba had asked the Strike Committee to postpone it, in order to have the necessary time to acquire arms and prepare for the armed struggle. At the same time, the Partido Comunista and the Confederación Nacional Obrera de Cuba are also reluctant to support a general strike, feeling it had been enacted prematurely, as they have not yet fully organised their vast network of armed self-defense organisations to support it. But the Comité de Huelga precipitates the events and the JC, the PC and the CNOC have no choice but to launch firm and selflessly to the heroic struggle. For more than 48 hours, urban and road transport, factories, commerce, and even state agencies throughout the country are paralyzed. In some places, the strike survives until March 15. But the bloody repression unleashed by the regime added to the lack of coordination and unity between all the organisations involved in the strike movement, provoke their defeat.

1936 - Adolf Hitler ordered his troops to march into the Rhineland, thereby breaking the Treaty of Versailles and the Locarno Pact.

[E] 1940 - Hannah Wilke (Arlene Hannah Butter; d. 1993), pioneering US feminist conceptual artist [painting, sculpture, assemblage, photography, performance, video and performance], born.

[F] 1942 - Lucy Eldine Gonzalez Parson (b. 1853), American anarchist labour organiser and founding member of the IWW, dies in a house fire. Lucy Parsons probably grew up as a slave and married Albert Parsons, a former Confederate soldier, and became a radical republican to 1871. In 1874, they moved to Chicago and engaged in the revolutionary socialist movement, participating in revolutionary activism on behalf of political prisoners, people of colour, the homeless and women. Lucy began writing for 'The Socialist' and 'The Alarm', the journal of the IWPA (International Working People's Association) that she and her husband helped form in 1883. Albert was to be arrested and fitted-up for the Haymarket massacre in 1886, and executed on November 11, 1887. Lucy wrote a biography of Albert: 'Life of Albert R. Parsons with Brief History of the Labour Movement in America' (1889) using material Albert left at his death.
In 1892 in Boston she began publishing the periodical, 'Freedom: A Revolutionary Anarchist-Communist Monthly' (1890-92), followed by the Chicago-based 'The Rebel' (1895-96), and was regularly arrested for her public advocacy of anarchism and workers rights. In 1905 she participated in the founding of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), and began editing the 'Liberator' (1905-06), an anarchist newspaper that supported the IWW in Chicago. In January 1915 she organised the Chicago Hunger Demonstrations and continued to be a thorn in the side of the bosses and the police - in 1920 the Chicago Police Department branded her as being "more dangerous than a thousand rioters".
Following her death, police seized her library of over 1,500 books and all of her personal papers.

[C] 1946 - Jerónimo Curiel Gómez aka 'El Gacho' (b. unknow), Spanish Communist guerrilla native of the Mesas de Ibor and one of the most effective Maquis who roamed the mountains of the Extremadura province, is betrayed, ambushed and killed by the Guardia Civil. Member of the 93ª Brigada of the 12ª División de la Agrupación Guerrillera de Extremadura, aunder the command of Pedro Díaz Monje aka 'El Francés'.

[D] 1965 - The Selma to Montgomery civil rights march is attacked by police. 525 civil rights advocates begin a 54-mile march from Selma, Alabama, to the capital of Montgomery, to campaign for voting rights for blacks. Just after crossing a bridge on the outskirts of Selma, the marchers are attacked by police wielding tear gas, nightsticks, bullwhips and rubber tubing wrapped in barbed wire.

1969 - A FLQ bomb is placed under the overpass of the Metropolitan Boulevard but is defused.

1971 - Ian Purdie is charged, along with Jake Prescott, accused of the two Angry Brigade bombings. They are both in the top security wing at Brixton Prison -- as class A prisoners -- and are kept in their cells for 23 hours a day.

1975 - Mikhail Bakhtin (b. 1895), Russian cultural theorist, philosopher, literary critic, literary theorist and semiotician, dies. [see: Nov. 17]

1980 - Irma Götze (b. 1912), German pediatric nurse, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist, dies. [see: Dec. 3]

1988 - Saturnino Carod Lerín aka ' 'El Cuco Cebollero', 'Satur' and 'Jacinto Lahoz Marín' (b. 1903), leading Aragonese anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-Francoist combattant, dies. [see: Feb. 21]

[A] 1996 - ERROR

1998 - Jack Frager (Yankel or Yakov Treiger; b. 1903), Ukrainian-American anarchist and labour activist, dies. A youthful participant in the Russian Revolution of 1917, in order to escape being conscripted into the Red or White armies, he fled to Romania, and then on to Argentina. Whilst living in Buenos Aires for 18 months, he self-published Gustav Landauer on anarchism in Yiddish, before moving to New York in 1923. He became acvtive on the Committee to Defend Sacco and Vanzetti, made arrangements for Emma Goldman’s last U.S. speaking tour, made his own speaking tours of the U.S. during the 1930’s, helped found the Libertarian Book Club in NYC in the late 1930's, was on the editorial board of the Yiddish language anarchist newspaper 'Freie Arbeiter Stimme' (The Free Voice of Labour), was active in the Painters' Union and taught labor history at Brookwood Labor College. When he was 80, he visited Spain to meet with the resurgent, post-Franco anarchist movement. At 87 he visited Ukraine but was to develope Alzheimer's disease. "Daddy was indefatigable," said his daughter Cheshire, "when he sought anti-war and Yiddishkeit groups in Florida and didn't find them, he started them. He never lost his ideas, energy or commitment."

2000 - Nicolas Walter (b. 1924), journalist, philosopher, atheist, anarchist, dies. He was a founding member of the Committee of 100 and of Spies for Peace as well as author of 'About Anarchism' (1969). [see: Nov. 22]

2005 - Philip Lamantia (b. 1927), Sicilian-American anarchist and Surrealist poet, dies. [see: Oct. 23]

2013 - Mutiny in Grevena prison, Greece.
March 8 - International Women's Day (originally called International Working Women's Day)
The Second International Socialist Women's Conference, held on August 26-27, 1910 in Copenhagen, endorsed the idea of an international day of concerted action to protest for female suffrage, on the model of the annual May Day celebrations. The Second International at its Eighth Congress, also in Copenhagen between Aug. 28 - Sept. 3, 1910, passed a motion submitted by the German socialist Clara Zetkin (Leader of the 'Women's Office' for the Social Democratic Party in Germany) in favour of establishing an annual International Woman's Day, though no date was set.

1821 - [Feb. 24 (O.S.)] Greek Revolution [Ελληνική Επανάσταση] or Greek War of Independence: Alexander Ypsilantis, leader of the Filiki Eteria [Φιλική Εταιρεία](or Society of Friends [Εταιρεία των Φιλικών]), a secret organisation dedicated to the overthrow of Ottoman rule in Greece and establish an independent Greek state, issues a proclamation at Iaşi, announcing that he had "the support of a great power" (meaning Russia), in order to encourage the local Romanian Christians to join him, and calls all Greeks and Christians to rise up against the Ottomans. The revolt was soon put down by the Ottomans but not before rumours of the massacre of Turkish citizens by Greeks in the Principalities had led the Grand Vizier to order the arrest of seven Greek bishops in Constantinople.

[FF] 1857 - The date of an apocryphal protest march and pickets by garment workers in New York City demanding improved working conditions, a ten hour day, and equal rights for women. Their ranks were supposedly broken up by the police. Fifty years later, March 8, 1907, their sisters in the needle trades in New York were suposed to have held a rally honouring the 1857 march, demanding the vote, and an end to sweatshops and child labour. This event also appears to have been apocryphal, possibly invented to detach International Women's Day from its basis in Soviet history and restore US 'ownership' over it.

1872 - [O.S. Feb. 24] Sophia Nikolaevna Chernosvitova (Софья Николаевна Черносвитова; d. 1934), Russian revolutionary and feminist, who was a member of the RSDLP and with Alexandra Kollontai and Inessa Armand, founded Zhenotdel (Женотдел), the Central Commission for Agitation and Propaganda Among Working Women, born. Whilst travelling abroad in the early 1890s, she joined Georgi Plekhanov and Vera Zasulich's Marxist group, Emancipation of Labour (Освобождение труда), later joining the RSDLP.
In 1914 she worked in the Moscow Regional Bureau of the Central Committee of the RSDLP and after the February 1917 Revolution was secretary of the Moscow Regional Office RSDLP (b).

1877 - Kathinka Zitz-Halein (Kathinka Therese Pauline Modesta Halein; b. 1801), German poet, short story writer, journalist, translator, novelist and feminist, who has been called "the poet laureate of the German Revolution" (of 1848-49), dies. [see: Nov. 4]

[B] 1885 - Juan de Dios Filiberto (Oscar Juan de Dios Filiberti Rubaglio; d. 1964), Argentine anarchist, instrumentalist (piano, guitar, violin and harmonium), conductor, poet and composer, who became prominent in the Argentine tango genre, born. He worked in various trades (shoeshine, boilermaker, baker, lottery ticket seller, bricklayer, stevedore, longshoreman, mechanic, etc.) and from 1904 to 1910 worked in the Navales Mihanovich workshops. Always linked to anarchist groups, he was one of the organisers of the 1907 shipyard strikes. Amongst his most enduring compositions are 'Guaymallén', 'Quejas de bandoneón' (The Bandoneón's Woes), 'Suelo Argentino' (Argentine Soil), 'Cura Segura' (Sure Medicine), 'De mi Tierra' (From My Land), 'Se Recomienda Solo' (It's Better Alone), 'La Planchadorita' (Woman Ironing), 'El Ramito' (Spring), 'El Besito' (The Little Kiss), 'Malevaje', 'La Porteñita' (Little Girl from Buenos Aires), 'Clavel del Aire' (A Carnation from the Wind), 'Caminito' (Little path) and 'Botines viejos' (Old lace shoes). His first band was Orfeón Los del Futuro, which he formed with other militant anarchist musicians, and in 1932 he formed his famous and innovative band, Orquesta Porteña, which included 'non-standard' instruments such as clarinets and flutes. The band appeared in Luis Moglia Barth's film '¡Tango!' (1933), as well as recording numerous records for the Odeon and RCA Victor labels and becoming a fixture on the Buenos Aires radio stations during the 1930s. He went on to lead other equally important groups in the following decades, such as the Orquesta Popular de Arte Folklórico, the Orquesta de Música Popular and the Orquesta de Música Argentina y de Cámara. After his death in 1964 his last band would be renamed the Orquesta de Juan de Dios Filiberto de Música Argentina y de Cámara and, after a 1973 Presidential decree, its name was officially changed again to the Orquesta Nacional de Música Argentina Juan de Dios Filiberto.

[E] 1887 - Marie-Adele Anciaux aka Mary Smiles (d. 1983), French militant, naturalist animal rights activist and libertarian teacher, born. [expand]

1904 - Clément Fournier (d. 1969), French militant anarchist and pacifist, born. [expand]

1905 - [O.S. Feb. 23] Gurian Peasant Republic / Russian Revolution of 1905-07: In the village of Bakhvi [ბახვის] village near the main Gurian city of Ozurgeti [ოზურგეთი], 500 people comprising representaives from around 25 villages across the region and a number of well-known bandits turned revolutionaries, including Datiko Shevardnadze [დათიკო შევარდნაძე], David Kadeishvili [დავით ქადეიშვილი], and Kiki Mamulaishvili [კიკია მამულაიშვილი] gather for one of the most important meeting during the early part of the Gurian Uprising. The gathering elected 12 representatives (mainly Social Democrats) to negotiate with the newly arrived representative of the Tsarist government, the well-known liberal Sultan Krim-Girey [სულთანი კრიმ-გირეი]. Together they drew up the Bakhvi Manifesto [ბახვის მანიფესტი], which demanded: Freedom and equality (including freedoms of speech, assembly, to join unions and to strike; the release of political prisoners, and the immediately reopening of the Biberach City Library [სამკითხველოების]); Administrative reform (incl. the establishment of peasant committees in rural areas and People's Courts; permanent abolition of the army and the introduction of the People's Militia; a government elected by universal, direct and secret ballot); Tax reform (incl. abolition of church and state taxes and all indirect taxes; tax exemption for farmers whose income does not exceed 500 rubles); Land reform (incl. church and monastery lands confiscated and their transfer to farmers free of charge; Education Reform (incl. free universal teaching for both sexes up to 16 years old; new rural schools; the teaching of the Georgian language in schools and the end of the teaching of the catechism) - "We want to study, we would like it very much, because we know that in modern times unlettered men tlive in poverty. We demand free, compulsory education for 16 years, of girls and boys... We think the school should serve the brotherhood, unity and truth spread among peoples."

[8-22 1905 - Les Travailleurs de la Nuit Trial:

1905 - Dolores Prat Coll aka pequeña Montseny (little Montseny)(d. 2001), Catalan textile worker and militant anarcho-syndicalist member of the CNT from the age of 15, born. Prominent in the fight for the eight hour day, she was secretary of the Sindicato de la Industria Textil in Ripoll during the Civil War years. Following the defeat of the Republic, she and her family went into exile in France and were interned in the Magnac-Laval camp. On May 15, 1940, she crossed clandestinely back into Spain on behalf of Prats de Molló. She later settled in Toulouse, continuing their trade union work as secretary of the local CNT federation and the Solidaridad Internacional Anarquista (SIA).
She appeared in Lisa Berger's film 'Chemin de Liberté' (Way of Freedom; 1997) and was the subject of 'Dolores: Une Vie Pour La liberté' (A Life for Freedom; 2002) by her son Progreso Marin.

[FF] 1907 - Fifty years after the protest march and pickets by garment workers supposedly held on March 8, 1857, in New York City demanding improved working conditions, a ten hour day, and equal rights for women, a second march and rally is supposed to have been held a rally honouring the 1857 march, demanding the vote, and an end to sweatshops and child labour. This event also appears to have been apocryphal, possibly invented to detach International Women's Day from its basis in Soviet history and restore US 'ownership' over it.

1907 - Marinos Antypas (Μαρίνος Αντύπας; b. 1872), one of the most important pioneering figures from the utopian socialist and peasant movements in Greece, dies. [expand]

1909 - Kikuoka Kuri (菊岡 久利; d. 1970), the pen-name of Takagi Michinokuo, Japanese poet, novelist and anarchist, born.
[菊岡 久利菊岡久利KAI01.HTML]

1911 - First International Women's Day is celebrated, in Austria, Denmark, Switzerland, Germany and the US.

1914 - The first International Women's Day to actually be held on March 8, possibly because that day was a Sunday. Now it is always held on March 8 in all countries.

1914 - Britta Gröndahl (d. 2002), Swedish writer, French language teacher, editor, translator, feminist and anarcho-syndicalist militant in the Sveriges Arbetares Centralorganisation, born. [expand]

[CC] 1916 - Peter Gingold (d. 2006, Frankfurt), German Communist resistance fighter against National Socialism, born in a Jewish family in Aschaffenburg, Bavaria. In 1931 he joined the Kommunistischen Jugendverband Deutschlands (KJVD; Communist Youth Association of Germany) and was active in the German anti-fascist underground in 1933. In May 1933, his parents and siblings emigrated to France but Gingold remained behind, only to be arrested in June during a SA raid and, after spending several months in prison, he was ordered to leave Germany. In Paris, he worked for the German anti-fascist newspaper 'Pariser Tageblatt' and was politically active in the small Paris KJVD group. In 1937, he joined the KPD (Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands) and, after a period (May-October) spent interned as a 'stateless German', he returned to Paris and became active in the German anti-fascist Reistance. Forced to leave his job in the spring of 1941 as the Gestapo were searching for him, he travelled to Dijon, where he became involved in the Travail Allemand Résistance group, spreading anti-fascist leaflets among German soldiers and make contact with anti-Hitler elements in the Wehrmacht who were prepared to cooperate with the Résistance. In July 1942, two of his siblings wer arrestede in Paris and deported to Auschwitz concentration camp. In February 1943, he was arrested at Dijon by the Gestapo and interrogated under torture for several weeks. Gingold was transferred to Paris, where he succeeded in April in escaping and, after a few weeks, he was again active in the Résistance. In August 1944, he took part in the uprising to liberate Paris. After that, he went to Lorraine, to help liberate that city. He returned to Frankfurt am Main in August 1945 and resumed his activities with the Communist Party. Though he was honored in both France and Italy for his anti-fascist work, in Germany, he was vilified in his own country because of his political affiliation. He even had to fight to have his German citizenship recognised. He was also active in the Vereinigung der Verfolgten des Naziregimes – Bund der Antifaschistinnen und Antifaschisten (VVN/BdA; Association of Victims of the Nazi Regime - Federation of anti-fascists and anti-fascists), DRAFD (Verband Deutscher in der Résistance/Association of Germans in the Résistance), and the International Auschwitz Committee, as well as the protests against IG Farben and their use of slave labour during the Nazi era.

[D] 1917 - [O.S. Feb. 23] February Revolution [Февральская Революция]: A series of meetings and rallies are held for International Women's Day and Workers Day (Дню работницы) in Russia, which gradually turned into economic and political gatherings. At the same time, women textile workers in Petrograd decide to go on strike and gather in the streets to protest against food shortages. These demonstrations, which are virtually bread riots, spread throughout the city and are supported by the industrial working force who considered them a reason for continuing the strikes. The women workers march to nearby factories bringing out over 50,000 workers on strike. These workers then set off on
Amongst the workers already out on strike are those from the Putilov factory - the country's largest artillery factory, employing 36,000 workers. They had been amongst the 150,000 workers who had carried out a protest strike in St. Petersburg on the anniversay of Bloody Sunday, January 22 (O.S. Jan. 9) and who had come out on strike again on March 2 (Feb. 17) demaing a 50% increase in their wages. The plant administration offered 20% but only if the workers returned to work immediately. They refused and on March 7 (Feb. 22) the plant administration issued an order to dismiss all the workers and declared an indefinite lockout, shutting the plant down. Without a reserved job, the Pulitov workers were now under threat of being sent to the Front.
By the end of the day, an estimated 128,000 workers from numerous factories and foundaries across the capital, including Stary Parviainen (Старый Парвиайнен), New Parviainen (Новый Парвиайнен), Old Lessner (Старый Лесснер), New Lessner (Новый Лесснер), Ayvaz (Айваз), Erickson (Эриксон), Russian Renault (Русский Рено), Rosenkranz (Розенкранц), Phoenix (Феникс), and Prometheus (Промет), were out on the streets chanting slogans of "Down with the war!", "Down with autocracy!", and "Bread!" In response to the mass protests, the troops who had crushed similar demonstrations in 1905 refused to put down the uprising (though there were clashed with Cossacks and police intially) and, after three days of spontaneous demonstrations and a general strike, many of the military and joined the protests. The Revolution has begun.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: Workers on the Ferrocarril de Sarrià electric rail line who had come out on strike yesterday are followed by those at the Plaça de Catalunya station. Police are sent into to attack the workers and multiple arrests are made.
The govnerment finally gives into the pressure from the La Canadenca company (i.e. Regs i Força de l'Ebre) and the bosses, declaring a state of war. The city is divided into sectors, each commanded by a colonel or general.
Workers from 21 of the 38 companies then on strike, including La Canadiense, Ferrocarril de Sarriá–Las Planas–Rubí, Servicio de Transportes de Barcelona, Catalana de Gas y Electricidad, Energía Eléctrica y Gas Lebón, are called up and must report to their recruitment areas. Those who do not comply are threatened with four years in prison.
The strike committee meets to try and decide on how to combat the new measures. After a long discussion it is decided that workers should present themselves, but that they are to refuse to work as scabs in the companies. Five days later, more than a hundred of the newly drafted worker/soldiers are charged with insubordination and the rest detained in a legal limbo. The trials of several soldiers in August 1919 revealed that dozens of them were insubordinate, disobeyed orders, insulted their commanders, or deserted. [The exacr numbers of those drafted are unknown but estimates vary between three to five thousand.]
It was clear that repressive measures were not going to break the strikers' wills, and the government and employers have begun to display increasing divisions over how to proceed. Milans del Bosch pushed for a further increase in coercion. The government of Romanones, however, feared the effect of stirring up the conflict.

1920 - Roberto Elia and Andrea Salsedo, anarchists who worked for the 'Cronaca Sovversiva', are kidnapped (or on February 25th?) by the Department of Justice without a warrant or being arrested. They are secretly confined and beaten in Department Justice (sic) offices in an effort to get them to inform on their fellow anarchists. Andrea Salsedo was suicided May 3rd, defenestrated from the 14th floor of the Department of Justice where he was being questioned.

1920 - After attending a conference of Moscow anarchists Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman are granted a meeting today with Lenin.

1920 - In Siena, fascists and the police attack the union offices which are defended by a hundred anarchist and socialist militants. Many workers are wounded in the confrontation, and the anarchist Regoli Giuseppe succumbs to his wounds. A General Strike in protest follows.

1921 - The Russian anarcho-syndicalist militant Grigori Petrovich Maximov is imprisoned, along with other members of the Nabat Federation. He is not released until autumn, following a hunger strike, when he is expelled from Russia with Voline.

1921 - Kronstadt Rebellion [Кронштадтское восстание]: The Bolsheviks, consolidating their party power over the workers and peasants, begin an air raid on the peaceful population of Kronstadt. The Provisional Revolutionary Committee of Kronstadt appeals by radio-telegram to workers around the world to publicize their plight.

1921 - President Eduardo Dato assassinated in Madrid by Luis Nicolau, Pedro Mateu and Ramon Castenellas, metallurgists of the anarcho-syndicalist CNT. Dato was in charge of anti-union repression in Barcelona, and responsible for the killing of three imprisoned union activists on Jan, 20th, victims of the ley de fugas (law of escape) - being "set free" only to be shot down moments later as "escapees."

1929 - Australian Timber Workers' Strike: The Militant’s Women’s Group organised a second International Women’s Day rally at Belmore Park to support the wives and children of the striking timber workers. They also stormed the offices of the Timber Merchants Association, leaving its Secretary, Mr F H Corke "pale and trembling". [see: Jan. 3]

1933 - After the triumph of the right in elections, anarchists across Spain take to the streets. The movement reached insurrectionary extraordinary virulence in the Ebro Valley area (Aragón and La Rioja), with assaults on city councils and the proclamation of libertarian communism. The repression was very hard, several hundred were imprisoned.

1936 - Jules Alexandre Sadier (b. 1862), Franco-Argentine anarchist militant propagandist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Jun. 7]

[A] 1937 - March 8-18: Battle of Guadalajara; Italian troops defeated by Republican army with substantial International Brigade support.

[C] 1945 - Women from the Gruppi di Difesa della Donna (GddD) demonstrate in front of the Salumificio Frigieri in Paganine on International Women's Day as part of the Unione Donne in Italia protest iniative, to highlight the hunger of the Italian people.

1976 - Robert Touati, a French anarchist active in Centro Iberico around 1974, and Juan Durran Escriban, wanted in Spain for an attack on an armoury, are both killed on the grounds of Toulouse University during the night of 8/9 March.

1983 - La Ragnatela (Spider's Web) Women's Peace Camp created at Comiso, Sicily, the first overseas site for US cruise missiles.

1984 - Petr Andreevich Pavlensky (Павленский, Пётр Андреевич), Russian conceptual artist and political activist, born. He regularly protests against the repressive nature of the Russian state through his performances [see: May 3, 2013]. On November 10, 2013, Russian Police Day, he nailed his testicles with the hammer to the stone pavement of the Red Square in Moscow in a protest against the Russian "police state".

2000 - The International Union of Sex Workers make its first public appearence during a march through Soho on International Women’s Day, "when a Brazilian samba band, sex workers and supporters swung and shimmied through the streets."

[F] 2017 - First International Women's Strike aka 'Day Without a Woman': Women around the world hold first mass International Women's Strike – billed 'A Day Without Women' in the U.S. and 'Paro Internacional de Mujeres' in Spanish speaking countries – in protest against pay gaps and violence.
1841 - Slaves who mutinied and took over the Spanish slave ship Amistad - subsequently captured by the US warship Washington - are declared free men by the US Supreme Court. The slave leader, Joseph Cinque (who serves, 130 years later, as the inspiration for Symbionese Liberation Field Marshall Cinque) returned to Africa to become a slaver himself.

1879 - Carloman François Rose (d. 1961), French anarchist, house painter and trade unionist (CGT, UD, CGTU), born. He served on the editorial board of 'Germinal', was a salesman for 'Libertaire' and organised support for the Black Sea Mutineers in 1921.

1879 - Carlo Tresca (d. 1943), Italian-born American newspaper editor, orator, anarchist, labour organiser, prominent Industrial Workers of the World activist, and anti-fascist, born. Forced into exile following his involvement in the newspaper 'Il Germe' (The Origin), he emigrated to the USA via Switzerland. In New York he published an Italian language paper, 'La Plèbe', became involved in IWW union activities and in 1917 started 'Il Martello' (The Hammer), a newspaper he published until his death. In 1923, he was sentenced to one year in prison for publishing a book on birth control, but due to large demonstrations in his support his sentence was reduced to four months. Later he organised resistance to Italian émigré blackshirts in America. An outspoken foe of Fascism in Germany and Italy, and of Communism in the Soviet Union. The FBI accumulated a mere 1,358 pages on this outstanding citizen. He was murdered by an unknown assailant, presumably by fascists or the Mafia, on a New York street. [see: Jan 11]

[E] 1883 - A large demonstration of the unemployed at the Esplanade of Les Invalides is broken up by police. A large contingent marches across Paris, headed by Louise Michel, Joseph Tortelier and Émile Pouget (who initiated the demonstration), waving black flags (hers is an old black skirt attached to a broom handle) and ended with the looting of 3 bakeries. [According to historian George Woodcock, this is the earliest known instance of anarchists flying the black flag.] Louise Michel handed herself into the police a couple of weeks later and was sentenced on June 23, 1883 to six years for "excitation au pillage" and sent to Clermont-de-l’Oise prison. On January 14, 1886, she was finally released after thirty months of detention, following a presidential pardon.

[BB] 1894 - Franz Wilhelm Seiwert (d. 1933), German painter, sculptor, poet, Marxist, anarchist sympathiser, Expresionist, Dadaist and then a Consructivist and member of the Cologne Progressives, born.
Close friend of Erich Muhsam and of Ret Marut (aka B. Traven) - Seiwart sheltered Marut whilst he was on the run in 1919-20 and was one of the last persons to see Marut before he disappeared. Seiwert was also possibly the only person who knew the Marut-Traven connection and who Marut kept in contact with in Europe following his flight to Mexico.
He was seriously burned in 1901, at the age of seven, in an experimental radiological treatment, an event that influenced his later art and made him fear that his life would be short.
In 1916 he met the Expressionist artists Carl Oskar Jatho and Käthe Jatho-Zimmermann at one of their regular anti-war discussion evening in their apartment in Cologne, beginning a close friendship and collaboration. In 1919 he also met Max Ernst and took part in Dada activities; he was invited to exhibit in the large Dada exhibit in Cologne but withdrew at the last moment, claiming Dada was part of the "bourgeois art world". In that same year he formed the Stupid group which included Heinrich Hoerle and Anton Räderscheidt. According to Ernst, "Stupid was a secession from Cologne Dada. As far as Hoerle and especially Seiwert were concerned, Dada's activities were aesthetically too radical and socially not concrete enough". He was also a key member of the Kölner Progressiven (Progressives) Constructivist group in the 1920s, who were central to the Kölner Karneval and the extravagant parties at the Paradiesvogel (Bird of Paradise) and Lumpenball (Rag Ball).
His work appeared in Marut's 'Der Ziegelbrenner' (The Brickmakers; 1917-21) and in 1932 Seiwert's magazine 'a bis z' (1929-33), the organ of the Gruppe Progressiver Künstler (Group of Progressive Artists) offered unsold copies of 'Der Ziegelbrenner' to "friends of Traven". Seiwert also published a booklet, 'Rufe' (1919 or 1920), which included the prose piece of the title and an early version of the essay 'Zeichen', a theoretical "attempt to sketch the dialectical development of the representation of world history" which discusses Marx and Copernicus, as well as Masaccio, Seurat, Picasso, Rembrandt, and Beethoven, and also contains a tribute to Ret Marut. He also published with Tristan Rémy a collection of poetry, 'Choix de Poésies' (1924), in France including both of their poems as well as Erich Mühsam's.
When Hitler came to power in 1933, Seiwert briefly fled to the mountain range Siebengebirge, but his health was badly deteriorating, and friends brought him back to Cologne, where he died.

[CCC] 1896 - Umberto Tommasini (d. 1980), Italian blacksmith, anarchist and anti-fascist fighter, born into a working class socialist family. He took part in the October 14, 1909 protests against the death sentence passed on the Spanish anarchist Francisco Ferrer and also particpated in the celebrated Circolo di Studi Sociali. Wounded during WWI, he was taken prisoner and interned in the Mauthausen POW camp. Upon his release in 1919, he returned to Trieste and resumed his work as a blacksmith, and frequented socialist and anarchist circles. Following the 1920 internal debates within the socialist movement, he decided not to renew his membership of the Partito Socialista and threw his lot in with the anarchist movement. He also became active within the trades union movement, particularly against strikebreakers and the increasingly bold fascists gropus. In 1921 he was wounded by a group of fascists who had stormed the factory where he worked. That summer he took part in a reprisal raid against a squadristi group who had been active in the red light district of San Giacomo, during which his bomb wounded 30 fascists. In 1925, during an Unione Anarchica Italiana meeting, he met Camillo Berneri and Gino Bibbi, both of whom he remained politically close to. He also had a part in the failed attack Gino Lucetti against Mussolini (September 11 1926), supplying the explosives but without knowing their final use. Feared by the Fascist authorities, he was harrassed constantly and was one of the first anti-fascist to be interned, spending six years on the islands of Ustica and Ponza, and during which his "haughty and contemptuous attitude" was a thorn in the authorities' side, who described him as being "a tireless sower of hatred against the present social constitution, intolerant of any discipline and in no way subservient to the authorities." Within a few weeks of his return to Trieste in 1932, he decided to go into exile, leaving for France clandestinely to join the anti-fascist fight in exile.
At the outbreak of the Spanish Revolution, he joined the Ascaso Column of the CNT-FAI, commanded by Carlo Rosselli and Camillo Berneri and largely made ​​up of anarchists. On August 28, 1936, during the battle of Monte Pelado on the Huesca front his WWI experience was crucial in helping prepare trenches and repelling a Carlist attack and later contributed to the move towards a greater militarisation of the Militias. During an attempt to sabotage a fascist ship in the port of Cueta in February 1937, he was arrested, together with Giobbe Giopp, Alfredo Cimadori and Giovanni Fontana, by the Communists and taken to Valencia, where he was harshly interrogated by the Stalinist police. Managing to escape, he was forced to give himself up so as not to interfer with the negotiations to free the entire group (including Cimadori who would turn out to be a fascist police informer) currently taking place between the anarchist Ministry of Justice and the the Socialist Interior Minister. In late April 1937, after suffering a mock execution, was released. After a brief stop in Barcelona, where he would meet Berneri for the last time, he returned to Paris disillusioned by the events of May 1937 and reinforced in his anti-Communist views. In Paris during the summer of 1937, Tommasini plotted a new attempt on Mussolini's life planned for the following year, but which was foiled by the Fascist police as one of the ploters was an informer. In the summer of 1939, Tommasini was arrested by the French police and interned in Le Vernet Internment Camp. With the end of hostilities between France and Italy, Tommasini was handed over to the Italian police on January 24, 1941. Interrogated in Coroneo prison in Trieste, he was subsequently sent into internal exile on the island of Ventotene for five years. Unlike other political prisoners, who are released after July 25, 1943, with the overthrow of Mussolini, Tommasini was held along with other anarchists and interned in the Renicci internment camp until the end of the war. Given his strong anti-Communist views he, unlike many anarchists, refused to join the Resistance because it was wholely uner communist control.
Fearing potential arrest in Trieste, he stayed at his sister's in Bologna after his release. When he did return to Trieste, he helped found the Gruppo Anarchico Germinal, who relaunched the magazine 'Germinal' in May 1946. He also returned to employment as a metalworker and, despite the power of the communist unions, was elected as a workplace delegate. In 1954, he was sentenced to 11 months in prison by the military government during the Anglo-American occupation for illegal anarchist propaganda (posters urging police disobedience and desertion). During that period he also helped a number of anarchist flee communist Bulgaria on their clandestine passage to France. In 1965, he was a member of the 'anti-organisationalist' Gruppi di Iniziativa Anarchica (GIA) that split from the Federazione Anarchica Italiana (FAI). During the late '60s and '70s he became a benchmark for the younger militants who joined the anarchist movement. In 1971, he became the editor of 'Umanità Nova' and continued his activites into his eighties. In 1984, Claudio Venza published a long autobiographical interview tilted 'Umberto Tommasino. The Anarchica Triestino' (translated into Italian in 2011 as 'Il fabbro anarchico. Autobiografia fra Trieste a Barcellona').

1901 - Author, pacifist and anarchist Leo Tolstoï is excommunicated by the Russian Orthodox Church.

[E] 1906 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: WSPU members Flora Drummond and Annie Kenney are arrested for demonstrating in Downing Street and knocking on the door of No. 10. [pic]

1906 - [O.S. Feb. 24] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The Council of Ministers orders provincial officials to prevent anti-Semitic pogroms. The order is widely ignored

1908 - Henri Jullien (d. 2001), grandson of Paule Mink, born in Hanoi. A French socialist, trade unionist, then a mutualist and anarchist. One of the founders of the first syndicat de journalistes confédérés in 1935, he participated in the Résistance and joined the anarchist movement after WWII. In 1949 he became the chair of SIA (Solidarité Internationale Antifasciste) and a supporter of the CIRA (Centre International de Recherche sur l'Anarchisme) in Marseille.

1913 - Revolución Mexicana: Pancho Villa escapes from prison in El Paso, returns to Mexico and raises army against Victoriano Huerta.

1913 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: Suffragettes cause damage to Croxley Green Station near Watford. The attack was initially not attributed to the militants until a suffragette newspaper was delivered to the station master with the scribbled inscription: "Afraid copy left got burnt."
"A local story is told of how a year after the opening of the station a group of ladies were directed to it by Croxley’s policeman P.C. Haggar. He bade them a cheery “Good-night” – to learn shortly afterwards that they were a band of suffragettes who had set fire to the new station."

1913 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: Major act of arson as the bowling pavilion at Heaton Park, Newcastle; estimated value £400. Railway lamps and small trees in Nottingham Forest Recreation Ground destroyed. Bowler's Pavilion burned down at Newcastle.

1916 - [N.S. Mar. 22] One of the first large urban women's riots in Bulgaria broke out in the town of Bourgas (Бургас) after the municipality refuses to pay allowances to poor soldier's families. Led by Ghana Avdjieva (Гана Авджиева), Kristalina Grigorova (Кристалина Григорова), Todorka Kaloyanchev (Тодорка Калоянчева) and Ana Kovacheva (Ана Ковачева), the Burgas women chanted slogans against war such as "Give us bread", "We want peace", "Return our men". [see: Mar. 23]

[D] 1916 - Battle of Columbus / Revolución Mexicana: In response to the US recognition of Venustiano Carranza as Mexico's new president, Pancho Villa and 484 of his guerrillas cross the border from Mexico into the United States to attack the town of Columbus, New Mexico. One-time allies, Carranza had broken with Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata following the Convención de Aguascalientes in late 1914 and his forces under Carranza loyalist Generals Álvaro Obregón and Pablo González had defeated Villa's División del Norte at the Battle of Celaya in November 1, 1915. Villa and around 200 still loyal men retreated into the mountains of Chihuahua where, determined to keep fighting Carranza's forces, he formed a guerrilla army. With the United States then refusing to sell him weapons, he was forced to buy elsewhere and he ended up buying defective weaponry that had been seized from Victoriano Huerta along with the useless ammunition that the US had deliberately supplied to Huerta. The merchant Samuel Ravel, who Villa had purchased the weapons from, was also a target during the Columbus raid.
Told by his partols that only about thirty soldiers were garrisoned Columbus, Villa split his forces in two, positioning himself, his commanders, and about two dozen other men on a nearby hill overlooking the town whilst the remainder under the command of General Ramón Banda Quesada entered the still sleeping town, looting and setting houses on fire. They also raided Ravel's house, only to find that he had left for El Paso in Texas the previous day to visit his dentist. Ravel's house, shop and hotel were torched. Other Villaistas raided Camp Furlong, town's army barracks, where there were in fact a large force of the 13th Cavalry Regiment, including 270 combat troops. Initally caught by surprise, the American troops managed to deploy 4 of their Hotchkiss machineguns, which began decimating the guerrilla force. At 07:30, after about three hours, the order for the raiders to withdraw was given and, disregarding the rules of engagement, two troops of cavalry followed Villa's retreating forces 15 miles into Mexico, harassing them all the way.
Despite Villa proclaiming that the raid was a success given that they had managed to seize over 300 rifles and shotguns, 80 horses, and 30 mules, the raid was in fact a tactical disaster, with 90 to 170 guerrillas killed [the US forces claimed that they had killed 63 Villaistas with at least thirteen more who later dying from wounds sustained during the raid] with eight US soldiers and ten civilians (among them two Mexican) killed by the raiders*. Seven Villistas were also taken prisoner, six of whom were later executed by hanging.
In response to the raid, New Mexico's Senator Albert Bacon Fall called for a half million US Army troops to occupy Mexico. The US government then sent General John 'Black Jack' Pershing with 6,600 men (four regiments of cavalry and two of infantry) supported by Curtiss Jenny airplanes for reconnaissance, on a punitive mission to try and capture Pancho Villa lasting 11 months (March 14, 1916, to February 7, 1917). Villa remained at large and, despite his public claims to the contrary, Pershing had been "outwitted and out-bluffed at every turn" as he admitted in private.
[* NB: These figures vary between the many available sources.]

[B] 1916 - Carles Fontseré (d. 2007), one of the important Catalan anarchist poster artists of the Spanish Revolution, born. Active in the Sindicato de Dibujantes Profesionales de Barcelona (Union of Professional Illustrators; SPD), whose posters plastered the walls of Barcelona - as George Orwell noted on his arrival in the city that December: "The revolutionary posters were everywhere, flaming from the walls in clean reds and blues that made the few remaining advertisements look like daubs of mud." Fontserè was to bemoan the loss of vitality of these posters once they became 'official' productions of the Republic. The F.A.I. poster Llibertat! (Freedom), with the sickle-waving farmer and the red and black flag in the background, is his work. A refugee in France following Franco's victory, he worked painting stage designs and illustrating Catalan literature. After time spent in Mexico, he ended up in New York where he worked as a cartoonist, painter, poster designer and scenery decorator. He also collaborated with Salvador Dali on a photography project.

1918 - Frank Wedekind (Benjamin Franklin Wedekind; b. 1864), German playwright and satirical poet, dies. [see: Jul. 24]

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: The decree allowing for the government's compulsory militarisation of all reservist factory workers aged between 21 and 31 years is published in the press. The strike committee itself issues a proclamation inviting all workers to decide for themselves how to respond: "you will have to accept the consequences individually." In response, those drafted went en masse to the recruiting booths. However, once they were assigned a destination, they refused to obey despite all arguments and threats put to them.
The choice between work under military orders or imprisonment was a tactic that had served to destroy the railway strike of 1912 but, to the surprise of the authorities, most workers in the electricity, gas and water industries refused to work; more than 3,000 were arrested and taken to the fortress of Montjuïc.
During the night of March 9-10, a bomb exploded in the Heinrich printing press in the Calle Córcega, wounding four. The unions accused the police of an act of provocation.

[EEE] 1919 - Lyudmila Naumovna Mokievsky-Zubok (Людми́ла Нау́мовна Мокие́вская-Зубо́к; b. 1896), Russian revolutionary, S-R Maximalist and Red Guard, who was an active participant in the 1918-19 Civil War and, the only known female commander of the armoured train, is killed by a shell during the battle for the Debaltsevo (Дебальцево) train station in the Ukraine. The illegitimate daughter of a Russian noblewoman Glafira Timofeevna Mokievsky-Zubok (Глафиры Тимофеевны Мокиевской-Зубок) and Naum Yakovlevich Bykhovsky (Наума Яковлевича Быховского), a member of the Central Committee of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party (Партия социалистов-революционеров), in the summer of 1913 she began studies at the St. Petersburg Neuropsychiatric Institute (Психоневрологический институт), later joining the Socialist-Revolutionary Party (Партия социалистов-революционеров) and coming under the influence of Marxist ideas. She dropped out of her studies in her fourth year and went into hiding. By this time she was now a member of the Union of Revolutionary-Socialists-Maximalists (Союз социалистов-революционеров-максималистов) [at least until the end of 1918]. However, she was also close to the Bolsheviks and on occasion supported them, which is how she came to join a detachment of the Red Guard (Красная гвардия) – claiming in her application that she was a member of the RSDLP [hence her later being claimed by the Bolsheviks as one of their own] and using the name Leonid Mokievsky (Леонида Мокиевского). The Bolshevik party apparatchiks swiftly recognised her talents as an organiser and leader and, in April 1917, she was sent to the Ukranian city of Ekaterinoslav (Екатеринослав)[Dnipro] by Nikolai Podvoisky (Никола́й Подво́йский), the head of the Military Department of the Petrograd Revolutionary Military Committee (Петроградского ВРК), as Commissioner of Food with special powers to organise the export of bread to Moscow and Petrograd. She failed in her mission, as she did when she was sent back in the November, being unable to understand local conditions and earning the ire of the Ukrainians. However, on March 10 [February 25], 1918 Lyudmila was appointed a Commissioner in the Bryansk fighting group (Брянский боевой отряд бронированного поезда Российской Советской республики) and commander of the armoured train '3rd Bryansk' (3-й Брянский) by Sergo Ordzhonikidze (სერგო ძე ორჯონიკიძე), Extraordinary Commissioner of Ukraine, doubling up on her duties and joining the fighting against the White Army of Anton Denikin. In November 1918, she was appointed a Commissioner of the armoured train №3 'Power to the Soviets' (Власть советам) and, in February 1919, its commander. Deployed to the 13th Army, 'Power to the Soviets' led the fighting against the offensive by Denikin's Armed Forces of South Russia (Вооружённые си́лы Ю́га Росси́и) in the Lugansk Region (Луганской области). She died in the fighting near the Debaltsevo (Дебальцево) station in the Donbas (Донбассе) on March 9, 1919, and was buried in a mass grave in Kupyansk (Купянске). After the arrival of the White army in June that year, her body was dug up and thrown in a nearby ravine.

1920 - Lydia Nikolayevna Figner (Лидия Николаевна Фигнер; b. 1853), Russian revolutionary member of Narodnaya Volya and the younger sister of Vera Figner, dies of a stroke. [see: Dec. 3]

1923 - Lenin suffers a massive stroke and retires from the leadership of the Soviet Union.

[C] 1930 - Kurt Weill and Bertolt Brecht's opera 'The Rise and Fall of the Town of Mahagonny' (revised version) premières in Leipzig. It is picketed (and later banned) by the Nazis.

1938 - Franco's forces, with overwhelming air superiority, launch a major assault on the Aragon front; the Republican forces, torn by internal disputes, collapse; and by April 15 the Nationalists reach the coast, splitting Republican territory in two.

1939 - In Madrid, the anarchist Cipriano Mera (1896-1975), heading the IV army corps, routs the counter-revolutionary communist troops which besiege the National Council of Defence.

1943 - Susana Gaggero (Emilia Susana Gaggero Pérez de Pujals; d. 1976), Argentine psychologist, who was active in the Partido Revolucionario de los Trabajadores – Ejército Revolucionario del Pueblo (Revolutionary Workers Party – People's Revolutionary Army), and died in a shootout between security forces and members of the ERP during the military dictatorship, born.

1949 - Following the unsuccessful attack on Eduardo Quintela Boveda's car the week before [see: Mar. 2], José López Penedo and José Sabaté Llopart, in whose house in Torrasa they were staying prior to returning tho France, are surprised by a night-time police raid. They defend themselves and, in the ensuing gun battle, manage to jump out of a window in a hail of bullets. José Sabaté manages to escape while Jose Lopez Penedo, wounded by a bullet in the lung, is captured unconscious.

1949 - Joan Bird, former Black Panther Party member, born. She joined the NY chapter of the BPP in autumn 1968 whilst attending Bronx Community College, Joan was one of two women, along with Afeni Shakur, among the New York 21 Panthers arrested in April 1969 and accused of conspiracy to bomb police stations, the Bronx Botanical Gardens, a city commuter train and five department stores, as well as long-range rifle attack on two police stations and an education office in New York City. All 13 that eventually stood trial were acquitted on all charges on May 12, 1971
Author of 'A Taste of Power: A Black Woman's Story' (1992).

1951 - Charlotte Hill O’Neal, African-American poet, musician and visual artist, former member of the Kansas City chapter of the Black Panther Party and Founding Director of Tanzania's United African Alliance Community Center (UAACC), born. She joined the BPP at age 18 and, along with her husband, Pete O’Neal the former Chairman of the chapter, she played a key role in the organisation. In June 1969, the Kansas City chapter began a campaign to expoase the Kansas City police chief for allegedly transferring weapons to a right-wing Minutemen militia group. Shortly after an assassination attempt was made on Pete O’Neal, which the Panthers maintained the police were responsible. On October 30, 1969, Fred was arrested for the transporting of a gun across state lines. The couple later fled to Algeria and, in 1972, moved to Tanzania, where they still live. There, in 1991, they founded the UAACC, a non-profit community based NGO providing programs and projects for the enrichment of the Arusha community, both urban and rural and also to promote closer cultural ties to communities in America and around the world.

1952 - Alexandra Kollontai [Алекса́ндра Коллонта́й] (Alexandra Mikhailovna Domontovich [Алекса́ндра Миха́йловна Домонто́вич]; March 31 [O.S. Mar. 19] 1872), Ukrainian-Russian Communist revolutionary, writer, novelist, feminist, Soviet commissar and diplomat, dies in Moscow a few weeks short of her 80th birthday - the only major critic of the Soviet government that Joseph Stalin did not have executed. [see: Mar. 31]

1958 - Louis Moreau (b. 1883), French militant libertarian, pacifist, painter and engraver, dies. Trained as a lithographer, in 1900 he settled in Paris to practice his trade, developing a passion for drawing, painting and woodcuts. There he began contributing to Jean Grave's 'Temps Nouveaux'. Called up during WWI, his work was published in the clandestine 'Le Semeur'. [see: Apr. 15]

[A] 1972 - Detroit police bust four men playing cards; in the ensuing gun battle, one card player is killed and the other 3 wounded. The card players all turn out to be off-duty cops.

1977 - After thirteen years of domestic abuse, American mother of four Francine Hughes (b. 1947) pours petrol around ex-husband Mickey Hughes' bed and sets it on fire, killing Mickey and destroying the house. She then drove to a nearby police station in Michigan to hand herself in. At her trial for murder, the jury sides with her and finds her not guilty by reason of temporary insanity.

1989 - 1989 Soviet Miners' Strikes [Забастовки шахтёров СССР в 1989 году]: The strike and sit-in hunger strike at the Severnaya (Северная) mine in Vorkuta (Воркута) comes to an end following the then usual tactic of an influx of Party officials and rapid concession of the bulk of the workers’ demands. [see: Mar. 2]
1811 - Luddite Timeline: Stocking workers in Nottingham, England, gather to protest automation that was replacing their jobs and lowering their wages. They then marched to the nearby town of Arnold, where they destroyed sixty knitting frames. The riots spread and the Prime Minister decreed frame-breaking a capital offense a year later. Seventeen workers were executed.

[F] 1817 - The Blanketeers: Impoverished and hungry handloom weavers and spinners assemble in St Peter's Field, Manchester, each equipped with a blanket for their march to London to present a petition to the Prince Regent. After intimidation from the authorities, only a few reach Macclesfield, and no organised marchers get further than Derby.

[AAA] 1863 - Whilst the rest of Guildford is celebrating the marriage of the Prince of Wales to Princess Alexandra, a gang of Guys (masked up celebrants of November 5th activities that often turned to rioting in the town) light a bonfire outside Holy Trinity Church and begin smashing windows in the town.

[BBB/C] 1896 - Nancy Cunard (d. 1965), Surrealist writer, poet, model, anarchist and anti-fascist, born into the British upper class - her father Baronet Sir Bache Cunard and mother Maud Alice Burke, a flamboyant American heiress. Her paternal great grandfather was founder of the steamship company of the same name, the origin of the family’s immense wealth.
Her poetry first appeared in magazines in 1916 and she published 3 volumes: 'Outlaws' (1921), 'Sublunary' (1923) and 'Parallax' (1925). She also became the muse of Paris Dada through her friendship with Man Ray who regularly used her as a model. Tristan Tzara wrote 'Mouchoir de Nuages' (1924), his fourth and final play, for her.
Nancy was also the model for characters in novels by 2 of her lovers: Virginia Tracy in Michael Arlen's 'Piracy' (1922), Iris March in his 'The Green Hat' (1924) and the eponymous heroine in 'Lily Chritine: A Romance' (1928). Aldous Huxley also modelled his characters Myra Viveash in 'Antic Hay' (1923) and Lucy Tantamount in 'Point Counter Point' (1928) on her. Other characters based on her include Lady Brett in Hemingways 'The Sun Also Rises' (1926) and those in Louis Aragon's 'Le Con d'Irene' (1927) and 'Blanche, ou l'Oubli' (1967); Evelyn Waugh's 'Unconditional Surrender' (1961); and Wyndham Lewis' 'The Roaring Queen' (1973).
In 1928 she bought Three Mountains Press (renamed Hours Press) that had published Hemingway, Gertrude Stein, Carlos Williams and E. Pound. She had become the lover of the surrealist poet Louis Aragon. Later she fell in love with the African-American piano player, Henry Crowder, who was playing jazz in a boîte de nuit in the then trendy Montparnasse district; due to this relationship she was disinherited and wrote 'Black Man and White Ladyship' (1931), an attack on upper class racist attitudes as exemplified by her mother's attitude to he relationship with Crowder. She also edited the massive 'Negro: an Anthology' (1934), collecting poetry, fiction and non-fiction primarily by African-American writers such as Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston, and included writing by George Padmore and Cunard's own account of the Scottsboro Boys case.
She was also a passionate anti-fascist, writing about Mussolini's annexation of Ethiopia and the Spanish Civil War - predicting that it would precipitate another world war. She fund-raised for Spanish refugees, publishing pamphlets (including the poetry collection 'Les Poètes du Monde Défendent le Peuple Espagnol' (The Poets of the World Defend the Spanish People; 1937) and helping organise relief supplies. She also worked as a Resistance interpreter during WWII. However, her Spain and WWII work serious affected her physical and mental health and she declined in the post-war years, dying in a mental hospital weighing only sixty pounds (27kg).

1900 - Pandelis Pouliopoulos (Παντελής Πουλιόπουλος; d. 1943), Greek Trotskyist and onetime general secretary of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE), born. Considered the founding father of Greek Trotskyism. In 1943, and then very ill and hospitalised with the tuberculosis that he had contracted in prison, he was executed by the Italian occupation forces in Nezero, near Larissa, along with over a hundred other militants, in retaliation for the destruction by partisans of the Gorgopotamos bridge. Speaking in Italian to the squad of soldiers given the job of executing him, he exhorted them not to commit such a crime against the anti-fascist resisters and their adversaries in the war. When the soldiers refused to be executioners, it was the Carabinieri who were given the task.

1912 - San Diego Free Speech Fight: For over a month demonstrators and onlookers had assembled every Sunday at the city's jail to show solidarity with those free speech campaigners inside and sing songs of the workers' revolution.
On that Sunday afternoon a noisy crowd of 5,000 people surrounded the city jail, who "laughed, jeered, and applauded" as evangelist Lulu Wightman harangued the police from a soapbox, calling them "brass-buttoned anarchists" and – an insult at the time – "Cossacks". By this time a large crowd of ordinary citizens had gathered to watch "the fun". Wilson phoned the fire department. "Bring 50 feet of hose", he said. "Water cure". But the hose on the fire engine that turned up barely able to reach the protestors, much to their ammusement. A second 100 ft high-pressure hose was dispatched, which was deployed, drenching the demonstrators and onlookers alike. For almost an hour, moving closer and closer, four streams pummeled the human shield around Laura Payne Emerson, who stood on the soapbox trying to speak. To keep their balance, those in the front rows tilted forward. Many people were knocked over and injured, including a baby shot from its pushchair into the gutter by the force of the water. More arrests for disturbing the peace also followed.

[E] 1913 - Harriet Tubman (Araminta Ross; b. ca. 1822), African-American abolitionist, humanitarian, Suffragist activist, and an armed scout and spy for the United States Army during the American Civil War, dies of pneumonia. Born into slavery, Tubman escaped and subsequently made some thirteen missions to rescue approximately seventy enslaved families and friends via the Underground Railroad.

1914 - Southern Colorado Coalfield Strike: The body of a strikebreaker was found on the railroad tracks near the Forbes tent colony. The National Guard said that the man had been murdered by the strikers. In retaliation, Chase ordered the Forbes tent colony destroyed. The attack was launched while the inhabitants were attending a funeral of infants who had died a few days earlier. The attack, during which the tent colony was burned to the ground, was witnessed by photographer Lou Dold, whose images of the destruction appear often in accounts of the strike. The attack was a foreruuner to the Ludlow Massacre on April 20. [see: Sep. 23]

1915 - Revolución Mexicana: Alvaro Obregon departs Mexico City.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: The military are forced to run the railways as the authorities cannot find any staff willing to run them. Workers unloading coal in the port threaten to go out on strike in order to prevent its supply to La Canadensa. The Transatlántica company donates 7,000 pesetas to the army scabs after they break up a demonstration in front of the company offices.
The situation had become very serious and a solution needed to be found.

[B] 1920 - Boris Vian (d. 1959), French polymath: writer, poet, jazz musician, singer, translator, critic, actor, inventor, engineer and 'apolitical anarchist', born. Probably best known for his novels written under the pseudonym Vernon Sullivan including 'J'Irai Cracher sur vos Tombes' (I Spit on Your Graves; 1946). He also wrote a number of sci-fi novels: 'L'Ecume des Jours' (Foam of Days; 1947); 'L'Automne à Pékin' (Autumn in Peking; 1947); 'L'Herbe Rouge' (Red Grass; 1950); and 'L'Arrache-Coeur' (Heartsnatcher; 1953).
"On ne connaît la loi que lorsque les gens l'enfreignent." (We know the law only when people break it.)
"La vérité n'est pas du côté du plus grand nombre, parce qu'on ne veut pas qu'elle y soit." (The truth is not on the side of the majority, because we do not want it to be there.)
"Si le travail c'est l'opium du peuple, alors je ne veux pas finir drogué..." (If the work is the opium of the people, so I do not want to end up a junkie...)
"Supprimez le conditionnel et vous aurez détruit Dieu." (Remove the conditional and you destroy God.)

1921 - Kronstadt Rebellion [Кронштадтское восстание]: Radiotelegramme to the Workers of all Countries, from the Provisional Revolutionary Committee of Kronstadt: "Three days ago, the Communists opened fire upon us, and spilled our blood. As we fight for a just cause, we took up the challenge. The garrison and the working population of Kronstadt, which shook the infamous yoke of the Communists, has decided to fight until the end."

1923 - Salvador Segui Rubinat, 'El Noi del Sucre' (The Sugar Boy)(b. 1886), prominent Catalonoan CNT figure, is assassinated on the orders of the governor of Catalonia. [see: Dec. 23]

1934 - Emma Goldman continues her massive three month long speaking tour of the United States when she gives an evening lecture in The Arena stadium in New Haven, Connecticut, reading extracts from her autobiography 'Living My Life' and discussing 'Today's International Problems', thereby avoiding discussing domestic politics as agreed with the US Government when they gave permission for the tour.

1935 - Jose Antonio Labordeta Subias (d. 2010), Aragonese singer-songwriter, poet, novelist, one-time libertarian who later became a resolutely non-sectarian liberal socialist politician, born into a staunchly Republican family. Popularly known as El Abuelo, his sympathies remained with anarchism and he was amongst those who helped keep the songs of the Revolution alive.

Habrá un día en que todos
Al levantar la vista
Veremos una tierra
Que ponga libertad (bis)

Hermano aquí mi mano
Será tuya mi frente
Y tu gesto de siempre
Caerá sin levantar
Huracanes de miedo
Ante la libertad

Haremos el camino
En un mismo trazado
Uniendo nuestros hombros
Para así levantar
A aquellos que cayeron
Gritando libertad

Sonarán las campanas
Desde los campanarios
Y los campos desiertos
Volverán a granar
Unas espigas altas
Dispuestas para el pan

Para un pan que en los siglos
Nunca fue repartido
Entre todos aquellos
Que hicieron lo posible
Para empujar la historia
Hacia la libertad

También será posible
Que esa hermosa mañana
Ni tú, ni yo, ni el otro
La lleguemos a ver
Pero habrá que empujarla
Para que pueda ser

Que sea como un viento
Que arranque los matojos
Surgiendo la verdad
Y limpie los caminos
De siglos de destrozos
Contra la libertad

(There will be a day when all
Looking up
We will see a land
That put freedom (x2)

Brother here my hand
Be yours my forehead
And you always gesture
Fall without lifting
Hurricane fear
Given freedom

We the way
In one path
Joining our shoulders
To raise and
To those who fell
Screaming freedom

Ring the bells
From the belfries
And the empty fields
Granar again
High tenons
Arranged for bread

For a bread that in the centuries
Never was divided
Among those
They did their best
To push the story
Towards Freedom

It is also possible
That this beautiful morning
Neither you, nor I, nor the other
The get to see
But we must push
So it can be

Make it like a wind
They start the bushes
Emerging truth
And clean the roads
From centuries of destruction
Against freedom)

'Canto a la Libertad' (Song of Freedom)

Pascual se crió menudo
Siempre esperando saber
Por qué su padre decía
A la hora del mal comer:
Pascual, Pascual, tú a lo tuyo
Que es trabajar

Segó por las tierras altas
Llegó por el olivar
Deshojó azafrán con frío
Y hasta se pensó casar
Con una moza sonora
De gran pechera y buen pie
Hasta que los padres de ella
También le hicieron saber
Pascual, Pascual, tú a lo tuyo
Que es trabajar

Se metió en lo libertario
Se hizo de la CNT
Corrió todos los caminos
Todos corrieron contra él
Estuvo en el frente el Ebro
En Andorra y en Teruel
Gritó por los barrios altos
Luego gritaron contra él
Pascual, Pascual, tú a lo tuyo
Que es trabajar

Hizo resuello por Francia
Muy cerca de Montpellier
Los nazis le hicieron preso
Y lo exportaron a Argel
De aquí pasó a Sevilla
Y luego a Carabanchel
Y en todas partes oía
Con consejos de burgués
Pascual, Pascual, tú a lo tuyo
Que es trabajar

Anda de nuevo menudo
Por marchar tanto al revés
De esperar siempre el tranvía
Hasta llegar la vejez
Camina cansado y triste
De ir desde el tajo a la mina
Desde el secano al andamio
Sin entender la consigna
Pascual, Pascual, tú a lo tuyo
Que es trabajar

El día que agonizaba
En un catre de un cuartel
Alzó la cabeza duro
Y dijo con mala fe
"trabajar, trabajar, trabajar"
¿Y para quién?"

(Pascual often raised
Always waiting to hear
Why your father said
At the time of bad eating:
Pascual, Pascual, you do your thing
What is working

He cut through the highlands
He came through the olive grove
Plucked cold saffron
And even thought wed
With a sound girl
Large front and right foot
Until her parents
Also let him know
Pascual, Pascual, you do your thing
What is working

He got into the libertarian
It made the CNT
He ran all the way
Everyone ran against him
He was in the front the Ebro
In Andorra, Teruel
He shouted Uptown
Then shouted against him
Pascual, Pascual, you do your thing
What is working

He wheezing by France
Very near Montpellier
The Nazis made him prisoner
And exported to Algiers
From this he went to Seville
And then to Carabanchel
And everywhere heard
With tips from bourgeois
Pascual, Pascual, you do your thing
What is working

Come back often
For both backward march
Always expect the tram
To reach old age
Walk tired and sad
To go from the mine pit
From dry to the scaffold
Without understanding the slogan
Pascual, Pascual, you do your thing
What is working

The dying day
In a barracks cot
He raised his head hard
He said in bad faith
"Work, work, work"
And for whom?")

'Con el sudor de tu frente' (By the sweat of your brow) [co-written with Joaquín Carbonell]


1938 - Nationalists begin major offensive in Aragón.

[BB] 1939 - Armand Guerra aka José Silavitse (José Maria Estivalis Cabo; b. 1886), Spanish typesetter, film-maker, journalist, writer and anarchist, dies. Began work at 13 as a typesetter and was thrown into prison during a 1907 typesetter's strike as a member of the young C.N.T. Leaving Spain he went to Paris with his brother Vincente the following year. In 1909 he was in Geneva and Nice, where he published the newspaper 'Tierra y Libertad' (banned in Spain). In 1911 he journeyed though Italy to Cairo, where he worked on the trilingual paper 'L'Idea'. After that too was banned, he travelled round the Mediterranean before returning to France. In 1913 he created the Paris film co-operative Le Cinéma du Peuple, which made a number of films social nature, including 'La Commune' and 'The Old Docker' (both 1914). Guerra was both a producer and actor in these films and used old Communards and anarchists in them. He also contributed to various anarchist newspapers including 'Tierra' (published in Cuba) and Luigi Bertoni's 'Réveil'.
Guerra made his first full-length film during the summer of 1936 in Spain, before going to the front to fight fascism with a camera, filming for the CNT at the war front. 'Carne de Fieras' (Meat of Wild Animals) was never released, and thought lost forever, until a negative was discovered and released in 1993. Guerra also took part in propagandist speaking tours in the South of France and was imprisoned by the Stalinist police between April to August 1938 on a ship in the port of Barcelona. In February 1939, he managed to embark for Paris via Sète, thereby escaping the concentration camp in southern France.
His memoir of his time in Spain is entitled 'A Través de la Metralla: Escenas Vividas en los Frentes y en la Retaguardia' (Through the Shrapnel: Vivid Scenes at the Fronts and in the Rear; 1938).
Other films include directed: 'Luis Candelas o El Bandido de Madrid' (1926) [wrote]; 'Batalla de Damas' (1928) [also wrote]; 'El Amor Solfeando' (1930); and the 2 volumes of 'Estampas Guerreras' (1937).
Actor: 'Les Misères de l'Aiguille' (Miseries of the Needle1914); 'Ein Sommernachtstraum' (Wood Love; 1925) a fantasy by Hans Neumann based on 'A Midsummer Night's Dream'; and 'La Alegría que Pasa' (Joy Happens; 1934).
[see: Jan. 4]

1945 - 90 members of the Bulgarian Anarchist Federation meet (or attempt to meet?) in an extraordinary session, seeking ways of resisting the new communist regime (which has closed all meeting places and prohibited the anarchist newspapers), are stopped by the communist militia and sent in concentration camps, where they are tortured and compelled to do forced labour.

1945 - Oscar Ihlebæk (b. 1900), Norwegian newspaper editor and resistance member, dies in Bergen-Belsen concentration camp. [see: Oct. 9]

1959 - Newfoundland Loggers Strike: In the town of Badger in Central Newfoundland during a struggle between the local police and protestors, a striker hit a police officer with a piece of wood, knocking him unconscious. The policeman died two days later.

1964 - Ugo Fedeli (b. 1898) Italian anarchist militant, anti-fascist, historian, writer and librarian, dies. Wrote under numerous pseudonyms including Hugo Train and G. Renti. Arrested for the first time in 1913 (aged 15 years old) for participating in the Unione Italiana Sindacale (USI) organised strike; invloved in anti-miltarist campaigns by anarchist groups including Franchi Tiratori (Snipers) and Ribelli Milansesi (Milanese Rebels); attended the events of the 'Settimana Rossa' (Red Week) in Milano (June 7-14, 1914); drafted in 1917, but deserted to Switzerland where was tried in the 'Bombe di Zurigo' process in 1919 (along with other anarchists, including Bruno Misefari, Luigi Bertoni and Joseph Monnanni); in 1920 married Clelia Premoli; took part in the main events of the 'Biennio Rosso' (Two Red Years) in Milan until march 1921: then accused, alongside other anarchists, of a series of bomb attacks which culminated in the attack on the Diana theatre, which caused 21 casualties. [expand]

[A] 1966 - Provos smoke-bomb the Dutch royal wedding.

1968 - María Ascaso Abadía (b. 1908), Spanish seamstress, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist, who was sister of the prominent anarchist militants Domingo and Francisco, dies. Wanted by the police in 1924, she and her mother Emília Abadía Abad took refuge in the home of the libertarian militant María Barajas, who had been giving sanctury to many wanted anarchists including Felipe Alaiz de Pablo and Hermós Plaja Saló. Soon after, the pair left for France and her brothers Domingo and Francisco. In 1926, she took part in the Comitè Ascaso, Durruti i Jover, formed to campaign for the release of the three anarchist militants (Buenaventura Durruti, Francisco Ascaso and Gregorio Jover) arrested in France and in danger of being extradited to the Kingdom of Spain. She and her mother were also sheltered by Berthe Fabert and Séverin Ferandel, two of the main leaders of the Committee. She later bacame the partner of Lluís Riera Planas (Pere Carner), with whom she had a child.
During the Revolution she was responsible with Paula Feldstein and Luis Riera for the Colònia Ascaso-Durruti, opened in Llansa by the SIA and which took in 300 children, mostly orphans. In 1939, with the triumph of Franco, she crossed the Pyrenees and in July 1939 he was part of a group of 150 refugees, including her partner, mother Emilia and child are, mostly members of the CNT who, despite having their papers in order, could not embark on any ship bound for Mexico, because of the intervention of communist leaders,
Passed in France during the Retrada, she bet in July 1939, a group of 150 refugees - her partner and their child and his old mother Emilia - most members of the CNT, despite proper papers do could board a vessel bound for Mexico, following the intervention of the Stalinist leaders with the Servicio de Evacuación de los Refugiados Españoles who made the selection from amongst the refugees, and were substituted at the last moment. During this period, her partner Lluís Riera died of typhus in a French concentration camp near Bordeaux and her son, Sol, was also interned. María Ascaso later managed to embark on the De La Salle for San Felipe de Puerto Plata in the Dominican Republic with her mother, arriving on February 23, 1940. She lived in the Dominican Republic with a new partner Mariano Francés Alonso, a chauffeur and mechanic and UGT militant, whilst remaining a core activist in the CNT in exile.
María Ascaso Abadia died on cancer in Mexico City on March 10, 1968.

1969 - A commando of situationists 'returns' a statue of Charles Fourier to its plinth in Paris, left vacant since its removal by the Nazis.

1972 - South African Airways, London, firebombed. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1972 - Stephen Mac Say (b. 1884), French anarchist, professor, bee-keeper and partner of Marie-Adele Anciaux aka Mary Smiles [see: Mar. 8], dies. [see: Oct 5]

1976 - Jailbreak by John Sherman, a George Jackson Brigade member, from Walla Walla prison in Washington State.

1979 - 800 National Front supporters on a march in support of imprisoned Robert Relf are prevented from reaching Winchester prison by 2,000 anti-fascist protesters. [PR]

1990 - Poll tax riots in Brixton and Swindon — during the latter, good sense and ingenuity are displayed as cop radios are jammed.

[D] 1996 - Freeport copper mine in West Papua is closed and destroyed by 3,000 locals after a clansman is run over by mine security. Overnight, the world price of copper jumped from $15 to $2580 per ton.
"March 10th-13th 1996: Thousands of people (including Papuan Freeport employees) riot in Freeport's Tembagapura town, after a Dani tribeman is run down by a Freeport vehicle and his body dumped in a ravine. Many company facilities are destroyed or damaged, along with the government relations office, the shopping mall and other buildings - the airport is also attacked. 6,000 march south to Timika and two other company towns (one newly built) on the 3rd day, wreaking more havoc. The mine is closed for two days, and one tribal leader describes the riots as "a war on Freeport and the government"." - 'Rumble in the Jungle', 'Do or Die' Issue 8 (1999)

2005 - Maurice Brinton (b. 1923), influential Anglo-Greek writer and historian on the left, translator and mainstay in the London Solidarity group, dies. Brinton was the pen name of the distinguished neuro-surgeon Chris Pallis (who also defined brainstem death). [see: Dec. 2]

2013 - In Bulgaria today is officially designated as Holocaust Remembrance Day and the 'Day of the Salvation of the Bulgarian Jews and of the Victims of the Holocaust and of the Crimes against Humanity', marking the date of the revocation of the plan to expel the country's Jewish population.
[D] 1811 - Luddite Timeline: Stocking workers in Nottingham, England, gather to protest automation that was replacing their jobs and lowering their wages. They then marched to the nearby town of Arnold, where they destroyed sixty knitting frames. The riots spread and the Prime Minister decreed frame-breaking a capital offense a year later. Seventeen workers were executed.

1845 - Maori uprising against British rule. Today Ngapuhi attack and take Kororareka (now Russell) township, Bay of Islands.

1850 - Clément Duval (d. 1935), French anarchist illegalist, member of La Panthère des Batignolles, born. He was sentenced to death by a French court for a burglary (in which a policeman was wounded trying to apprehend him). Eventually commuted to life, he spent 14 years in French Guyana where he attempted over 20 prison escapes. Finally, on April 14, 1901, he made good his escape and after a two year sojourn slipped into NY City, where he lived until age 85, supported and surrounded by Italian and French anarchist comrades.

1863 - [O.S. Feb. 27] Iza Zielińska (Iza Gąsowska; d. 1934), Polish journalist, educator, social activist and participant in the Polish and International anarchist and socialist movements, born. [expand]

1888 - Virginia Tabarroni aka 'Danda' (d. 1977), Italian typographer and anarchist, who was the aunt of Anteo Zamboni, the 15-year-old who attempted to assassinate Mussolini in Bologna on October 31, 1926, born.

1892 - François Ravachol's second attempt to take retribution for the Affaire de Clichy defendants, targets the home of the presiding judge at the Clichy trial, Edouard Benoit. On the first floor of no. 136 Boulevard Saint-Germain outside Benoit's flat, he placed the smelting pot bomb with its fifty dynamite cartridges and scrap iron shrapnel. Shortly after he had left the premises, the bomb explodes causing extensive damage butcausing no injuries. The affair caused a considerable sensation, which became greater following the attack on the Lobau Barracks attack, the site of the Communard massacres, on March 15, days before the anniversary of the rising of the Paris Commune, by the anarchist carpenter Théodule Meunier.
[Costantinni pic]

1895 - New Orleans Dockworkers Riot: Following the replacement of 300 organised white workers by the Harrison Line of Liverpool, replacing them with unskilled non-union black workers, gangs of white screwmen and longshoremen attack black workers, leaving a black worker named Philip Fisher with bullet wounds. The following day a mob of several hundred whites descended on an ocean-going ship being loaded and started firing on black longshoremen. That attack and a second coordinated attack on another cotton vessel upriver, left six black workers dead.

1897 - Ilona Duczyńska (d. 1978), Polish-Hungarian revolutionary, journalist, translator, engineer, and historian, born. During the First World War, she became acquainted with anarcho-syndicalist revolutionary Ervin Szabó, who connected her with the work of the Galilei Circle. She became a revolutionary socialist. For her anti-war activities, she was expelled from school in 1915 and during her studies at the Technical University of Zurich, she fell in with a number of members of the RSDLP, including Nadezhda Krupskaya and Lenin. She helped plan the October 16, 1918 assassination attempt on the Hungarian Prime Minister Istvan Tisza, when the gun used by Lékai János, a member of the Galilei-Circle (Galilei-kör) and Korvin anti-militarist movement, jammed. For this she was amongst those imprisoned but they spent only fifteen days in prison as they were freed during the Aster Revolution.

[E] 1900 - Eleonore 'Lore' Wolf (d. 1996), German stenographer, Communist and anti-fascist, born. Member of the Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands and Rote Hilfe. Arrested in 1940 in Paris after being betrayed to the Gestapo, she was sentenced to 12 years in prison for conspiracy to commit treason. Five years were spent in solitary confinement - most of the time in Hesse Ziegenhain, she resisted the interrogations, torture and isolation and remained faithful to her convictions, refusing to betray her friend Anna Seghers, who the Nazis were desperate to get hold of.
Founding member in 1991 of the Verband Deutscher in der Résistance, in den Streitkräften der Antihitlerkoalition und der Bewegung "Freies Deutschland" e. V. (Association of Germans in the French Resistance, in the Armed Forces of the Anti-Hitler Coalition and in the Movement for a "Free Germany").

1905 - [O.S. Feb. 26] In St. Petersburg, prominent Social Revolutionary Maximilian Shveitser (Максимилиан Швейцер), leader of a SR Combat Organisation team planning to kill Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich (Владимира Александровича), governor-general of Saint Petersburg, accidentally blows himself up while making a bomb in the Bristol Hotel. A double agent, Nikoláy Tatárov (Никола́й Тата́ров) aka 'Kostrov' (Костров / Campfire), leads the police to the rest of the group, who are all arrested on March 29-30.

1909 - Maurice Laisant (d. 1991), French author, anarchist and anti-militarist, born. Son of the anarchist Charles Laisant and brother of the anarchist Albert, grandson of the anarchist Charles Ange Laisant. Edited 'Le Monde Libertaire'.

1909 - In Limoges, towards two o'clock in the morning, a bomb exploded in front of the police station causing some damage. The same night, a dynamite cartridge is discovered on the wall of the barracks of the 78th Infantry Regiment. The attack was immediately attributed by some newspapers to anarchists as their response to a circular by Georges Clemenceau concerning anti-militarists. The investigation determines that the dynamite used in the attacks had been stolen some time ago from quarries at nearby Isle.

[F] 1912 - Dreibundstreik [Triple Alliance Strike] / Bergarbeiterstreik [Miners' Strike]: Coal miners in the Ruhr go on strike to demand an eight-hour day, as well as a 15% increase in wages to cover increases in the cost of living, and restrictions in the levying of company fines. The dispute lasted from March 11 - 20, 1912, and at its peak 235,000 miners in the Ruhr area were on strike, about 61% of the total workforce. [expand]

1917 - [O.S. Feb. 26] February Revolution [Февральская революция]: Early Sunday morning, the police launch wide scale arrests of over 100 leaders of revolutionary organisations, including the Bolsheviks. Troops under the command of General Sergey Semenovich Khabalov (Серге́й Семёнович Хаба́лов) have been issued with live ammunitions and, acting under the Tsar's orders, open fire on striking workers in a series of incidents along Nevsky Prospekt (Невского проспекта), Sadovaya Street (Садовой улицы), Ligovsky Street (Лиговской улицы), 1st Sovetskaya Street (1-й Рождественской улицы), and Suvorov Avenue (Суворовского проспекта). 169 workers are killed, and over 1,000 people are injured. In the bloodiest such incident a company of the Volynsk Life Guards Regiment (лейб-гвардии Волынского полка) opened fire on demonstrators on Znamensky Square (Знаменской площади), killing 40 killed and wounding 40 others.
In response to the attacks demonstrators begin erecting barricades on the outskirts of the city centre. Workers also occupy an increasing number of factories and workspaces, in a strike that now involves 306,500 workers from 438 companies across the capital [figures based on modern studies].
Also involved in the suppression of the protests were units of the the Pavlovsky Life Guards Regiment (лейб-гвардии Павловский полк) and, outraged that part of their regiment fired on workers, at 16:00 troops from the 4th Company of the Reserve Battalion of the Pavlovsky Regiment rushed into the street to try and subdue their fellow soldiers. On the way, police try to stop the company, and a fire fight ensues, during which the soldiers fire on their own officers. Forces of the Preobrazhensky Regiment (Преображенского полка) are sent to suppress the rebellion and disarm the rebel soldiers, 21 of whom desert with their weapons and join the protesters. The commander of the Peter and Paul Fortress (Петропавловская крепость) refuses to accept all those involved in the mutiny, claiming he did not have enough space, and only 19 of those identified as 'ringleaders' are finally arrested.
Elsewhere, Bolshevik workers in the Vyborg district, where police stations have already come under attack, plan to push events into an armed uprising and the same evening the President of the State Duma, Mikhail Rodzianko (Михаи́л Родзя́нко), receives a royal decree ordering the dissolution of the State Duma. Petrograd is now under an, as of yet, unannounced state of siege.

1922 - Cornelius Castoriadis (d. 1997), aka Pierre Chaulieu or Paul Cardan, Franco-Greek radical political philosopher, social critic and editor of the journal 'Socialism or Barbarism' (1949-1967), born.

1930 - Silvio Gesell (b. 1862), German merchant, theoretical economist, social activist and anarchist, dies. [see: Mar. 17]

[B] 19?? - Leslie Fish, US filk musician, author, Trekie, IWW member and anarchist political activist, born. A member of the 'filk outfit' DeHorn Crew - the Chicago IWW's house band and lover of fellow anarchist and band member Mary Frohman. The character Jenny Trout in the science fiction novel 'Fallen Angels' (1991) by Larry Niven, Jerry Pournelle and Michael Flynn is based on her. She has recorded morethan a dozen albums, written a number of science fiction short stories as well as 'A Dirge for Sabis' (with C. J. Cherryh; 1989), part of the 'The Sword of Knowledge' trilogy of shared world fantasy novels. She also sings (and makes several appearances) in the film 'Finding the Future: A Science Fiction Conversation' (2004).

1944 - Operation Spark*: Another attempt is made to assassinate Hitler when he summons the staff of Field Marshal Busch, now commanding Army Group Centre, to brief him at the Berghof villa. A member of the staff, Captain Eberhard von Breitenbuch (1910 - 1980), volunteered to carry a pistol into the meeting and shoot Hitler. But on the day of the briefing, Hitler issued a Führer directive excluding junior officers from Führer briefings. [*also translated as Operation Flash]

1949 - Miguel Barba Moncayo aka 'Reyes' (b. ca. 1899), Catalan anarchist activist with the FIJL, is murdered in cold blood in his own home in front of his wife and children after the police had knocked on the door and asked him for his identification. He had only just been released from prison.

1950 - Heinrich Mann (b. 1871), German novelist, utopian and anti-fascist, dies. Broke with his brother Thomas over the later's support for WWI. [see: Mar. 27]

1963 - Louise Olivereau (b. 1884), US teacher, poet, militant anarchist and anti-conscription activist, who was sentenced to 10 years in prison for sending out anti-conscription leaflets during WWI, dies. In 1911 through 1912 she had worked as an assistant to William Thurston Brown at the Ferrer Modern Day School in Portland. In 1917 she worked as secretary of the Lumber Workers, a division of the IWW in Seattle. In August, after reading Elihu Root's pro-war speech, she mailed a circular to the drafted men of Seattle urging them "but one thing - obedience to your own conscience...we do not ask you to resist the draft IF YOU BELIEVE THE DRAFT IS RIGHT." On September 5, 1917, the IWW office was raided by federal agents, and two days later Olivereau went to special agent Howard Wright to request the return of her books. After questioning, she admitted to mailing the circular, and she was then arrested. Olivereau chose to act as her own attorney during the trial to avoid taking defence funds away from other radical causes. After a trial in late November at which she was convicted of six counts of "attempting to cause insubordination, disloyalty, mutiny and refusal of duty in the military," and three for "unlawfully using the mails and postal service of the United States for transmission of unmailable matter," she was sentenced on December 3, 1917 to ten years in prison at Canyon City, Colorado. However she only served 28 months.

1963 - André Lorulot (b. 1885), French individualist anarchist, free thinker, lecturer, propagandist and playwright, dies. ​[see: Oct. 23]

[C] 1965 - James Reeb (b. 1927), white American Unitarian Universalist minister from Boston, Massachusetts, and a pastor and civil rights activist in Washington, D.C, dies of head injuries two days later in the hospital follwoing the severe beating inflicted upon him by white segregationists while marching for civil rights in Selma, Alabama on March 9, 1965.

1968 - At a demonstration against new airport at Narita in Japan, students attempting to storm the fences at the Tokyo International Airpot Corporation building are forced back from fences riot police deploying water cannon. Demonstrators throw missiles at riot police and the cops storm into crowd, making numerous arrests.]

1968 - Rudi Dutschke, a leader of the German Socialist Student League (SDS), who had played an important role in the militant anti-war protests in the winter of 1967-68, is shot and nearly killed by a Munich house painter carrying with him a clipping about the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.

1968 - Factory workers riot in Warsaw. [expand]

1972 - In Milan a 60-year-old retired man, Giuseppe Tavecchio, is shot in the head at point blank range by a police tear gas projectile as he crosses the road, returning home with a bagful of shopping. The incident occured after a street demonstration, organised by the extra-parliamentary Left, degenerates into clashes with the police close to the headquarters of Corriere della Sera. Militants of the Potere Operaio (Workers’ Power), in particular, go toe to toe with the paramilitary police, transforming the centre of Milan into a battleground.
Tavecchio dies 3 days later in hospital and, following a notorious trial, the cop who fired the round and his superior are acquitted on all charges.

1973 - An FBI agent is fatally shot at the occupation of Wounded Knee by Oglala Sioux where the formation of independent Oglala Sioux Nation is proclaimed at Wounded Knee, South Dakota.

1973 - Manuel Rojas Sepúlveda (b. 1896), Chilean anarchist writer, novelist, poet and essayist, dies. [see: Jan. 8]

1974 - U.K. Miners' Strike: Miners return to work after accepting the new Labour government's offer of a 35% pay increase. [see: Feb. 10]

1975 - Golpe de 11 de Março de 1975: In Portugal a hastily arranged rightist military coup, led by General António de Spínola with the support of paratroops units and the Guarda Nacional Republicana, is quickly defeated by left-wing forces in the military. Spinola decided upon this course of action after he had been warned on March 8, 1975 by the Spanish and French secret services about the Matança da Páscoa (Killing of Easter), a supposed plot by the Portuguese Communist Party and the more radical members in COPCON (Comando Operacional do Continente / Continental Operations Command) and the 5th Division, supported by the Soviet Union, for a campaign of political assassinations, with Spinola and his supporters amongst the targets, as part of a leftist coup.
The attempted coup began as two T6 aircraft and four helicopters bombed the left-wing RAL 1 (Regimento de Artilharia Ligeira 1 / 1st Light Artillery Regiment) barracks near Lisbon airport, backed up by a ground force of paratroopers. In response the left-wing population of many cities set up street barricades in defence of the government, protests that would continue for the next three days. By 14:00 it was all over, and three hours later Spinola fled by helicopter to Talavera de la Reina, Spain, going into exile in Brazil on March 15, 1975.
The defeat of the coup resulted in a turn in the revolutionary process to the political left, with the main sectors of the economy, such as the banks, transportation, steel mills, mines, and communications companies, being nationalised. However, it also led directly to the events of November 25, 1975 and the ultimate defeat of the socialist revolution by a rightist counter-coup.

1977 - During a protest in the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Bologna, Pier Francesco Lorusso (b. 1952), a medical student and Lotta Continua militant, is shot dead by police.

1978 - March organised by the Wolverhampton Anti-Racist Committee (WARC).

1979 - In anti-tax demonstrations 50,000 people march through Dublin, most of calling for a General Strike. An estimated 150,000 or more people march through Dublin on 20 March and other protests occur in 30 towns throughout the country, including a march by 40,000 workers in Cork.

[A] 1986 - During fights with the cops, steelworkers in Reinosa surround the Guardia Civil, beat them up, strip them naked and march them out of town.

2001 - Over 100,000 greet Zapatistas at the conclusion of their 15-day trek to México City in demand for indigenous rights.

2004 - Madrid railway bombings, killing 191 people and injuring over 1,500 others.

2010 - Odette Ester, aka Odette Beilvert (Lucienne Marie Kervorc'h; b. 1915), French anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist resister, who was the long time partner of the Catalan anacho-syndicalist miltant Josep Ester ' Borràs (José Ester Borrás) aka 'Minga', dies. [see: Jul. 15]

2011 - Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.

2013 - Seven prisoners escape from Feres Prison, Evros, Greece.

2014 - Fifteen-year-old Berkin Elvan, one of the victims of the Gezi Park anti-government protests in Turkey, dies after spending 269 days in hospital in a coma. He had been hit on the head by a tear-gas canister fired by the police at the protesters. His death sparks a fresh outbreak of violence, during which 22-year-old Burak Can Karamanoğlu is shot dead by the police in Istanbul’s Okmeydanı neighborhood on the evening of March 12.
[AA] 1650 - Diggers at Wellingborough issue their declaration: 'A Declaration of the Grounds and Reasons why we the poor Inhabitants of the Town of Wellingborrow, in the County of Northampton, have begun and give consent to dig up, manure and sow Corn upon the Common, and waste ground, called Bareshanke belonging to the Inhabitants of Wellinborrow, by those that have Subscribed and hundreds more that give Consent.'

1871 - Commune de Narbonne: At a meeting of the the Club de la Révolution faction of the Republican Lamourguier Club in Narbonne, revolutionary socialist journalist on the Carcassonne newspaper 'La Fraternité' and Narbonne councillor Émile Digeon calls for the arming of the Guards Nationale. In front of the two thousand people present he states: "Revolution, it is peace through the abolition of standing armies, it is the removing taxes for the small buisnessman and the day labourer..." ["La révolution, c'est la paix par l'abolition des armées permanentes, c'est la suppression des impôts pour le petit propriétaire et pour le journalier..."]
[ Digeon.html]

[EE] 1871 - Kitty Marion (Katherina Maria Schafer; d. 1944), Anglo-American actress, militant suffragette and birth control advocate, who is estimated to have endured nealy 300 force-feedings whilst on hunger strike in English prisons, and who spent time in American prisons for imparting birth control information, born in Westphalia. Her mother died during childbirth when she was two, and her stepmother when she was six, both of tuberculosis. leaving Marion with her violent and abusive father. In 1886 she moved to England to be with her sister, Dora. After learning English, she adopted the name Kitty Marion and became an actress. In 1908, she joined the Women's Social and Political Union and quickly became an active member of the WSPU branch in Brighton. She also became involved in the founding of the Actresses' Franchise League, one of the many smaller suffragist organisations of the period (along with its sister organisation to the Women Writers' Suffrage League), and Kitty would go on to become one of the prominent militants in both the WSPU and the AFL's ranks..
Kitty Marion's first arrest for her suffragette activities was on June 29, 1909, when she was one of the 108 women arrested for stone throwing after a demonstration outside the House of Commons. Her second arrest came in Newcastle a few months later during the Home Secretary Lloyd George's visit to Tyneside on October 9. She was amongst a dozen suffragettes aiming to disrupt his visits by throwing stones and breaking windows. Kitty Marion's target was the General Post Office where, having been inside to check that there was no one near the windows then, went outside and threw stones, breaking the windows. She and seven others work arrested and received a month's prison sentence. The following day a letter that she had co-signed with her fellow prisoners Jane Brailsford, Constance Lytton and Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence, had been published in 'The Times' [10/10/1909] setting out their aims: "We want to make it known that we shall carry on our protest in our prison cells. We shall put before the Government by means of the hunger-strike four alternatives: to release us in a few days; to inflict violence upon our bodies; to add death to the champions of our cause by leaving us to starve; or, and this is the best and only wise alternative, to give women the vote."
The imprisoned suffragettes were subsequently transferred to Holloway jail, where Kitty was amongst those who went on hunger strike and was force fed, something she resisted with all her might. Kitty's response to her brutal treatment at the hands of the doctors, who she described as the "dirty, cringing doormats of the government", was to barricade her cell door with furniture, keeping the staff at bay until the following day when they managed to chisel the hinges away. On a second occasion, when all metal objects had been removed from her reach, she tore open the pillow with her teeth, scattered the contents onto her mattress, tore up the prison bible, and in the middle of the night, by breaking the glass of the gaslight, managed to set fire to the pyre, nearly asphyxiating herself in the smoke of the ensuing fire. Of the eight sentenced in Newcastle, Marion was the last to be released on November 10, 1909.
After her release, she continued to combine her militant suffragette activities, multiple arrests and stints in prison, with their accompanying hunger strikes, with earning a living through her stage work. On December 9 at the Albert Hall, she received the WSPU hunger strike medal before going off to appear in the Winter pantomime season. The following February she even indulged in a bit of window-smashing (at the office of the Moss Empire, which ran a countrywide string of theatres) on behalf of the Variety Artists' Federation agitation against theatrical employment agencies ("white slave traders"). Kitty was arrested twice in November 1910, the first time on 'Black Friday' when WSPU members clashed with the police in Parliament Square following the House of Commons refusal to pass the new suffrage bill, and again 3 days later. On both occasions she was released without charge. In November 1911, she was again arrested outside the House of Commons, this time after taking part in the protest following the defeat of the Conciliation Bill, and was sentenced to 21 days' imprisonment. When in Holloway Prison she again went on hunger-strike and was forced-fed.
Given her militancy, it is of little surprise that she was present on the first day of the WSPU's new window-smashing campaign when on the afternoon of March 1, 1912, she was one of 124 women arrested in London's west End for taking hammers to the plate glass windows of shops. Kitty was sentenced to 7 days solitary. On September 5 that year, she attended the opening of the Welsh National Eisteddfod in Wrexham, with some fellow suffragettes, she tried to interrupt the opening speech by Lloyd George [targeted for having voiced his support of the vote for women whilst in opposition but remaining silent when he got into government], but was roughly thrown out by the stewards, and set upon by the crowds, who fell on them, tore off their clothes, and snatched out lumps of hair. "Being thrown to wild beasts", she afterwards declared, "is nothing to being thrown to an infuriated mob. The former may tear you to pieces, but would draw the line at indecent assault." In late 1912, Kitty was arrested for breaking a fire alarm near Bow Street in London in protest at the new insurance Act and its discrimination towards women. For this, she was sentenced to a month in prison and, when refused political status, she again went on hunger strike.
Kitty Marion was also one of those at the forefront of the WSPU's arson campaign of 1913-14. She was responsible for setting fire in the early hours of April 15, 1913, to Levetleigh, the former home of Conservative MP and anti-women's rights councillor, Harvey Du Cross, at St Leonards, causing and estimated £10,000 damage. Eleven days [Apr. 26] later she set fire to a train left standing between Hampton Wick and Teddington, almost totally destroying it. Her most high-profile arson target however was the Grand stand at Hurst Park racecourse on June 8, which she carried out with 26 year old Clara Giveen. According to Marion's unpublished autobiography, it was financed with the sovereign contained in the purse that Emily Davison had given her a purse on the eve of the Derby "for munitions" - "the following Sunday, when unaware of her death, Betty Giveen and I made good use of the 'munitions' Emily had paid for ... some one living in the vicinity of Hurst Park race course [had] suggested to Clara [aka Betty] Giveen and me that the Grand Stand there would make a most appropriate beacon, not only as the usual protest but, in honour of our Comrade’s daring deed for which she paid with her life." [quoted from Marion's unpublished autobiography]
Arrested shortly afterwards, the pair's trial began at Guildford on July 3, where she was found guilty and sentenced to three years' penal servitude. Kitty immediately went on hunger strike and was released soon afterwards under the Cat & Mouse Act. Days later on July 12, and outraged at the Piccadilly Flat case in which a woman had been sentenced to prison for running a brothel whilst the names of the prominent male clients involved were suppressed, she broke a window in the Home Office. She was arrested and taken back to Holloway Prison. After going on hunger strike for five days she was again released to a WSPU nursing home.
Later that year, after evading police surveillance, Marion ended up in Liverpool, where she continued her one-woman arson campaign. On August 23, she set fire to Seafield House in Seafield, Liverpool, causing £30,000 damage. From her Liverpool base, she made a number of trips to Manchester where, on the night of November 10-11, 1913, she left a pipe bomb that that destroyed Alexandra Park’s Cactus House. A similar attack on Liverpool's Sefton Park Palm House three days later was unsuccessful, as her bomb failed to detonate.
Kitty Marion returned to London shortly after spending Christmas with friends, an eagle-eye detective spotted her at Charring cross Station and arrested her. Returned to Holloway prison, she went on hunger strike and was again forcibly fed, this time 232 times over the course of 100 days. Released yet again under the Cat & Mouse Act and taken to a WSPU nursing home, Marion manage to escaped from under the police's nose on April 16 and ended up in Folkestone, where she recuperated and attempted to recover from the accumulated effects of her various spells in prison and the physical effects of going on hunger strike. On May 31, 1914, with the help of Mary Leigh, she escaped to Paris.
Following the outbreak of war on August 4, 1914, the then government and the WSPU leadership swiftly reached a deal in which all the suffragettes then in prison would be released in return for the WSPU agreeing to suspend its campaign. On August 10, Emmeline Pankhurst announced that all WSPU militants now had to "fight for their country as they fought for the vote". This caused a split and widespread dissent within its ranks and Kitty Marion was one of those who disagreed with the policy of ending all militant activities. Instead, she resumed her career as an actress but continued to campaign for the vote, and that December she formed a choir singing carols to fundraise for Sylvia Pankhurst's East End children's projects. However, as she had been born in Germany, the government decided that they wanted to deport her back to Germany but, after protests from a number of prominent figures, she was allowed to go to the United States in the autumn of 1915.
There she quickly became active in the family planning movement and after 1917, she began working with the 'Birth Control Review' published by New York Women's Publishing Company under Margaret Sanger. Marion, with her experience selling 'Votes for Women', became a street hawker, selling the 'Review' in New York for the next thirteen years, until the journal switched to private circulation in 1930. She was arrested several times for violating obscenity laws, and was imprisoned for 30 days in 1918. She was later granted US citizenship in 1924. Kitty returned to London in 1930 to attend the unveiling of the statue to Mrs Pankhurst and began work in the Birth Control International Centre under Edith How Martyn after Sanger had told her that there would be no job for her if she were to return to the States. However, she finally returned to New York where she worked in Sanger's office once more before retiring to the Margaret Sanger Home in New York State where she died in 1944.

1895 - New Orleans Dockworkers Riot: Following the previous day's rioting, a mob of several hundred whites descend on an ocean-going ship being loaded and start firing on black longshoremen. That attack and a second coordinated attack on another cotton vessel upriver, leaves six black workers dead.

[E] 1901 - Zdzisława Bytnarowa aka 'Sławska', 'Sława', 'Sławka' (d. 1994), Polish teacher, who fought in the ranks of the Armia Krajowa (Home Army) during the Warsaw Uprising, born. Following her dismissal by the Nazis in June 1940, she joined the underground as a second lieutenant in the AK in Pasieka, the codename of the General Headquarters of the Szare Szeregi (Grey Ranks), the underground organisation of the Związku Harcerstwa Polskiego (Polish Scouting Association) during the Nazi and Soviet occupations of WWII. There she served as head of the Scouts' Field Post Office in the city centre. One of her sons, Jan Bytnar aka 'Rudy, head of the Grey Ranks 'Południe' (South) aka SAD (acronym for sabotaż i dywersja [sabotage and diversion]) Battle Group (Grupy Szturmowe), was arrested alongside his father, Stanislaw Bytnar, on March 23, 1943, and died of the injuries he received during interrogation by the Gestapo, despite being freed by the Grupy Szturmowe during the Akcja pod Arsenałem (Action at the Arsenal) on March 26. Stanislaw Bytnar died during the forced march that followed the evacuation of Auschwitz in January 1945. After the liquidation of the Ghetto, she had periods in Fallingbostel (Stalag XI-B), Bergen-Belsen and Holsdorf* concentration camps before she returned to Warsaw on August 15, 1945 and returned to her career as a teacher.
[* possibly mistaken for Mühldorf (Dachau subcamp) or Ohldorf (Neuengamme)]

1906 - Jean Jérôme (Michał Feintuch; d. 1990), French Communist activist, Jew and Résistance member, who helped organise shipments of weapons to Republican Spain and aid for Republican refugees post-defeat, born in Poland. Took the pseudonym Jean Jérôme in 1940 whilst working in the Résistance in Paris.

1911 - Rebelión de Baja California / Revolución Mexicana: Luis Rodriguez and 20 PLM rebels seize Tecate after having to fight several battles.

1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike: Having offered a 5% pay raise on March 1, which the IWW and many workers rejected, and concerned over the public reaction to the House Committee on Rules hearings, as well as the possible threat to their own tariff protection, the American Woolen Company acceded to all four of the strikers' original demands. Agreements were reached with the other companies and the strike was called off on March 24, 1912. The strike committee was dissolved and the militia moved out. After two months of struggle, the Great Lawrence Strike had ended.

1913 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: Attempt made to burn down the British Museum when an incendiary device is left in a lavatory.

1913 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: Inspectors from Scotland Yard raid the Notting Hill studio of artist and WSPU member Olive Hocken, finding wire-cutters, fire-lighters, hammers, bottles of corrosive fluid, and five false motor car licence plates.

1914 - Revolución Mexicana: Emiliano Zapata besieges Cuautla with 5,000 men. City taken, all federal officers executed. Magónist forces led by Jose Maria Leyva and Simon Berthold fail to retake the town.

[D] 1917 - February Revolution [Февральская революция]: Following the events of the past couple of days in Petrograd - widespread rioting and industrial unrest that has become a de facto general strike, with incidents of troops firing on their own officers - the first outright mutinies took place, as 600 soldiers of the fourth company of the replacement regiment Volinsky Life-Guards (Волынский лейб-гвардии)[also known as the Pavloski] under senior sergeant Timothy Kirpichnikov (Тимофей Кирпичников) refused to march when commanded, firing on and killing their commander, Captain Lashkevich (Лашкевича), and joined the protesters on the streets. The Volinsky also began visiting barracks and talking to other units, trying to get them to mutiny and join the protests, just as the striking workers had in previous days tried to induce other workers to come out on strike and occupying their workplaces.
The Preobrazhensky Regiment (Преображенский полк), Lithuanian Regiment (Литовский полк), the Combat Engineer Battalion (Сапёрный батальон), and others quickly joined the rebels, resulting in the hunting down of police and the gathering of 40,000 rifles which were distributed amongst the workers. On Liteyny Prospekt (Литейном проспекте) troops joined striking workers from various Petrograd gun and ammunition factories and the rebels captured artillery pieces from the workshops at gun factory, killing a General, Matusow (Матусов), in the process. A crowd of revolutionary soldiers of the Volyn, Preobrazhensky and Lithuanian regiments moved on the gendarmerie barracks in Kirochnaya Street (Кирочной улице), taking it and defeating a division of troops from the engineering regiment school. Group of protesters began trashing police stations and storming prisons. The courthouse and investigation prison on Shpalernaya street (Шпалерной улице) was captured, prisoners in the Lithuanian castle (Литовский замок) were freed, and the biggest of the Petrograd prisons, the Kresty (Кресты), containing 2,000 prisoners, was stormed.
Within days, the rebellion had spread through virtually the whole of the Petrograd garrison. February 27th [N.S. March 12] also saw the radical political groups, the anarchists, Bolsheviks and the Interdistrictites (Межрайонцы), members of the Inter-District of the United Social Democrats (a spin-off of the RSDLP in 1913 that advocated restoring the RSDLP as a single organisation), play a far more prominent role in events.

1917 - [O.S. Feb. 27] February Revolution [Февральская революция] / Petrograd Soviet of Workers' Deputies [Известия Петроградского совета рабочих Депутатов]: Another significant event of the day was the formation of the Petrograd Soviet of Workers' Deputies (Известия Петроградского совета рабочих Депутатов), which coincided with the dissolution of the State Duma (IV Convocation), which the Soviet would replace. Prior to the formation of the Soviet, the Central Workers' Group (Центральная Рабочая Группа), which had been founded in November 1915 by the Mensheviks to liaise between the workers and the body created to mobilise industry for the war effort, the Central Military-Industrial Committee (Военно-промышленные комитеты), represented the will of the Petrograd proletariat. However, as the economic conditions in Russia worsened as the war went on, the ЦРГ had become increasingly radical, encouraging street protests (including an anti-government demonstration, timed to coincide with the opening of the next session of the State Duma) and issuing revolutionary proclamations, as well as supporting the general strike on the anniversary of Bloody Sunday (Jan 22 [O.S. Jan. 9], 1905]. To try and head-off any potential revolutionary activity, the entire leadership of the Central Workers' Group was arrested on the night of February 8 [O.S. Jan. 27] and locked up in the Peter and Paul Fortress.
Far from heading-off further industrial unrest and a feared revolution, this action only inflamed the situation further and, with the ever escalating number of strikes and street protests, which had seen a parallel increase in government repression, leadership of the Central Workers' Group was freed by a crowd of revolutionary soldiers and workers arrived at the Tauride Palace on the morning of March 12 [Feb. 27]. There the members of the Council of Workers' Deputies, together with the members of the Menshevik faction of the Duma, representatives of other socialist parties, leaders of legal unions, co-operatives and other organisations, took the decision to convene a constituent assembly of the Council of Workers' Deputies called the Provisional Executive Committee of the Soviet of Workers' Deputies (Временный исполнительный комитет Совета рабочих депутатов). It consisted of the Mensheviks Kuzma Gvozdev (Кузьма Гвоздев) and Boris Bogdanov (Бори́с Богданов), leaders of the Central Workers' Group); Nikolai Chkheidze (Никола́й Чхеидзе) and Matvei Skobelev (Матве́й Скобелев), State Duma deputies from the Menshevik faction; the Menshevik Internationalists Naum Kapelinsky (Наум Капелинский) and Konstantin Grinevich-Schechter (Константин Гриневич-Шехтер); Nikolai Sokolov (Николай Соколов), a Social Democrat); and Henrich Ehrlich (Хенрих Эрлих), a representative of the Bund. Too busy on the streets, the Bolsheviks missed the meeting.
The Provisional Executive Committee called upon the workers to elect deputies to the Petrograd Soviet (one deputy per thousand workers, with at least one member for each plant), and the rebel soldiers - to elect one representative per company. The inaugural meeting of the Petrograd Soviet was opened in the Tauride Palace on the same day at 9 o'clock in the evening and ended on the night of March 13 [Feb. 28]. During the plenary session the following day, elected representatives from factories and the military formally joined the soviet, in which moderates again dominated. A permanent Executive Committee of 15 members, which included two Bolsheviks [Alexander Shlyapnikov (Алекса́ндр Шля́пников) and Peter Zalutsky (Пётр Залуцкий)], was also selected and it adopted a proclamation, the 'Manifesto to the Population of Petrograd and Russia':
"The Soviet of Workers' Deputies, sitting in the State Duma, has as its main objective the organisation of popular forces and the struggle for the final consolidation of political freedom and popular government in Russia ...
We invite the entire population of the capital to immediately rally around the Council to form local committees in the districts and to take over management of all local affairs. All along, the combined forces will fight for the complete elimination of the old government and the convening of a Constituent Assembly elected by universal, equal, direct and secret suffrage."
Participants of the meeting approved the proposal of the Russian Bureau of the Central Committee of the RSDLP on the organisation of a workers' militia, as well as adopting as the official organ of the Petrograd Soviet the newspaper 'Izvestia [i.e. News] of the Petrograd Soviet of Workers' Deputies' (Известия Петроградского совета рабочих Депутатов), which began publication on March 13 [Feb. 28].
Within day the the Soviet had changed its name to the Petrograd Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies (Петроградский совет рабочих и солдатских депутатов), and after two weeks it had almost 3,000 deputies, of which the majority were soldiers, and, given the structure of the meetings and the enthusiasm of the delegates, the meetings were often chaotic, confused and unruly; a vehicle for speech-making and little else.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: Declaration of the state of war in Barcelona. Carlos González Rothwos leaves the position of civil governor. During the next two days there are arrests of workers for posting propaganda and there are explosions in gas pipes and in an electrical substation, all probably accidents, caused by inexperienced troops untrained in their operation. Attempts to force workers to run the trams leads to militarisation and being operated by soldiers - very few run.

1919 - Johannes Baader and Raoul Hausmann stage a 'Propaganda Evening' in Café Austria, where they found the Antinationaler Rat der unbezahlten Arbeiter (Anti-National Council of Unpaid Workers; ARUDA) and the Club der Blauen Milchstraße.

1921 - Edgar Rodrigues (Antônio Francisco Correia; d. 2009), militant anti-fascist and anarchist historian of the Portuguese and Brazilian anarchist movement, who authored more than fifty books, in northern Portugal.

1926 - Minerva Mirabal Reyes (María Argentina Minerva Mirabal Reyes; d. 1960), one of the three 'Las Mariposas', the Hermanas Mirabal (Mirabal Sisters), assassinated members of the clandestine opposition to the Dominican dictatorship of Rafael Trujillo, who would become symbols of both popular and feminist resistance worldwide, born. In 1999, the date of their deaths, November 25 1960, was designated by the United Nations General Assembly as the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women.

[C] 1933 - A British Union of Fascists meeting of 3,000 at Manchester’s Free Trade Hall to hear Oswald Mosley speak descends into rioting between fascists and anti-fascist communists and is broken up by police. In the preceeding days, local CPGB members had distributed an anti-fascist manifesto calling on all members of the Labour Party, ILP, trade unions and Co-ops to unite against the BUF and their meeting. In the meeting itself, the first trouble broke out when someone asked Mosley if BUF was anti-Semetic. One of the 140 or so 1 Squad [the BUF's elite uniformed thugs under the command of Eric Hamilton Piercy, and who were always armed and drove round in armoured vehicles] hit him over the head with a rubber truncheon. When other audience members objected, they were assaulted. They fought back and the meeting descended into running battles between hecklers and Blackshirts. The Union Flag was torn down from the platform by antifascist communists singing the 'Red Flag'. The fascist responded with 'God save the Queen'. Police netered the hall and ordered the stewards out and led Mosley from the stage. Three fascists required hospital treatment. [PR]

1942 - Juan Montseny i Carret (aka Federico Urales) (b. 1864), Catalan teacher, novelist, publisher, individualist anarchist militant, companion of Teresa Mañé (Soledad Gustavo) and father of Federica Montseny, dies. [see: Aug. 19]

1946 - Ferenc Szálasi (b. 1897), leader of the fascist Nyilaskeresztes Párt – Hungarista Mozgalom (Arrow Cross Party – Hungarist Movement) and Prime Minister of the puppet Government of National Unity during the last few months of Hungry's participation in WWII, is executed by hanging.

1949 - Date sometimes given for the execution in Zaragoza of Justiniano Garcia Macho, aka 'El Macho', (b. unkown) and Pedro Acosta Canovas, aka 'El Chaval' & 'Pedro', (b. 1925). [see: Mar. 22]

[F] 1951 - Vaga de Tramvies / Huelga de Tranvías [Barcelona Tram Strike / General Strike]: Following a climbdown by the government and the Organización Sindical, together with the Phalangists trying to get its worker back operating the trams at the old ticket rates that were reintroduced on the 6th, the CNT declares a general strike for the 12th: "Against the cost of living! Against the Falangist terror!" It quickly spreads across the city. [EXPAND]

1954 - Mat Kavanagh (b. 1876), Irish anarchist activist and leading figure in the French anarchist movement, dies. [expand]

1955 - Louis Estève (b. 1884), French individualist anarchist, poet, novelist and essayist, author of 'Psychologie de l'Impérialisme' (Psychology of Imperialism; 1913), who was a regular contributor to the anarcho-individualist journals of E. Armand, 'L'En Dehors' and 'L'Unique', dies.

1955 - Theodor Plievier (orig. Plivier; b. 1892), German novelist, writer and anarchist, dies. [see: Feb. 12]

1958 - Manol Vassev (Yordan Sotirov; b. 1898), Bulgarian anarchist militant, labour organiser and World War II Resistance fighter, dies. A popular Bulgarian militant anarcho-trade unionist, member of the Bulgarian Anarchist Communist Federation (FAKB) and a living symbol of resistance to both fascism and to Bolshevism. Arrested in March 1945, he spent several years the Stalinist concentration camps of Dupnitsa and Kutzian, where his resistance forced the authorities to release him. However, he rifused to sign a statement denouncing his anarchist beliefs and leave, and he had to be thrown out by force. He later served 5 years in the Sliven prison, and was sentenced again to one and a half years there. At the trial before the second term, exceptionally held in public, he was accused of being an "agent in the pay of the Anglo-Americans". He rose and cut the prosecutor short, crying out: "It isn’t me who signed the Teheran and Yalta treaties with the English and the Americans; it’s not me who went to London to kiss the skirt of the Queen of England!" He was poisoned by his prison guards one day before his scheduled release.

1973 - Mary Eleanor Gawthorpe (b. 1881) British teacher, suffragette, socialist, trade unionist and co-editor of the radical periodical, 'The Freewoman:A Weekly Feminist Review' (1911-12), dies in Long Island, New York [see: Jan. 12].

1977 - Joaquín Ascaso Budria (b. 1906), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Jun. 5]

[A] 1977 - Bologna Il Movimento Riots: 100,000 people demonstrate in Rome - the Ministry of Justice is attacked and gun shops are looted.

1980 - Renée Lamberet (Jeanne Renée Yvonne Lamberet; b. 1901), French professor of history and geography, activist and anarchist historian, dies. [see: Oct. 4]

[B] 1980 - Ángel Borda (b. 1901), Argentinian anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, trades union organiser, popular library founder, autodidact, sculptor, story and song writer (chamarritas and coplas), dies. [see: Aug. 2]

1984 - U.K. Miners' Strike: Arthur Scargill, President of the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM), calls for a national strike.

1986 - José Martínez Guerricabeitia (aka Felipe de Orero) (b. 1921), Spanish anarchist and founder of the anti-Francoist Ruedo Ibérico publishing house which published the first Spanish translations of Hugh Thomas' 'The Spanish Civil War', and Brenan’s 'The Spanish Labyrinth', dies at his own hands. [see: Jun. 18]

1990 - Fernand Rude (aka Pierre Froment) (b. 1910), French social historian, sympathetic to libertarian / anarchist movements, dies. [see: Jun. 13]

1990 - Philippe Soupault (b. 1897), French writer, poet, novelist, playwright, critic and political activist, dies. [see: Aug. 2]

2015 - Two cops are shot outside the police headquarters in Ferguson, Missouri during a low-key protest close to midnight.
1848 - Märzrevolution: Restive students, encouraged by a sermon of Anton Füster, a liberal priest, in their university chapel the previous day, hold a demonstration demanding a constitution and a constituent assembly elected by universal male suffrage. Under orders from Emperor Ferdinand and his chief advisor Metternich to crush the demonstration, troops fire on demonstrators as they entered the streets near the palace, killing several. The new working class of Vienna joined the student demonstrations, which rapidly developed into an armed insurrection, and became the first of many revolt during 1848 (the 'Year of Revolutions') that swept the states of the German Confederation. By early October, the Imperial court and government have fled and the city is in the hands of the revolutionaries.

1848 - Märzrevolution: In Berlin the Prussian army charges people returning from a meeting in the Tiergarten; they leave one person dead and many injured.

1858 - Maximilien Luce (d. 1941), French Neo-Impressionist artist, painter, printmaker, engraver and anarchist, born. Initial training as a wood carver, he began to study engraving and, after 4 years military service, painting. Luce's early work was mainly landscapes and urban scenes which frequently emphasize the activities of people at work, but became better known for his pointillist canvases.
As a child he witnessed the tragic events of the Paris Commune, later becoming part of the anarchist milieu and a friend of Jean Grave. In 1887 Pissarro , Seurat and Signac welcomed him into the Neo-Impressionists group. He also submitted numerous artworks to radical newspapers ('Le Père Peinard', 'La Révolte', 'L'Endehors', 'La Feuille', etc.) and was imprisoned in 1894 during the Procès des 30 anti-anarchist hysteria following the acts of Ravachol and Valliant, labelled a "dangerous anarchist" because his drawings were considered an "inciting the populous to revolt". In 1934, Maximilien Luce was elected President of the Société des Artistes Indépendants after Signac’s retirement, but soon resigned in a protest against society's policy to restrict the admission of Jewish artists.
Luce made a series of famous lithographs on prison life, which were accompanied by a Jules Vallès text, and many of his works are on the theme of the Paris Commune and the horrors of the Great War.

1870 - A meeting of several thousand is held in Lyon by local members of the Association Internationale des Travailleurs (International Association of Workers), who had been working since the beginning of the year in preparation for a possible workers revolution in the city. [see: Sep. 4]

1881 - [O.S. Mar. 1] While returning to his palace along the Catherine Canal, the closed carriage of Tsar Alexander II is hit by a bomb thrown by 'Nihilist' [see: Voline - 'The Unknown Revolution' (1947) for a discussion on relevance of the use of the term 'nihilist'] revolutionary Narodnaya Volya or People's Will (Наро́дная во́ля) member Nikolai Rysakov (Николай Рысаков). The explosion kills one of the escorting Cossacks and a passing butcher's boy. Rysakov is captured almost immediately but, as Alexander steps down from his carriage uninjured, Rysakov's comrade Ignacy Hryniewiecki (Игнатий Гриневицкий) aka 'Kotik' (Kitten) then throws a second bomb which explodes, tearing the Tsar apart. He dies latter that day as does Hryniewiecki.
Alexander's Minister of the Interior, Count Mikhail Loris-Melikov (Михаил Лорис-Меликов), appointed with exceptional powers to hunt down revolutionaries following a previous failed assassination attempt in February 1880, had more than 50 men and women arrested because they were suspected of having some roles in the assassination. Amongst those was Ivan Emelyanov (Иван Емельянов), a third potential assassin on the day who had stood ready, clutching a briefcase containing a bomb that would have been used if the other two bombers failed. He escaped unnoticed but was picked up in the post-assassination sweep. He was sentenced to penal labour (ка́торга) for life (later commuted to 20 years in Siberia, unlike Rysakov and four of his Narodnaya Volya comrades - Executive Committee members Andrei Zhelyabov (Андрей Желябов) and Sophia Perovskaya (Со́фья Перо́вская), Victor Serge's uncle Nikolai Kibalchich (Николай Киба́льчич), and Timofei Mikhailov (Тимофе́й Мих́айлов) - who had planned the attentat, collectively known as the Pervomartovtsy (Первома́ртовцы; literally "those of March 1"), were sentenced to death and hung on April 3 (Mar. 13), 1881.
A sixth defendant at the Pervomartovtsy trial, Gesya Gelfman (Геся Гельфман), was also sentenced to hang but, upon revealing that she was four months pregnant, her sentenced was commuted to an indefinite period katorga. Gelfman gave birth to a daughter in October that year but at the beginning of 1882 died of untreated peritonitis suffered during childbirth. Her daughter died shortly afterwards. Yemelyanov was pardoned in 1895, dying in 1916 on the eve of the Russian Revolution.
A ninth member of the plot, Gelfman's partner Nikolai Sablin (Никола́й Са́блин), shot in himself the head before he could be arrested when the police raided their house.
[Costantini pic]

1895 - Louise Otto-Peters (d. 1819), German writer, feminist, poet, journalist, and women's rights movement activist, who is widely acknowledged as one the founder of the women's movement in Germany, dies. [see: Mar. 26]

1896 - Fasci Siciliani Uprising: Following the resignation of the Italian prime minister Francesco Crispi, ministers in the new liberal government, recognising the excessive brutality of the repression of the Sicilain Fasci, recommend an amnesty for the 120 Fasci members convicted by the military tribunals during the 1893-94 protests.

1901 - Fernand Pelloutier (b. 1867), French anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist activist and founder of the Federation of Bourses du Travail, dies. Pelloutier in the words of Pierre Monatte, can be "justly regarded as the father of revolutionary syndicalism." He rejected parliamentary reformism and anarchist revolutionary violence, favouring instead the General Strike. [see: Oct. 1]

1905 - Les Travailleurs de la Nuit Trial: [Fifth session] On the night of 27 to 28 March 1903, the cathedral of Tours was visited by burglars. Using a mason's ladder taken from a nearby site, the wire mesh of a window was cut with pliers in the base of the right angle, the artistic stained glass window had been broken and though it the perpetrators were introduced. On the inside of the cathedral, a 7-metre firemen's ladder, taken in the angle internal of the Southern corner of the tower had allowed to be taken away in their frames high value XVIIIth century tapestries: 'La Nativité et Les Rois mages' (The Nativity and the Magi), 'Jésus au milieu des docteurs' (Jesus in the midst of the doctors), 'La Présentation au Temple' (he Presentation in the Temple), 'La Fuite en Egypte' (t
The Flight from Egypt).
On the stained glass fracture was discovered a silk button.
Early research made ​​it possible to establish that at 03:39 n individual carrying a 3rd class return Paris-Tours ticket, dated the 27th, was shown at Tours ticket control to catch the 03:42 Express Train.
He had in his hands a big roll of carpet and he was accompanied by another person, the bearer of two other rolls of lesser volume, who entered at the docks with a 10 cents ticket. The first of these individuals was Bour, who was recognissed by the employee who had gaven him a first class supplement and a porter who had helped carry the parcels.
Jacob, Bour and Pélissard, claims the indictment, agreed that this theft was committed by them; according Bour, the tapestries were transported to Jacob's mother and his mistress, to make them unrecognisable, cutting them up.
One of these pieces was used as door cover to the bedroom of Jacob, but at the time of the search of Rue ​​Leibniz, give evidence on the theft.
Messrs. Cruchet Narcissus, head priest at Tours, and Caubet, former police commissioner in Tours, give evidence on the theft.
Mr Caubet relates the departure from Tours to Paris from burglars, as related in the indictment. He speaks at length of the many robberies in the region, but which have nothing to do in the case.
Jacob laughs, smiles, shrugs his shoulders.

1911 - Maria Luisa 'Gigia' Minguzzi (b. 1852), Italian seamstress, anarchist and feminist, who was an important figure in the Italian anarchist movement, and played a leading role in the development of the female workers' movement in Italy, dies. [see: Jun. 21]

[F] 1912 - [O.S. Feb. 29] Lena Goldfields Strike [Приисках Ленского Забастовка]: Located along the shores of the Lena River about 28 miles northeast of the town of Bodaybo in northern Irkutsk (southeast Siberia), the conditions endured by workers were harsh in the region's goldfields, with miners having to work fifteen to sixteen hours a day for starvation wages and for every thousand workers, there were more than 700 accidents. The main employer along the Lena River was the Lena Goldfields Co. Ltd., owners of 66% of the Lena Gold Mining Joint Stock Company (Lenzoloto [Лензолота]), itself the principal owner of the majority of goldfields in the region. In 1911, the company, which produced large profits for its British and Russian shareholders, had cut the amount of wages paid in cash directly to workers (after the deduction of 'fines' for 'poor work') and declared that it would instead pay a sizeable portion of their salary in coupons that could only be used in the company store and canteens. As a consequence, the miners and their families were also forced to live in overcrowded barracks rather than be able to afford to rent better housing.
Discontent in the goldfields was high, and a strike broke out spontaneously on March 13 [O.S. Feb. 29] with hundreds of workers walking out at the Andreyevsky (Андреевском) goldfield after being issued rancid meat at the company store, reportedly made from horse penises.

1913 - Revolución Mexicana: Alvaro Obregon from Sonora rises against Victoriano Huerta and captures Nogales. The army of Obregon was filled with displaced Yaqui Indians . The northern armies of Pancho Villa, Obregon and Venustiano Carranza operated independently and did not trust one another.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: Barcelona is under military occupation and machine guns are mounted at strategic points along public highways. Milans del Bosch sends out a circular introducing censorship of the press. The workers continue to demand their rights, which include the minimum wage and an eight-hour maximum shift.
José Morote, the undersecretary to the presidency, who has been tasked with mediating in the dispute, arrives in Barcelona from Madrid.

1919 - Olga Aleksandrovna Dilevskaya (О́льга Алекса́ндровна Диле́вская; b. 1886), Russian writer, teacher, and active member of revolutionary movement in Russia as a member of the military organisation of the Moscow Committee of the RSDLP(b), is arrested by Alexander Kolchak (Алекса́ндр Колча́к) [White] Siberian Army (Сиби́рская добровольческая а́рмия) and summarily executed the same day. [see: Dec. 30]

1920 - Kapp-Lüttwitz Putsch: An attempted coup, named after its leaders, Wolfgang Kapp and Walther von Lüttwitz, takes place in the capital, Berlin. It aimed to undo the German Revolution of 1918–1919, overthrow the Weimar Republic and establish a right-wing autocratic government in its place. It was supported by parts of the Reichswehr (military) and other conservative, nationalistic and monarchist factions.
The legitimate German government was forced to flee the city. The coup failed after a few days, when large sections of the German population followed a call by the government to join a general strike. At the same time the Rote Ruhrarmee (Ruhr Red Army) came into existance to help thwart the rightists' plans.

[DD] 1920 - Märzaufstand / Ruhraufstand: Members of the KPD, USPD, SPD and FAUD in the Ruhr form the Rote Ruhrarmee (Ruhr Red Army) in swift response to the Kapp-Lüttwitz Putsch. Estimated to number about 50,000 men, it was able to defeat in a very short period the armed forces and police units in the area.
Those involved in the uprising, who were often WWI veterans, even received wages from the workers' councils. They often operated in small groups, transporting themselves by bicycle.

[B] 1928 - René-Louis Lafforgue (d. 1967), French singer, songwriter, actor, interpreter and anarchist, born to Basque anarchist parents. The family went into exile in France following the Spanish Civil War, where his brother is killed in participating in the Resistance.
After practising several professions including as a typesetter, he became an actor and singer-songwriter. The fifties saw his talent recognised following appearances with Georges Brassens. His songs like 'Julie la Rousse' (1956) provide him popularity. He also opened a cabaret, L'Ecole Buissonnière (School of Truancy) with his partner Claudie in 1962, a venue frequented by libertarian and pacifist performers, including the likes of Pierre Louki, Boby Lapointe, Maurice Fanon, Christine Sèvres and Guy Bedos.
Some of his films: 'Sous le Ciel de Paris' (actor; 1950), 'Julie la Rousse' (actor/composer; 1958), 'Les Amants de Teruel' (actor/composer/screenwriter; 1961) and 'La Communale' (1965).

1934 - Victor Barrucand (b. 1864), French anarchist, poet, musician, writer and journalist, dies. [see Oct. 7]

1939 - Ferre Grignard (Fernand Grignard; d. 1982), Belgium anarchist songwriter, skiffle artist and protest singer, born.

1942 - Georges Mathias Paraf-Javal (b. 1858), French activist and individualist anarchist propagandist and scientist, dies. A founder of the Ligue Antimilitariste and, with Émile Armand, the anarchist colony at Vaux (which had 400 members and lasted from 1902 to 1907). [see: Oct. 31]

1943 - New crematoriums open in Auschwitz.

1943 - Operation Spark*: A Schwarze Kapelle (Black Band) plot to kill Hitler with a timebomb smuggled on board his plane on a flight from Smolensk to East Prussia flops when the detonator fails to go off. If the plan had succeeded, General Friedrich Olbricht (1888 - 1944), head of the General Army Office headquarters, would have uses the Replacement Army to seize control in Berlin, Vienna, Munich and all the military district centres across Germany by the original Valkyrie plan (before Tresckow rewrote it in advance of the July 20 plot). [*also translated as Operation Flash]

1950 - Hippolyte Havel (b. 1871), Czech anarchist, dies. [see: Aug. 13]

[E] 1952 - Võ Thị Sáu (b. 1933), Vietnamese schoolgirl who fought as a guerilla against the French occupiers of Vietnam, is executed by the French colonialists.
[NB: This is the date given in Paul Grace - 'Vietnamese women in society and revolution. Volume 1' (1974) and it is incorrect. see: Jan. 23]

1961 - Labour organiser Elizabeth Gurley Flynn is elected chair of the National Committee of the Communist Party, U.S.A. One-time IWW and an anarchist in her youth.

1968 - All Polish universities are out on strike and in Warsaw a student demonstration leads to riots in the streets.

1971 - Rockwell Kent (b. 1882), US painter, printmaker, illustrator, writer, anti-fascist and anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Jun. 21]

[C] 1978 - An escape tunnel is discovered at Madrid's Carabanchel prison. The Spanish militant anarchist Agustín Rueda Sierra and seven fellow prisoners are 'identified' as the tunnel builders and subjected to more than six hours of brutal beatings and torture.

[C] 1978 - Agustín Rueda Sierra (b. 1952), Spanish militant anarchist, who was active in the Coordinadora de Presos en Lucha (COPEL), is tortured and beaten to death after the discovery of an escape tunnel at Madrid's Carabanchel prison. [see: Mar. 14]

1998 - María García (b. 1915), Spanish militant cenetista, dies. [see: Feb. 2]

2008 - Yorkshire anti-fascists attacked several Leeds venues that had been recently used for BNP meetings.

[A] 2010 - In self defence, life sentence prisoner Kevan Thakrar wounds three prison officers in the notoriously brutal HMP Frankland prison. He is subsequently cleared of two counts of attempted murder and wounding with intent.

2012 - Domitila Barrios de Chúngara (Domitila Barrios Cuenca; b. 1937), Bolivian labour leader and feminist, famed for her peaceful struggle against dictatorships of René Barrientos Ortuño and Hugo Banzer Suárez, dies of lung cancer aged 74 years old. [see: May 7]

2013 - Dacajeweiah (Splitting the Sky), also known as John Boncore Hill (b. 1952), Mohawk American Indian Movement activist, part time film and screen actor, dies. Imprisoned in New York’s notorious Attica State Prison for his native American activist protests, he was at the heart of the 1971 uprising and the only prisoner convicted of murder [for the death of prison guard William Quinn] following the New York governor Nelson Rockefeller ordered military assault on the prison by State police, where 43 people died. He was sentenced to at least 20 years in prison in 1975 but was pardoned the following year by the then-Govenor Hugh Carey against the backdrop of mass recriminations against how the police acted during the assault, something that the investigating commissions' lead, New York law professor Robert McKay, described the assault as the "bloodiest one-day encounter between Americans, except for the massacres against Indians of the 19th Century."
1761 - In the East Ayrshire town of Fenwick fifteen self-employed weavers met in the local church and signed a charter establishing the world’s first co-operative for which there are full records.

[F] 1836 - Tolpuddle Martyrs: The Government agrees that all the men should have a full and free pardon. Public Dinner held to celebrate.

[A] 1851 - The Russian anarchist Mikhail Bakunin, after first being jailed in Prague, is sent today to the Olmütz fortress in Austria, where he is sentenced in May to hang.

1863 - Raphael Friedeberg (d. 1940), German medical doctor, socialist and later an anarchist following his involvement in the Acona community, where he settled permamnently in 1904, born. [expand]

1872 - A law is passed in Paris condemning affiliation to the International as being an "attack against the public peace" and to be punished accordingly.

1872 - [O.S. Mar. 2] Lyudmila Nikolayevna Stal (Людмила Николаевна Сталь; d. 1939), Russian revolutionary and member of the RSDLP, who was repeatedly arrested and exiled from the 1890s onwards, born. She later became a member of the Bolshevik group in Paris (1907 onwards) and the Parti Socialiste whilst in exile and was active in the international women's movement. Member of the RSDLP from 1897 onwards. She worked on 'Pravda' (Правда) from 1912-14 and was on the editorial board of 'Working Woman' (Работница). Later a party bureacrat/official and a member of the International Women's Secretariat of the Comintern Executive (1921-3), as became the editor of the journal 'Коммунистка' (Communist) in 1924.
Lyudmila Stal died on April 23, 1939 in Moscow.

[E] 1877 - [N.S. Mar. 26] During the 'Process of 50' (Процесс 50-ти), the mass trial of the Muscovites Circle (Кружок москвичей) of the All-Russian Social Revolutionary Organisation (Всероссийской социально-революционной организации), the Subbotina sisters, Evgeniya, Nadezhda and Maria, are all sentenced to exile in Siberia, as are Lydia Figner, Vera Lyubatovich, Varvara Alexandrova and Varvara Batiushkov. Sophia Bardin and Olga Lyubatovich are sentenced to 9 years hard labour, Alexandera Horzhevskaya to 5 years, Anna Toporkova to 4 years and Gesya Gelfman to 2 years. [see: Mar. 26]

1883 - Karl Marx dies in London.

1885 - Jules Auguste Gorion aka Alfred Breton (d. 1952), French anarchist individualist, born. Editor of the individualist newspaper 'Le Réveil de l'Esclave' (The Awakening Slave; 1920-25), he also worked on Émile Bauchet's 'Le Semeur de Normandie' (1923-36) and Lorulot's anticlerical 'La Calotte' (The Skullcap). In the 1930s he devoted himself to industrial agitation and was sentenced to 18 months in prison for "obstructing the free movement of labour". He also edited a collection of revolutionary poems: 'Cris de Révolte Contre l'Iniquité Sociale et les Exploiteurs du Peuple' (Cries of Revolt Against Social Injustice and the Exploiters of the People; 1950).

1893 - Marietta di Monaco (Maria Kirndörfer; d. 1981), German cabaret artist, poet, chanteuse, dancer, artist's model and poet's muse, who was involved in the Cabaret Voltaire, birthplace of Dada, in Zurich, born. A regular performer at the Simplicissimus cabaret in Munich, where she danced, sang and recited her own and other Expressionist poet's poetry including that of Ringelnatz, Frank Wedekind, Fred Geyer and Klabund [Alfred Georg Hermann Henschke], who was also one of her lovers and dedicated his 1920 play 'Marietta. Ein Liebesroman' to her. She also notedly took part in Hugo Ball's 'Simultan Krippenspiel (Concert Bruitiste)' on May 31, 1916 at Cabaret Voltaire alongside Hans Arp Hugo Ball, Emmy Hennings, Marcel Janco and Tristan Tzara. In 1962, Marietta di Monaco published a collection of her memoirs, travel pictures and other meorabilia under the title of a poem by Klabund, .'Ich kam – ich geh. Reisebilder. Erinnerungen. Porträts' (I came – I went. Travel pictures. Memories. Portraits).
Marietta di Monaco died in a Munich old people's home on January 19, 1981.

1893 - Emilio Canzi (d. 1945), Italian partisan, anarchist and anti-fascist combattant in the Spanish Civil War, born. Head of the Battaglione Cantarana, he helped train the Arditti del Popolo (People’s Commmandos), who fought against Mussolini’s Blackshirts. Following the killing of a fascist he had to flee to France. In 1927 he returned to Italy to undertake underground work but was arrested. He managed to explain away his presence and left the country illegally in 1928. In France he joined an exile group of Piacenza anarchists, the Anarchist Communist Union of Piacenza. In October 1933 he served on the Anarchist Committee for political Victims based in Paris that maintained links with militants still in Italy. He was a main organiser of protests against the expulsion of Italian anarchist militants from France in 1935.
In 1936 he fought with Italian anarchist volunteers in Spain on the Aragon front. Returning to Paris he contributed to the exile anarchist press and organised aid for Italian anarchist volunteers who had ended up in French concentration camps. With the German invasion, Emilio was arrested by the Nazis, spending 3 months in a German prison and then he was sent to a concentration camp. In March 1942 he was transferred to Italy to receive a sentence of five years of internment on the prison island of Ventotene. From here he was sent to the concentration camp of Renicci D’Anghiari from where he and other anarchists organised a daring escape in 1943. He organised a partisan detachment in the mountains. He was arrested by the fascists in 1944 but was freed in a prisoner exchange. The Communists tried to neutralise his importance in the partisan movement and to discredit him and he was arrested by them. Another partisan unit freed him and he took part in the fighting to liberate Piacenza. He threw himself into activity in the anarchist movement again, taking part in the congress of the FCL (Libertarian Communist federation) and then at the founding congress of the Italian Anarchist Federation in Carrara in September 1945.
On October 2 1945 he was struck by a British Army truck and he died in hospital several weeks later. The nature of the accident remains mysterious.

1894 - Cripple Creek Miners' Strike: Mine owners still holding out for the 10-hour day soon attempted to re-open their mines. On March 14, they obtained a court injunction ordering the miners not to interfere with the operation of their mines, and hired strikebreakers. The Western Federation of Miners initially attempted to persuade these men to join the union and strike, but when they were unsuccessful, the union resorted to threats and violence. These tactics succeeded in driving non-union miners out of the district. [see: Feb. 7]

1896 - Louis-Émile Cottin (d. 1936), French carpenter-cabinet maker and militant anarchist, born. Received a death sentence [see below] (later commuted) for trying to assassinate Clémenceau in 1919. Cottin died on the Saragossa front during the Spanish Revolution, where he fought in the famed Durruti Column.

1897 - Errico Malatesta clandestinely re-enters Italy and begins publishing the weekly newspaper 'L'Agitazione'. Ii will be published until 12 May 1898.

1898 - Edward Paul Abbey (b. 1927), American novelist, essayist, polemicist and desert anarchist, dies. [see: Jan. 29]

1901 - Horacio Badaraco (d. 1946), Argentinian militant anarchist, born. Fought in Spain. [expand]

1902 - Alternative date for the birth of Mika Feldman de Etchebéhère (d. 1992), Argentinian Marxist and anarchist who fought with the P.O.U.M., born. The only woman to lead a militia column in the Spanish Civil War. [see: Feb. 2]

1907 - The Suikerbond (Sugar Union) – Bond van Geëmployeerden in de Suikerindustrie in Nederlandsch-Indië (Union of those employed in the sugar industry in the Netherlands Indies) – a trade union for European workers in the sugar industry in the Dutch East Indies, is founded in Surabaya.

1912 - Young Italian anarchist Antonio d' Alba attempts to assassinate Vittorio Emanuele III by firing two shots from a revolver. The king came out unscathed, but D'Alba was captured and sentenced to hard labour.

1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike: IWW members agree to terms granting wage increases as 10,000 strikers gather and vote, successfully ending the 'Bread & Roses' Lawrence Textile Strike of 32,000-people against wool mills. "On March 14, 1912, the throng that assembled on the Lawrence Common had come from all over the Western world. They had also come from just a few blocks away. Beneath hazy skies and merciful spring temperatures, fifteen thousand people clogged streets and alleys as they walked to their appointed meeting… But if their languages were many, their purpose was one. They would soon resume quarreling. All the former animosities, as old as the ‘old country,’ would surface. Yet for this singular afternoon, after sixty-three days without work or pay, surviving on soup and sandwiches doled out in dingy kitchens, witnessing the death of two strikers, the beatings of dozens, the arrests of hundreds, the marching of thousands, this cosmopolitan collection of the world’s workers had become an American tapestry." Bruce Watson - 'Bread and Roses: Mills, Migrants, and the Struggle for the American Dream' (2005)]

1915 - Walter Crane (b. 1845), English artist, book illustrator and libertarian socialist, dies. [see: Aug. 15]

1917 - Criminal Syndicalism: Introduced on February 19, 1917, the Idaho legislature passes its criminal syndicalism bill. A relatively brief document, the statute described criminal syndicalism as the "doctrine which advocates crime, sabotage, violence or unlawful methods of terrorism as a means of accomplishing industrial or political reform." It made the "advocacy of such doctrine" a felony and then went on to criminalise not only advocating criminal syndicalism, but also publicising criminal syndicalism; "[o]penly, wilfully and deliberately justif[ying], by word of mouth or writing, the commission or the attempt to commit crime, sabotage, violent methods of terrorism;" establishing or holding membership in any organisation committed to teaching or advocating criminal syndicalism; assembling to teach or advocate criminal syndicalism; and providing a physical forum for the advocacy of criminal syndicalism. In 1925 Idaho further expands its previous provisions to include a defintion of sabotage: "improper use of materials; loitering at work; slack work; slowing down work or production; [and] scamped work."

1918 - Gennaro Rubino (b. 1859), Italian anarchist who unsuccessfully tried to assassinate King Leopold II of Belgium on November 15 1902, dies in prison, possibly from Spanish flu after fifteen years of imprisonment and isolation that had come to affect his mental faculties.

[C] 1918 - Abba Kovner (אבא קובנר; d. 1987), Lithuanian Jewish Hebrew poet, writer, and commander of the Fareynikte Partizaner Organizatsye (FPO; United Partisan Organisation) in the Vilna Ghetto, born. [expand]
"Let us not go like sheep to the slaughter, Jewish youth! Do not believe those who are deceiving you. Out of 80,000 Jews of the Jerusalem of Lithuania (Vilna), only 20,000 remain. In front of your eyes our parents, our brothers and our sisters are being torn away from us. Where are the hundreds of men who were snatched away for labor by the Lithuanian kidnappers? Where are those naked women who were taken away on the horror-night of the provocation? Where are those Jews of the Day of Atonement? And where are our brothers of the second ghetto? Anyone who is taken out through the gates of the ghetto, will never return. All roads of the ghetto lead to Ponary, and Ponary means death. Oh, despairing people, - tear this deception away from your eyes. Your children, your husbands, your wives - are no longer alive - Ponary is not a labor camp. Everyone there is shot. Hitler aimed at destroying the Jews of Europe. It turned out to be the fate of the Jews of Lithuania to be the first. Let us not go like sheep to the slaughter. It is true that we are weak, lacking protection, but the only reply to a murderer is resistance. Brothers, it is better to die as free fighters than to live at the mercy of killers. Resist, resist, to our last breath!"

1919 - The 23-year-old Louis-Émile Cottin is sentenced to death for the attempted assassination of Clemenceau on 2 Feb 1919. This is commuted to 10 years in prison following a protest campaign organized in the pages of the anarchist 'Libertaire'.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: The new civil governor ​Carles Montañés [Carles Emili Montañès i Criquillion] and Gerardo Doval, the new chief of police, arrive in Barcelona from Madrid. Upon his arrival, Montañés is applauded at the station: perhaps not so much for what he is, but because his presence means the end of Gonzalez Rothwoss.
Lawton and Montañés have a meeting where the second convinces the first to negotiate with the strike committee.
The Federación Patronal de Barcelona is established. Its first major task it would set itself was to try and root out CNT members from amongst the strikers, setting as one of its terms for ending the second general strike that in order to be reinstated, a worker had to give up their CNT membership card and negotiate a new salary individually, a demand that no self-respection centista would tolerate.

1920 - Kapp-Lüttwitz Putsch: A General Strike is called against the Kapp-Lüttwitz Putsch in Weimar Germany. [see: Mar. 13 & 17]

1921 - Errico Malatesta, Armando Borghi and Corrado Quaglino launch a hunger strike in the San Villore prison in Milan.

1933 - Blackshirts armed with knuckle-dusters and lead-filled rubber hoses attack an anti-fascist gathering outside Rochdale Town Hall. [PR]

1934 - National Council for Civil Liberties founded.

[B] 1944 - Peter-Paul Zahl (d. 2011), German anarchist of the '68 generation, writer, poet and novelist, born. Linked to the Bewegung 2. Juni (June 2nd Movement), he was jailed for 6 months in 1970 for printing a "Freedom for all prisoners" poster in support of RAF and June 2nd Movement prisoners. In 1972 he was involved in a shoot-out with police during a 'terrorist' manhunt, during which a cop was shot. He was convicted in 1976 double murder trial to 15 years in prison, serving 10 years during which he turned author. In 1985, he emigrated to Jamaica where he was granted Jamaican citizenship and worked as a stage director and writer. [expand]

1945 - Alexander Granach (real name Jessaja Szajka Gronach; b. 1890) [1893 also given as the date], anarchist sympathiser and popular German actor in the 1920s and 1930s as well as 1940s Hollywood, dies. Apprenticed as a baker, he attended Russian Jewish revolutionary student meetings and discovered the Yiddish theatre. Moving to Berlin he joined an amateur theatre and, in 1909, he attended the school of the famous Max Reinhardt theatre. Post-WWI (drafted into the Austro-Hungarian army), he started acting in films, playing the part of Knock in FW Murnau's 'Nosferatu' (1921) and appearing in GW Pabst's 'Kameradschaft' (Comradeship; 1931). He also played Marat in Hans Behrendt's 'Danton' (1931) but in 1933, he fled anti-Semitic persecution and took refuge in the Soviet Union, meeting old revolutionary friends. However, in 1936 he was a victim of the Stalinist purges and imprisoned. Released, he left the country for Switzerland, from where he emigrated to the United States in 1939 and a second career in Hollywood. His first film was Ernst Lubitsch's 'Ninotchka' (1939) playing Kopalsky, one of the 3 Russians in Paris to sell jewellery confiscated from the aristocracy during the Russian Revolution of 1917. He also played Paco in 'For Whom Bell Tolls' (1943) by Sam Wood, Julius Streicher in 'The Hitler Gang' (1944) as well as a number of roles as an anti-fascist. Perhaps his most notable role was as Gestapo Inspector Alois Gruber in Fritz Lang's 'Hangmen Also Die!' (1943).
His libertarian sympathies led to him giving money to the Spanish anarchists Durruti and Francisco Ascaso, assisting them to find refuge in Belgium. He also took the lead role in the play 'Staatsraison' (Reason of State), a tribute for Sacco and Vanzetti as well as a denunciation of the American judicial machinery, written by his friend Erich Mühsam. [see: Apr. 18]

1946 - Approximately 200 ex-BU fascists and 18B detainees attend a meeting of prominent fascist John Preen's British or Britons’ Vigilantes Action League, held in the Albert Hall, London. 43 Group members were present in the stalls along with other anti-fascists waiting for the right moment to disrupt the even, when a large group of anti-fascists (mostly communists organised by the London District Committee of the CPGB) invaded the hall, taking it over. The speaker was shouted down and, faced with having lost control of the situation, the fascists fled. The anti-fascists present then held a meeting of their own. The meeting was eventually closed down by the police.

1951 - Vaga de Tramvies / Huelga de Tranvías [Barcelona Tram Strike / General Strike]: Barcelona has been turned into an armed camp, with four warships carrying marines docked in the harbour and troops having arrested thousands more strikers over the past few days, the general strike collapses, as workers return to their jobs. For many the threat of lay-offs was too great and, with thousands already starving, to risk unemployment seemed ridiculous. Though some workers continued to stay home from their jobs in an attempt to sustain the protest, by the end of the week most Barcelonan’s had returned to work.

1954 - The film 'Salt of the Earth', which tells the story of the 1951 strike by members of the International Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers at the Empire Zinc mine in New Mexico, premières. Of the 13,000 movie theaters in the U.S. at the time of its release, only 13 showed the film. "This film is a new weapon for Russia", said HUAC member and U.S. Rep. Donald L. Jackson. [see: Oct. 17]

1957 - Bataille d'Alger [Battle of Algiers]: The 'suicide' of Larbi Ben M'hidi is announced [see: Mar. 4]. He had supposedly committed suicide by hanging himself with his shirt. In fact, it had been decided that Ben M'hidi should not stand trial due to the reprisals that would follow his execution and so Major Paul Aussaresses [of the 11e Choc (11th 'Shock' Paratroop Regiment), the commando unit of the the SDECEE (Service de Documentation Extérieure et de Contre-Espionnagecons-Intelligence Service), France's external intteligence service] and men of the 1er Régiment Étranger de Parachutistes (1st Foreign Parachute Regiment) removed him from Bigeard's custody on March 3 and, after interrogation, drove him to a farm outside Algiers where they faked his suicide by hanging in the early hours of the following morning.
[ algerie/alger-premiere-suicide.html algerie/alger-premiere-arrestation-ben m hidi.html'hidi'hidi]

1958 - Jesús del Olmo Sáez (aka Malatesta; b. 1924), Spanish anarchist and anti-Francoist resistance fighter, dies. [see: Oct. 18]

1962 - Giovanna Caleffi Berneri (b. 1897), Italian anarchist, married to Camillo Berneri (murdered by the Communists in Spain), mother of Marie Louise Berneri, Giliana Berneri (anarchists all), dies. [see: May 04]

1978 - In the early hours in Madrid's Carabanchel prison, the Spanish militant anarchist Agustin Rueda Sierra (b. 1952) dies from the injuries inflicted on him following the discovery of an escape tunnel the previous day. He and seven comrades were 'identified' as the tunnel builders and subjected to more than six hours of brutal beatings and torture. [see: Nov. 14]

1978 - Massacre of Prison Ward 7: Also known as the Motín de los colchones (Mutiny of the mattress). 65 'civil' prisoners are murdered by prison guards in Buenos Aires’ Devoto Jail after prison guards drenched the inmates’ mattresses with kerosene before igniting a ferocious fire. Prisoners lost their lives due to suffocation and burns. When the local fire brigade arrived at the scene, they were told by the prisons officials that the blaze had been controlled and were ordered to leave. Those who attempted to escape were shot dead by the guards at close range. The dictatorship later announced that day that the fire was caused by the prisoners as part of a riot

1991 - The convictions of the Birmingham Six quashed by the Court of Appeal.

1993 - Soledad Estorach Esterri (b. 1915), Catalan anarcho-feminist, member of Mujeres Libres, companion in arms with Concha Liaño, dies. [see: Feb. 6]

[D] 1997 - Zapatista Uprising: In San Pedro Nixtalucum (Municipality of El Bosque), in a repressive display, the state police assault civilians sympathetic to the EZLN, resulting in 4 deaths, 29 wounded, 27 detained and 300 displaced.

2009 - Anti-fascists from a large protest march attack an annual wreath laying event in Ioannina in NW Greece attended by members of the neo-Nazi Golden Dawn (Xrysi Avgi). Numerous fascists are hospitalised and the event prevented. Despite the intervention of the riot-police, who in the past had provided protection for the neo-Nazis, and the extensive use of tear gas, there were no arrests or injuries amongst the anti-fascist protesters.
1812 - Luddite Timeline: Luddites attack and destroy cloth at Dickenson, Carr & Co.'s workshop in Leeds. The same occurred at Vickerman's establishment in Taylor Hill, Huddersfield.

1830 - Élisée Reclus (Jacques Élisée Reclus; d. 1905), renowned French radical geographer, writer and anarchist, born. [expand]

[E] 1877 - [O.S. Mar. 3] Milly Witkop Rocker (Milly Vitkopski; d. 1955), Ukrainian-America anarcho-syndicalist and anarcha-feminist writer and activist, born. Exiled to London, she was an activist in the Jewish anarchist movement among East End sweatshop workers. In London in 1896 she met Rudolf Rocker, who became her lifelong companion. Their son, the artist Fermin Rocker, was born in 1907. When Rocker was interned as an enemy alien at the start of WWI, Milly continued her anti-war activities, which led to her arrest in 1916 and imprisonment til the war ended in 1918. In November of that year they both moved to Germany where they became involved in the founding of the anarcho-syndicalist trade union Freie Arbeiter Union Deutschlands (Free Workers' Union of Germany). Disillusioned with the male-dominated nature of the union, Witkop became one of the leading founders of the Frauenbund (Women's Union) in Berlin in 1920, later to become the countrywide (Syndikalistische Frauenbund, with Milly drafting 'Was Will der Syndikalistische Frauenbund?' (What Does the Syndicalist Women's Union Want?; 1921) as a platform for the SFB.
Witkop was also active in the fight against racism and anti-Semitism in Germany and despaired of the labour movement's unwillingness to fight either which ultimately helped pave the way for the rise of the NSDAP. Following the Reichstag fire, Witkop and Rocker fled Germany for the United States via Switzerland, France and the UK. In the US the couple continued to give lectures, write about anarchist topics and helped raise awareness of events during the Spanish Civil War. In 1937 Milly and Rudolf Rocker settled in the anarchist community of Mohegan, NY.

1890 - Otto Luihn (d. 1943), Norwegian newspaper editor, magazine editor, poet and Communist, born. Luihn worked for the anarchist magazine 'Storm' from 1909, then worked as a journalist for 'Klassekampen', 'Social-Demokraten' (from 1914 to 1916), was editor-in-chief for the Stavanger newspaper 'Den 1ste Mai', and then journalist for the Bergen newspaper 'Arbeidet' from 1919 to 1923. He join the Communist Party in 1923, and worked for 'Norges Kommunistblad' from 1923 to 1927. He was then the first editor of the weekly magazine 'Arbeidermagasinet', with which he is most closely associated. During the occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany in 1942, he was arrested by Gestapo on May 17, 1942, and was incarcerated at Bredtveit concentration camp.

1891 - Aldino Felicani (d. 1967), Italian-American anarchist, typographer, editor, and publisher ('Rompez les Rangs', 'Libertarian Youth', 'The Social Question', 'L'Agitazione', 'The Lantern' and, until his death, 'Controcorrente' (Countercurrent), born.

1892 - French anarchist carpenter Théodule Meunier targets the Lobau Barracks, the site of the Communard massacres, with a bomb on the eve of the anniversary of the rising of the Paris Commune. Numerous arrests follow and Prime Minister, and future President, Émile Loubet at once submits to the Chamber of Deputies a bill providing that all persons responsible for such outrages should be liable to capital punishment.

1894 - Amédée Pauwels (b. 1864), Belgian anarchist bomber, dies when a bomb he was carrying into the the Church of La Madeleine in Paris explodes prematurely. [see: Jan. 29]

1908 - José Peirats Valls (d. 1989), Spanish anarchist, activist, anti-fascist combatant, journalist, historian and author of 'Anarchists in the Spanish Revolution' and other books on Spain, born. [expand]

1916 - Revolución Mexicana: General Pershing enters Mexico with 3,000 US Cavalry men to pursue the ever-ellusive Pancho Villa, and which increases to 9,000 men in late April. Villa wounded trying to overrun Carrancista garrison at Guerrero.

[D] 1917 - [O.S. Mar. 2] Tsar Nicholas II abdicates as revolution sweeps his country.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: La Canadenca representatives, members of the strike committee and José Morote, the assistant secretary of the presidency who had been sent from Madrid to mediate, hold a series of meetings at the headquarters of the Instituto de Reformas Sociales. The first meeting takes place at 15:00 as the strike committee arrived two hour late, much to the annoyance of the employer's side. The meetings were to last for three long days.
Montañés reported to the Minister of the Interior that the union presented their negotiation position, which he believed could be acceptable. What he did not say was that he had previously accepted three demands from the CNT: release of prisoners, guarantees of reinstatement, and the reopening of trade union premises. The new demands placed before the company are:
1) Readmission of those dismissed
2) Increase in salaries
3) Guarantees to avoid retaliation
4) 8-hour day
5) Full payment of wages in the case of accident
6) 50 thousand pesetas in compensation
7) Payment of wages lost during the strike.
The La Canadenca representatives responded by accepting the 8-hour day and payment of the wage in cases of accident, but refused to pay any compensation or the proposed salary increases of 10 to 50%. They even agreed, at the request of Montañés, to pay the wages paid during the strike if the workers presented themselves within three days. Where they remained firm was in refusing to reinstate of the dismissed strikers. Lawton declared the following day that many of those employees are thieves, which is why he can not readmit them.
With reprissals still in place against part of the striking workers, the strike committee rejected the employer counter-offer at 19:00. A new attempt at resolving the dispute began.

[F] 1920 - The council movement in Turin begins a strike, combined with occupation of the factories and resuming production under their own workers' control.

1920 - Nguyễn Thị Định (d. 1992), Vietnamese communist revolutionary, who fought with the Viet Minh forces against the French and, as a founding member of the National Liberation Front (Việt Cộng), against the Americans during the Vietnam War, born. In 1965, she was elected chairwoman of the South Vietnam Women's Liberation Association.

[C] 1932 - Mystery assassins fire on the train Hitler is riding between München and Weimar. They miss him.

1933 - Sucesos de Casas Viejas: A government Comisión de Investigación into the Casas Viejas massacre recognises the existence of the shootings but exonerates the government.

1943 - Gregoria Álvarez de Jesús aka Aling Oriang & 'Lakambini' (b. 1875), Filipina revolutionary, who was the founder and vice-president of the women's chapter of the Katipunan secret revolutionary society, dies during the Japanese Occupation of the Philippines. [see: May 9]

1945 - David Antona Domínguez (b. 1904), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist and one-time Secretariado del Comité Nacional CNT, dies. [see: Nov. 22]

[B] 1948 - Gerhard Seyfried, German anarchist comics and graphic artist, cartoonist and writer, born. Famed for his bearded anarchist dwarf with his toothy grim and bomb.

1960 - April Revolution [4·19 혁명] / Masan Protests [3·15 마산시위]: A protest against electoral corruption takes place in Masan, Korea, sparked by Democratic Party members' exposure of electoral corruption. A thousand residents of Masan gather in front of the Democratic Party Headquarters in Masan around 19:30 in the evening. As the citizens face off against the police, the city is blacked out. The police started shooting at the people and the people responded by throwing rocks at the police. The protest marked the beginning of what would become a popular uprising, led by labour and student groups, which overthrew the autocratic First Republic of South Korea under Syngman Rhee.
Amongst those taking part in the protests were students at the Masan Commercial High School (마산상업고등학교), one of whose students, 15-year-old Kim Ju-Yul (김주열), would disappear during the protests, only for his body to turn up in Masan harbour on April 11. The authorities claimed that he had drown but protesters forced their way into the hospital where the autopsy had taken place and found that he had died when a 20 centimetre-long tear-gas grenade fired by the police had penetrated from Kim's eyes to the back of his head. Rhee's regime tried to censor news of this incident but pictured of Kim's body quickly spread, precipitating mass protests.

1960 - Julia Bertrand (b. 1877), French teacher, militant anarchist, feminist and free thinker, dies. She collaborated on the feminist newspaper 'La Femme Affranchie' (The Emancipated Woman) and the journal 'La Vrille' (The Spiral) published by the anarchist Victor Loquier. Register in the 'Carnet B' (the Interior Ministry's book of monitored subversives) as an anti-miltarist, she was arrested an internned in 1914. Released following protests, she is banned from teaching but begins work in Faure's La Ruche until it closes in November 1917, and eventually has her teaching certification reinstated in 1925. Active in the anarchist press, including 'L'en Dehors', 'l'Idée Libre', 'Le Libertaire', etc.., in the Ligue d'Action Anticatholique and campaigning against vivisection. [see: Feb. 14]

1966 - Jean Biso (b. 1881), French anarcho-syndicalist, Secretary of the Syndicat des Correcteurs in Paris, participant in support groups for Sacco and Vanzetti, Spanish Revolution of 1936, dies. [see: Apr. 14]

1969 - Two anarchists, Alan Barlow and Phil Carver, arrested immediately following a powerful explosion at the Bank of Bilbao in London. In their possession was a letter claiming the action on behalf of the 1st of May Group.

1970 - Arthur Adamov (b. 1908), Russian-born French playwright and anarchist, dies. [see: Aug. 23]

1971 - Louis Louvet (b. 1899), French anarcho-syndicalist, in the Syndicat des Correcteurs d'Imprimerie since 1937, dies. Involved in numerous anarchist publications including: 'Le Libertaire' (1924); 'L'Éveil des Jeunes Libertaires' (1925); 'L'Anarchie' (1925); 'La Revue Anarchiste' (1925); 'Controverse' (1932); 'Ce Qu'il Faut Dire' (1944-45); 'Les Nouvelles Pacifistes' (1949); and 'Contre Courant' (1951). [see: Feb. 7]

1971 - Miquel Liern Barberà (b. 1907), Spanish anarchist, CNT member and combattant on the Teruel, Brunete and Ebro fronts, dies. [see: Aug. 16]

1980 - Hélio Oiticica (b. 1937), Brazilian visual artist (painting and sculpture) and anarchist, dies. Grandson of José Rodrigues Oiticica. Best known for his participation in the Concrete group, his Rio de Janeiro installation 'Tropicália' (1967), a labyrinth-like environment with parrots, plants, sand, texts, and a television — a satire on the clichés of Brazilian culture and a commentary on the conflict between tradition and technology typical in the Third World, gave its name to the Tropicalismo movement. [see: Jul. 26]

1983 - Rebecca West (Cicely Isabel Fairfield; b. 1892), English author, journalist, literary critic, travel writer, socialist, militant feminist, free love advocate and staunch anti-fascist, dies. [see: Dec. 21]

1984 - U.K. Miners' Strike: A 23-year-old miner David Jones from Wakefield, Yorkshire, is struck by a brick and killed on a picket line outside Ollerton colliery in Nottinghamshire during the first weeks of the miners' strike.

1986 - News International Strike / Wapping Dispute: The most successful picket at Wapping in the News International dispute: forty yards of fence are torn down, lorries are held up for five hours and parts of the country have to do without their Murdoch Sunday papers.

1995 - Jean Meckert, aka Jean or John Amila, Edouard Duret, Edmond Duret, Guy Duret, Albert Duvivier, Mariodile, Marcel Pivert (b. 1910), French libertarian novelist, screenwriter and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Mar. 15]

[A] 1997 - First International Day Against Police Brutality [DAPB]: This day of protest initiated in response to Swiss police beating two children, aged 11 & 12, by the Black Flag in Switzerland, with the help of COBP from Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Over 50 groups within 14 countries participate.

2011 - David Emmanuel, aka reggae artist Smiley Culture, dies of a stab wound to the heart during a police raid on his home. The police claim that it is self-inflicted - no one belives them.

2011 - Prison guards opening fire on prisoners protesting plans to execute 10 inmates in Ghezel Hesar prison in Karaj, the largest prison in Iraq. Nearly 80 are killed or seriously injured, and 70 more left with less serious gunshot wounds.

[CC] 2014 - Plan for a worldwide 'White Man March' against "discrimination against whites" prove to be a damp squib. No one turns up... anywhere.
"If you are a man, put on a pair of light khakis and a nice dress shirt. It should almost look like you are a groomsman at a wedding. Or maybe like an avenging Aryan angel. Women, you know how to look great in white. You could also wear sunglasses. Ancient warriors knew that a mask covering the eyes offers protection, but also provides the wearer with extra confidence. Sunglasses can intimidate others who cannot see your eyes, while making you seem cool and collected. This look is good if there might be hostile crowds."
1853 - Suggested date of birth of Lucy Eldine Gonzalez Parson, American anarchist labour organiser and founding member of the IWW. The exact date is unrecorded but this is the date recorded in the US Library of Congress. [see: Mar. 7]

1877 - Eleanor 'Fitzi' Fitzgerald (Mary Eleanor Fitzgerald; d. 1955), US theatre employee and manager, editor, anarchist speaker and writer, born. A friend and supporter of Emma Goldman, who she met through her then partner Ben Reitman, she became the office manager and assistant editor for 'Mother Earth'. She later became became involved with Alexander Berkman and was co-editor his paper 'The Blast'. She was also a member of the No-Conscription League, helped found the League for the Amnesty of Political Prisoners and was the manager of the Provincetown Players. Amongst her other relationships was one with Eugene O'Neill and she lived with fellow activist Pauline Turkel for many years. Eleanor Fitzgerald died from cancer on March 30, 1955.

1877 - Antoine Bertrand (d. 1964), French anarcho-syndicalist, member of La Jeunesse Libre (Free Youth) group, born.

[F] 1894 - Cripple Creek Miners' Strike: An armed group of miners ambushed and captured six sheriff's deputies en route to the Victor mine. A fight broke out, in which one deputy was shot and another hit by a club. An Altman judge, a member of the Western Federation of Miners, charged the deputies with carrying concealed weapons and disturbing the peace, then released them. After the assault on his deputies, El Paso County Sheriff M.F. Bowers wired the governor Davis H. Waite, and requested the intervention of the state militia, who arrived on March 18 to find the area tense but quiet. Thier commanding officer recommended the withdrawal of troops; Waite concurred and the state militia left Cripple Creek on March 20. [see: Feb. 7]

1896 - [N.S. Mar. 28] Melpomena Dimitrova Karnicheva [Мелпомена Димитрова Кърничева (bg) / Мелпомена Димитрова Крничева (mk)], popularly known as Mencha Karnichiu [Менча Кърничиу] or Carmen [Кармен](September 5 1964), Bulgarian revolutionary of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешната македонска революционна организация), born. [see: Mar. 28]

1900 - The first issue of the monthly 'Zsherminal' (Germinal), Yiddish journal of anarchist youth is published in London and Leeds. Rudolph Rocker and Milly Witkop carry out the printing themselves in order to keep the costs down. In print until March 1903, reappearing between Jan. 1905-May 1909.

1908 - Police forcibly remove Emma Goldman from the Workingmen's Hall in Chicago, where she is scheduled to speak on 'Anarchy as It Really Is', an event organised by the newly created Freedom of Speech Society. Barred since March 2 by police from addressing any meetings in any public halls in Chicago, every subsequent attempt has been thwarted by the police and she temporarily abandons her attempts on the 20th.

1908 - René Daumal (d. 1944), French writer, poet, critic, essayist, playwright and Indologist, born. Founder of the anarchist and socialist influenced magazine 'Le Grand Jeu', a counter weight to Breton's Surrealist group. Best known for his posthumously published novel 'Mount Analogue' (1952).

1912 - [O.S. Mar. 3] Lena Goldfields Strike [Приисках Ленского Забастовка]: A mass meeting of workers draws up their list of 18 demands and 4 guarantees were put forward by the workers: 8-hour day, with Sundasy and 12 holidays work-free; increases in salary by 30%; cancellation of fines; no repercussions due to the strike, including allowing strikers to receive food from the kitchens; better quality of food; the sacking of 25 listed employees of the mine's administration; women not to be forced to wrk; the use of the more prespectful address of "Вы" rather than "ты" [equivalent of "vous" & "tu" in French]; etc.

1913 - At a Sunday afternoon meeting In Hyde Park a large crowd "armed ... with ammunition of various descriptions or with trumpets, mouth organs and bells" verbally abuse and attack Women's Social and Political Union speakers, who are pelted with clods, oranges and other missiles and subjected to a "veritable tornado of abuse, catcalls, ragtime choruses and cries of "Go home to your children"." The police, who were "outnumbered 100 to 1", "realising the danger the women were in, called upon the chairman (sic) to close the meeting. A large force of police, mounted and on foot, drew in about the suffragette [platform], and under this escort the women were led out of the park, followed by a jeering crowd which continued to pelt them with missiles over the heads and through the lines of constables."
"The police endeavoured to pilot the women to the tube station, but the crowd brushed them aside and dragged the women up and down the street. In the melee one woman's eye was blackened and the clothes of all were torn and dishevelled. The police, after half an hour's struggle, got the upper hand and succeeded in getting the badly mauled women into the tube, from which all men were barred until order had been restored."

1913 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: New house at Cheam in Surrey is burnt down, causing £2,000 in damage.

1914 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: During the night of March 15-16, Birmingham Suffragettes are responsible for a fire at Kings Norton Station. A number of railway coaches are set alight as an act of protest. Difficulty obtaining enough water resulted in fire damage totalling £1,000. A copy of the 'Suffragette’ was found nearby.

1918 - 'Regeneración' publishes a proclamation in the US, "With the anarchists of the world and the workers in general." The authors, Librado Rivera and Ricardo Flores Magón, argue that the social revolution approaches & that all anarchists must infuse it with their energies and possibilities. This text gets the paper seized in the land of the free, and this is its last published appearance in the mythical land of milk and honey.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: To increase the pressure on the employers's side, the Confederación Regional del Trabajo de Cataluña added a new sector to the general strike, as a typographers' strike left Barcelona without newspapers. The Catalan CRT also threatened to bring out telephone operators and banking staff.
A second conciliatory meeting is held.

1921 - War Resisters International founded.

[D] 1921 - Kronstadt Rebellion [Кронштадтское восстание]: Bolsheviks stage their final bloody assault on the rebellious Kronstadt sailors and people - Kronstadt put Trotsky in power and Trotsky has squashed Kronstadt, shooting its rebels like partridges. In the process he has truly earned his sobriquet, the 'Red Butcher'.

1922 - Tatiana Aleksandrovna Leontieva (Татьяна Александровна Леонтьева; ca. 1885), Russian revolutionary, dies in a psychiatric hospital in Switzerland. She studied medicine in Lausanne in 1903-04, joining the Socialist-Revolutionary Party (Партии социалистов-революционеров) and becoming active in the S-R Combat Organisation (Боева́я организа́ция). Arrested in the spring of 1905 having been involved in transporting a suitcase of dynamite, she spent several months in solitary confinement in the Peter and Paul Fortress, after which she began to show signs of mental illness. Released from detention on the understanding she spent time in a nursing home, she was sent to Switzerland where she renewed her S-R contacts. She later appealed directly to Boris Savinkov to be allowed to rejoin combat activities but her refuse her permission, telling her to improve her health first. She took the new badly and sought out other 'terrorist' groups, linking up with the S-R Maximalists. On September 2 [August 20], 1906, in an attempt to assassinate the Russian Interior Minister Pyotr Durnovo (Пётр Дурновó), who had long been a target for the revolutionary groups, who was known to be holidaying in Interlaken in Switzerland under the assumed name of Müller, Leontieva mistakenly shot a French septuagenarian millionaire and tourist, Charles Müller, who superficially resembled Durnovo. The Interior Minister has been forewarned of a plot by Alexander Gerasimov (Алекса́ндр Гера́симов), the head of the Okhrana in St. Petersburg. In March 1907, Tatiana Leontiev was sentenced to a long period in prison. In 1910, rather than being deported at the end of her time in prison, she was transferred to a psychiatric hospital in Münsingen, where she died in 1922.

1930 -The first issue of 'Studi Sociali' (Social Studies), a free fortnightly written by Luigi Fabbri in Buenos Aires (Argentina) and published by Carlo Fontana Montevideo (Uruguay) in collaboration with editions of the newspaper 'La Protesta'.

1933 - Last appearance of 'Arbeitslose', FAUD's (Die Freie Arbeiter-Union Deutschlands) newspaper for the unemployed in Dresden, which also served as the unofficial organ of the German anarcho-syndicalist movement after the Nazi's banned their two previous papers.

1935 - Hans Westermann (b. 1890), German Communist and anti-Nazi resistance fighter in the German Resistance, dies in Gestapo custody in the Fuhlsbüttel concentraion camp in Hamburg. [see: Jul. 17]

1936 - Marguerite Durand (Charlotte Marguerite Durand; b. 1864), French stage actress, journalist, socialist and feminist, who founded the daily feminist newspaper 'La Fronde', dies. [see: Jan. 24]

1938 - Continuous bombing of Barcelona, March 16-18, by the fascist forces.

1946 - Eleanor E. Stein aka Eleanor Raskin, US administrative law judge, instructor at Albany Law School and former member of the Weather Underground, who went underground following the 1970 Greenwich Village townhouse explosion, born.]

1950 - Grigori Petrovich Maximov (Григорий Петрович Максимов)[also rendered as Gregory or G.P. Maximov or Maximoff] aka Gr. Lapot (Гр. Лапоть)(b. 1893), Russian anarcho-syndicalist propagandist and author, dies. Editor and writer during the Russian Revolution for 'Golos Truda' (The Voice of Labour), and its short-lived successor 'Volny Colos Truda' (The Free Voice of Labor) both suppressed by the Bolsheviks. Author of an important history of Leninism in Russia, 'The Guillotine at Work'. [see: Nov. 22]

1960 - As'ad AbuKhalil (أسعد أبو خليل), Lebanese-American professor of political science, former Marxist-Leninist, anarchist, feminist, and "atheist secularist", born.

1962 - Zenzl Mühsam (b. 1884), militant German anarchist and companion of Erich Mühsam, dies. She wounded up in Stalin's Gulags, convicted of "membership of a counterrevolutionary organisation and counter-revolutionary propaganda", and upon her release she was shuttled from one Workers' Paradise to another. [see: Jul. 27]

1965 - Montgomery, Alabama police attack civil rights marchers.

1968 - My Lai Massacre.

1969 - Antonio Pereira (b. 1908) (true name Tomaso Ranier) dies. Italian anarchist, member of the Ortiz column during the Spanish Revolution and in the underground movement after the fascist Franco became dictator.

1978 - Giuseppe Bifolchi aka Luigi Viola aka V (b. 1895), Italian anarchist communist, who fought in the Spanish Civil War and then later in the Italian Resistance to the Nazis, dies. [see: Feb. 20]

1976 - Leonard Peltier goes on trial for the shooting of FBI agents Jack Coler and Ronald Williams.

1978 - Aldo Moro, former Italian prime minister and Christian Democrat party leader, kidnapped in Rome by the Red Brigades.

1988 - Massacre of Kurds with mustard and nerve gases at Halabja.

[C] 1992 - Henrik Christensen, a 29-year-old Danish anti-fascist activist is killed when a letter bomb explodes in the offices of the Internationale Socialister, of which he was a member, in Copenhagen. The Søllerødgade bombing (as it came to be known) was claimed by Frit Danmark K12, a unknown neo-Nazi organisation but the police kept this fact a secret.
[øllerødgadebomben til tvg-film/2012-03-16 tvg Bombedrabet paa Henrik Christensen 1992.html]

1993 - Jan Paweł Rogalski (b. 1908), Polish Jewish editor, anarchist and anti-Nazi fighter, dies. [see: Aug. 18]

1995 - Joséphine Coueille (b. 1912), known as Andrée Prévotel, French anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, free thinker, dies. Charged in the 'Sterilizers of Bordeaux' case (affaire des stérilisés de Bordeaux) for promoting vasectomies, her charges were dropped, but her husband André Prévotel was sent to prison. [see: Apr. 19]
[NB: Mar. 15 (and to a lesser extent Mar. 14) is sometimes given as her date of death]

1996 - Ibrahima Sey, a 29 year old Gambian asylum seeker, dies after being forced to the ground in Ilford police station, handcuffed with his hands behind his back and sprayed in the face from close range with CS gas. An inquest jury will return a unanimous verdict of unlawful killing, highlighted the dangers of positional/restraint asphyxia and the use of CS spray in relation to a person who is mentally ill. Ibrahima's cousin Kebba ‘Dobo’ Jobe will also die in police custody on May 15 2004.

[B] 2001 - World Première of Anton Coppola's opera, 'Sacco & Vanzetti', staged by Tampa Opera at the Carol Morsani Hall. Based on music he wrote for a film his nephew Francis Ford Coppola had planned to make about the anarchists but never did.

2003 - Davide 'Dax' Cesare (b. 1977), Italian anti-fascist activist and militant from the Officina di Resistenza Sociale (O.R.So.) from Rozzano, is stabbed to death by two far-right activists in Milan. He and three comrades from O.R.So. were followed and attacked by three fascists, Federico, Mattia e Giorgio Morbi, a father and his two sons, after leaving a bar in Brioschi. Three of the four anti-fascists recieve numerous stab wounds. Dax dies in the ambulance on the way to the hospital. One of the others is stabbed 19 times but the medics manage to save his life. The ambulances arrived late, and the presence of police and carabinieri made the rescue operation much more difficult. Later, Dax's comrades are brutally attacked by police as they try to enter the emergency ward to get news of their comrades. Ten are seriously injured, others are isolated and chased down the street, and the emergency room is forced to close until the following morning.
Federico Morbi, the eldest of two brothers, was sentenced to 16 years and 8 months in prison. The father, initially acquitted, was later sentenced to 3 years and 4 months for the attempted murder of one of the victims. His youngest son, Mattia Morbi (who was 17-years-old at the time of the murder), was given 3 years probation. Additionally, they were ordered to pay €150,000 in compensation to Dax's mother and €100,000 each to his partner and daughter. In the wake of the emergency room 'riot', 2 anti-fascists were each sentenced to 1 year and 8 months in prison, whilst a police sergeant received 7 months. The 2 militants were forced to pay €130,000 in damages!

[A/E] 2003 - Rachel Corrie, member of the International Solidarity Movement, crushed to death by an Israeli bulldozer.

2008 - Aleksey Krylov aka 'Kyrl' (Алексе́й Крыло́в) a 21-year-old Russian anti-fascist is murdered by neo-Nazis in Moscow. On his way to concert by the Petrozhavodsk anti-fascist oi!-band Nichego Horoshego (Ничего хорошего) at the Art Garbage (Арт Гарбадж) club, the group of young anti-fascists he was in was attacked near Maroseika by twenty neo-Nazis armed with knives. Alexei received thirty-four knife wounds and died on the spot. A young woman attacked in the same incident survived by a chance - the knife got stuck in her backpack less than an inch from her body.

2011 - Another fire breaks out at the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant in northern Honshu and emergency workers evacuated as radiation levels rise. Meanwhile the death toll from the initial earthquake & tsunami rises to 4,277 with at least 8,194 missing.

2012 - Having pleaded guilty on March 12, 2012, to two counts of aggravated murder for killing his father, Red Pedersen and his wife, Dee Dee, white suprematist Joey Pedersen is sentenced to life in prison. [see: Sep. 26/Oct. 1 & 3]

2012 - A third member of Pussy Riot, Yekaterina Samutsevich [Екатерина Самуцевич], is arrested for her part in the February 21 event in Moscow's Cathedral of Christ the Saviour. [see: Mar. 3]

2013 - 10,000 people take part in a demonstration in Milan to commemorate ten years since the murder of Davide 'Dax' Cesare by fascists.
1650 - Novgorod Uprising [Новгородское восстание 1650 года]: During an uprising in Novgorod, caused by the Russian government's bulk purchasing of grain (traded to Sweden) which resulted in increases in the price of bread, the Metropolitan Nikon of Novgorod is beaten up by a crowd having damned the new municipal authority set up by the insurgents in a church litergy two days earlier.

1754 - Madame Roland aka Jeanne Manon Roland (Marie-Jeanne Phlippon; d. 1793), French salonnière, prominent supporter of the French Revolution and an influential member of the Girondist faction, born. She fell out of favour during the Reign of Terror and died on the guillotine.

[FF] 1834 - Tolpuddle Martyrs: James Brine, James Hammett, George Loveless, James Loveless, Thomas Standfield, and John Standfield stand trial at the Crown Court in the Shire Hall, Dorchester. They were tried before an all-male 12 jury. The jury men were farmers, and the employers of the labourers under trial. The farmers themselves rented their land from the gentry – but it was the gentry who had opposed the idea of the labourers uniting. Guilty from the start in the eyes of the court, the men on trial stuck to their views and, as George Loveless told the judge and jury: "My lord, if we had violated any law it was not done intentionally. We were uniting together to save ourselves, our wives and families from starvation."

1838 - Tolpuddle Martyrs: Five of the Martyrs landed in Plymouth and on April 16th they were the star guests at a Grand Dinner at White Conduit House, London.

1848 - Cinque Giornate di Milano [Five Days of Milan]: News of the revolution in Vienna and the dismissal of Metternich reaches Milan, generating a lot of political excitement and raising hopes. A group of young radical republicans decide to organise a large demonstration demanding a free press, the establishment of a civilian guard and the creation of a national assembly.

1848 - Ernesta Forti (d. unkown), Italian anarchist, born. She worked in the dairy in rue Joquelet, Paris, that was owned by her partner the prominent French anarchist Constant Martin. Her son Alfredo, who was also an anarchist, also worked there. In February 1894, she had come to the notice of the police as being an anarchist and On March 8 the French police ordered her and Alfredo's exulsion. They ended up in London, where Constant Martin was also exiled following the Procès des Trente. In London she married a French tailor called Siccardi, who acknowledged her son, thereby both automatically became French citizens with all the rights. In 1894 her name appears on a list of anarchists held by the French frontier and railway police.

1862 - Silvio Gesell (d. 1930), German merchant, theoretical economist, social activist and anarchist, born. Many have tried to label him as an anti-Semetic, anti-feminist, nationalist and imperialist social Darwinist by taking individual quotes out of context and accepting the Nazi's superfical and erroneous appropriation of parts of his economic theory and writings, but he was clearly a libertarian internationalist. [expand]

[B] 1873 - A.J. Alexandrovitch (Alexandre Joseph)(d.1949), prolific Russian-born French libertarian artist (portraiture and landscape) in paint, ink, charcoal, as well as etching and lithograph, born. Painted many allegorical compositions as well as portraits of all the well known contemporary anarchist figures. [see: Jan 10]

[E] 1871 - [O.S. Mar. 5] Rosa Luxemburg (d. 1919), German philosopher, economist, anti-militarist and revolutionist, born. Founder, with Karl Liebknecht, of the radical Spartacus League in 1916. After the Spartacist uprising in Berlin, they were arrested and murdered by German soldiers. [expand]

[BB] 1877 - Otto Gross (also Grob; d. 1920), Austrian psychoanalyst, sexologist and libertarian revolutionary, born. Influenced by the philosophy of Max Stirner, Friedrich Nietzsche and the political theories of Peter Kropotkin. An early follower of Freudian psychoanalytic theory. Involved in the development of psychiatry and psychoanalysis as well as in the modern literature of Expressionism and Dadaism. A generation before Wilhelm Reich, Gross was the first analyst to emphasize the dialectical interdependence between individual inner change and collective political change. He tried to live his radical ideas in both his private and professional life — which he refused to separate — and thus became anathema to those trying to establish the credibility of analysis as a science in the eyes of society and academe.
In 1901 he worked as a psychiatrist and assistant doctor in Munich and Graz, published his first papers and had his first treatment for drug addiction. Sometime around 1904 he met Freud and became his assistant.
He analysed C.G. Jung and was in turn analysed by him [leading to his 1908 labelling a hopeless lunatic]. By 1906 Gross was living in Munich and the utopian Ascona community in Switzerland, where he had an important influence on many of the expressionist writers and artists such as Karl Otten and Franz Werfel as well as anarchists radicals including Erich Mühsam.
In 1911 Gross was forcibly interned in a psychiatric institution. He subsequently wanted to found a school for anarchists in Ascona and he wrote to the Swiss medical doctor and anarchist Fritz Brupbacher that he had plans to publish a "Journal on the psychological problems of anarchism". Two years later, his father had Gross arrested as a dangerous anarchist and interned in a psychiatric institution in Austria [on the basis of Jung's diagnosis of schizophrenia]. By the time he was freed following an international press campaign initiated by his friends, Gross had become one of the psychiatrists working at the hospital.
In 1915, following a spell as an army doctor, Gross, together with Franz Jung, the painter Georg Schrimpf and others, published a journal called 'Die Freie Strasse' (The Free Road) as a "preparatory work for the revolution" and had considerable influence on Franz Jung (the writer), Raoul Hausman, Hannah Höch and the other artists who created Berlin Dada.
His personal life mirrored his libertarian views, married in 1903 to Frieda Schloffer, with whom he had a son, Peter, he later had relationships with Else Jaffé [nee von Richthofen], who gave birth to a son, Peter; an affair with Else's sister, Frieda Weekley, who later married D.H. Lawrence; Swiss writer Regina Ullmann [who later became a close friend/protégé of Rilke] and who gave birth to a daughter, Camilla; Marianne Kuh, [sister of the Austrian writer Anton Kuh] - a daughter Sophie; as well as having relationships with Marianne's sister, Nina, and possibly with the third sister, Margarethe.
He died of pneumonia after having been found in a Berlin street near-starved and frozen. A psychoanalytic outcast, in one of the very few eulogies that were published, German writer and close friend Otto Kaus wrote, "Germany's best revolutionary spirits have been educated and directly inspired by him. In a considerable number of powerful creations by the young generation one finds his ideas with that specific keenness and those far-reaching consequences that he was able to inspire." Anton Kuh also wrote of Gross as "a man known only to very few by name — apart from a handful of psychiatrists [Freud, Jung, et al] and secret policemen — and among those few only to those who plucked his feathers to adorn their own posteriors."
A minor character in David Cronenberg’s film 'A Dangerous Method' (2011) and a central one in Eric Koch’s novel 'Premonitions' (2008).
The psychology of the unconscious is the philosophy of revolution.” Otto Gross, 'Zur Ueberwindung der Kulturellen Krise, die Aktion', vol. 3, no. 14, 1913.

1892 - On the second floor of 39 Rue de Clichy, François Ravachol places a small suitcase. In the building lives Bulot, a public prosecutor. Five people are wounded in the considerable carnage.
"I have done this", Ravachol declares, "first because M Benoit passed an unfair sentence on Decamp and friends. The jury asked for the minimum sentence, he gave the maximum. Second, because there has been no publicity over the ill-treatment they received at the Clichy police headquarters. It is for these reasons that I have especially marked out MM Bulott and Benoit, but I want all those who have the responsibility of meting out justice to be more clement if they want better treatment themselves."
[Costantini pic]

1893 - [N.S. Mar. 29] Maria Vartanovna Petrosova [Мария Вартановна Петросова] or Mariya Vasilyevna Potresova [Мария Васильевна Потресова] (d. unknown), Russian member of the revolutionary movement since tsarist times, born. [see: Mar. 29]

1897 - Jules Jouy (b. 1855), French anarchist, singer, writer, poet, journalist, painter, songwriter and pioneer of the social song, dies. [see: Apr 27]

1901 - Severino di Giovanni (d. 1931), Italian typographer and anarchist who emigrated to Argentian, born. Best known for his campaign of violence in support of Sacco and Vanzetti and anti-fascism, for which he was executed by firing squad. [expand]

1906 - [O.S. Mar. 4] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Workers are granted a partial right to form unions, but not to strike; as are the rights of assembly and association, subject to government approval. The Tsarist regime is trying to introduce the bare minimum level of civil liberties that had been pledged in the 'October Manifesto'.

1906 - [O.S. Mar. 4] Rosa Luxemburg, together with Leo Jogiches, is arrested and imprisoned for revolutionary activities in Warsaw. On April 24 [O.S. Apr. 11], they were moved to Pavilion X of the Warsaw Citadel, which was notorious for the incarceration of ‘dangerous’ political criminals. Rosa Luxemburg embarked on a hunger strike that lasted six days. In combination with the overcrowded conditions, the hunger strike undermined her health. Her poor health together with the money paid over, ostensibly by her family in Poland, brought her release on bail on July 21 [O.S. Jul. 8], 1906. The money, which had been collected back in Germany by the SPD, was paid against Rosa Luxemburg’s knowledge or wishes. Under the conditions of bail she was required to remain in Warsaw, although her intention before her arrest, with the arrangements already made, had been to return to Berlin. On release from prison she quickly learnt that on her return to Germany she would face prosecution for incitement to Violence based on the speech she had made at the 1905 conference in Jena, where she had drawn the lesson from the events in Russia of ‘when evolution would turn into revolution even in Germany In time it would lead to further imprisonment.

1906 - Johann Most (b. 1846), German-American anarchist, propagandist, bookbinder and publisher of 'Freiheit', dies. [see: Feb. 5]

1911 - Rebelión de Baja California / Revolución Mexicana: Federal forces retake Tecate and kill the entire defending PLM force.

1913 - Revolución Mexicana: Pascual Orozco becomes brigadier in Victoriano Huerta's army.

1917 - Opening of the Galerie Dada at the Galerie Corray, Bahnhofstrasse 19, Zurich.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: Prime Minister Romanones puts pressure on the Civil Governor of Barcelona, ​​Carles Montañés, to resolve the conflict within the next 24 hours as he had received a threat from Largo Caballero, leader of the Socialist UGT, to call a general strike across the country if the conflict in Barcelona were not resolved. An hour later the manager Lawton accepted all the conditions of the La Canadenca strikers and added that there would be no reprisals. The strike committee then agreed to lift the general strike as long as this resolution is accepted by an assembly of strikers. A document is signed by the company, the strike committee and the unions involved (wood, electricity, water and gas, metallurgical) containing 9 points:
1) Readmission of dismissals and strikers
2) Removal of hostile company management personnel
3) Wage increases: 60% for those who earn 100 pesetas monthly, 40% for those on 100 to 150, 20% for those on 150 to 200, 15% for those on 300 to 400, 10% for those on 400 to 500. Not applicable to children under 17 years
4) Equalization of salaries with those of the Federación Patronal de Barcelona (Employers' Federation of Barcelona)
5) Payment of half salary for February and full salary payment from March 1 with increase, minus holiday pay
6) 8-hour day
7) Full payment of wages in the case of accident at work
8) No retaliation
9) Resumption of work within 48 hours.
After 45 days of strike, an agreement is reached that represents an almost total victory for workers: freedom of prisoners (except those who had a trial in progress), the reinstatement without penalties of all the strikers and pickets, general rise of wages, granting eight hours and payment of lost wages during the strike.
Seventy-six prisoners released are released over the next two days.

1920 - Kapp-Lüttwitz Putsch: Twelve million workers are now taking part in the general strike called on March 14 and the Putsch has effectively collapsed, as Kapp and Lüttwitz are forced to 'resign voluntarily' in order that they save face and the 'Bolsheviks' are not seen to have won - the outcome of behind the scene negotiations.

[C] 1920 - Kapp-Lüttwitz Putsch: Adolf Hitler acting as liaison between the Berlin and Munich military revolts, flies to Berlin with early nazi convert Dietrich Eckart to meet with Wolfgang Kapp. But his pilot gets lost, missing Berlin by forty-miles, landing the pair in Jüterborg, a spot with no running trains, and roads that have been barricaded by the strikers. Hitler manages to avoid discovery by wearing a goatee as a disguise, claims to be an accountant in the employ of Eckart, who professes to be a paper salesman, and they are finally allowed to continue their flight to Berlin.

1920 - Märzaufstand / Ruhraufstand: Units of the Red Ruhr Army near Wetter attack an advance party of the Freikorps Lichtschlag under Hauptmann Hasenclever, who upon being asked had identified himself as a supporter of the new Kapp government. They took the enemy force's weapons, captured 600 Freikorps members and occupied Dortmund.

1921 - Kronstadt Rebellion [Кронштадтское восстание]: Bolshevik forces enter Kronstadt. There is a great slaughter as the island is taken and a bloody suppression of those who who took part in the rebellion, and many of those who did not.

1934 - During her 90 days 'cultural tour' of the US - for which the US government gave permission only on the condition that she only spoke only in theatres and only about literature i.e her aboutbiography 'Living My Life', during which she was watched at all times by members of the FBI - Emma Goldman gives a stirring incendiary lecture to the City Club in Rochester, New York, speaking on the "drama" of world events and about fascism, Nazism, Stalinism, etc. and her eventful biography.

1935 - As vice president of the Société Contre l'Abus du Tabac (Society against the Abuse of Tobacco), anarchist militant, freethinker, anti-militarist, feminist and teacher Julia Bertrand presents a talk at the organisation's Paris headquarters entitled 'Le tabac. Poison de la vie en toutes circonstances' (Tobacco. Posionous to life in all circumstances).

[A] 1937 - The Friends of Durruti Group is formally established in Spain.

1941 - Jules Sellenet, known as Francis Boudoux (b. 1881), French militant, anti-militarist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Jul. 18]

1942 - Presumed date on which Käthe Leichter (Marianne Katharina Pick; d. 1942), Austrian social scientist, socialist trade unionist, journalist, author, and founder and director of the Women's Unit of the Vienna Chamber of Labour (Frauenreferats der Wiener Arbeiterkammer), who was one of the most prominent socialist feminist in Rotes Wien (Red Vienna) during the interwar years, was murdered (gassed) in Bernburg Euthanasia Centre (NS-Tötungsanstalt Bernburg) as part of the so-called Aktion 14f13. [see: Aug. 20]

1948 - Irina Dunn (Patricia Irene Dunn), Australian writer, social activist, filmmaker and coiner of the catch phrase: "A woman needs a man like a fish needs a bicycle", born.

1953 - Ulrich Klan, German musician, composer, educator, author and libertarian, born.

1959 - Dalai Lama flees to India from Lhasa after the Chinese army crushes a revolt in Tibet.

1960 - János Mattis-Teutsch (b. 1884), Hungarian-Romanian painter, sculptor, graphic artist, art critic, poet, anti-Fascist and anti-Nazi exile, who later fell foul of the Soviet authorities, dies. [see: Aug. 13]

1965 - Nancy Cunard (b. 1896), Surrealist writer, poet, model, anarchist and anti-fascist, dies. [see: Mar. 12]

[F] 1966 - Rio Grande Valley Farm Workers March / Delano Grape Strike: Nearly 100 striking Mexican and Filipino farm workers begin a march from Delano to Sacramento, California. By April 11, when they reached the steps of the state capitol, 10,000 supporters had joined them. A few months later, the two organisations representing the workers – the Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee and the National Farm Workers Association – joined to form a single union, out of which the United Farm Workers of America was born.

1967 - Aivar Voitka, Estonian anti-Soviet guerrilla legend and proto-anarchist member of Metsavendlus Eestis (Forest Brothers), born. The documentary 'Voitka - Metsän veljet' (Warriors of Independence; 2004) directed by Pekka Lehto, was made about their exploits.

[D] 1976 - Countrywide wildcat work stoppage in Italy, roads blocked, town halls besieged. Unions declare a one-day General Strike in an attempt to recoup this movement.

[1978 - demos & riots over the death of Agustín Rueda on March 14

1979 - Having threatened to turn up in greater numbers outside HMP Winchester following last week ANL-organised protest having prevented them reaching the prison, only 200 fascists turn up.

1986 - Cipriano Damiano González (b. 1916), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist and member of the anti-Franco underground resistance, dies. [see: Sep. 22]

1988 - Nikolas Asimos (Νικόλας Άσιμος [Asimopoulos (Ασιμόπουλος)]; b. 1949), Greek lyricist, composer and singer of Greek rock and 'folk' songs, and anarchist, dies. [see: Aug. 20]

2013 - Five prison guards held hostages in Malandrinos prison, Greece.

2015 - Dozens of people are been hurt and some 350 people arrested as thousands of anti-austerity demonstrators clash with police during protests against the opening of the new European Central Bank headquarters in Frankfurt. Seven police cars were set on fire, streets were blocked by burning stacks of tires and rubbish bins, and shops were damaged in the city center. Dark smoke billowed in front of the ECB towers and across central Frankfurt. Authorities had erected a security zone around the 185 metre skyscraper, putting up barricades and barbed wire in preparation for the protest action. Around 10,000 anti-capitalist protesters, marching under the banner of leftist alliance Blockupy, were expected to attend the rally, with a march through the city planned for later in the evening. A special train had been chartered by organisers to bring 800 people from Berlin, and 60 buses from 39 European countries are also heading to the financial hub. Activists said many protesters had been hurt by police batons, water cannon and by pepper spray and that the police agression had provoked the resulting violent response by the crowd. On the cops' side, they claimed that nearly 90 police were injured by stones and unidentified liquids thrown from within the thousands-strong protest.
1789 - Catherine Murphy, a counterfeiter, is the last person to be executed by burning in Britain, though she was strangled (hung for 30 minutes) before the faggots around her were ignited in a standard judicial act of 'mercy', so she was actually dead before she was burnt.

[FF] 1834 - Tolpuddle Martyrs: After a two day trial James Brine, James Hammett, George Loveless, James Loveless, Thomas Standfield, and John Standfield were found guilty for their part in the formation of The Friendly Society of Agricultural Labourers because, in the words of Judge Baron Williams: "The safety of the country was at stake". He then sentenced to seven years in a penal colony in Australia, the maximum sentence available to him, where they would have been sold on as slaves. They had been made an example of.
They were returned to their stinking smoke-filled cells - tiny, dark, single person cells, where the jailors would put green wood on the fires to generate smoke to make the conditions even more uncomfortable - to await transport in chains to the prison hulks, York and Leviathan, lying off Portsmouth.

[B] 1842 - Stéphane Mallarmé (real name Étienne Mallarmé; d. 1898), French Symbolist poet, critic and an anarchist sympathiser, born. Mallarmé's poetry was greatly influenced by that of the 'father of Symbolism' Charles Baudelaire, who had himself not been immune to the influences of anarchism prevalent in French society at the time, and in turn himself had an influence on a number of notable anarchists such as Renzo Novatore and Fernando Pessoa. Mallarmé would also exert an influence in anarchist circles of Paris which he frequented e.g. Le Chat Noir. [c.f. fellow symbolist poet and anarchist Henri de Régnier.] But more importantly he would provide inspiration to the Dadaist, Surrealist and Futurist movements.
He financial supported a number of anarchists whilst they were on trial (incl. Félix Fénéon), regularly subscribed to 'Le Révolté' and published texts in 'Les Entretiens Politiques et Litteraires'.
"Je ne sais pas d'autre bombe, qu'un livre." (I know of no bomb other than a book.)

'L’après-midi d’un faune. Églogue', 1876

Non, mais l’âme
De paroles vacante et ce corps alourdi
Tard succombent au fier silence de midi :
Sans plus il faut dormir en l’oubli du blasphème,
Sur le sable altéré gisant et comme j’aime
Ouvrir ma bouche à l’astre efficace des vins !

Couple, adieu ; je vais voir l’ombre que tu devins.

('The Afternoon of a Faun. Eclogue'

No, but the soul
Void of words, and this heavy body,
Succumb to noon’s proud silence slowly :
With no more ado, forgetting blasphemy,
I must sleep, lying on the thirsty sand, and how I love
to open my mouth to wine’s celestial effect !

Farewell to you, both: I go to see the shadow you have become.)


1842 - [O.S. Mar. 6] Anna Nikolayevna Shabanova (Анна Николаевна Шабанова; d. 1932), Russian doctor, radical, feminist and writer, born. As a young woman she joined the radical Society of Mutual Aid (взаимного вспомоществования) group and in 1865 was arrested and imprisoned for six months. Unable to train to qualify as a doctor in Russia, she moved to Helsinki but returned in 1873 when a new women's medical course started in St. Petersburg. In 1878 she became one of the first women in Russia to qualify as a doctor. Shabanova was one of the founders of the Russian Women's Mutual Philanthropic Society (Русского женского взаимного благотворительного общества) and during the 1905 Revolution campaigned for women's suffrage.

1844 - Mikelis Avlichos (Μικέλης Άβλιχος; d. 1917), Greek scholar, humorist and satirical poet, atheist, anarchist and radical, born.

1848 - Barrikadenaufstand [Barricades Uprising] / Märzrevolution: Following the failure of the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm IV to grant the liberal concessions demanded by the masses, a large demonstration is held in Berlin. When two shots ring out the people, fearing the soldiers surrounding the castle were being used against them, quickly began erecting barricades. In the Schlossplatz dragoons began attacking the crowd with swords, whilst the crowd threw stones at the soldiers trying to pull down the barricades. The battle raged until the commander of the Royal Guard Corps, Lieutenant General Karl von Prittwitz, suggested that it was neccesary to bombard the city to end the fighting. Instead, the king withdrew the troops after 13 hours of fighting, leaving hundreds dead.

1848 - Cinque Giornate di Milano [Five Days of Milan]: A major event in the Revolutionary Year of 1848 and the start of the Prima Guerra di Indipendenza (First Italian War of Independence) from the Austrian Empire begins as a crowd of 10,000 people assembled, some of them armed, in front of the town hall. The crowd quickly invaded the government palace, killing a guard and forcing the Vice-governor O'Donell to accept their political demands, most importantly, the formation of a civilian guard. Intially urprised, Joseph Radetzky von Radetz the experienced general commanding the well-equipped Austrian garrison retreated with his 8,000 men to the Castello Sforzesco. He then orderied his troops to recapture the governor's palace, hoping to capture in it the leaders of the uprising, who had instead moved into a house in Via Monte Napoleone. Intense combat ensued as the insurrection spread spontaneously throughout Milan. The insurgents erected hundreds of barricades [one estimate claims 1600 by the morning of March 19th], in the narrow streets of Milan using carriages, pianos, and sofas, thus rendering the movement of the Austrian troops difficult. The combat was split into many isolated battles which was advantageous to the Milanese who were able to capture arms and ammunition from the enemy, and which they then used to fire upon the troops from their vantage points of surrounding windows and roofs. While almost the entire Milanese society supported the revolt, the lower classes, artisans and workers, played the most significant role in the combat, suffering the bulk of the 409 Milanese dead.

1855 - Nicolò (Nicolantonio) Converti (d. 1939), Italian surgeon, anarchist propagandist, militant internationalist and typographer, born. [expand][NB. Some sources state Mar. 16]

1861 - Lucien Descaves (d. 1949), French libertarian novelist, born. His second novel, 'Sous-Offs' (NCO; 1889), based on his 4 years military service, provoked a scandal and earned him a trial for insulting the army and offending public morality. Acquitted, he was stripped of his military rank. In 1892, he became literary editor of Séverine's 'Journal', and worked on Zo Axa's 'L'Endehors' until 1895, then on Jean Grave's 'Temps Nouveaux'.
He was editor of 'l'Aurore' at the outbreak of the Dreyfus affair and immediately took a stand against the anti-Semitism displayed during it. In 1900 he co-authors with Maurice Donnay, a theatrical comedy called 'La Clairière' (The Clearing) inspired by Aiglemont and the other Milieux Libres experimental communities. In 1901 his novel evoking the Paris Commune, 'La Colonne', appeared. A second Paris Commune novel, 'Philémon, Vieux de la Vieille', was printed in 1913. A founding member of the Académie Goncourt, he was one of the most vociferous critics of his co-académiciens after they failed to award the prize to Celine's 'Journey to the End of the Night'.

[D] 1871 - During a brief confrontation between regular soldiers, sent to confiscate cannon from the National Guard militia in Paris, and a small group of revolutionary national guardsmen, shots are exchanged during which a guardsmen is killed. Word of the shooting spread quickly, and members of the National Guard from all over the neighbourhood, including Clemenceau, hurried to the site to confront the soldiers. Crowds of women and children also gathered, with whom the troops decide to fraternise. Having tried to withdraw his troops, General Claude-Martin Lecomte ordered them to load their weapons and fix bayonets. He thrice ordered them to fire, but the soldiers refused. Some of the officers were disarmed and taken to the city hall of Montmartre, under the protection of Clemenceau. General Lecomte and the officers of his staff were seized by the guardsmen and his mutinous soldiers and taken to the local headquarters of the National Guard.
That afternoon around 17:00, guardsmen also captured General Jacques Léon Clément-Thomas, long hated for his part in the repression of the 1848 revolution. Half an hour later, an angry crowd of national guardsmen and deserters from Lecomte's regiment at Rue des Rosiers seized Clement-Thomas, beat him with rifle butts, pushed him into the garden, and shot him repeatedly. A few minutes later, they did the same to General Lecomte.
Following the government's failed attempt to seize the cannons at Montmartre, the Central Committee of the National Guard ordered the three battalions to seize the Hôtel de Ville, where they believed the government was located. They were not aware that Adolphe Thiers, the chief executive of the French Government, the government itself, and the military commanders were at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, where the gates were open and there were few guards. They were also unaware that Marshal Patrice MacMahon, the future commander of the forces against the Commune, had just arrived at his home in Paris, having just been released from imprisonment in Germany. As soon as he heard the news of the uprising, he made his way to the train station, where national guardsmen were already stopping and checking the identity of departing passengers. A sympathetic station manager hid him in his office and helped him board a train, and he escaped the city. While he was at the train station, national guardsmen sent by the Central Committee arrived at his house looking for him.
On the advice of General Vinoy, Thiers ordered the evacuation to Versailles of all the regular forces in Paris, some forty thousand soldiers, including the soldiers in the fortresses around the city; the regrouping of all the army units in Versailles; and the departure of all government ministries from the city.
The execution of the 2 generals and the flight of the government provided the opening for the Communard insurrection, the first real experiment in worker self-management, occurring with the sympathetic cooperation of the petty bourgeoisie. However, the Commune would only survive for two months, having heroically stood against overwhelming odds.

1877 - Workers celebration in Bern, Switzerland organised by the anarchists Peter Kropotkin and Paul Brousse, leads to clashes with the police when the latter try to seize their red flags.

1879 - Robert Bodanzky, aka Danton (born Isidor Bodanskie; d. 1923), Austrian journalist, essayist, playwright, poet, librettist, artist, anti-militarist and anarcho-communist, born.

1882 - During a meeting at the Salle Favié in Paris, Louise Michel, wanting to disassociate herself from authoritarian socialists and parliamentarists, decides unambiguously that the Black Flag should be adopted by anarchists.
"Plus de drapeau rouge, mouillé du sang de nos soldats. J'arborerai le drapeau noir, portant le deuil de nos morts et de nos illusions." ["More red flags, wet of the blood of our soldiers. I shall raise the black flag, being in mourning for our deaths and for our illusions."]

[DD] 1886 - Djåcreye di 1886 [Walloon Jacquerie of 1886] or Berdouxha pås Ptitès Djins / Berdouxha di Payizans [Riot of the 'Little People' / Riot of the Peasants]: [18-29] In the industrial city of Liège, posters were put up by the Groupe Anarchiste et Révolutionnaire summoning workers to a meeting and adding "Let each man bring a revolver. Then forward!" Unexpectedly many workers responded to the anarchist appeal on the 15th anniversary of the Paris Commune (March 18). At Liège (Jemeppe-sur-Meuse, Seraing, Tilleur), there was open fighting between troops which had been massed there for the protection of the place and a large body of anarchists who marched on it. The fight was severe and prolonged, but finally resulted in the repulse of the Anarchists. They were not driven from the field, however, until the troops charged upon them with fixed bayonets. A large number of men on both sides were injured. In the aftermath of the battle, 6,000 troops were despatched to the region to maintain order.

1889 - Fasci Siciliani Uprising: The first Fascio, based on the example of the North and the already existing local società di mutuo soccorso (mutual aid societies), is formed in Messina. It was short-lived, folding in July of that year following the imprisonment of its founder Nicholas Petrina, and it would be another 2 years before the movement really took of following the creation of the Fascio di Catania on May 1, 1891.

1898 - Matilda Joslyn Gage (Matilda Electa Joslyn; b. 1826) US suffragist and radical feminist, Native American rights activist, abolitionist, freethinker, and prolific author, dies. [see: Mar. 24]

[E] 1923 - Maria Turon Turon (d. unkown), Spanish anarchist militant and feminist member of the Mujeres Libres group in the Pueblo Nuevo neighbourhood of Barcelona, born.

1903 - Ernesto Bonomini (d. 1986), Italian militant anarchist, anti-militarist and anti-fascist, born. A young socialist and anti-militarist, he is forced into exile in France in 1922 with the rise of fascism. In Paris he becomes an anarchist and, on Feb. 20 1924, he assassinates in a Paris resturant Nicola Bonservizi, a leading Fascist and editor of the Parisian fascist newspaper 'L'Italie Nouvelle' and correspondant of 'Popolo d’Italia', who also spied on the exile community for Mussolini’s secret police. Arrested after the killing, he was tried on 24 October 1924 and sentenced to 8 years hard labour, later commuted to simple imprisonment.
Freed on 20 February 1932, he was expelled from France and stayed in Belgium for a few months before being smuggled across the border by Umberto Marzocchi. He then worked in Lille at Marzocchi’s Librairie Moderne bookshop. Both were arrested in April 1933 and sentenced to one month in prison. Back in Paris, Ernesto is arrested again and goes on a long hunger strike. At the end of July 1936, he left for Spain and took an active part in the revolution and in the struggle against Franco. He denounced the attacks on the anarchist movement by the Stalinists in the pages of Camillo Berneri’s paper 'Guerra di Classe'.
In April 1938, he took part in a public meeting in Paris under a false name but was arrested and sentenced to a year in prison for breaking the expulsion order. Interned, he managed to escape in April 1939, making his way to the US via Belgium and Canada. In California he learnt upholstery in California, worked in the Twentieth Century Fox studios in Hollywood and continued his anarchist activity, writing for the anarchist press under the name of Dick Perry.

1910 - Julio Herrera y Reissig (b. 1875), Uruguayan poet, playwright, essayist and anarchist, dies. [see: Jan. 9]

1913 - In Thessaloniki (Greece), King George I of Greece, who was visting the city, is shot and killed by Alexandros Schinas, an anarchist.

1918 - Mexican anarchist Ricardo Flores Magón is arrested for the final time on March 18, 1918 under the Espionage Act. He is charged with hindering the American war effort with his ideas, and imprisoned in the federal penitentiary of Leavenworth, causing outrage at the time among both Mexicans and even US liberals. Ricardo Flores Magón died in prison under highly suspicious circumstances, supposedly of a heart attack', but at the hands of prison guards, according to Chicano inmates who rioted and killed his principal murderer.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: The government withdraws the state of war. Simó Piera leads a meeting-rally at the teatre Bosque de Gràcia during which it is decided to return to work under the condition that all prisoners are released, both union leaders arrested in January during state of emergency as thousands of prisoners during the strike, which had been promised by the new civil governor Carles Montañés.

1921 - Kronstadt Rebellion [Кронштадтское восстание]: With the fall of Kronstadt yesterday, thousands of sailors and workers lie dead in the streets. Summary execution of prisoners and hostages continues. Today the victorious Bolsheviks are celebrating the anniversary of the Paris Commune of 1871. Trotsky and Zinoviev, with a total lack of shame, denounce Thiers and Gallifet for the slaughter of the Paris rebels.

1923 - Maria Turon Turon (d. unkown), Spanish anarchist militant and feminist member of the Mujeres Libres group in the Pueblo Nuevo neighborhood of Barcelona, born.

1931 - At the penitentiary of Punta Carretas n Montevideo (Uruguay), anarchists expropriators Jaime Tadeo Peña, Agustin Garcia Capdevilla, Pedro Vicente Rivas and Boadas Moretti (arrested on 9 November 1928 after robbing the Messina currency exchange), alongside three common law prisoners, escape from the notorious prison by burrowing from the toilet a tunnel 50 meters long by 4 deep. Dug under the floor and walls, the tunnel is fully equipped and ends in a wood and coal store opened in August 1929 by anarchist Gino Gatti, who is the real 'engineer' of the tunnel, helped by José Manuel Paz (who installed electricity and ventilation), Miguel Roscigna, Andrés Vazquez Paredes and Fernando Malvicini. A sign is left behind: "Solidarity between anarchists is not simply a word written!"

1993 - Sara R. Ehrmann (b. 1895), US housewife and mother of two children, who became a prominent campaigner against capital punishment in Massachusetts and countrywide, having gotten to know Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti during their trial when her husband Herbert worked on their defence, dies of natural causes at the age of 97. [see: Jun. 14]

1937 - Battles in Guadalajara (March 8-18) end in victory for the Republican forces (the International Brigades and a division controlled by the anarchist Cipriano Mera) over the fascist nationalist camp composed of Italian, Moroccan troops and strongly armed and motorized Carlists attempting to seize Madrid.

1947 - Mikhael Guerdjikov (b. 1877), Bulgarian militant involved in the Macedonian liberation movement, dies. Influenced by Bakunin's ideas, he was editor of numerous papers, starting Bulgaria's first anarchist periodical, 'Free Society'. His burial is the last gathering of Bulgarian anarchists for many years. [see: Jan. 26]

1966 - The first edition of a new version of the fortnightly anarchist paper 'L'Internazionale' is published in Venice. It will be published in Forli (from 15 April 1966) and Ancona.

[F] 1971 - During a major strike of Ford workers in England the main offices of the Ford Motor Company at Gants Hill, Ilford, on the outskirts of London, is wrecked by a powerful explosion. A thousand word communique (AB Communique no. 7) is delivered shortly after.

1972 - A National Front front organisation, Trades Unionists against Immigration (Tru-Aim), based in Oldham try to hold a major anti-immigration march in the town. It is oposed by the Manchester Anti-Fascist Co-ordinating Committee and the event is called off due to lack of support and splits within the NF. [PR]

1976 - Police brutally attack students at the University of Padua where they have been holding a sit-in; five wounded by bullets.

[C] 1978 - Fausto Tinelli and Lorenzo 'Iaio' Iannucci, two 18-year-old Milanese activists from the Leoncavallo social centre are murdered by fascist gunmen. The two comrades were walking to Fausto's home when they approached three hooded men (who had been hanging around the social centre for much of the day) in the Via Mancinelli. They fired 8 shots at them. Iaio was killed instantly, Fausto died a few minutes later in the ambulance. The attack was claimed by Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari (amongst others). The two had been researching the heroin and cocaine traffic in the city, and its link with the 'underworld' and the extreme right. All their gathered information disappeared after their deaths. A journalist on 'L'Unità', Mauro Brutto, who was investigating the murder of the two comrades, was himself killed in November of the same year and all his documentation and information that he had found vanished as well.

1987 - Pilar Grangel (Maria del Pilar Grangel Arrufat [or Granjel i Arrufas]; b. 1893), Spanish rationalist educator and militant anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Oct. 19]

[A] 2006 - Students riot in the streets of Paris, cop cars burn, bricks fly.
[E] 1731 - Gabriela Silang (Maria Josefa Gabriela Cariño; d. 1763), Filipina revolutionary leader best known as the first female leader of a Filipino independence movement in the struggle against Spain, born. She took over the reins of her husband Diego Silang's revolutionary movement after his assassination in 1763, leading the Ilocano rebel movement for four months before she was captured and executed by the colonial government of the Spanish East Indies.
On September 10, 1763, Silang tried to besiege Vigan but the Spanish retaliated, forcing her into hiding. She retreated once more to Abra, where the Spanish later captured her. Silang and her troops were executed by hanging in Vigan's central plaza on September 20, 1763.

1820 - Charles-Ferdinand Gambon (d. 1887), French lawyer, magistrate, initially a moderate republican, Gambon became a socialist, anarchist and pacifist revolutionary, born. Elected a member of the Paris Commune. Defence lawyer for the Lyons anarchists in the 1883 trials. Wrote for 'Le Cri du Peuple' and coined the famous pacifist slogan "Guerre à la guerre".

1836 - François Dejoux (d. unknown), French anarchist activist and brother of Louis Dejoux, born. [see: Nov. 5]

1844 - Minna Canth (Ulrika Wilhelmina os Johnson; d. 1897), Finnish writer, journalist, feminist and social activist, born. One of the pioneers of realism in Finland, she wrote plays, novella and short stories and became the country's first female journalist. Something of a social radical, she openly criticised the church and ran a salon where well-known writers and cultural figures gathered to discuss ideas such as the women's movement and Darwinism, subjects that led to it being condemned by conservative politicians.

1848 - Märzrevolution: Wilhelm IV issues a proclamation 'An meine lieben Berliner' (To my dear Berliners), in which he seeks to justified the previous day's use of the military, claiming that the insurgents had been trying to storm the castle.

1872 - [N.S. Mar. 31] Alexandra Kollontai [Алекса́ндра Коллонта́й] (Alexandra Mikhailovna Domontovich [Алекса́ндра Миха́йловна Домонто́вич]; d. 1952), Ukrainian-Russian Communist revolutionary, writer, novelist, feminist, Soviet commisar and diplomat, born. [see: Mar. 31]

[FF] 1912 - British Syndicalist leader Tom Mann is arrested and charged under the Incitement to Mutiny Act 1797 for having read out sections of 'Open Letter to British Soldiers' at a meeting in Salford on March 14. Originally printed in the 'Irish Worker' the year before, the 'Open Letter' urged the army not to shoot strikers, and it had been reprinted in the first edition of 'The Syndicalist' (January 1912). Mann was also chairman of the Industrial Syndicalist Education League, which was the publisher of 'The Syndicalist'. Guy Bowman, secretary of the ISEL and the paper's editor was also arrested, as were the paper's printers, Benjamin Edward and Charles Ernest Buck. The three were charged under the 1797 Act and with "endeavouring to incite and stir up persons serving in His Majesty's land forces to commit acts of disobedience to the lawful orders of their superior officers".
The same day as Mann's arrest, Bowman and the Bucks stood trial at the Old Bailey, where they were found guilty; and on March 22 Bowman was sentenced to nine and a half months imprisonment with hard labour and the Bucks to 6 months with hard labour. These sentences were subsequently reduced to 6 months and one month respectively without hard labour.
The 'Open Letter' had also been reprinted as a leaflet at his own expense by a railwayman named Fred Crowsley, who had personally distributed copies to soldiers at Aldershot, Hyde Park Comer and Hounslow barracks. He had then been arrested on February 31 and charged under the 1797 Act and was tried at the Hampshire Assizes on June 18 and sentenced to four months imprisonment with hard labour, subsequently reduced to two months without hard labour.
Mann's trial took place on May 9 at the Manchester Assizes, during which he defended himself. He was found guilty and given the same (revised) sentence as Guy Bowman, six months without hard labour in Strangeways prison. He only served seven weeks.
[ Bowman]

[F] 1912 - National Coal Strike: The Minimum Wage Bill is introduces and subsequently rushed through Parliament in an effort to bring the strike to a swift end. The bill provided for arbitration to settle the level of minimum wages, district by district. This was rejected by miners in a second ballot over the weekend of March 23-24, with many expressing their determined opposition to the district by district nature of the government's proposals, there was also evidence of a strong disposition on the part of the men to return to work at an early date, leaving details to be afterwards settled. So, citing the smaller majority for continuing the strike action, and fear for the unity of the federation, the executive called off the strike. [see: Mar. 1]

1914 - Jiang Qing [江青] aka Madame Mao (Lǐ Shūméng [李淑蒙]; d. 1991), Chinese actress and major political figure during the Cultural Revolution (1966-76), as a member of the Gang of Four (四人幫), born. She effectively held the reigns of powere after Mao's death on September 9, 1976, but on October 6, Jiang Qing, Zhang Chunqiao, Wang Hongwen, and Yao Wenyuan were arrested in what amounted to a bloodless coup. At her trial she claimed that all that all she had done was obey the orders of Chairman Mao Zedong: "I was Chairman Mao's dog. I bit whomever he asked me to bite." Jiang Qing was sentenced to death with a two-year reprieve in 1981. By 1983, her death sentence was commuted to life imprisonment. While in prison, Jiang Qing was diagnosed with throat cancer, but she refused an operation. She was eventually released, on medical grounds, in 1991 and he committed suicide on May 14, 1991, hanging herself in a bathroom of her hospital.

1917 - The U.S. Supreme Court upholds the constitutionality of the Adamson Act, a federal law that established an 8-hour workday, with overtime pay, for interstate railway workers. Congress passed the law in 1916 to avert a nationwide rail strike.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: Salvador Seguí aka 'el Noi del Sucre' (Sugar Boy) is released and the same day takes part in the famous rally in the massive Plaza de las Arenas bullring in Barcelona. At the meeting, which is attended by 50,000 people inside and spilling into the streets outside, it is agreed to end the strike.

[D] 1930 - 1,100 men standing in a breadline in New York seize two lorryloads of bread and rolls as they are being delivered to a nearby hotel.

[EE] 1933 - Gerta Pohorylle, the future German anti-fascist photographer Gerda Taro, who made her name photographing the Republican struggle during the Spanish Civil War and would ultimately loose her life during the Battle of Brunete, is arrested by the Nazis and interrogated about a supposed Bolshevik plot to overthrow Hitler. As a member of a communist youth organisation, she had already come to the authorities' notice for distributing anti-Nazi leaflets and putting up communist propaganda posters on walls under cover of darkness. On her release after two weeks detention and having discovered that anti-Jewish boycotts had virtually destroyed her father's egg business, with the help of her former fiancée Pieter Bote and the use of a fake passport, she was able flee Leipzig, travelling overland to Paris, where she was looked after by a communist network. Her extended family also decided to escape Nazi Germany, heading eastwards and eventually ending up in Yugoslavia. Gerda would never see them again.

[A] 1935 - Harlem Uprising. Over 100 injured and $2 million worth of white property destroyed as riots break out in Harlem after a black man's eye is gouged out by policemen. Mayor La Guardia later refused to release a study which blamed the violence on police brutality.

1950 - Charles Benoit (b. 1878), French revolutionary socialist, then an anarchist, dies. [see: Mar. 24]

1956 - Bataille d'Alger [Battle of Algiers]: Following the execution of 2 FLN members, Abane Ramdane, the head of the FLN in Algiers following the arrest of Rabah Bitat in March 1955, issues a statement claiming: "Pour chaque maquisard guillotiné, cent Français seront abattus sans distinction" (For every maquisard guillotined, a hundred French will be slaughtered without distinction). [see: Jun. 19 & Sep. 30]

1969 - British troops invade Anguilla.

[C] 1971 - The National Front attempt to disrupt an anti-racism meeting being held in Hornsey Town Hall but are ambushed by anti-fascists and they come off worse in the encounter. [PR]

[B] 1976 - Adam O, Danish comics and poster artist and anarchist, born.

1998 - Jean Audard (b. 1913), French Surrealist-associated poet, critic, Marxist and anti-fascist, dies. [see: Mar. 20]

2013 - Escape from Agrinio prison, Greece.
1806 - Building work begins on Dartmoor prison, originally designed to hold prisoners from the Napolionic Wars.

[F] 1812 - Luddite Timeline: Frame-Breaking Act makes the death penalty available to punish Luddite activities.

[B] 1828 - Henrik Ibsen (d. 1906), Norwegian playwright, theatre director, poet and libertarian individualist, born. His first play 'Catiline' (or Catalina; 1850) actively promotes the anarchist ideal about fairness and freedom without violence, investigated in a societal context, universally and individually [expressly describing the central character Catiline as an anarchist]. Emma Goldman in her famous lecture 'The Social Significance of the Modern Drama' (1914) analyses the anarchist connotations of his drama in the plays 'The Pillars of Society', 'The Doll’s House', 'Ghosts' and 'An Enemy of Society'.
"The State is the curse of the individual. . . The State must go! That will be a revolution which will find me on its side. Undermine the idea of the State, set up in its place spontaneous action, and the idea that spiritual relationship is the only thing that makes for unity, and you will start the elements of a liberty which will be something worth possessing." [from a letter to George Brandes, shortly after the Paris Commune, 18-05-1871]

1842 - Charles Alérini (d. unknown), French anarchist revolutionary, First International and Jura Federation activist, born. [expand]

1848 - Cinque Giornate di Milano [Five Days of Milan]: Political differences come to the fore within the Milanese camp as a republican group, led by Carlo Cattaneo and Enrico Cernuschi (the strategic brain of the insurrection), create a war council to coordinate and direct the military operations. Resistance was organised using hot air balloons to send secure messages outside the walls; astronomers were told to monitor the enemy towers and steeples, employees of the Cadastre (surveyors) and engineers were consulted on how best to get around the city using cadastral survey maps, and the Martinitt (the orphanage children, so named after the orphanage where they lived) acted as message-runners to all parts of the town.

[E] 1848 - The Parisian feminist newspaper 'La Voix des Femmes' is founded by Eugénie Niboyet, with the support of Jeanne Deroin, Pauline Roland and Désirée Gay, following the 1848 Revolution. Its aim is to promote the need for financial and employee rights, education, property rights and the right to vote for all women.

1863 - [O.S. Mar. 8] Sophia Mikhaylovna Ginsberg (Софья Михайловна Гинсбург; d. 1891), Russian revolutionary, member of Narodnaya Volya, born. November 1890 - sentenced to death, commuted perpetual servitude / November 7, 1891 cut her neck with scissors. [expand]

1871 - Commune de Narbonne: Following the news of the insurrection in Paris March 18, 1871, a meeting of the the Club de la Révolution in Narbonne votes upon a motion which ends with the words: "the undersigned declare that they no longer recognise the government in Versailles and ask the councilors of Narbonne to decide and inform their fellow citizens whether they are willing to obey the government in Paris or that in Versailles." ["les soussignés déclarent ne plus reconnaître le gouvernement de Versailles et viennent demander aux conseillers municipaux de Narbonne d’avoir à se prononcer et à informer leurs concitoyens s’ils sont prêts à obéir au gouvernement de Paris ou à celui de Versailles"]

1888 - Pietro Bruzzi aka 'Brutius' (d. 1944), Italian journeyman mechanic, anarchist and anti-fascist fighter in Spain, born. [expand]
Arrested in Spain and extradited to Italy, he was interned on the island of Ponza. Escaping, he joined the anarchist anti-fascist resistance in Lombardy and edited the clandestine paper 'L'Adunata dei Libertari' (Anarchist Assembly) in late 1943. He was captured and shot in Melegnano by the fascists.

1889 - Jean de Boe (d. 1974), Belgian typographer, militant anarchist, syndicalist and co-operativist, born. Condemned in February 1913 as an accomplice to the Bonnot Gang to 10 years hard labour in French Guiana. He escaped and returned to Belgium in 1922, where he was active in several strikes and he founded 'Les Arts Graphiques' (The Graphic Arts) co-operative.

1897 - Louis Rodolphe Salis (b. 1851), French creator, host and owner of Le Chat Noir, the first modern cabaret and a meeting place for Paris' radical artists and anarchist alike, born. [see: May 29]

1899 - Martha Place, is the first woman to be executed by electrocution. Tried to kill her 17-year old stepdaughter with acid and an ax, but wound up smothering her with a pillow. The execution is carried out at Sing Sing Prison, New York.

1903 - 'Arbeter Fraint' begins republishing under the administration of the Arbeter Fraint group and editorship of Rudolf Rocker, but now as the organ of the "Federation of Yiddish-Speaking Anarchist Groups in Great Britain & Paris".

[D] 1906 - [O.S. Mar. 7] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: SR Maximalists rob the Moscow Merchants Mutual Credit Society (московское купеческой общество взаимного кредита) in the city centre, 50m from the Stock Exchange. 20 militants storm the bank at 18:00 armed with Browning and Mauser pistols, disarm and tie up police and threaten employees with a number of bombs. They manage to take 875,000 roubles; 5,200 roubles in gold, and the remaining in 100-rouble and 500-rouble banknotes.

1906 - Fearing that Porfirio Diaz will request their extradition to Mexico, Ricardo and Enrique Flores Magón and Juan Sarabia pay their bail and flee to Toronto, Canada. Librado Rivera, Antonio I. Villarreal and Manuel Sarabia take over editing 'Regeneración' even though the US postal authorities withdraw it fourth class postage privileges at the request of the Mexican Government.

1907 - Several hundred suffragettes against attempt to storm parliament [see: Feb. 13], many of them young mill workers from the north of England, who were confronted by 500 policemen. The women failed to breach the police lines and some were arrested, including seventeen-year-old Dora Thewlis, who's photograph appeared in the 'Daily Mirror' the following day, the paper nicknaming her "the Baby Suffragette".

1907 - [O.S. Mar. 7] Peter Arshinov (Пётр Арши́нов) shoots Vasilenko, head of the main railroad yard at Aleksandrovsk. A notorious and pitiless oppressor of workers, Vasilenko had turned over to the military tribunal more than 100 workers who were accused of taking part in the armed uprising in Aleksandrovsk in December, 1905; many of them were condemned to death or forced labor because of Vasilenko’s testimony. He was caught and sentenced to death by hanging but, the sentence temporarily postponed, he managed too escape from Aleksandrovsk prison on the night of April 22, 1907.

1910 - The first issue of 'L'Insurgé', weekly paper of the Central Region is published in Limoges.

1913 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: The house of Lady White (widow of Field-Marshal Sir George White, the 'hero' of Ladysmith) at Englefield Green, on the Thames, is destroyed by fire; damage £4,000. A golf pavilion at Weston-Super-Mare in Somersetshire is also destroyed by fire.

1913 - Jean Audard (d. 1998), French Surrealist-associated poet, critic, Marxist and anti-fascist, born. Brother of the Surrealist poet Pierre Audard (1909-1981). In the 1930s he was a contributor to 'Cahiers du Sud', and joined others associated with Surrealism in anti-Fascist efforts.

1917 - Criminal Syndicalism: The State of Washington's criminal syndicalism legislation, "An Act defining the crime of criminal syndicalism and prescribing the punishment thereof", is vetoed by the Democrat Governor Ernest Lister, who had help bring the eight-hour work day to the Pacific Northwest during the IWW's 1917 Lumber Workers' strike, though he was also active in repressing the IWW.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: Seventy-six prisoners have been released and the state of siege lifted but 33 prisoners facing charges remain under arrest together with a further eight held by the military. The workers returned to their jobs, but the military refuse to release all the prisoners (who had been arrested whilst having been called up) and the strike ultimately resumes.

1920 - Märzaufstand / Ruhraufstand: In Essen, a Central Committee (Zentralrat) of the Workers' Councils was formed, which took power in parts of the Ruhr. Also there was a headquarters in Hagen.

1922 - In the Rue des Plantes in Paris, Lee Ho Ling, a young Chinese student and individualist anarchist [born August 6, 1902 in Soehouang, China], tried unsuccessfully to kill the Chinese Minister Mr Loh Cheng who was returning to his home by car after a party. Lee fires 4 shots at the car but the only injury is to a senior Chinese official present in the vehicle. Lee blamed the minister for the expulsion of 150 Chinese students from Lyon because their ideas were considered "too advanced". He admits the act and is sentenced on July 6 to one year in prison and fined 200 francs.

1939 - The Degenerate Art Commission ordered over one thousand paintings and almost four thousand watercolors and drawings burned in the courtyard of a fire station in Berlin.

1940 - Célestin Freinet, French militant anarchist educator, arrested. Freinet is interned in various camps in the south of France. Eventually released, in May 1944 he joined the Maquis FTP of Briançon, and was also active in the Comité départemental de Libération de Gap.

[C] 1943 - In the Częstochowa Ghetto the Gestapo organise an Aktion against the intelligentsia: 157 people with academic educations and members of the Judenrat are shot at the Jewish cemetery.

1945 - Maria Lacerda de Moura (b. 1887), Brazilian teacher, lecturer, journalist, writer, poet, anti-fascist individualist anarchist and anarcha-feminist revolutionary, who founded the Liga para a Emancipação Intelectual da Mulher (League for the Intellectual Emancipation of Women), dies. [see: May 16]

[CC] 1949 - The Union Movement had planned to hold a meeting at Ridley Road, Dalston, followed by a march to West Green in Tottenham to hold another meeting, a route calculated to take them right through the Orthodox Jewish area of Stamford Hill. However, the day did not go as the fascists expected. Firstly, only 150 or so of their numbers turned up at the Ridley Road meeting and had to be protected from hundereds of booing anti-fascists by over 100 police. As the fascists drew up to march off, several thousand anti-fascists arrived from a CPGB rally in nearby Kingsland Road and breached police lines. Hand-to-hand fighting broke out and mounted police charged int the crowd. Fireworks were thrown in an attempt to unseat the riders.
Thousands of anti-fascists lined Kingsland Road, the fascists' proposed route out of Dalston, and the police chose to reroute it via back roads, away from Stamford Hill, under the protection of 200 cops on foot and more in vehicles tagging along behind. All along the route Londoners shouted, "Down with the Fascists," and "They shall not march", and at various points anti-fascists broke through the police lines to attack the fascists. 5,000 anti-fascists were also waiting for the UM at West Green in Tottenham. However, the police had diverted the march to Tottenham Town Hall and 2,000 of the waiting anti-fascists diverted there. When the police attempted to disperse the crowd, they came under a hail of "large chunks of concrete, stones, hundreds of steel ball-bearings, glass marbles and broken glass to stick in the horses' hooves and impede the progress of the mounted police." The UM were taken behind the Town Hall, where they quickly dispersed.
Ten policemen were injured and 35 people arrested, who were charged with obstruction or assault, threatening behaviour and possessing offensive weapons. [PR]

[A] 1960 - Cuban anarchist-syndicalist workers' papers — including 'Solidaridad Gastronomico' — forced to cease publishing.

1963 - Karl Otten (b. 1889), German writer and anarchist, dies. [see: Jul. 29]

1969 - A federal grand jury indicts the Chicago Eight.

1976 - Patricia 'Tania' Hearst convicted of bank robbery. [expand]

1982 - Pierre Lentengre (aka Pierre Lentente) (b. 1890), French militant and founder of a Parisian anarchist group, dies. Administrator of 'La Voix Libertaire' (1928-1939) and active in The Friends of Sébastien Faure. [see: Dec. 17]

1985 - Army crushes a General Strike in Bolivia.

1991 - British Government announces abandonment of the Poll Tax.

1995 - The Aum Shinrikyo religious cult releases Sarin nerve gas into the Tokyo underground system. At least 13 die and thousands are injured.

1996 - Claude Bourdet (b. 1909), French writer, journalist, anti-fascist, anti-colonialist and militant socialist, who was active in the Résistance, dies. [see: Oct. 28]

1998 - Agustin Gomez-Arcos (b. 1939), Spanish anarchist, gay novelist and dramatist, dies. Wrote mostly in French about Franco's Spain, where many of his works were banned. Involved in experimental threatre works in Paris from 1968. [see: Jan 15]

2004 - Global Day of Action Against War and Occupation.

2010 - 1,500 UAF supporters mobilise against a planned EDL demonstration in Bolton's Victoria Square. The day began with the UAF jumping the EDL pitch/'designated protest area' at 10am but they were later forced back by a wall of police as the 2,000 EDL supporters, who had assembled at separate sites, were escorted to Victoria Square at 1pm under heavy police escort. Some anti-fascists tried to break through the barriers around their pen and bottles and cans were thrown back and forth between the 2 pens and smoke bombs set off. At 3pm, the EDL were escorted away by police. Sixty-seven people were arrested, 55 of whom were affiliated to the UAF, including UAF organisers Weyman Bennett and Rhetta Moran - the conspiracy to commit violent disorder charges brought against them were later dropped - and nine from the EDL. A 16-year-old girl, who the police said had nothing to do with the protests, was treated after she suffered a panic attack. Two UAF members were taken to hospital with with a minor head and a minor ear injury, and 2 cops were injured, one with a broken finger and another with a bite from a mishandled police dog.
Unite Against Fascism campaigner Alan Clough, who was one of those arrested and charged with using threatening, abusive or insulting words or behaviour, and the case against him was later dropped after Granada TV video footage was handed to Clough’s defence team that apparently showed police officers gripping his neck, punching him in the face and striking him with batons as he was dragged to the ground. Two GMP Tactical Aid Unit officers, Inspector Robert Cantrell and PC Alan Glover, were investigated and faced charges of making false statements against Alan Clough. However, the charge of intending to pervert the course of justice by giving false or misleading statements against Cantrell was quashed by a judge at York Crown Court on February 11, 2013. On June 17, 2013, the CPS also dropped the charges against Glover, claiming that new 'enhanced video' footage cleared him.
In August 2013, three of the UAF protesters, who had sought to bring civil claims against Greater Manchester Police (GMP) based on allegations ranging from false imprisonment, malicious prosecution, assault and homophobic abuse, were awarded out of court settlements by GMP. Jason Travis and Paul Sutcliffe each received £12,000 and Dane Kelly £15,000.
1811 - Guerra de Independencia de México [Mexican War of Independence]: Miguel Hidalgo, Ignacio Allende and the remaining leadership of the insurgent Army of the Americas are ambushed and captured. The prisoners were taken to Chihuahua where they were tried. Allende, Juan Aldama and José Mariano Jiménez were shot on June 26, Hidalgo on July 30 and Jose Mariano de Abasolo was sentenced to life in prison in Cádiz, Spain, where he died in 1816.

1848 - Cinque Giornate di Milano [Five Days of Milan]: In response to the radicals' control of the war council, during the night of the 21st-22nd conservative elements led by the Podestà (chief magistrate) of Milan, Count Gabrio Casati, and other moderate aristocrats of Milan's municipality established a provisional government, assuming power and preventing the republicans from gaining the upper hand. In fact, earlier they were even ready to accept two truce proposals from Radetzky, but Cattaneo and the war council forced them to reject those proposals.

1848 - Märzrevolution: Wilhelm IV issues a second proclamation, 'An Mein Volk und an die deutsche Nation!' (To my people and to the German Nation), delaring the "Wiedergeburt und Gründung eines neuen Deutschlands" (Rebirth and creation of a new Germany).

[F] 1870 - 1500 the miners in the Le Creusot area go on strike to protest against a reduction in their wages. The owner of the local mines and metal works, Eugene Schneider, was notorious: as the bourgeois liberal candidate in the 1869 election, he had been elected by just one vote, having won the previous election of 1863 by 800 votes. He responded to this snub by dismissing 200 workers he suspected of having voted against him. He would use the army against the strikers.

1872 - Neith Boyce Hapgood (d. 1951), U.S. novelist, playwright and journalist, born. She married the anarchist Hutchins Hapgood and together they collaborated on a novel, 'Enemies' (1916) which they later published as a one-act play in 1921. Her other novels include: Novels: 'The Forerunner' (1903), 'The Folly of Others' (1904), 'Eternal Spring' (1906), 'The Bond' (1908), 'Two Sons' (1917), 'Proud Lady' (1923) and 'Harry: A Portrait' (1923). She also co-founded the Provincetown Players together with Susan Glaspell, George Cram Cook and others.

1873 - Demetrius Paparrigopoulos (Δημήτριος Παπαρρηγόπουλος; b. 1843), Greek anarchist, playwright, poet and suicide, dies.

1874 - Gustave Franssen (d. 1950), French copyreader, revolutionary syndicalist and libertarian, born.]

1887 - Lajos Tihanyi Kassák (d. 1967), Hungarian poet, novelist, painter, essayist, editor, theoretician of the avant-garde, anarchist, anti-fascist and anti-Stalinist, born. He was among the first genuine working-class writers in Hungarian literature and was an important influence across the various artistic and radical intelectual groups in Budapest in the ealy 1900s. [expand]

[E] 1897 - Marcela Marcelo aka 'Selang Bagsik' (Ferocious Sela) and 'Henerala Sela' (General Sela) (b. 1868), famed Filipina 'Woman General of the revolution', dies in the Battle of Pasong Santol (Battle of Perez Dasmariñas) during the Cavite Offensive, an all-out attack by Spanish forces to recapture Cavite in the Philippines

1920 - Evelina Haverfield (Evilena Scarlett; b. 1867), Scottish nurse, militant suffragette in the WSPU, aid worker and founder Women’s Emergency Corps, dies of pneumonia. [see: Aug. 9]

1913 - Émile Maurin (b. 1862) (known as Elie Murmain), French anarchist militant and photographer, dies. [see: Jul 28]

1919 - Hungarian Councils Republic declared. Anarchists particiapte in the Budapest Commune. [expand]

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: Salvador Seguí continues to try and persuade the workers to return to work and the newspapers claim that "tornada a la normalitat" (everything is back to normal). However, Seguí issues a warning giving the authorities 72 hours to release the remaining prisoners or the workers will go out on strike again.

1926 - Todor 'Tocho' Mitev (d. 2002), Bulgarian anarchist and doctor, born.

[D] 1927 - Shanghai Commune [上海工人三次武装起义 (Shanghai Workers March Armed Uprising)]: In the chaotic environment that was China in the mid 1920s - a country ruled by a patchwork of ruthless Warlords who had seized control of regional centres following the collapse of the Manchu dynasty ad the continued interference of Western states protecting their economic interests via the Extra-Territorial Concessions system - workers were constantly having strike to protect their precarious existences, with "demands centred on wage increases, recall of discharged employees, dismissal of offensive foremen, dismissals without reason, strike pay, payment or increase of food allowances, reduction or limitation of working hours, improvements in factory equipment, living quarters, eating-rooms and general working conditions, abolition of corporal punishment of workers, bonuses, release of arrested or detained workers, and compensation for injuries sustained while at work... medical service, sick-leave pay, wages for apprentices, six-day week, prompt payment of wages, one month’s salary for women workers during confinement, non-replacement of adults by children, and pensions. [Ch. VII. 'The Shanghai Insurrection' from Harold R. Isaacs - 'The Tragedy of the Chinese Revolution', 1938] Added to this chaotic mix was the recent split in the Kuomintang (國民黨), the ruling Chinese Nationalist Party, following the death of Sun Yat-sen (孫逸仙) in 1925, the party effective split between its left and right wings, headed by Wang Jingwei (汪精衛) and Hu Hanmin (胡漢民) respectively. However, it was a KMT military leader Chiang Kai-shek (蔣介石) who ended up seizing control of the party the following year and he would end up purging the (effectively entryist) elements of the Chinese Communist Party who had been in an uneasy alliance [the politics of the situation are too complicated to be able to fully address here]. This would ultimately lead to the Chinese Civil War (國共內戰 or Nationalist-Communist Civil War), which broke out in August 1927 and would effectively last until 1950 and the creation of two separate states, the Republic of China in Taiwan and the People's Republic of China in mainland China.
It was in Shanghai that these two major political threads came together in March 1927. With the military forces of the left wing of the KMT and its CCP allies, then under the control of the Nationalist Government led by Wang Jingwei, having arrived outside the city walls on March 20, the Shanghai General Labour Union (上海總工會) decided that the time was ripe to begin an uprising (the third in a series of revolts) against the local Warlord Sun Chuanfang (孫傳芳). Their previous attempt had been poorly organised and had ended badly, with the strikers being met on the streets by the forces of the city's garrison and the police of the International Settlement and the French Concession. "Students and strikers caught distributing leaflets in the streets were beheaded or shot on the spot. On the very first day of the strike Li sent his execution squads into the streets with their great broadswords. Strike leaders arrested by the foreign police were sent out into Chinese territory for execution. In the Concessions and in Chinese territory alike police squads searched pedestrians and shops and created such a reign of terror in the streets that most shops, especially in Chapei and Nantao, boarded up." [Harold R. Isaacs - 'The Tragedy of the Chinese Revolution', 1938] "A foreign correspondent watched the killings: “After the heads of the victims were severed by swordsmen, they were displayed on the top of poles or placed upon platters and carried through the streets. This sight in a parade through crowded thoroughfares had the effect of creating a veritable reign of terror, because the victims were denied the semblance of a trial. The executions occurred in the densest quarters. The executioners, bearing broadswords and accompanied by a squad of soldiers, marched their victims to a prominent corner, where the strike leaders were forced to bend over while their heads were cut off. Thousands fled in horror when the heads were stuck on sharp-pointed bamboo poles and were hoisted aloft and carried to the scene of the next execution.”" [ibid]
Having prepared in advance of the arrival of the KMT forces, taking a leaf out of the Paris commune's book and forming workers' and citizens' militias, with the hope that the KMT army's entry into the city would prove to be the deciding factor on their behalf, the General Labour Union called for a general strike and insurrection to break out simultaneously at noon the following day. At 12:00 on March 21 whistles sounded across the city and "practically every worker in Shanghai came out on to the streets. Their ranks were swelled when they were joined by shop employees and the hordes of the city poor. Between 500,000 and 800,000 people were directly involved. Carefully laid plans for the insurrection were based upon a trained workers’ militia composed of 5,000 picked men, broken up into squads of twenty and thirty. For arms to begin with they had only a hundred and fifty Mauser pistols. That meant less than one to a squad. The others came to grips with the police and the Shantung soldiery armed only with clubs, axes, and knives... Fighting began simultaneously in seven parts of the city" and "everywhere except in Chapei the fight for control of the police stations and local military posts was won by the workers before nightfall. Many soldiers and policemen tore off their uniforms and surrendered their arms and ammunition... Resistance everywhere had crumpled quickly and the armed workers triumphed with comparatively little difficulty."
"On the morning of March 22, the enemy was obviously tired, but the workers continued the attack with spirit on all sides ... At noon the soldiers at Tientungan surrendered... At 4.30 that afternoon some of the soldiers at the Commercial Press tried to escape, but were captured. The rest, seeing that their situation was hopeless, surrendered. The picket command moved in from the Fifth Police Station and from then on all forces were concentrated on capturing the last stronghold of the enemy, North Station... Since morning many other houses in that vicinity had been burned by the enemy. With water-pipes broken and no fire-fighting apparatus now available, the picket lines had been forced to fall back five times. Still the enemy did not dare move forward. But by this time stores of thousands of workers were massed behind the attack. Within an hour after the fall of the Commercial Press the White Russians fled into the Settlement, where they were admitted, and the Shantung soldiers dispersed in wild disorder... A white flag fluttered above North Station at six o’clock."
The victorious union workers now occupied and controlled urban Shanghai except for the international settlements. However, the Comintern now refused to arm the workers' militias and this, together with Chiang Kai-shek's determination to end the ongoing internal KMT rivalry, would ultimately lead to the demise of the commune. Using his links with China's secret societies and crime gangs in Shanghai, such as the powerful Green Gang (青幫), aka the Society for Common Progress (共进会), Chiang set to laying plans to take control of the city whilst at the same time regain control of the army. On April 9, he ordered the declaration of martial law in Shanghai and, two days later, issued a secret order to all provinces under the control of his forces to purge the Communists from the KMT ranks. On April 12 KMT army forces brutally suppressed the Commune, with more than 1000 Communists from among the ranks of the Commune leadership arrested, of whom around 300 were officially executed, and more than 5,000 others being 'disappeared'. Elsewhere, Communists in both of the rival KMT camps were violently purged and in the eight month period that followed over 300,000 people died across China in anti-Communist suppression campaigns. The Soviet Union officially terminated its cooperation with the KMT and the CCP went underground.

1933 - A tunnel is discovered under the Potsdamer Garnisonskirche where a ceremony, due to be attended by Hitler and Hindenburg, is due to be held. The tunnel was to be used to blow up the church during the ceremony.

[B] 1934 - Raoul Vaneigem, Belgian writer, philosopher, novelist and principal theoretician, alongside Guy Debord, of the Situationist International, born. Author of 'Traité de Savoir-Vivre à l'Usage des Jeunes Générations' (The Revolution of Everyday Life; 1967), 'Le Livre des Plaisirs' (The Book of Pleasures; 1979); 'Le Mouvement du Libre-Esprit' (The Movement of the Free Spirit; 1986), amongst other political/philosophical works. His single fiction piece is the erotic novel 'L'Ile aux Delices' (The Island of Delights; 1979).

1937 - Ponce Massacre: 22 Puerto Ricans killed in demonstrations for independence from US.

1937 - The Spansih anarchist Iron Column meets in assembly to vote on militarisation or disbandment: it agrees to militarisation.

1938 - Mosley and his Blackshirts hold a rally in Finsbury Park in advance of tomorrow's rally in the Albert Hall. 573 foot and 59 mounted Metropolitain Police officers protect the fascists, preventing all but minor scuffles from breaking out. Two fascists are arrested for insultion words and behaviour.

1942 - Jindřich Štyrský (b. 1899), Czech painter , photographer, photomontagist, graphic designer, collagist, poet, Surrealist theorist and anarchist, dies of a longterm heart condition. [see: Aug. 11]

[C] 1943 - Operation Spark*: Colonel Rudolph-Christoph von Gersdorff (1905 - 1980), a member of the Schwarze Kapelle (Black Band) anti-Hitler conspiracy, attempts to assassinate Adolf Hitler whilst carrying a timebomb inside his army coat during the Führer's visit to the opening (on Heroes' Memorial Day) of a display of captured Soviet Army weapons at the Zeughaus military museum in Berlin. The plan was for Gersdorff to start the ten-minute fuses on the explosives a few minutes before Hitler arrived. Just before the bombs would go off, he would rush to Hitler and embrace him: the explosion would kill both of them. However, at the last minute just before Hitler was to appear, his visit was reduced to just eight minutes as a security precaution, and he breezed through in just two minutes, leaving well before Gersdorff's explosives would have gone off. Gersdorff barely managed to get out and defuse the bombs. [NB: Sources stating March 20th are incorrect] [*also translated as Operation Flash]

1945 - Amédée Dunois (pseudonym for Amédée Gabriel Catonne; b. 1878), French anarchist militant, communist, and then a revolutionary socialist trade unionist, dies in Bergen-Belsen after his arrest by the Nazi regime. Author of several works of history (in particular on the Paris Commune) and the chapter 'Marxism & Socialism' in Sébastien Faure's 'Anarchist Encyclopaedia'. [see: Dec. 16]

1946 - The first and only edition of the anti-clerical newspaper 'Il Corvo' (The Crow) is published in Livorno, Italy. Edited by the anti-religious 'Pietro Gori' group of the Itailan Anarchist Federation in tribute to Giordano Bruno.

1960 - Sharpeville Massacre: 69 people murdered by police during protests of apartheid pass laws.

[A] 1963 - Alcatraz, the world's most secure prison, closes. Only one man ever known to have escaped the island in San Francisco Bay in 30 years - only to be arrested upon reaching the mainland.

1988 - François-Charles Carpentier (b. 1904), French militant anarchist, friend of Louis Mercier Vega and fighter with the Durruti Column, dies. [see: Oct. 28]

1990 - Ploughshares Two disable US F-111 bomber, Upper Heyford.

2004 - Consuelo Zabala (b. 1920), Spanish life-long anarchist militant, dies. [expand]

2012 - John Brailey (b. 1934), English printer, bookseller, anti-war activist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Apr. 2]
[F] 1803 - Thomas Helliker (or Hilliker) aka the Trowbridge Martyr (b. 1784), a young English apprentice (shearman's colt) working in the woollen industry, is hanged on the eve of his 19th birthday after Littleton Mill at Semington, near Trowbridge in Wiltshire, was burned down in protest at the introduction of machinery. He was apprehended on false accusation, but refused to clear his name because it would. [see: Mar. 23]

1812 - Stephen Pearl Andrews (d. 1886), American lawyer, anarchist, free-love advocate and 'Modern Times' founder, born.

1848 - Cinque Giornate di Milano [Five Days of Milan]: Casati and his colleagues send representatives to Turin to convince Charles Albert, Piedmont's ruler, to intervene and not only to expel the Austrians out of Lombardy but also to check the radical elements and prevent them from proclaiming a republican democracy.
Foreseeing the difficulty of resisting a siege in the city centre, but while afraid of being attacked by the Piedmontese army and peasants from the countryside, he preferred to evacuate Milan during the evening of the 22nd, withdrawing towards the 'Quadrilatero' (the fortified zone made up of the four cities of Verona, Legnago, Mantua and Peschiera del Garda), taking with them several hostages arrested at the start of the uprising.
Meanwhile, Cattaneo's group dissolved the war council, merging it with a new defence committee which the new government established, signalling the defeat of the republicans and democrats, who had to accept a subordinate position despite leading the Milanese to a military victory.

1848 - Märzrevolution: Friedrich Wilhelm IV, his ministers and generals, all wearing the revolutionary tricolor of black, red, and gold, lead the Märzgefallenen (March of the Dead) through the streets of Berlin to attend a mass funeral at the Friedrichshain cemetery for the 254 civilian victims of the Barrikadenaufstand. Those killed during the riots are laid out on catafalques on the Gendarmenmarkt. Some 40,000 people accompanied them to the burial place at Friedrichshain.

1871 - Commune de Lyon: During the night (22-23) the Hôtel de Ville is invaded by some of those involved in the September 28, 1870 uprising and attempt to form a Commune in the city (where the Association Internationale des Travailleurs had been active since early in the year trying to prepare the workers for what many saw a possible revolution), members of the former Comité de Salut Public, the Comité Révolutionnaire de la Guillotière, and the 18th and 24th Battalions of the Comité Central of the Garde Nationale. A provisional committee to rally the city in support of the Paris Commune is formed. It proclaims the Commune, hoists the red flag, dismisses the préfect Valentin Henon, who along with the mayor had been trying to delay theradicals in the hope of the arrival of troops to prevent the uprising. The mayor is forced to appoint Riciotti Garibaldi, the son of Italian revolutionary general, as head of the Guard Nationale.
The following morning, with poster declarting the creation of the Commune having appeared on the city's streets, Michael Bakunin comes to the balcony of the town hall of Lyon in the Place Bellecour and, flanked by members of the International, makes an appeal for world revolution.

1871 - Commune de Saint-Étienne: Hearing of the proclamation of the Lyon Commune, a large group of Guard Nationale gather in the Place de l'Hotel de Ville with shouts of "Vive la Commune!" Members of the Club de la rue de la Vierge visit the mayor and demand the resignation of the City Council. By 17 votes to 7, councilors declare themselves ready to quit but choose to remain in office until the election of their replacements.

1873 - The Spanish National Assembly finally abolishes slavery in Puerto Rico.

1873 - Fermín Salvochea y Álvarez, an early and important Andalusian anarchist, is briefly mayor of Cadiz with the proclamation of the 1st Republic.

1893 - Kleber Claux (d. 1971), French-Australian anarchist and naturalist, born.

[B] 1896 - Mathias Léoni (d. 1981?), Italian sculptor of medals, mosaic artist and anarchist, born. Like his brother Leonida (born January 17, 1899), an anarchist from a young age. In 1915, he was sentenced to 25 days in jail and a fine for throwing projectiles at police during a demonstration against the war. Both brothers refuse their call up and flee to the mountains. On Nov. 20, 1917 they are discovered by the carabinieri. Leonida escapes but Mathias is arrested and imprisoned. In 1923 both brothers fleeing fascism go into exile in France, where they settled in Paris. Mathias joins the Ruche des Artistes as a medal sculptor and mosaic artist. In the late 1960s Léoni put his studio at the disposal of the Albert Camus group of the Organisation Révolutionnaire Anarchiste (ORA). He also made a series of cast and engraved medals of famous anarchists including Louise Michel, Michel Bakunin, Jules Vallès and Nestor Makhno.

1905 - In the Amiens courthouse, the trial of Alexandre Marius Jacob and his Les Travailleurs de la Nuit (Night Workers) gang, credited with 150 burglaries, concludes. Jacob and Félix Bour receive life in prison, 14 others get sentences ranging from 5 to 20 years, while another seven are acquited.

1907 - The first edition of the illegal fortnightly anti-militarist broadsheet 'Rompete le File!' (Break Ranks!), created by Maria and Filippo Corridoni Rygier, is published in Milan.

1912 - [O.S. Mar. 9] Lena Goldfields Strike [Приисках Ленского Забастовка]: With the company initially disposed to negotiate with the representatives of the more than 6,000 gold miners then on strike, talks eventually break down, possibly under pressure from the government. The Lenzoloto directors resolve to end the strike quickly and troops of the Imperial Russian Army are sent from the town of Kirensk, some 200 miles away.

1912 - San Diego Free Speech Fight: With the city and county jails holding more than 250 inmates, Chief Wilson announces that, from now on, police would make 'selective arrests' – just leaders of the movement – and deport those in jail to the city limits. The following day [23rd] rumors spread that the night before, several trucks had driven prisoners to the train station at Sorrento Valley. Unmasked civilians, calling themselves the new Vigilance Committee, ordered handcuffed captives to form a single line. What followed was a 'going-away party'. Vigilantes beat the men with clubs and axe handles, then told them to walk to Orange County. Chief Wilson denied knowledge of the incident. The Union said he "was inclined to laugh" at the allegation. Chief of Detectives Myers, labeled a "Cossack" by protesters, said that, for all he knew, the prisoners "merely started on their way".

[D] 1914 - Second Battle of Torreón / Revolución Mexicana: 12,000 rebels under Pancho Villa attack a 10,000-strong federal garrison and drive them off with heavy loses.

1914 - [N.S. Apr. 4] Yelena Grigórievna Mazanik (Елена Григорьевна Мазаник; d. 1996), Belarusian member of the anti-fascist underground, who planted the timebomb in the matress of Generalkommissar Wilhelm Kube, SS Gauleiter for Weissruthenien (Belarus), that killed him on September 22, 1943, in his apartment in occupied Minsk, born. [see: Apr. 4]

1916 - [O.S. Mar. 9] One of the first large urban women's riots (Бунтовете на жените) in Bulgaria broke out in the town of Bourgas (Бургас) after the municipality refuses to pay allowances to poor soldier's families. Led by Gana Avdzhieva (Гана Авджиева), Kristalina Grigorova (Кристалина Григорова), Todorka Kaloyancheva (Тодорка Калоянчева) and Ana Kovacheva (Ана Ковачева), the Bourgas women chanted slogans against war such as "Дайте хляб" (Give us bread), "Искаме мир" (We want peace) and "Върнете ни мъжете" (Return our men). The following year, a demonstration against high prices, clothing shortages and hunger held in Dupnitsa (Дупница) turned into a large-scale revolt and towards the end of the war, these protests became more widespread. In February 1918 women again rose up in Dolni Dŭbnik (Долни Дъбник), in Samokov (Самоков), and in Asenovgrad (Асеновград); and later in April in the Vratsan villages of Tŭrnak (Търнак), Popitsa (Попица), Butan (Бутан), Borovan (Борован), Khŭrlets (Хърлец), and elsewhere across northeastern Bulgaria many of these protests developing into full-scale riots. In May 1918 when the government announced a further reduction in bread rations, they would spread to all parts of the country. Protests and rioting involving thousands of women broke out in dozens of other towns and villages, including Plovdiv (Пловдив) - where it lasted for three days, Sliven (Сливен) - also lasting 3 days, Stara Zagora (Стара Загора), Yambol (Ямбол), Bourgas, Sofia (София), Pazardzhik (Пазарджик), Pleven (Плевен), Vidin (Видин), and Lovech (Ловеч), with warehouses being looted and the food cellars and hidden caches of black-marketeers 'requisitioned' and distributed to the people. The government were forced to deploy troops to deal with these riots and many of the female participants were arrested and the 'ringleaders' ended up being sentenced to death.
The wave of unrest and riots that swept through the country in 1918 also had the additional effect of significantly weakening any remaining resolve in Bulgaria (and elsewhere across Europe where they too occurred during this period) to continue the war, something that was reflected in Bulgaria that September with a number of large-scale troop mutinies.
[новини_186Бургаската партийна организация на 115 години-info-2191.html]

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: Many workers return to work to find that the military have badly damaged plant that they were trying to operate and the workers now have no jobs to return to. The outstanding prisoners are slowly and grudgingly being released.

1919 - Demonstrators against the War Precautions Act march from Russian Hall in Merivale Street to the Domain (Garden's Point) in South Brisbane - a prelude to tomorrow's Red Flag Riot

1920 - Märzaufstand / Ruhraufstand: The general strike is officially declared as having ended by the unions, the USPD and the KDP, after having secured additional concessions from the government of chancellor Gustav Bauer. These included the dismissal of Reichswehrminister Noske as well as changes to social and economic policies.

1928 - Alan Barlow (d. 2004), British trade unionist and anarcho-syndicalist, arrested, charged and imprisoned in 1969 for his role in the 1st of May Group bombing of the Francoist Banco de Bilbao in London, born.

[C] 1933 - Dachau concentration camp opens with the arrival of its first 200 prisoners.

1936 - The newly renamed British Union of Fascists and National Socialists (BU) hold a meeting in the Royal Albert Hall, notorious for allowing fascist meetings but refusing to allow anti-fascists to hire the venue. The Co-ordinating Committee for Anti-Fascist Activities reforms to coordinate opposition, calling on all working class organisations to demonstrate outside the meeting. A small group of anti-fascists managed to get through the heavy police presence outside and gain entry to the meeting.
"Despite elaborate police precautions, continuous disorder within and without marked a British Fascist meeting addressed by the leader (Sir Oswald Mosley) at the Albert Hall. Ten thousand people crowded the hall from floor to dome, and solid ranks of police prevented hundreds of demonstrators from approaching the building. The police shepherded others into Hyde Park, where reserves were drawn up in case of trouble, closed several streets, and diverted the traffic. Mounted constables took half an hour to disperse a half-mile block of humanity clogging the Exhibition Road. Some of these people cheered the Red front and others jeered a party of Blackshlrts proceeding to the hall under police protection.
Calm did not long prevail inside the hall, in spite of the fact that admittance was by ticket. An enormous Union Jack stretched to the roof, and posters hung from the balconies inscribed "Hall, Mosley, peace with Germany."
A fanfare ,of four trumpets and the roll of a score of drums heralded Sir Oswald Mosley's spectacular entrance. His chest was expanded, and his head held aloft under a spotlight as he passed through a double file of Blackshirts who stood at rigid attention. Others displayed Union Jacks and Fascist flags. Many in the audience gave the Fascist salute, cheered, and sang the 'Marching Song', defying cat-calls and sarcastic laughter from non-sympathisers.
Cries hostile to Hitlerism provoked a crop of scuffles and further expulsions.
Sir Oswald Mosley declared that the British Government should mind Britain's business instead of running round intervening and jeopardising British lives. The best guarantee for peace was the closest Anglo-German association.
Further outbursts blossomed into a shower from the gallery of anti-Fascist leaflets which women Fascists tore up. Two interrupters, fighting furiously, were ejected.
"That's a Iie," shrieked a woman replying to Sir Oswald Moslcy's assertion that the Franco-Russian Pact had made German occupation of the Rhineland inevitable. No sooner was she expelled than the sound of metallic scraping and the smashing of glass issued from the gallery. The stewards ejected male and female occupants of a box who were trying to unfurl an anti-Fascist banner.
Sir Oswald Mosley's advocacy of an Anglo-Japanese trade understanding created further interruption, leading to the ejection of a man and a woman amid yells. Catcalls and cheers, in which well dressed women Joined, greeted Sir Oswald Mosley's reference to Jews as the sole force of the world employing International communism and international finance. Even Herr Hitler, he said, was not anti-Semite [sic] before he saw a Jew. Fascism would challenge permanently and break Jewish power in Great Britain, which would reject the Franco-Russian alliance against Germany.
Sir Oswald Mosley spoke for an hour and three-quarters. When he had finished the spotlights were switched off while a young adherent made a request for written questions for Sir Oswald Mosley, whose face was promptly reilluinined with concentrated rays. When he made his replies he alleged that a long-prepared attempt had been made to organise obstruction. He announced that a Blackshirt hod been severely injured by a kick in the stomach, while others had been slightly injured.
During interruptions, Sir Oswald Mosley, reverting to the Jews, said that those who subverted British to Jewish interests should be deported as foreigners and aliens.
The meeting terminated with the singing of the 'National Anthem', and the massed Fascist salute led by Sir Oswald Mosley." ['The Argus', Melbourne, Tuesday 24 March 1936]
A large anti-fascist march was directed away from the Albert Hall by the police as a half-mile ban around the hall had been imposed. Other anti-fascists, who included Aldous Huxley, H.G. Wells, Virginia Woolf and sylvia Towsend warner, made their way to Thurloe Square, where the march organisers planned to hold a rally as they believed it was outside the exclusion zone. Various speakers addressed the crowd but during the Reverend Leonard Schiff's speech mounted police charged the crowd without warning, beating those present about the head and shoulders with their truncheons. [PR]

[E] 1942 - Maria Collazo (b. 1884), Uraguayan educationalist, journalist, feminist, syndicalist and anarchist activist, who was known as Abuelita del Pueblo (Grandmother of the People), dies. [see: Mar. 6]

1949 - Justiniano Garcia Macho aka 'El Macho' (b. unkown) and Pedro Acosta Canovas aka 'El Chaval' & 'Pedro' (b. 1925) are executed in Zaragoza.
[NB: some confusion over the exact date with some sources stating Mar. 12.]

1950 - Olga Afanasevna Varentsova [Ольга Афанасьевна Варенцова], aka 'Maria Ivanovna' [Мария Ивановна] & 'Ekaterina Nikolaevna' [Екатерина Николаевна] (b. 1862), Russian historian, revolutionary, member of Narodnaya Volya (People's Will), and later a Bolshevik and a Soviet party and state leader, dies. [see: Jul. 8]

1952 - Ana Aurora do Amaral Lisboa (b. 1860), Brazilian educator, poet, writer, playwright, and libertarian and feminist activist, dies. [see: Sep. 24]

1961 - Ettore Bonometti (b. 1872), Italian shoemaker and anarchist militant, dies. [see: Nov. 22]

1968 - Students occupy the school at Nanterre and the March 22nd Movement emerges - an organisation with no hierarchy and no ideological program. 150 students, calling themselves anarchists, occupy the administrative building. Courses are suspended until April 1.

[A] 1969 - Miguel Garcia released from prison in Spain.

1972 - The Equal Rights Amendment, an amendment to the United States Constitution first proposed in 1923, which produced a decades-long split in the women's movement between middle class feminists (in support) and working class feminists (and the labour movement), is finally passed by the United States Senate and submitted to the state legislatures for ratification. It fails to get the approval of the 38 states needed by the ratification deadline of March 22, 1979, or by a second deadline of June 30, 1982, and the legislation fell.

1987 - Eugen Relgis (b. 1895), Rumanian poet, anti-militarist and prolific anarchist author of some distinction, dies in Uruguay. [see: Mar 2]

1990 - Geoffrey Ostergaard (b. 1926), English anarcho-pacifist, dies. Wrote on workers' control, and also similarities of Sarvodaya in India and anarchism. [see: Jul. 20]

1991 - María Mañas Zubero (b. 1912), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, dies. [see: Dec. 4]

2001 - Tony Gibson (b. 1914), British psychologist, BBC producer, writer and anarchist, dies. His best known book was 'People Power: Community and Work Groups in Action' (1979). Active as an artist's model and posed for an advertisement of Brylcreem 1939 - in 1940 this advertisement was added a RAF cap plus the caption "For active service" but Gibson himself was at that time a conscientious objector working as an ambulance man and a farm labourer.

2007 - Hans Schmitz (b. 1914), German anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, militant anti-fascist and conscript to the Wehrmacht, dies. [see: May 16]

2012 - Five police hospitalised by a dog in London whilst attempting to apprehend its owner.
1784 - Thomas Helliker (or Hilliker) aka the Trowbridge Martyr (d. 1803), English apprentice (shearman's colt) working in the woollen industry, a figure in early English trade union history who was hanged, aged 19, for his alleged role in machine-breaking at a Wiltshire woollen mill, born.

[A] 1812 - Luddite Timeline: Luddite attack on shearing-mill of William Thompson & Bros at Rawdon, near Leeds and dozens of shears destroyed and fine woollen cloth damaged. [March 23-25]

1813 - Jacques Marie Anselme Bellegarrigue (d. ????), French individualist anarchist, born. Wrote a novel: 'Le Baron de Camebrac, en tournée sur le Mississippi', published episodically between 1851 and 1854.
"L'Anarchie c'est l'ordre, le gouvernement c'est la guerre civile." (Anarchy is order, the government is war civil.) - 'Au fait, au fait!! Interprétation de l'Idée Démocratique' (1848)

1860 - André Girard (known as Max Buhr) (d. 1942), French anarchist militant and trade unionist, born.

1871 - Commune de Saint-Étienne: Hearing of the proclamation of the Lyon Commune, a large group of Guard Nationale gather in the Place de l'Hotel de Ville in Saint-Étienne with shouts of "Vive la Commune!" Members of the Club de la rue de la Vierge visit the mayor and demand the resignation of the City Council. Prominent amongst them is the anarchist cobbler Etienne Faure aka 'Cou Tordu' (Twisted Neck). By 17 votes to 7, councilors declare themselves ready to quit but choose to remain in office until the election of their replacements. At about 20:00 the following day the Guard Nationale occupies the City Hall singing the 'Marseillaise' and cheering the Commune. An hour later, the building is invaded by the crowd, and representatives of the Club de Rue de la Vierge ask the authorities present (interim prefect, the mayor and two of his deputies, the Commander of the National Guard) to proclaim the Commune! They refuse and are arrested. Around midnight, the Commune is proclaimed by the crowd. The red flag is raised.
On the 25th the mayor is forced to recognise the fact and accept the organisation of a plebiscite in favour of the Commune. In response, the revolutionaries quit the Hotel de Ville. Seizing his opportunity, the préfect Henri de L'Espée calls upon the Garde Nationale to protect the building and in response the insurgents take the préfet prisoner and occupy strategic points across the city including the railway station, the telegraph office and stocks of weapons and gunpowder. The insurgents then elect a Comité Révolutionnaire but the population prove to be less than enthusiastic and, lacking widespread support, at 06:00 on the morning of March 28 the City Hall is encircled, the red flag is removed and the commune falls without any resistance. More than a hundred of those involved in the creation of the Commune de Saint-Étienne are arrested and at their trial on December 5, 1871, dozens are sentenced to deportation or imprisonment.

[D] 1871 - Commune de Lyon: Bakunin comes to the balcony of the town hall of Lyon in the Place Bellecour to make an appeal for world revolution. He has with him all of the First Workers' International.

[DD] 1871 - Commune de Marseille: The préfecture is invaded and a local committee is formed, chaired by Adolphe Cremieux and comprising 12 members, which declares: "À Marseille, les citoyens prétendent s'administrer eux-mêmes, dans la sphère des intérêts locaux. Il serait opportun que le mouvement qui s'est produit à Marseille fût bien compris, et qu'il se prolongeât. Nous voulons la décentralisation administrative avec l'autonomie de la Commune, en confiant au conseil municipal élu dans chaque grande cité les attributions administratives et municipales." [In Marseille, citizens claim self-government in the sphere of local interests. It would be appropriate that the movement that has happened in Marseille is well understood, and that it be prolonged. We want administrative decentralisation with the autonomy of the Commune, by giving the elected municipal council in every major city and municipality administrative duties. However, the Commune is beset by internal divisions over the following days, as even the flag as a symbol of the Commune is the subject of division – the red flag being replaced by the tricolore, which is in turn replaced by a black flag (symbolising grief rather than anarchism) – and the neighbouring towns that the communards had hoped would rally in support of the Commune fail to do so.
Elsewhere, the Communes of Lyon, Toulouse, Saint-Etienne, Limoges, and Narbonne all fell to the troops of the bourgeois government that had set up in Versailles following its ousting from the capital by the Paris communards. On the evening of April 3, 6-7,000 government troops under the command of the military head in the Bouches-du-Rhône department, General Espivent de la Villeboisnet, arrived outside the city. Faced by overwhelming odds, which included artilley and two warships in the harbour sheeling the city, the 400 Guards Nationale and the communards fought bravely throughout the following day, but at 19:30 the guns fell silent. Approximately 150 of the defenders were left dead and 500 taken prisoner and thrown into various Marseille jails. Espivent's forces lost 30 dead (including some shot for fraternising with the crowd during a brief parley between Espivent and Gaston Cremieux, one of the Commune leaders) and 50 wounded. Cremieux was later sentenced to death and shot on November 30, 1871, whilst other participants such as Clovis Hugues were sentenced to prison, fined and barred from public office.

1871 - Delarartion of the International Workers Association: Federal Council of Parisian Sections. [expand]

[C] 1887 - Josef Čapek (d. 1945), Czech Expressionist painter, writer, photographer, graphic artist and book illustrator, and anti-fascist, who invented the word robot, which was introduced into literature by his brother, Karel Čapek, born. He was arrested for his anti-fascist activities in 1939 following the German invasion of Czechoslovakia and sent to various concentration camps (Dachau, Buchenwald, Sachsenhausen). He wrote 'Poems from a Concentration Camp' (Básně z koncentračního tabora) in the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, where he died in 1945 (somewhere between April 5th and 24th).

1894 - Salvadora Carmen Medina Onrubia de Botana aka 'La Venus Roja' (d. 1972), Argentine poet, novelist, playwright, anarchist and feminist of Spanish-Jewish origin, born. The daughter of Ildefonso Medina and Teresa Onrubia, both Spaniards, she was still just a girl when her father died and she then moved with her mother and sister to Gualeguay in Entre Ríos, although for a time she attended the American College in Buenos Aires. In Gualeguay her mother secured a position as a rural schoolmistress in the Carbó district and Salvadora would also work as a teacher in her early youth. Her writing began when she was an adolescent and she contributed to the local newspaper and sent articles off to the reviews 'Fray Mocho' and 'P.B.T.' and these were published. She was still very young when she moved to the city of Rosario where she struck up a connection with anarchist activism and amateur dramatic groups, in which she was involved. In Rosario she worked as secretary to the lawyer Pérez Colman with whom she had an affair, leading to her giving birth to her first child as a single mother. She then broke off their relationship and moved away to Buenos Aires with her young son to live in a boarding house.
By 1913 she was ensconced in Buenos Aires working as a permanent staffer with the anarchist daily 'La Protesta', for which she was paid 150 pesos per month. She was also published in 'La Antorcha' and 'Caras y Caretas'. On February 1, 1914, Salvadora spoke at a street meeting calling for the release of Simón Radowitzky, the libertarian icon who she protected all her life. A snapshot survives of her addressing the meeting on the corner of the Engineering Faculty in Buenos Aires with the Calle Montes de Oca; it has become famous and represents Salvadora’s first public image. In 1915, she met the Uruguayan journalist Natalio Félix Botana and they became a couple; from then on her life changed at a dizzying rate, although she was never to abandon her libertarian beliefs. She and Botana were very soon living together and Natalio adopted Carlos (Pitón), Salvadora’s first-born and together they would have another three children: Helvio, Jaime and Georgina.
In 1915 Botana was beginning to dabble in business with an ambitious journalistic project, the daily newspaper 'Crítica' that was to achieve a large print-run and attract a wide spectrum of readers. His talent and commitment made a success of it, but at the start he faced a few tough years of day by day struggle and Salvadora was equally involved. 'Crítica' was Argentina’s most popular daily paper up until the 1950s, an oddity, being sensationalist yet boasting a cultural supplement for the elite, with contributions from Borges, Roberto Arlt and the Gonzâlez Tuñons. In its heyday it was selling upwards of 700,000 copies a day. 'Crítica'‘s clout in national politics was unquestionable and it was even capable of toppling a government, for which reason Botana was appreciated as much as he was cursed and comparisons were drawn with the US media mogul William Randolph Hearst. Actually, Botana stored up not just power but also a huge fortune that allowed his family and Salvadora to live in the lap of luxury. Salvadora used such privilege to build up an out and out solidarity network for the libertarian comrades who used to refer to her as "hermanita" (little sister). A number of unemployed comrades were found jobs at 'Crítica', securing their release as political prisoners and a number of needy women would receive sewing machines from Salavora’s own hands; she used to deliver them in her de luxe Rolls Royce in a practice replicated later by Evita.
Salvadora helped out with the running of the paper and even took issue with her husband, such as the time she vetoed 'Crítica'‘s being used as a platform for the Communist Party. She could always find some space to squeeze in an article by an anarchist and was particularly careful to find room for feminist items. Even though they came from differing political viewpoints, Alfonsina Storni, Alicia Moreau de Justo, Herminia Brumana and Juana Rouco were all contributors to 'Crítica'. Among her more celebrated feats was her involvement in the liberation of Simón Radowitzky; on two separate occasions, Salvadora dispatched employees of the paper to orchestrate his escape from Ushuaia penitentiary, but those ventures were discovered and Simon was left to languish behind bars. In the end, thanks to the power she wielded, Salvadora succeeded in 1929 in securing an order from the already weakened President Yrigoyen allowing Radowitzky’s release and departure into exile in Uruguay. On arrival in Montevideo, the renowned anarchist hero was helped and welcomed by a relative of Botana’s.
During the Spanish Civil War, the Botanas fought Francoism and helped out exiles arriving in Argentina. Botana personally was down in the docks arranging leave for Spanish exiles in transit to come ashore in Buenos Aires, sent money for the orphaned children of republican soldiers and welcomed writers like Rafael Alberti and María Teresa León to her estate in Don Torcuato and lent a helping hand to Margarita Xirgu and other Spanish artistes.
But for all her multiple family and intellectual commitments, Salvadora never ceased to be the active militant. In 1919 she was just another activist in the Tragic Week mobilisation, pregnant and holding her oldest son by the hand. On January 7 she spoke in La Chacarita cemetery at the burial of two of the martyrs of that week, clambering on to the coffins for a rally that ended in a tough crackdown. One of the many steps taken in the wake of the Tragic Weeks events was the closure of the libertarian daily paper 'La Protesta', with its employees being thrown out of work; thanks to Salvadora’s solidarity, they were hired by 'Crítica'.
In 1931, one year on from General Uriburu’s coup d’etat, 'Crítica' was shut down and Botana and Salvadora were both jailed by Inspector Polo Lugones (son of the writer Leopoldo Lugones) because of their political differences with the regime, even though 'Critica' had initially supported the coup. From the Buen Pastor women’s prison, Salvadora sent the dictator, Uriburu, a famous letter which ended with these words: "From this corner of wretchedness, I slap your face with my complete contempt." Following this, the Botanas had to move away to Montevideo, from where they opened a sub-office of the paper which survived despite all the difficulties and later they set off on a lengthy tour of Europe. Those were tough times for Salvadora and Natalio. In addition to the political problems of the time and the shutting down of their paper Salvadora’s oldest son, Pitón, died in 1929 in unclear circumstances. It was classed as an accident since he had shot himself while chatting with his sisters, but it was also said that the lad had taken his own life on learning from Salvadora that his father was not Botana but someone else. Salvadora never got over the tragedy and the trip to Europe was a pilgrimage in search of some ease, but the couple were eventually to part company.
Alongside her family, political and business roles, Salvadora turned to writing and became a prolific writer of poetry, narrative and plays. Her very first play was 'Almafuerte' (1914) and it was to be staged that same year at the Apolo Theatre. It was followed by 'La solución' (1921) 'Lo que estaba escrito' (1928), 'Las descentradas' (1929) and 'Un hombre y su vida' (1936). She also wrote plays for children. But she really hit the mark with 'Las descentradas' which was performed at the Ideal Theatre with Gloria Ferrandiz in the lead. It was a stirring piece that found Salvadora at the height of her powers. 'Las descentradas' represented a critique of woman’s subjection to patriarchal rules and put forward the case for women’s autonomy on foot of anarcho-feminist principles. The play carried a significant message denouncing the role in which men had cast woman; Salvadora urged women not to put up with any repression and just be themselves. In terms of a discussion of gender identity, 'Las descentradas' is a bona fide avant-garde production several decades ahead of its time. And as a playwright, Salvador became the first woman member of Argentores (Argentinean Playwrights’ Society).
She translated plays from the French and English, especially the plays of Noel Coward, and staged productions of Perrault’s tales for children. Another curious item from Salvadora’s pen was her novel Akasha. Based on certain notion in the theosophy of Krishnamurti and the theory of reincarnation, the romantic novel is set among the upper classes of the Buenos Aires of the author’s own day and provides the backdrop for a feminist critique. In the day to day publication of 'Crítica', Salvadora’s closet colleagues were the journalist Sebastian Marotta and Roberto Arlt. Along with Arlt, Salvadora took off on esoteric tours of greater Buenos Aires in search of rather theatrical spiritualist experiences that the author of 'Los siete locos' (Arlt) was later to send up in his book. Salvadora was also a great friend of the poetess Alfonsina Storni with whom she associated and whom she had as her house-guest up until Storni committed suicide.
The scathing, humorous political vignettes published by Salvadora are indicative of her powerfully incisive style, as in the case of the article called 'El gato anarquista' (The Anarchist Cat) about a cat that happens to fall on to the apron of the Colon Theatre, striking terror into the audience which mistakes the noise for the explosion of a bomb. As for her poetry, she penned melancholic poems along modernist lines with the oriental references typical of the earliest decades of the 20th century. And she published the poetry anthologies 'El vaso intacto', 'La rueca milagrosa' and 'El misal de mi yoga'.
In 'Critica y su verdad' (1958) Salvadora Medina tackled a number of genres, for one finds alongside objective narrative testimony, essays, booklets and pamphlets, creating a hybrid feel. That book not only lifts the lid on some aspects of the author’s life but also on her (unsuccessful) battles to recover her newspaper after it was seized by the Peronists. From 1946 to 1951, following Botana’s death in a car accident in Jujuy province, Salvadora was the managing editor of 'Crítica'. By the time Peronism came to power, the Botana family had been greatly weakened by Natalio’s death. Salvadora and Eva Peron did not get on together, although initially they were on friendly and cooperative terms. In a 'Letter to Evita' which the government had pressed the director of 'Crítica' to write by way of a homage, Salvadora was naïve enough to place herself on a par with Eva, both of them being battlers, but this did not go down well. When women were granted the vote in 1947, Salvadora had no hesitation in talking exception to that right, so long campaigned for by women, being credited exclusively to Eva Peron and she insisted that the parts played by Cecilia Grierson, Julieta Lanteri, Elvira Rawson de Dellepiane, Alicia Moreau, Carolina Muzzilli and Juana Repetto, historical suffragist activists, also deserved recognition.
Salvadora Medina Onrubia was forever surrounded by rumours and she acquired an almost legendary status, being dubbed "The Red Venus", "The Red Lady" or the "Argentinean Pasionaria", and she was also regarded as an extravagant woman hard to pigeon-hole. In actual fact, those who knew her well said that she was an impassioned, selfless anarchist, albeit more by temperament than doctrine and Luce Fabbri described her as a romantic. There was a consistency to her feminist activism, in her private life as well as in her work; she had resisted marriage until Botana persuaded her of the need to legalise their connection following the birth of her last child, her daughter. She backed the suffragists even though the ballot box is looked at askance in anarchist dogma. She worked alongside men, became addicted to ether, was very poor and then very wealthy and welcomed international intellectuals to her famous estate in Don Torcuato where Siqueiros painted a famous mural and then fled it to live in a tiny apartment. She had a large family, looked out for everybody and finished up very much alone.
When Salvadora Carmen Medina died in Buenos Aires city on July 21, 1972, she had barely a couple of female friends to follow her coffin. She slipped out of memory until slowly she was brought to prominence again in recent years and her anarcho-feminist record and the eclectic power of her literary efforts were brought to light.

1901 - Pierre Fauvet (b.1859), French gunsmith, peddler, militant member of various anarchist groups in Saint-Étienne and organiser of tours in the region for Sébastien Faure, dies. [see: May 15]

1902 - Ettore Aguggini (d. 1929), Italian mechanic and anarcho-individualist, one of three anarchists implicated in the bombing of the Teatro Diana in Milan on March 23, 1921, born. [expand]

1907 - The first issue of the journal 'Lux: Revista Pedagogica Ilustrada' of the Badalona Modern School, supported by the Humane Society for Rationalist Education, is published in Badalona, near Barcelona. L'Escuela Moderna in Badalona adheres to the teachings of Francisco Ferrer, promoting a rationalist education for children away from the reactionary influence of Catholicism.

1913 - The first edition of the fortnightly 'L'Action Anarchiste: Révolutionnaire - Communiste' is published in Micheroux-Fleron, near Liège in Belgium. Only 8 issues were ever printed.

1913 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: Eighteen trunk telephone wires, each 80 yards long, removed near Hull.

1917 - Opening-celebration of the Galerie Dada. Programme: Abstract dances (by Sophie Taeuber, verses by Ball and masks by Arp).- Frédééric Glauser: verses - Emmy Hennings: verses - Hans Heusser: compositions - Olly Jacques: prose by Mynona - H.L. Neitzel: verses by Hans Arp - Perottet: new music - Tristan Tzara: Negro verses - Claire Walter: expressionistic dances.

1918 - Trial of 101 Wobblies (Industrial Workers of the World) begins in Chicago, for opposition to World War I; accused of violating the Espionage Act.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: 300 workers building the Rubí Terrassa railway line go out on strike. Elsewhere, troops have been withdrawn from the gas plants they had been temporarily running.

1919 - Benito Mussolini founds the Fascist Party.

1919 - Demonstrators against the War Precautions Act march from Russian Hall in Merivale Street to the Domain (Garden's Point) in South Brisbane - a prelude to tomorrow's Red Flag Riot

1921 - A bomb explodes at the Teatro Diana in Milan, killing and wounding many. Among those accused are Giuseppe Mariani and Giuseppe Boldrini, who get life sentences, and Ettore Aguggini (who died in prison); also implicated are Ugo Fedeli, Pietro Bruzzi, and Francesco Ghezzi (editors of 'L’Indivi-dualista'). The work of an individualist anarchist group believed manipulated and set up by the Chief of Police Gasti, the bombing serves as a pretext for a general repression against all anarchists and also serves the interests of the fascists, who attack the offices of the trade unions and leftist organizations. They also destroyed the office of the anarchist paper 'Umanita Nova'.

1921 - War Resisters International (WRI) founded in Bilthoven, Netherlands.

[F] 1925 - Masacre de Marusia: In March 1925, miners at the Marusia nitrate mine (mina de salitre) in the foothills of the Andes in the Tarapacá region had gone on strike for better wages, a shorter working day, and working conditions. Whilst negotiations were taking place between company executives and workers' representatives, the British engineer who ran the mine, a man hated by his habit of whipping his workers, was found dead near the mine. A Bolivian engineer was accused of the crime and executed without trial on the orders of the owners of the company. The union (FOCH), under the local leadership of Domingo Soto, was fearful of reprisals, and especially of another massacre like the one that had happened in San Gregorio in February 1921, which had left 565 nitrate miners dead. It therefore decided to take several preventive measures, making contact with the other mines, and proposing to blow up the railroad tracks in order to prevent the arrival of the military (strikebreakers). The women of Marusia also began organising themselves under the direction of Selva Saavedra, and they too decided to resist the advance of any troops sent to put the strike down.
The government of Arturo Alessandri did respond, sending 40 soldiers commanded by the captain Gilberto Troncoso, who was known as the 'Hiena de San Gregorio' (Hyena of San Gregorio) because of his reputation for violence. When the soldiers arrived, they entered the city firing. A group of workers responded by throwing cartridges of dynamite at them, killing several soldiers and seizing their weapons. The workers than organised a counter-offensive, taking over the explosives stores at the mine and the cutting of the telegraph cables. Captain Troncoso was forced to retire. The miners then proceeded to arm the entire city (about 2,400 people). In an open meeting, trade union leaders proposed that they negotiate their surrender, while some miners defended a motion to call for the help of workers from other mines. In the end, a motion from Soto that the village priest be asked to mediate was approved.
Army reinforcements came in the form of a 300-man battalion commanded by Colonel Pedro Schultz. They attacked the city in the middle of the night and machine-gunned everyone in sight. Hundreds of people died, including women and children - the exact number was never properly established. The most commonly cited estimate is that at least 500 died, of which 90% were strikers and their families, including that of Selva Saavedra. A group of workers were able to mount a hurried defence, throwing dynamite cartridges over the advancing troops, and managed to kill 36 soldiers and wound 64 others. The surviving miners escaped with their families in the high mountains. This ended the strike immediately, but the conflict erupted again less than two months later, and led to the La Coruña massacre.

[B] 1936 - Claude Faraldo (d. 2008), French actor, screenwriter and director of 'Bof... Anatomie d’un Livreur' (1971) and 'Themroc' (1973), born. Directed and wrote the screenplay for the TV programme 'Les Jupons de la revolution: La Baionnette de Mirabeau' (The Underskirts of the Revolution: Mirabeau's Bayonet; 1989).

1944 - A column of the German 11th Company, 3rd Battalion, SS Police Regiment 'Bozen', a battalion organised by the Nazis to intimidate and suppress the Resistance and made up of ethnic German-speakers of the northern Italian province of South Tyrol, is attacked by an ambush, carried out by 16 partisans of the Communist-dominated resistance organisation Gruppo d'Azione Patriottica (GAP; Patriotic Action Group), while they march and sing on a prescribed route that led through the Piazza di Spagna into the narrow street of Via Rasella. An IED is detonated, causing the immediate deaths of 28 SS policemen and at least two civilian bystanders. All sixteen Partisans, some of whom fired on the German column, succeed in melting away into the crowd unscathed. The death toll from the attack would eventually reach 42.

1946 - Alberto Ghiraldo (b. 1874), Argentine journalist, playwright, poet, notable intellectual, founder and editor of numerous anarchist publications such as 'Martín Fierro', 'El Sol', 'La Protesta' and 'Ideas y Figuras', dies.

1953 - Chaka Khan (Yvette Marie Stevens), African-American singer-songwriter, who joined the Black Panther Party in 1969 after befriending fellow member and Chicago native Fred Hampton and worked on the Panther breakfast programme whilst still in high school. She later quit the BPP and took the name Chaka Adunne Aduffe Hodarhi Karifi, before pursuing her career in music.

1972 - Bianca Sbriccoli Pichioni aka 'Rosa Salvadè', also known as Bianca Fabbri & Bianca Fabbri-Sbriccoli (b. 1880), Italian anarchist, who married her cousin, the prominent anarchist intellectual Luigi Fabbri, dies. [see: Sep. 30]

1974 - Aristide Lapeyre (b. 1899), French hairdresser, anarchist, pacifist militant and néo-Malthusian, dies. [see: Jan. 31]

[E] 1978 - Agafya 'Galina' Andreyevna Kuzmenko (Галина Андріївна Кузьменко; b. 1896*), Ukrainian school teacher, domestic servant, anarchist-communist and feminist, who was the partner of Nestor Makhno, dies. The daughter of a Kiev gendarme, she graduated with honours from a teacher's seminary in Dobrovelichkivka (Добровеличківка) and in 1916 began working as a teacher of the Ukrainian language and literature in a school in Huliaipole (Gulyaypole or Gulyai-Pole). Already known for her anarchist sympathies, she became an active leader in the local Prosvita (Enlightenment) [All-Ukrainian Society 'Enlightenment' on behalf of Tarasa Shevchenka (Всеукраїнське товариство «Просвіта» імені Тараса Шевченка)] cultural organisation. In the Spring of 1919, she became the third wife of Bat'ko (батька) Nestor Ivanovych Makhno (Нестор Іванович Махно), the commander of the Makhnovshchina, the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine (Революційна Повстанська Армія України), as well as his aide. In that role, she was prominent in her support of the involvement of women in the struggle to free Ukraine from the threat of both the Red and White armies [1] and in the promotion of education amongst the largely rural population of revolutionary Ukraine. In the latter role, she was elected head of the Teachers Union of the Huliaipole Republic (Союзу вчителів Гуляйпільської республіки) in Autumn 1919.
With the Makhnovshchina having been betrayed by their so-called Bolshevik allies following the routing of Wrangel's forces and the defeat of the revolution imminent, Galina crossed into Romania with Makhno and the remnants - just 77 men - of his exhausted and depleted army on August 28 1921. Living first in Bucharest and then in Warsaw, where Galina gave birth to a daughter, Elena (Елена), in 1922. On September 25, 1923, Galina, Makhno and a number of their comrades were arrested by the Polish authorities and charged with plotting a rebellion in eastern Galicia in order to use it as a base to become part of an "anarcho-Soviet Ukraine" [sic]. At their trial in November and December they were acquitted for lack of evidence and Makhno and Galina exiled to Toruń. Following a suicide attempt by Makhno on April 14,1924, they were allowed to move to Danzig (Gdansk) under constant police surveillance. Following lobbying of the Polish government, they were allowed to leave for Berlin and in 1925 Galina and Makhno finally ended up in Paris [2], where they joined other Russian exiles in the Group of Russian Anarchists Abroad (Группа Русских Анархистов Заграницей). Galina worked in various jobs to finance the family [3], including in a shoe factory, grocery store and as a laundress in a boarding school for Russian émigré girls in the Paris suburb of Vincennes, where they lived until Makhno's death in 1934 from tuberculosis.
After the occupation of France by the Nazis, Galina and Elena were deported to Germany as forced labour, working in a number of factories. After the end of the war they were arrested by the NKVD and taken to Kiev to stand trial. In July 1945 Galina Kuzmenko was sentenced to 10 years imprisonment for participating in the Makhnovist movement and sent to the Dubravlug (Дубравлаг) gulag, a special camp for those convicted of "especially dangerous state crimes" (государственные преступления) in the Zubovo-Polanski (Зубово-Полянского) district of the Mordovia Republic (Республики Мордовия). Elena was sentenced to 5 years exile in Kazakhstan. Both were released in May 1953 during the amnesty that followed Stalin's death, and lived in Dzhambul (Джамбула) in the Kazakh SSR (Казахська РСР), where Galina died.
[* NB. The exact year of her birth is also cited as being 1892 and 1894]

[1]. Female revolutionaries and female relatives of revolutionaries were sought out for particularly brutal treatment by the White insurgent forces. For example, when the wife of Makhno’s elder brother, Savva, fell into the hands of Denikinist forces, she was brutally beaten, stabbed with bayonets and had one of her breasts cut off, before finally being shot.
[2]. Makhno having managed to avoid an attempt by the Bolsheviks to kidnap him and return him to Russia, whilst Galina and Elena had finally been granted entry at the end of December 1924
[3]. Makhno suffered from ongoing health problems that included tuberculosis and worked at times as a carpenter and stage-hand at the Paris Opera, at the Pathé film-studios, and at the Renault factory.

2000 - New Labour and Tony Blair's attempt to shut down Summerhill School is defeated.

2010 - José María Nunes (b. 1930), Portuguese-Catalan filmaker, director, script writer, actor and anarchist, dies. [see: Feb. 2]

[AA] 2010 - Four German pensioners aged 61 to 80 are found guilty of kidnapping their own financial adviser from his home and driving him 450km (280 miles) to Bavaria. The defendants argued that they had invited Mr. Amburn for a short holiday in upper Bavaria.

2013 - Escape from Trikala prison, Greece.

2014 - In Mannheim members of the anti-Muslim racist 'German Defence League' (GDL) attack a Muslim gathering.
1812 - Luddite Timeline: Luddites attack Thompson's mill at Rawdon near Leeds; similarly Joseph Foster's mill at Horbury on 9th April; also during this month, Assizes in Nottingham, tried Wm Carnell, Jos Maples, Benj Poley, Benj Hancock, Geo Green, Jos Peck & Gerves Marshall.

[D] 1815 - Second Serbian Uprising [Други српски устанак]: Following the re-annexation of Serbia by the Ottoman Turks in the aftermath of the failed First Serbian Uprising (Први српски устанак) and the ensuing mass slaughter and the reintroduction of forced labour and taxation, the Serbs again began to plot an uprising, which began spaontaneously as local Serbian leaders began to kill Turkish tax collectors. In response, a gathering of Serbian leaders in Takovo on April 24, 1815, the religious holiday Palm Sunday, proclaimed open revolt against the Ottoman Empire. Miloš Obrenović, one of the leaders of the First Uprising, was chosen as the leader and famously declared, "Here I am and here you are: War to the Turks!" (an event captured in the 1889 painting 'The Takovo Uprising' by Paja Jovanović). When the Ottomans discovered the new revolt they sentenced all of its leaders to death.

1826 - Matilda Joslyn Gage (Matilda Electa Joslyn; d. 1898) US suffragist and radical feminist, Native American rights activist, abolitionist, freethinker, and prolific author, born with, as she claimed, "a hatred of oppression". Organiser of The Women’s National Liberal Union, the radical edge of the suffrage movement, which she founded in 1890 after the conservative take over of the suffrage movement, turning it into a single issue i.e. solely in favour of gaining the vote, pro-temperance and christian values, campaign. Whereas Gage and her fellow radicals wanted more profound social reform.

1834 - Tolpuddle Martyrs: Grand Meeting of the Working Classes called by Robert Owen. London to Dorchester Committee formed to mount campaign to win free pardons.

[A] 1834 - William Morris (d. 1896), English utopian socialist, poet, artist, designer, printer and founder of the Arts & Crafts Movement, born. Best known for 'News From Nowhere' (1890).

1867 - Henri Moray (aka Jean de l'Ourthe; d. unknown), Belgian militant socialist then anarchist, blacksmith, plasterer and journalist, born.

1871 - Commune de Narbonne: Following the news of the insurrection in Paris on March 18, 1871, the Club de la Révolution faction of the Republican Lamourguier Club had met on March 20 to decided upon how they should respond. They pass a motion that ends with the words: "...the undersigned declare that they no longer recognise the government in Versailles and ask the councillors of Narbonne to decide and inform their fellow citizens whether they are willing to obey the government in Paris or that in Versailles." ["les soussignés déclarent ne plus reconnaître le gouvernement de Versailles et viennent demander aux conseillers municipaux de Narbonne d’avoir à se prononcer et à informer leurs concitoyens s’ils sont prêts à obéir au gouvernement de Paris ou à celui de Versailles"] They also asked the city council to immediately arm the Garde Nationale and to adopt the red flag.
On the morning of 24, Antoine Raynal, first deputy in the absence of the mayor, refuses to convene the council despite the insistence of the president of the club de la Révolution, Baptiste Limouzy, a councillor himself, and principal collaborator of Émile Digeon. With the council having already refused to arm the Garde Nationale in the city, with news leaking out that its commander had been authorised to distribute a certain amount of rifles to his men, people started rushing to the Hotel de Ville. At around 20:00 the mob invades the town hall with Émile Digeon, who had rushed back to the city late the previous day, at its head. As 'chef provisoire' (provisional leader) of the new commune, he takes to the balcony of the municipal building and proclaims the establishing of the Commune de Narbonne. The red flag replaces the tricolore. The insurgents set to setting up their defences around the building.
1,500 troops of the 52e de Ligne from the Narbonne garrison sent to seize the city hall the following day arrest their offices and go over to the people. Some set off immediately to enlist their comrades in the city's barracks. The deputy mayor Raynal is also arrested and the garrison commander barricades himself and his remaining men in for fear of revolutionary contamination. By the evening there are nearly 250 armed communards. On March 26, Émile Digeon and a troop of more than two hundred Communards seized the sub-préfecture, the station and the telegraph office, totally unmolested. The Communards are masters of the city. Two days later they seized the Arsenal, taking the guards prisoner. Attempts to rally surrounding towns and ferment uprisings across the South bear no fruit and, in an attepmt to prevent government reinforcements arriving, Digeon organises the removal of the railway tracks leading into Narbonne. However, the arrival of two companies of Turcos (Algerian Riflemen) from Perpignan on March leads to clashes the following day that leave three insurgents dead ans several others wounded. Further government reinforcements from Toulouse, Carcassonne, Foix and Montpellier continue to arrive and on March 30 a general amnesty is offered if the insurgents evacuate the town hall before the start of hostilities. Digeon is given 24 hours grace to flee and avoid arrest. He refuses and the Commune's conseil de guerre reject the proposal. Towards midnight General Zentz ordered his troops into position opposite the communards' barricades and at 03:00 on March 31 the first clashes begin as communards trying to fraternise with the Turcos are shot dead by them. Digeon request to Zentz for the evacuation of wounded is rejected and instead the general threatens to shell the town hall. Facing overwhelming odds (the communards number just 550) and to prevent more deaths, it is decided to evacuate the Hotel de Ville and Digeon's comrades try to get him to hide as the Commune falls. However, he gives himself up the following day and is thrown into a filthy jail cell, as are more than a hundred communards arrested in sweeps of the city. When Digeon and his fellow insurgents eventually faced trial on November 13, 1871 before the Aveyron assizes in Rodez for being part of an armed gang, "which has executed an attack aimed at destroying or changing the government, and incited civil war, encouraging the citizens or inhabitants to arm one against another ... " ["laquelle a exécuté un attentat ayant pour but de détruire ou de changer le gouvernement, et d'exciter à la guerre civile, en portant les citoyens ou les habitants à s'armer les uns contre les autres… "]. To their surprise, after an hour and a half of deliberations on the 18th the jury acquitted Émile Digeon and the other accused, to cries of "Vive la République!" from the crowd gathered outside the court. Digeon's experiences during the commune, as well as his friendship with Louise Michel, would move him further towards embracing anarchism as his political philosophy, even going as far as standing as an 'anarchist candidate'(!?) in a 1883 election in Narbonne.

1871 - Commune de Saint-Étienne: About 20:00 the Guard Nationale occupies the City Hall singing the 'Marseillaise' and cheering the Commune. An hour later, the building is invaded by the crowd, and representatives of the Club de Rue de la Vierge ask the authorities present (interim prefect, the mayor and two of his deputies, the Commander of the National Guard) to proclaim the Commune! They refuse and are arrested. Around midnight, the Commune is proclaimed by the crowd. The red flag is raised.

1871 - Commune du Creusot: In the strongly Republican city of Le Creusot, whose Republican Committee has just renamed itself the Comité Républicain-Socialiste, 3000 people gather to express their support for the Guard National de Paris. A demonstration in favour of the Paris Commune is planned by the Republican and Socialist Committee for two days time. The authorities respond by dispatching an infantry company, two groups of cavalry and three battalions of the National Guards.
On March 26, a face-to-face meeting between Guards Nationale and soldiers of the line on the Place de la Mairie turns into fraternisation with cries of "Vive la République." The colonel withdraws his troops and the mayor, Jean-Baptiste Dumay, proclaims from a window of the first floor of the Town Hall, on which the red flag has been hoisted: "I am no longer the representative of the Government in Versailles, I am the representative of the Municipality of Le Creusot." That night, the mayor sends the Guard Nationale to occupy the station, and the telegraph and mail offices, only to find the three institutions are already occupied by the remained of the soldiers.
On the morning of the 27th, the préfet, the local prosecutor and a thousand military reinforcements arrive by train. Meetings are banned and arrest warrants are issued for the leaders of the movement. Demonstrations in support of Dumay and the Commune are dispersed. Yet the proclamation is repeated several times and the red flag is raised again. The following day (March 28) order in Le Creusot is finally restored. Many of the leaders of the Republican-Socialist Committee have fled to Geneva, others are in prison. Jean-Baptiste Dumay is in hiding in Le Creusot.

1878 - Charles Benoit (d. 1950), French revolutionary socialist, then an anarchist, born.

1894 - Émile Digeon (b. 1822), French revolutionary socialist journalist, libertarian free thinker, anarchist journalist, leader of the short-lived Narbonne Commune, declared in 1871 when Paris rose up (Paris Commune).

[C] 1897 - Wilhelm Reich (d. 1957), Austrian author of 'The Mass Psychology of Fascism', 'Sex-Pol Essays', 'Function of the Orgasm', etc., born. Reich had the dubious honour of having his works banned in Nazi Germany, the US and USSR (and publicly burnt in the first two).

1904 - Russell Blackwell (d.1969), U.S. cartographer, community activist, Wobbly, anarchist and co-founder of the Libertarian League. Fought with POUM and Anarchist militias during May Barcelona events. Wounded in action and arrested by the Stalinist police and imprisoned in Madrid.

[B] 1905 - Léo Campion (Léon Louis Octave Campion; b. 1992), Franco-Belgian character actor, singer, anarchist, free thinker, Freemason, Régent de l'Institut de Pataphysique and Grand Maître de la Confrérie des Chevaliers du Taste Fesses, born. Expelled from France at the end of a campaign against him by Action Française, he meets anarchist bookseller and Freemason Marcel Dieu (aka Hem Day) and becomes secretary of Libre Pensée de Bruxelles, secretary of the Belgian section of the War Resisters International (WRI), a cartoonist at the newspaper 'Le Rouge et le Noir' and starts a singing career. Protesting a proposed bill prohibiting pacifist propaganda and the dissemination of and anti-militarist ideas, Léo Campion and Hem Day return their military papers. Recalled under arms as punishment for thiis act of defience, the two refuse to join their units and are arrested.
At their trial before the Council of War on July 19, 1933, a crowd (including Han Ryner) gathers expecting only verbal fireworks but no convictions. Their military service records are exemplary and the only thing that they can be accused of is refusing to answer a Callback. They both ridicule the judiciary and military, with Hem Day declaring from the outset: "I am here, not accused, but accuser!
Léo Campion is sentenced to 18 months in prison and Hem Day 2 years, and both face returning to the military tribunal to go through the whole process yet again at the end of their sentences. They refuse the punishment and begin a hunger strike. Public pressure eventually forces the government into a compromise by dismissing them from the army as being unworthy for membership of its ranks! The new legislation is also abandoned.
Brussels becomes a home to many Spanish refugees and Campion launches a newspaper, 'Rebellion', in 1937 dedicated to the Spanish revolution. During the occupation, he returned to France but, being a conscientious objector, he was interned with other antifascists in the Argeles detention camps of in 1940. Bizarrely, he is awarded the Croix de Guerre 1939-1945, quiet something for a life-long conscientious objector.
Returning to Brussels, in Dec. 1944 he founds the weekly satirical newspaper 'Pan' (which merged with another satirical weekly 'Ubu' in 2004), and returned to the cabaret as an actor and producer, becoming director of the Caveau de la République (1951-1953), Tabou (1952-1953). He was also a producer on French Radio (ORTF) between 1951 and 1961, hosting the radio programme 'Cabaret du Soir'. He also became a stage and screen actor, appearing in Eugène Ionesco's anti-fascist play 'Rhinocéros' in 1961, and numerous films and TV programmes, including Jean Renoir's 'French Cancan' and Michel Deville's 'La Lectrice' amongst others, whilst maintaining his links and support for the anarchist movement.
He is also author of a number of books including the humour collections 'Le Petit Campion Illustré' (1953) and 'Palabres' (Palavers; 1961), as well as books on anarchism and Freemasonry such as 'Les Anarchistes dans la Franc-Maçonnerie ou Les Maillons Libertaires de la Chaîne d'Union' (The Anarchists in Freemasonry or The Libertarian Links Chain of Union; 1969) and 'Le Drapeau Noir, l'Equerre et le Compas' (The Black Flag, the Square and the Compass; 1978).
"The refusal of military service is an insurance against death, this insurance will be viable when there are enough policyholders." - Léo Campion.

1911 - Revolución Mexicana: Emiliano Zapata takes command of 800 man revolutionary band after leader Pablo Torres is killed by federales. Many Indians lost land to large haciendas during the Porfirio Diaz years. Zapata and his followers began a revolt against this with the banner 'Tierra y Libertad!' (Land and Liberty).

[F] 1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike: The strike is officially over, the IWW's strike committee is dissolved and the militia moved out. After two months of struggle, the Great Lawrence Strike had ended.

[E] 1912 - Augusta Farvo (d. 2003), Italian anarchist militant and propagandist, and anti-fascist member of the Bruzzi-Malatesta anarchist partisan brigade, who earned the nickname "Nonna d'amore e d'anarchia" (Grandma of love and anarchy) towards the end of her life, born. At the height of the fascist menace in Italy, Augusta opened and ran a newspaper kiosk in the Via Orefici, overlooking the Duomo in the centre of Milan. During the Resistenza phase, she was a member of the Bruzzi-Malatesta Brigades, of which there were two active groupings in Milan (one around the partisans Perelli and Concordia, and a second based in the Pero-Rho district headed by Romeo Asara), and helped many anti-fascist activists, both anarchists and communists alike, often hiding them in her home. Augusta's partisan activities continued through the fighting during the liberation, something actively recognised by the Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale.
In the immediate aftermath of the war her home on the Via Passerella served as a meeting place, both for members of the anarchist movement and for Esperantists, while his newspaper kiosk became a point of reference for the anarchist press both in Italy and abroad. She welcomed many comrades to her home and in the 1950s it became point of call for many Spanish anti-Franco exiles, including the Catalan guerrilla Josep Lluís Facerías, with whom she liked to play cards, one of her passions.
During the sixties those activists welcomed included members of the Provo movement and in the seventies yet another new generations of her fellow anarchists. Following the Piazza Fontana massacre on December 12, 1969, Augusta not only felt the torment that all anarchists were suffering during that period as the Italian state tried to rail-road members of the movement for what had in fact been fascist bombings. For her, the torment was even greater because two of her friends were accused of being the authors of the massacre by the Milan police: the first, Giuseppe Pinelli, killed after being thrown out a window at the police headquarters in Milan and the second, Pietro Valpreda, an innocent facing a long prison sentence. Augusta's home quickly became the meeting place for the diverse campaigns aimed at countering the disinformation campaign being waged by the Italian state against the Italian anarchist movement and in support of those arrested and imprisoned during this phase of the Anni di Piombo.
On October 13, she took her personal campaign to the Italian capital, staging a seven day hunger strike along side Fernando del Grosso on the Porta San Giovanni to demand that a date for the trial of those comrades charged with the Piazza Fontana bombs be finally set. When the state was finally forced to enact what was referred to as the Legge Valpreda (Law No. 773, which removed the prohibition on granting bail against the accused of a crime for which arrest is mandatory) and free Valpreada who had been held in prison without charge for the previous three years, Augusta welcomed him into her home in the Passaggio Osii.
Alzheimer's disease later limited her ability to actively participate in the anarchist movement, and the last appearance of "L'ultima partigiana anarchica" (the last anarchist partisan as the press called her at the time) was at the funeral on July 8, 2002 organised by the Circolo Ponte della Anarchica Ghisolfa for her friend Pietro Valpreda.
Augusta Farvo died on May 20, 2003 in Milan and was cremated at the Lambrate cemetery two days later with numerous comrades from the libertarian movement in attendance.

1913 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: Attempt to burn down a house at Beckenham was discovered in time to prevent total destruction. Greens on the Sandwich golf links damaged.

1917 - Tristan Tzara's lecture 'L'expressionisme et l'art abstrait' in Galerie Dada, Zurich.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: With 16 civilian workers and 7 activists prosecuted by the military still remaining in prison and the deadline issued by Salvador Seguí on the 21st having expired, a ballot shows a majority of just over 50% in favour and a second strike is called. However, this time it not only involves La Canadenca but is a general strike across Catalonia, returning the region to a total blackout and shutdown.
General Milans del Bosch declares a second state of war is proclaimed and neither of the daily newspapers, 'La Publicidad' or 'La Veu de Catalunya', is published. The army occupies Barcelona and under martial law provisions arrests 3,000 workers and CNT leaders, including the strike committee. He was supported by the new Federación Patronal de Barcelona (Employers' Federation) and the Lliga Catalana, as well as having under his command Police Chief Manuel Bravo Portillo, who led a group of pistoleros, using violence to intimidate the workers. The Federación Patronal de Barcelona would try to make it a demand that in order to be reinstated, a worker had to give up their CNT membership card and negotiate a new salary individually, a demand that no self-respection centista would tolerate.

[1919 - Red Flag Riot in South Brisbane:

1919 - Lawrence Ferlinghetti, U.S. poet, painter, Beat, publisher, anarchist and founder of City Lights Bookstore, born.

1920 - Märzaufstand / Ruhraufstand: The government, newly returned to Berlin, issues an ultimatum demanding that the workers' councils put an end to the strike and the uprising by March 30 (later extended to April 2). The councils fail to comply with this.
Also today, the Zitadelle Wesel is attacked, but here the Ruhr Army experienced its first defeat.

1924 - Aurelio Fernández Sánchez, Spanish anarchist militant and anarcho-syndicalist, member of Los Solidarios, is arrested, alongside his brother Ceferino and Adolfo Ballano Bueno, and imprisoned in Barcelona. He subsequently escapes and flees to Paris, where he is involved in a planned attack against the Spanish king Alfonso XIII. [see: Jul. 26]

1925 - On his way to speak at a Communist demonstration in Liverpool, leading CPGB figure Harry Pollitt is kidnapped by four young British Fascisti members. Dragged from his carriage at Edgehill railway station, he was put in a nearby car and told he was being taken to the Junior Constitutional Club. Instead he is driven over 3 hours away to the Liver Hotel, near Llandegla, where the four took turns to watch over his bed all night. The next day he was taken to Shrewsbury and put on a train for London. The five BF members charged with unlawful imprisonment were subsequently acquitted after they claimed that they merely wanted to take him away for a weekend in north Wales.

1926 - Dario Fo, Italian playwright, manager-director-actor-mime and author of 'Accidental Death of an Anarchist' (Morte Accidentale di un Anarchico; 1970) and 'Can´t Pay? Won´t Pay!' (Non Si Paga! Non Si Paga!; 1974), born.

1944 - Stalag Luft III: At 10:30 pm. on a cold, moonless night in Lower Silesia, 76 men begin to make their escape from the Luftwaffe-run prisoner-of-war camp Stammlager Luft III. A 77th surrendered [at 4:55 am. on March 25] after being seen emerging from the 102m long tunnel by one of the guards. The Germans reacted badly - Hitler wanted all 73 airmen that had been recaptured executed, along with the camp commander, the camp's architect, its security officer and all the guards on duty at the time. In the end, 50 of those recaptured were executed by the Nazis.
The events were depicted in a book, 'The Great Escape' (1950), by former prisoner Paul Brickhill, on which the 1963 film of the same named was based.

1944 - Eccidio delle Fosse Ardeatine [Fosse Ardeatine Massacre]: In reprisal for a partisan attack conducted on the previous day in central Rome against the SS Police Regiment Bozen. The German high command in Rome decided that a suitable ratio for reprial executions was ten Italians for each German policeman killed. That night, Adolf Hitler authorised the reprisal, stipulating that it be carried out within 24 hours. A list was drawn up from prisoners in German custody, with Jews awaiting deportation and some prisoners selected by the chief of the Fascist police in Rome from the Regina Coeli prison, including his own Lieutenant, Maurizio Giglio, a double agent working for the American OSS. 335 prisoners were taken to the tunnels of the disused quarries near the Via Ardeatina, where they were shot in the back of the head in groups of 5.

1945 - Camilla Christine Hall aka 'Gabi' (d. 1974), US artist, social worker, and an early member of the Symbionese Liberation Army, who took part in a number of bank robberies and the kidnap of Patty Hearst, born. She died in the May 17, 1974, shootout with the police at 1466 East 54th Street, Los Angeles.

1947 - José Pérez Ocaña (d. 1983), Andalusian naive painter, performance artist, LGBT activist and anarchist, known simply as Ocaña, born. Gay and proud, Ocaña moved to Barcelona to both escape intolerance and to be able to express himself artistically. There he eked out a living as a painter whilst establishing himself as a prominent character on Las Ramblas. A militant in the Front d'Alliberament Gai de Catalunya (FAGC), he was laos active in the anarchist and libertarian movement, performing at cultural events. Amongst the tributes to Ocaña following his death Ventura Pons' 1978 documentary film 'Ocaña, Retrato Intermitente' (Ocaña, an Intermittent Portrait).

1952 - Wilhelm (Willi) Jelinek (b. 1889), militant German anarchist-syndicalist, dies in the Bautzen prison camp (ex-GDR, East Germany), under unknown circumstances. [see: Dec. 25]

1962 - 1,172 arrested in sit-down against nuclear weapons in London's Parliament Square.

1975 - Georgette Ryner (b. 1895), French writer, poet, teacher and anarchist activist, who was also the daughter of anarchist thinker Han Ryner and companion of the individualist anarchist Louis Simon, dies. [see: Jan. 7]

1985 - Jornadas de Marzo [Working Days of March]: Having occupied the capital La Paz for 20 days, striking miners return to work with only a partial victory: an increase of 400%, partly payable in food coupons. But with inflation running at 2000% per year this will not maintain the workers' buying power. The workers and their allies were not politically organised enough to challenge the power of the government, with the bourgeoisie having made gains during the strike: the power of the miners was temporarily checked and the role of the military was gradually expanded. [see: Mar. 4]

1989 - Exxon Valdez oil spill disaster, Prince William Sound, Alaska.

2002 - 16-year-old Joseph Scholes is found hanging from a bed sheet tied to his cell window at Stoke Heath young offenders’ institution. Home Secretary David Blunkett is to aletr spark fury by rejecting a coroner’s advice and refusing a public inquiry into the suicide.

2005 - Michael Bailey, a 23-year old from Birmingham on suicide watch in the segregation unit at the GSL-run category-B prison HMP Rye Hill, Warwickshire, is found hanged in his cell.

2007 - 12 antifascists are arrested in Toulouse at a demonstration against the Front National meeting being held in the city. Protesters set dustbins alight and tried to build barricades while police fired tear gas and rubber bullets into the crowd. Of those arrested, 5 were released without charge the following day and the others were charged with the use of weapons to commit violent acts after clashes with the police. Two received 3 month suspended sentences (though one was remanded for a psychiatric evaluation) and the rest received between 3 months (plus 3 months suspended) and nine months (an alcoholic Arab male in his forties with 25 previous offences, mostly drunk and disorderly)

2013 - Mutiny in Larisa and Patra prisons, Greece.
[B] 1811 - Percy Bysshe Shelley (aged 18 years) is expelled from Oxford for his refusal to repudiate the authorship of the pamphlet 'The Necessity of Atheism'.

1812 - [N.S. Apr. 6] Aleksandr Ivanovich Herzen (Russian: Алекса́ндр Ива́нович Ге́рцен; d. 1870), Russian writer, journalist, novelist and thinker, who was one of the main 'forefathers' of Russian socialism and agrarian populism (an ideological ancestor of the Narodniki, Socialist-Revolutionaries, etc.), and who was greatly influenced by anarchism, born. [see: Apr. 6]

1843 - Louis Jules Marie Montels (d. 1916), French clerk and commercial traveller, militant in the Paris Commune of 1871 and anarchist, born. After being made a colonel of the Twelfth Federate Legion of the Commune, Jules Montels was sent on a mission to Béziers, where he took part in Narbonne insurrection (March 24-31, 1871). Following the fall of the Commune, he was sentenced in absentia (having fled to Geneva) by a council of war to death on December 11, 1871. [expand]
In 1877, he went to Russia where he became tutor of the children of Leo Tolstoy.

1861 - 300 armed troops thwart a prisoner uprising at Chatham convict prison planned to take place on 27th following the recent repression by prison authorities.

[D] [1871 - Commune de Toulouse: A Garde Nationale rebellion leads to the proclamation of the Toulouse Commune.

[1871 - Commune de Narbonne: troops sent to seize the city hall go over to the people and leave immediately enlist their comrades. by the evening, there are nearly 250 armed communards

[1871 - Commune de Saint-Étienne: the mayor is forced to recognize the fact and accept the organisation of a plebiscite in favour of the Commune

[1871 - Commune de Lyon: the arrival of the 5e Hussards [héros en armes de Belfort], who are welcomed with enthusiasm by the population, brings an abrupt end to the Commune

1871 - Commune du Creusot: Albert Leblanc, provincal envoy of the central committee of the Garde Nationale de Paris, asks the citizens of Le Creusot to declare a Commune.

1873 - Rudolf Rocker (d. 1958), German-American anarcho-syndicalist theorist, organiser and anti-fascist, born. Author of 'Anarcho-Syndicalism: Theory and Practice', 'Anarchism & Anarcho-Syndicalism', 'Pioneers of American Freedom', 'The Tragedy of Spain' and 'Nationalism and Culture'.

1877 - Jean-Baptiste Knockaert (aka Jean Rouge; d. 1957), Belgian anarcho-syndicalist, communist and free thinker, born.

1887 - Clément Duval is deported from the military fortress of Toulon, bound for the prison vaults of French Guyana.

1891 - Ravachol ransacks the house of two elderly spinsters, Louise and Jenny Loy, in Saint-Étienne and then tried to set fire to it. "Before leaving, organized two outbreaks of fire: one in the living room, stacking chairs on over others and spraying them with oil." [Pierre Bouchardon - 'Ravachol et Cie', 1931] [see: Oct. 14]

1905 - Antonio Ejarque Pina aka 'Jarque' (d. 1950), Aragonese metalworker, militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist combattant, born. Active in the CNT from 1920 to 1930 he was chair of the committee of the union of the CNT in Zaragoza. In 1931, he was the Sindicat del Metall de Saragossa's delegate to the CNT congress in Madrid and a member of the Aragon Regional Committee of the CNT. He was also involved in the running of the libertarian magazine 'Cultura y Acción' (Culture and Action). He managed to escape from Zaragoza and cross the Republican lines following the military insurrection in July 1936, and signed the pact of revolutionary unity between the CNT and the UGT in Aragon. At the war front, he was Commissioner-General of the 25th Division commanded by Antonio Ortiz Ramírez, and later by Miguel García Vivancos, and worker on the '25 División' periodical. In October 1938, as Inspector of the 25th Division, he was the author of a report denouncing the communist maneuvers to prevent the 25th Division from obtain the necessary weapons during the Battle of Teruel. Captured at the end of the war he was interned in the Albatera ia Oriola concentration camp. Upon his release, he went underground and was nominated by a plemun of the CNT as a delegate on the Alliance Nationale des Forces Démocratiques (ANFD) in exile in Paris. [expand]

1912 - In the Sénart Forest, near Montgeron (south of Paris), six members of the Bonnot gang steal a De Dion-Bouton limousine, shooting the driver through the heart. They drove into Chantilly north of Paris where they robbed the local branch of Société Générale Bank, shooting the bank's three cashiers and making off with nearly 50,000 francs. They escaped in their stolen automobile as two policemen tried to catch them, one on horseback and the other on a bicycle. Identified by officers near the Asnières train station, they abandon the car and manage to get on a train from the station.

1917 - Huelga General Revolucionaria [Revolutionary General Strike] / Vaga General Espanyola [Spanish General Strike]: In Spain a joint strike committee of the CNT and UGT (set up following the historic 'Pacto de Zaragoza' of July 17, 1916) sign a pact of unity of action and draw up a manifesto, which was published two days later, in which they demanded fundamental changes in the political system. From this pact came an agreement to hold a revolutionary strike the following August [declared on Aug. 13, 1917], during which the unions openly confronting the structures of the state. The strike was a failure and cost 70 dead, 43 of them in Catalonia, and 2000 arrests.
1918 - Claude Debussy (b. 1862), French composer heavily influenced by the Symbolists and Impressionist, dies. [see: Aug. 22]

[F] 1919 - In France the Loi du 25 Mars 1919 provides a first institutional framework for collective agreements, a decisive step in the construction of the right to collective bargaining.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: With the press already subject to censorship, a number of breaches led to the all ceasing publication until 15 April. All constitutional guarantees are suspended across Spain, echoing what had already taken place in Barcelona. The city itself was now displaying ever more prominent signs of military occupation, with artillery deployed in Plaça de Catalunya and other central locations. The centre of the city was now patrolled by volunteers Sometent for first time since they had began to take shape in November 1918. They now numbered about eight thousand and were under the command of regionalists like Josep Bertran i Musitu, Eusebi Bertran i Serra and the Marquès de Camps (Carles de Camps i d'Olzinelles), alongside the leaders of the Unión Monárquica Nacional, like the industrialist Emilio Vidal i Ribas. Francesc Cambó i Batlle, leader of the Lliga Regionalista decided to act as an example and went out with his rifle on his back.

1920 - Märzaufstand / Ruhraufstand: The government of Gustav Bauer is forced to resign, as a result of the negotiations they had conducted with Kapp and his fellow conspirators, and on March 26 Reichspräsident Friedrich Ebert appointed Hermann Müller as the new chancellor.
The attempt to settle the conflict at the negotiating table in the Bielefeld Agreement failed ultimately due to the intransigences of the regional military commander, Oskar von Watter. The result was the re-proclamation of a general strike. This is followed by more than 300,000 miners (approx. 75% of the workforce) involved. Dusseldorf and Elberfeld now also fell into the hands of the workers. By the end of March, the entire Ruhr region had been seized.
1921 - Première issue of the weekly anarchist paper 'La Antorcha' in Buenos Aires.

[C] 1922 - René Cavanhie (aka René Cavan; d. 1996), French poet, songwriter, anarchist and resistance fighter, born. Helped organise the smuggling of people out of occupied France (via Spain) during WWII and fought in the Resistance. Wrote for 'Le Libertaire', using the pen name Cavan, for Louis Lecoin’s paper 'Liberté' and May Picqueray’s 'Le Réfractaire'. Author of a number of works including 'Révolution au Paradis' (Revolution in Paradise; 1958) and 'Poèmes et Chansons Anarchistes' (Anarchist Poems and Songs; 1983).

'Vieve la Liberté'

J'en ai rien a foutre de prosodie
De césure, d'enjambement
D'hémistiche et d'homophonie
Toutes les règles c'est emmerdant
Je veux ecrire librement

Et puis, moi, je suis pour les pauvres
Les rimes riches, ça me débonde
De Vladivostock à Hanovre*
Que d'injustices dans le monde
En ajouter serait immonde

Compter des pieds? Le globe en est plein
Dans cette innombrable sarabande
Deux ou trois de plus ou de moins
Qu'est-ce-que ça me fiche, je vous le demande?
Et je me fous bien qu'on me vilipende

Alternance des rimes? Haro!
Dites-moi ce que ça change
S'inquiéter du sexe des mots
Pourquoi pas de celui des anges?
Que voilà des règles étranges

Consonne d'appui? Pauvre étai
Je ne suis ni terrassier ni maçon
Pour étayer ce que je fais
Je veux rimer à ma façon
Au diable, toutes vos prisons!

Ma muse se batifole en liberté
Toutes vos lois sont bien trop tristes
S'il fallait vraiment les respecter
Ca ne serait pas gai d'être un artiste
Et puis, voyez-vous, moi, je suis anarchiste.

(* Les pauvres sont tellement pauvres qu'ils n'ont même pas une rime pour leur nom.)

'Enjoy The Freedom'

I have nothing to fuck prosody
Hyphenation, spanning
On hemistich and homophony
All the rules is boring
I want to write freely

And I am for the poor
The rich rhymes, I'm débonde
Vladivostok Hanover *
That injustice in the world
Would add foul

Counting feet? The world is full
In this countless sarabande
Two or three more or less
What is it that I care, I ask you?
And I do not care although I vilifies

Alternating rhymes? Haro!
Tell me what it changes
Worrying sex words
Why not the angels?
That these are strange rules

Consonant support? Stay poor
I am not a mason or laborer
To support what I do
I rhyme my way
To hell with all your prisons!

My muse frolics freely
All your laws are too sad
If I had really respect
It would not be a gay artist
And then, you see, I am an anarchist.

(* The poor are so poor they do not even have a rhyme for their name.)


1932 - During its 19th and last regional Congress, held in Erfurt [25th-28th], the Freie Arbeiter-Union Deutschlands (FAUD, anarcho-syndicalist union) decides that, in the event of the Nazis taking power, its federal bureau in Berlin will shut down and be replaced by an underground directorate and that there would have to be a General Strike by way of reply. The latter decision proves impracticable: for one thing, the FAUD all across Germany is decimated by a wave of arrests.

1934 - Gloria Marie Steinem, US journalist, writer, lecturer, political activist, and feminist organiser, who became a spokeswoman for the feminist movement in the late 1960s and early 1970s, born.

1960 - Julia Bertrand (b. 1877), French teacher, militant anarchist, feminist and free thinker, dies. Participant in the feminist periodical 'La Femme Affranchie'. [see: Feb. 14]

1964 - Gregorio Jover Cortés (b. 1891), Spanish militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist activist and fighter against Franco, dies. [see: Oct. 25 & Jan. 25]

[E] 1965 - Viola Fauver Gregg Liuzzo (b. 1925), a white Unitarian Universalist civil rights activist, NAACP member and mother of five from Michigan, is murdered by Ku Klux Klan members following the 1965 Selma to Montgomery marches in Alabama. She had been ferrying march participants from Montgomery back to Selma in her own car when a second car pulled alongside her Oldsmobile and fired five shots. She was hit in the head and killed instantly, and the car skidded into the ditch.. The red-and-white Impala from which the shots were fired contained four Klansmen, Collie Wilkins (21), Gary Rowe (34), Eugene Thomas (42) and Federal Bureau of Investigation informant William Eaton (41). Eaton acted as the chief witness in the subsequent trials of Wilkins, Rowe and Thomas for murder. The first trial in May 1965 was declared a mistrial after the all-white jury was unable to reach a decision and at the second, again with an all-white jury, the three were acquitted. In between the two trials, Wilkins, Rowe and Thomas had been greeted at a KKK rally as heroes. The three were subsequently found guilty on December 3 that year of conspiracy to intimidate African-Americans under the 1871 Federal Ku Klux Klan Act and sentenced to the maximum 10 years prison term. Thomas was tried for a third time on a state murder charge in September 1966 but, despite the presence of eight African Americans on the jury and strong circumstantial evidence (the bullet that killed Viola Liuzzo having been fired from Thomas' revolver), he was again acquitted.
Within 24 hours of her death, the FBI set to cover up its involvement in the murder via a full-on disinformation campaign in which J. Edgar Hoover personally tried to paint her as a drug addict who had sex with Black men and whose husband, a Teamsters Union business agent, was involved in organised crime. Details of the smear campaign were uncovered in 1978 when Liuzzo's children obtained case documents from the FBI under the Freedom of Information Act. Attempts by the family to sue the FBI for damages failed and the Bureau's informant Rowe was indicted in 1978 and tried for his involvement in the murder, with exactly the same outcome as the Wilkins, Rowe and Thomas trials in 1965 — a hung jury, followed by a second trial that ended in his acquittal.

1975 - National Front rallies across London against Europe. 2,000 police struggle to prevent 6,000 anti-fascists from reaching the 400 NF members marching through north London in protest against the EEC. Islington's Labour Council had refused permission for the NF to hold a rally outside the Town Hall and, as the march neared, the counter-demonstrators outside it were involved in scuffles with the marchers and police.

2006 - Severino Campos Campos (b. 1905), Spanish militant anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Aug. 26]

2010 - 41 prisoners escape from the Centro de Ejecución de Sanciones prison in Matamoros, close to the US-Mexico border. Two prison guards were also reported as missing and are presumed to have aided the escape.

[A] 2011 - Around 80% of the total population of 10,000 prisoners in all 11 penal colonies and 6 pre-trial detention centres in Kyrgyzstan begin a hunger strike against “unbearable conditions of detention”. At least 2 prisoners will die during the 5-day hunger strike from one of the many virulent strains of TB that are rife in the region's prisons.
[E] 1819 - Louise Otto-Peters (d. 1895), German writer, feminist, poet, journalist, and women's rights movement activist, who is widely acknowledged as one the founder of the women's movement in Germany, born. She often wrote under the pseudonym of Otto Stern.

1871 - Paris Commune: Election of the members of the Commune.

[D] [1871 - Commune de Narbonne: Émile Digeon and a troop of more than two hundred Communards seize the sub-prefecture, and at the station, the telegraph, unmolested. The Communards are masters of the city.

[1871 - Commune de Saint-Étienne: elections set for the 29th

[1871 - Commune du Creusot: On the Place de la Mairie, a face-to-face meeting between Guards Nationale and soldiers of the line turns into fraternisation with cries of "Vive la République." The colonel withdraws his troops and the mayor, Jean-Baptiste Dumay, proclaims from a window of the first floor of the Town Hall, on which the red flag has been hoisted: "I am no longer the representative of the Government in Versailles, I am the representative of the Municipality of Le Creusot."
That night, the mayor sends the Guard Nationale to occupy the station, and the telegraph and mail offices, only to find the three institutions are already occupied by soldiers.

1872 - Émile Armand (pseudonym of Ernest-Lucien Juin) (d. 1962), French individualist, free love activist, born. Wrote 'l'Initiation Individualiste Anarchiste' (1923) and 'La Révolution Sexuelle et la Camaraderie Amoureuse' (1934). [expand]

1877 - [O.S. Mar. 14] Russian revolutionary and narodnitsa Evgeniya Dmitriyevna Subbotina (Евгения Дмитриевна Субботина; 1853 - post 1930), is convicted of belonging to a subversive association during the Trial of the 50 (процесс 50-ти) and sentenced to 16 years of exile in Siberia. From a Narodnik family — her mother Sophia Alexandrovna Subbotina (Софья Александровна Субботина) and sisters Maria (Мария) and Nadezhda (Надежда) were all active revolutionaries — in 1872 she moved to Switzerland with Maria and Anna Toporkova (Анна Топоркова), enrolling in the Faculty of Science at the University of Zurich, where she joined the Fritsche circle of young Russian female emigrants. Banned by the Russian government from studying in Zurich, she moved to Geneva and then to Paris with Maria. In August of 1874 she returned to Russia, living initially in her parents home village before moving to Moscow at the end of 1874. There in February 1875, participated in the elaboration of the statutes of the All-Russian Social Revolutionary Organisation (Всероссийской социально-революционной организации) and participated in anti-government propaganda among the workers in Moscow. That summer she left Moscow to visit her mother Sophia, who was then under arrest. Upon her return, she was arrested on August 25 [13], 1875 and indicted in the Trial of the 193 (процесс 193-х). After a period in prison, where she fell ill with dysentery and spent several months in hospital, she was acquitted on March 3 [Feb. 19], 1876, due to lack of evidence. However, Evgeniya remained under investigation as a suspect in the Trial of the 50 aka "The case of various persons accused of the state crime of creating an illegal organisation and the dissemination of criminal works" (Дело о разных лицах, обвиняемых в государственном преступлении по составлению противозаконнаго сообщества и распространению преступных сочинений), for which she was convicted and exiled to the Irkutsk province. On August 26 [14] she was also ordered to be deprived of all property and rights. After the verdict she was sent to the Lithuanian Castle (Литовский замок) in St. Petersburg where, sick the majority of the time, she stayed before finally being sent to Siberia and the village of Tunkinskoye (Тункинское) on August 14 [2], 1878. Following an escape attempt the following February (Feb. 9 [Jan. 28], 1879), she ended up in prison and was later deported to the remote village of Verkholensk (Верхоленск) under special police supervision. Transferred back to Irkutsk in 1881, her revolutionary activities got her deported to Verkholensk once more. In May 1885, and after much lobbying from her family, she was transferred to Tomsk and later in February 1888 she was allowed to travel to nurse her sick mother, then in exile in the Siberian town of Minusinsk (Минусинск). On April 10 [Mar. 29], 1889, she was released from exile accompanied by a full restoration of rights so that she could be placed under public surveillance by the police in a chosen place of residence, in her case Warsaw. Following the death in September 1892 of her husband Vladislav Kozlovsky (Владиславом Козловским), who she had married during her exile, she was allowed to live in Orel (Орёл) and in December 1892 she was finally released from 'open' police supervision (though she still remained under constant surveillance by the Tsarist secret police.
Following the October Revolution, she became a member in Moscow of the All-Union Society of Former Political Prisoners and Exiles (Всесоюзного общества бывших политкаторжан и ссыльнопоселенцев), which had been established in March 1921. All trace of her was subsequently lost around 1930.

1877 - [O.S. Mar. 14] Maria Dmitriyevna Subbotina (Мария Дмитриевна Субботина) is sentenced to four years of exile in Siberia for membership Zemlya i Volya (Land and liberty). [see:Feb. 20]

1877 - [O.S. Mar. 14] During the 'Process of 50' (Процесс 50-ти), the mass trial of the Muscovites Circle (Кружок москвичей) of the All-Russian Social Revolutionary Organisation (Всероссийской социально-революционной организации), the Subbotina sisters, Evgeniya, Nadezhda and Maria, are all sentenced to exile in Siberia, as are Lydia Figner, Vera Lyubatovich, Varvara Alexandrova and Varvara Batiushkov. Sophia Bardin and Olga Lyubatovich are sentenced to 9 years hard labour, Alexandera Horzhevskaya to 5 years, Anna Toporkova to 4 years and Gesya Gelfman to 2 years.

1879 - Georges Cochon (d. 1959), French tapestry maker, anarchist and very popular secretary of the Federation of Tenants (ancestor of the DAL), born.

[F] 1884 - [O.S. Mar. 14] Minnie Helen Schloss (d. 1965), Russian-American nurse, socialist, feminist, union organiser, IWW member and free speech activist, born in Vilna, Russia. The daughter of a rabbi, she attended the Rand School in NYC and trained as a public health nurse, specialising in the treatment of tuberculosis. She first worked in Malone, NYC and was later hired by the 'Fortnightly Club', an organisation of wealthy women, who were probably unaware of her earlier work with the Socialists in Malone, NY. When the Factory Investigating Committee came to Little Falls that August 1912, Helen Schloss provided investigators with graphic evidence of unsanitary conditions in the factories and tenements on the South Side. Once the strike began that October, she was very active in its support, working with Matilda Rabinowicz and Big Bill Haywood, and encouraged her friend Helen Keller to come and support the strikers too.
On October 30, police attacked strikers and began making mass arrests. They broke into the strike headquarters at the Slovak Hall, smashed the place up, and proceeded to arrest all 24 members of the Strike Committee, some of whom were held for over a year. Helen Schloss, by now considered a ringleader, was arrested a mile away. The police brought in three doctors to "examine her sanity" but she had a lawyer who soon secured her release. Despite the arrests, the strike continued. Matilda Rabinowitz, a Russian-born IWW organiser, soon arrived and joined forces with Helen Schloss. Together, the two women had an entirely female picket line up within a day of the mass arrests. They also used the tactic that was so successful in the Bread and Roses Strike in Lawrence earlier that year, sending the children of strikers away for the Xmas holidays to join Socialist families in Schenectady.
After the Little Falls strike was settled by state mediators in January 1913, Helen went directly to the silk workers strike in Paterson New Jersey, which had begun in March of that year. Her IWW comrades Big Bill Haywood and Carlo Tresca, who had been at Little Falls, were major organisers at Paterson, as was Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, with whom Helen had been arrested in 1904 in New York. At Paterson, Flynn was arrested for a speech in which she called for uniting workers across racial boundaries, and was among the 1800 workers and organisers arrested by the police during the dispute.
In 1914 Helen Schloss was at the strikers' camp in Ludlow, Colorado when the Colorado National Guard attacked the tent colony, massacring two dozen men, women and children. The workers fired back over the next ten days, leading to more deaths on both sides. She also was a speaker at a NYC Suffrage Rally in NYC. She set up medic tents at strikes in Colorado and traveled to Russia with the Friends Service Committee in 1919 as part of a Quaker medical mission. From there nothing is known until her death in February 1965.

1885 - Louis Montgon aka 'Vérité' (d. 1972), French labourer, artisan watchmaker, anarchist propagandist, militant anarcho-syndicalist in the CGTU, born. In the early 1920s, he was the secretary of the local Perpignan anarchist group and was described in a police report as "enemy of all authority". During the 1920s, he took part in numerous anti-fascist and anti-Bolshevik activities and conferences. He also left the then Communist-dominated CGTU to join the CGTSR. From July 1936 to March 1937, he was the Departmental chair of the Comité de Défense de la Révolution Espagnole and of the Fédération des Émigrés Antifascistes Espagnols. He also managed the bilingual French-Spanish 'Bulletin d'information du Comité de Défense de la Révolution Espagnole Antifasciste in Perpignan (11 issues from February 6 to September 23 1937 and replaced by the 'La Nouvelle Espagne Antifasciste'). However, he resigned from the bulletin after issue no. 3 due to his disagrement with the official collaborationist line of the Spanish libertarian movement and was replaced by Jean Ay, though he continued to represent the Perpignan group in the Federation and, after the events of May 1937 in Barcelona, ​​raised funds for comrades of the French section of the CNT imprisoned by the Stalinists.
In February 1939, he was charged with being the liaison between the Spanish émigrée groups in Paris and the Marseilles-based Comitato Anarchico pro Vittime Politiche, then run by Pio Turroni, maintaining the links between the Spanish and Italian internees in the Argeles and Saint Cyprien detention camps. During one such visit, he was arrested by the gendarmes in Argeles. After the Second World War, Montgon continued his activism and was the secretary of the local federation of the French CNT (CNTF) in Perpignan.

[B] 1886 - Juan Serrano y Oteiza (b. 1837), Spanish anarchist intellectual, lawyer, journalist and writer, dies. His most famous work is probably his utopian novel 'Pensativo' (1885). [see: May 6]

1889 - Jacques Doubinsky (Iakov Dubinsky; d. 1959), Ukranian Jewish anarchist and Makhnovist, born. As a young labour radical he joined the Ukrainian peasant uprising in 1918, fighting with the famed anarchist insurrectionary Makhnovist army. Involved in many publishing enterprises and assisting Bulgarian refugees.

1890 - Raymond Callemin, (aka Raymond-la-Science) Belgian member of the anarchist/illegalist Bonnot Gang, born. Callemin, who also started the individualist paper 'L'Anarchie' with Victor Serge, was guillotined in 1913.

1891 - Marcelle Capy (Marcelle Marques; d. 1962), French journalist, writer, militant syndicalist, libertarian socialist, pacifist and feminist, born.

1892 - Walt Whitman (b. 1819), American Transcendentalist poet and to some a proto-libertarian, dies. [see: May 31]

[C] 1903 - Albert Guigui-Theral (aka Varlin; d. 1982), Algerian-born French anarchist, militant syndicalist, mechanic and French Resistance fighter, born.

1905 - Viktor Emil Frankl (d. 1997), Austrian neurologist, psychiatrist and Holocaust survivor, born. Frankl was the founder of logotherapy, a form of existential analysis, which is considered the Third Viennese School of Psychotherapy. Whilst still a medical student, he became the president of the Sozialistische Mittelschüler Österreich, a Social Democratic youth movement for high school students throughout Austria, in1924. Between 1928 and 1930 he organised a special program to counsel high school students free of charge, which would bring him to the attention of Wilhelm Reich. On September 25, 1942, Frankl, his wife Tilly, and his parents were deported to the Nazi Theresienstadt Ghetto. There Frankl worked as a general practitioner in a clinic.
On 19 October 1944, Frankl and his wife Tilly were transported to the Auschwitz concentration camp, where he was processed. He was moved to Kaufering, a Nazi concentration camp affiliated with Dachau concentration camp, where he arrived on October 25,1944. There he was to spend five months working as a slave laborer. In March 1945, he was offered a move to the so-called rest-camp, Türkheim, also affiliated with Dachau. He decided to go to Türkheim, where he worked as a physician until April 27, 1945, when Frankl was liberated by the Americans. Tilly however, was transferred from Auschwitz to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, where she died. Of his extended family, only his sister Stella survived, having escaped from Austria and emigrated to Australia.
Liberated after three years in concentration camps, Frankl returned to Vienna where he set to writing about his experiences in what would become his most famous book, '…Trotzdem Ja Zum Leben Sagen: Ein Psychologe erlebt das Konzentrationslager' (…Nevertheless, Say Yes to Life: A Psychologist Experiences the Concentration Camp; 1946),
first published in English as 'From Death-Camp to Existentialism' in 1959 and better known as 'Man's Search For Meaning: An Introduction to Logotherapy', which would form the basis of all his later theories and writings. Frankl died of heart failure on September 2, 1997.
"Everything can be taken from a man but one thing: the last of the human freedoms—to choose one’s attitude in any given set of circumstances, to choose one’s own way."
"We who lived in concentration camps can remember the men who walked through the huts comforting others, giving away their last piece of bread. They may have been few in number, but they offer sufficient proof that everything can be taken from a man but one thing: the last of the human freedoms -- to choose one's attitude in any given set of circumstances, to choose one's own way."

[D] 1910 - The US Immigration Act of 1910 amends existing law to deny entrance into the United States of criminals, paupers, anarchists & diseased persons.

1911 - Revolución Mexicana: Jose Luis Moya's forces captures Ciudad Lerdo.

1913 - Revolución Mexicana: Venustiano Carranza, a politician and rancher from Coahuila, was forefront in the opposition against Victoriano Huerta, calling his forces the Constitutionalists, with the secret support of the United States. On March 26, 1913, Carranza issued the Plan de Guadalupe, which was a refusal to recognize Huerta as president and called for a declaration of war between the two factions.

1923 - In Yambol, Bulgaria, during an anarchist protest against the governments decision to disarm the people, the army shoots into the crowd, wounding the speaker Atanas Stoitchev and massacring others. About 30 are murdered here, including others executed at the Yambol barracks tomorrow (Todor Darzev, Pani Botchkov, Dimitar Vassilev, Cyrille Kehaiov, Spiro Obretenov, Pétar Kassapina, Rousko Nanine, Pétar Glavtchev, etc.).

1923 - Pier Carlo Masini (d. 1998), Italian historian of anarchism, libertarian activist himself especially during the years 1940 and 1950, born. Became editor of the Italian Anarchist Federation (FAI) weekly paper Umanita Nova in 1948.

1926 - Todor 'Tocho' Mitev (d. 2002), Bulgarian anarchist and doctor, born [expand]

1949 - One of a series of vicious attacks by Union Movement thugs on isolated Jewish youths takes place in Ridley Road, Dalston when a gang of fascists attack two 18-year-olds, one of whom is Harold Pinter, before he became a renown playwright.
[see: Graham Macklin - 'Very Deeply Dyed in Black: Sir Oswald Mosley and the Resurrection of British Fascism after 1945' (2007)]

1951 - María Asunción Artigas Nilo de Moyano (d. ca. 1978), Uraguayan medical student and militant in the Resistencia Obrero Estudiantil (ROE) in Uruguay and the Movimiento de Liberación Nacional - Tupamaros (MLN-T) in Argentina, born. At 03:00 on December 30, 1977, she and her partner Alfredo 'Fredy' Moyano Santander (b. 1956), a fellow MLN-T member, were kidnapped from their home in Berazategui, Buenos Aires as part of Operation Condor. One month pregnant at the time of her abduction, Mary was detained in the clandestine centres of Pozo de Quilmes and Pozo de Banfield. She gave birth to her daughter Maria Victoria in Pozo de Banfield on August 25, 1978. Maria Victoria was immediately taken away and adopted by a military or police family. She regained her identity in 1987. However, Mary and Fredy disappeared, transferred to an unknown located most likely on October 12, 1978.

1959 - Raymond Chandler (b. 1888), American novelist and screenwriter, takes The Big Sleep. [see: Jul. 23]

1965 - Yekaterina Peshkova [Екатерина Пешкова] (Yekaterina Pavlovna Volzhina [Екатерина Павловна Волжина]; b. 1876), Russian proofreader, revolutionary, member of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party (Партия социалистов-революционеров / ПСР), and Soviet public figure and human rights activist, born. [see: Aug. 7]

1969 - B. Traven ( 1882), German anarchist novelist, dies. [see: Feb 23]

[EE] 1974 - Chipko Movement: A group of 27 women and young girls of Reni Village in the state of Uttarakhand, India surround and hold on to trees in their forest to prevent them from being cut down by a lumber company given cutting rights by the government. The confrontation grows out of growing resistance to the commercial logging that is destroying the traditional forests that local people rely on for their livelihoods. On this day, knowing of the villagers’ resistance, the government has used a ruse to lure the men of the village to a distant location so they will be away when the loggers arrive. However, when loggers appear on the scene, the women of the village rush out to confront them. When it seems that logging will begin regardless, the women start hugging the trees to prevent them from being cut down, calling out to the Forestry officials and lumberjacks: "Brothers! This forest is the source of our livelihood. If you destroy it, the mountain will come tumbling down onto our village... If you cut the trees down, you will have to hit us with your axes first." This act of defiance marks the beginning of the Chipko movement or chipko andolan - he tactic is originally known by the Garhwali word angalwaltha but becomes more widely known by the Hindi term chipko.
After a four-day stand-off, the loggers leave. When news of the success of the tactic reaches other villages, a movement of resistance to commercial logging quickly spreads, leading to hundreds of grassroots actions. Primarily a forest conservation movement in India that began in 1973, the Chipko non-violent and increasingly ecofeminist-orientated movement went on to become a rallying point for many future environmental contrast and movements all over the world.

1978 - In the long running battle against Japan's Narita International Airport, the control tower is broken into, four days before the airport is due to open, and $500,000 of equipment is destroyed, delaying that opening til May 20.

1996 - Palisadenstrasse 49 squat in East Berlin is evicted.

2000 - Alex Comfort (b. 1920), British physician, gerontologist, sexologist, anarchist, pacifist, poet, novelist, etc., dies. [see: Feb 10]

[A] 2005 - Antonio Téllez (b. 1921), Spanish anarchist, guerrilla, historian, dies. Author of, among other works, 'Sabaté: guérilla urbaine en Espagne 1945-1960' (1972). [see: Jan. 18]

2014 - A neo-Nazi march due to pass through the ethnically-diverse Berlin neighbourhood of Kreuzberg is stopped after a mere 200 metres. Despite the presence of more than 1,600 riot police to protect the 100 or so neo-Nazis from 5,000 anti-fascist activists, who had gathered along the proposed route, the cops were forced to call off the march as they were unable to dislodge potestors blocking the route. Police arrested 16 people and 17 cops were injured.
1836 - Goliad Massacre: On the orders of General Antonio López de Santa Anna, the Mexican army butchers 342 Texas POWs at Goliad, Texas.

1839 - Jules Lermina (d. 1915), French prolific novelist, journalist and anarchist, whose early novels appeared under the pseudonym William Cobb, born. Author of the 'L'ABC du Libertaire' (1906), published by the Aiglemont libertarian colony and in 'Le Libertaire'

[B] 1854 - Georges Eekhoud (d. 1927), Belgian novelist and anarchist, born. In the 1880s Eekhoud took part in several of the modern French-Belgian artist movements, like Les XX and La Jeune Belgique and began to get involved with the growing Belgian anarchist movement. 'Kees Doorik', his first novel was published in 1883, about the wild life of a tough young farmhand who committed a murder and his novels continued to be markedly socio-politcal in content, portray working class life but with a distinct homosexual subtext. Gay himself, Eekhoud published his 1899 novel 'Escal-Vigor', the first novel in French literature to deal openly the homosexuality, to critical acclaim but wider public outrage and Eekhoud was unsuccessfully proscecuted for violating morality.

1858 - Florence Finch Kelly (Florence Evaline Finch; d. 1939), American journalist, author of novels and short stories, anarchist, feminist and suffragist, born. Finch contributed many articles to the 'Boston Globe' and the anarchist periodical 'Liberty', and worked on the staff of 'The New York Times' as a book reviewer from 1906 to the mid 1930s. In addition to seven novels and numerous short stories and magazine articles on literary, artistic, and economic subjects. She also produced a free-love novel titled 'Frances: A Story for Men and Women' (1889) and "an avowedly anarchist novel" 'On the Inside' (1890) - though she later played down her anarchism in her autobiography 'Flowing Stream: The Story of Fifty-six Years in American Newspaper Life' (1939).

1871 - Heinrich Mann (d. 1950), German novelist, utopian and anti-fascist, born. [expand]

1871 - Commune de Narbonne: Delegates from surrounding towns come to give their support to the Commune of Narbonne and request instructions.

1871 - Commune de Toulouse: The newly appointed préfet arrivesat the Arsenal with three cavalry squadrons, six hundred infantry and six guns. He takes possession of the prefecture and the Capitol without resistance.

[1871 - Commune de Saint-Étienne: troops begin arriving from Lyon

1871 - Commune du Creusot: During the morning, the préfet, the local prosecutor and a thousand military reinforcements arrive by train. Meetings are banned and arrest warrants are issued for the leaders of the movement. Demonstrations in support of Dumay and the Commune are dispersed. Yet the proclamation is repeated several times and the red flag is raised again.

[D] 1881 - Massagainian Riots: Salvation Army temperance campaigners and their band are attacked by the Massagainians, rowdies sponsored by local brewers and publicans in Basingstoke, a town with a reputation for drunkenness - its population of 6,681 was served by 50 public houses. The mayor has to call in the army to quell the ensuing riot.

1884 - A mob in Cincinnati, Ohio, attacks members of a jury who had returned a verdict of manslaughter in a clear case of murder, and then over the next few days would riot and destroy the courthouse.

1892 - At 06:00, François Claudius Koenigstein aka Ravachol takes the bus to the Rue de Clichy, where Léon Bulot, the public prosecutor in the (Affaire de Clichy [see: May 1]) case of Henri Louis Decamps and Charles Auguste Dardare. Arriving at about eight o'clock, he drops off his bomb contained in a small valise on the second floor of number 39 outside Bulot's flat. He had walked fifty yards before the bomb exploded. Seven people are injured and the building is destroyed. Damage is estimated at 120,000 francs. After the attack, Ravachol takes an omnibus in order to inspect the damage but the omnibus is diverted and he ends up at the Restaurant Véry (24, boulevard de Magenta, Paris). There he falls into conversation with a waiter, Jules Lhérot, expounding anarchist and anti-militarist theories. Ravachol also talks about the bombing, arousing suspicions in Lhérot, who denounces him when he returns to the restaurant 3 days later. [see: Mar. 30]
[Costantinni pic]

1912 - Start of 8-month Fraser River Strike by IWW (Industrial Workers of the World) railroad construction workers, British Columbia.

1915 - Liu Shifu (劉思復) aka Liu Szu-fu or Shi(h) Fu (b. 1884), influential figure in the Chinese revolutionary movement in the early twentieth century, dies. Founder of the Huìmíng Xuēshè / Hui-Ming Hsüeh-she (晦鸣学舍) - The Society of Cocks Crowing in the Dark (a.k.a. Cock-Crow Society). In July 1912, he and his brother Liu Shixin, Mo Ji Peng (莫纪彭), Peigang Zheng, Liang Bingxian, Huang Lingshuang, etc. created 'Heart to Heart' (心社). In 1913 founded the 'Dark Ming Lu' (晦鸣录) / 'Hey Ming Lu' (晦鳴錄) magazine later renamed 'voice of the people' (民声).

[FF] 1917 - Huelga General Revolucionaria [Revolutionary General Strike] / Vaga General Espanyola [Spanish General Strike]: Following the success of the December 18, 1916 24-hour general strike, the CNT and UGT joint strike committee publish a joint manifesto, the 'Manifiesto Conjunto de la UGT y la CNT' / 'Manifest Conjunt de la UGT i la CNT' (Joint Manifesto of the UGT and the CNT), in which they set out the history of workers' complaints and analayse why previous protests against the exploitation of the working class have not worked. Based on this detailed analysis, they then state that this is why they have been forced to come to the conclusion that the only way they can combat the exploiters of the proletariat is to call an indefinite general strike, and end the text hoping that the strike, of which they have not yet set the start date, is a success.
"In order to oblige the ruling classes to those fundamental changes of system that guarantee to the people the minimum of decent living conditions and the development of their emancipatory activities, it is necessary that the Spanish proletariat employ the general strike, with no definite term of completion, as the most powerful weapon he possesses to claim his rights."
In response, Álvaro Figueroa y Torres Mendieta, Conde de Romanones suspended constitutional guarantees and imprisoned all the signatories of the manifesto that could be found.

1918 - Henry Brooks Adams (b. 1838), American journalist, historian, academic and novelist, dies. [see: Feb. 16]

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: Many striking workers are ready to end what they now see as a failing strike, but the civil governor Carles Montañés refuses to mediate in the conflict.

[F] 1920 - In Turin the metal workers' union (Federazione Impiegati Operai Metallurgici) begins a General Strike. The Turin anarchist newspaper 'L'Ordine Nuovo' publishes a proclamation, 'Per il Congresso dei Consigli di fabbrica. Agli operai e contadini di tutta Italia' (For the Congress of the Councils of the Factory. For workers and peasants from all over Italy), signed by the libertarian group of Turin, including the strike organisers and militant Councilists Pietro Ferrero (assassinated by the fascists in 1922) and Maurizio Garino. On April 14, the authorities intervene with an extreme rigor to break the strike (which continues until April 23). Arrests en masse occur, which include Garino.

1920 - Dada manifestation in the Salle Berlioz dans la Maison de l'Oeuvre in Paris.

1931 - In Montevideo, the celebrated Argentinian anarchist expropriator, Miguel Arcángel Roscigno (or Roscigna; b. 1891), is arrested and disappeared. [see: May. 8]

1938 - Arnaldo Simões Januário (b. 1897), Portuguese anarcho-syndicalist militant and member of União Anarquista Portuguesa, dies in the Tarrafal (Cap Verde) prison camp. [see: Jun. 6]

[E] 1945 - Annie Mae Aquash (Naguset Eask; d. 1975), Mi'kmaq First Nations activist, who participated in the AIM occupation of Wounded Knee on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in 1973, born. She was kidnapped, raped and murdered some time in December 1975, allegedly on the orders of AIM leader because of suspicions that she was a police spy who was implicated in the conviction of Leonard Peltier for the alleged murder of two FBI agents.
AIM members Arlo Looking Cloud and John Graham were later convicted in seperate trials of her murder. Both continue to deny involvement.

[C] 1960 - Fascists attempt to attack a protest in cental London against the March 21, 1960, Sharpeville killings. More than 15,000 people marched through central London to protest against the massacre of 69 unarmed demonstrators at Sharpeville. The march was organised by the Boycott Movement, the Movement for Colonial Freedom and the Committee of African Organisations. Union Movement drove round London on open-backet lorrys declaring their support for the apartheid regime. At the Haymarket, they tried to attack the march but were repelled by the march and stewards. [PR]

1971 - The National Front hold an anti-EU and anti-immigration march in Hitchin, Hertfordshire. Most of the 500 NFers are, according to the police, are from the West Midlands and Hertfordshire, and they are led by a pipe band from Wolverhampton. They are opposed by 1,500-2,000 anti-fascists organised by North Herts Campaign for Racial Equality. Smoke bombs and rotten fruit are thrown at the Front and 6 people are arrested and charged with threatening behaviour and possession of a smoke bomb. Because of the smoke, the NF are redirected into a small park and, protected by 2 rings of cops, hold a meeting. [PR]

1972 - Soledad Brothers acquitted.

1977 - The first major national meeting of the CNT since the fall of the Franco dictatorship is held in San Sebastian de los Reyes (Madrid).

1986 - A car bomb explodes at Russell Street Police HQ in Melbourne, killing one police officer and injuring 21 people.

[A] 1993 - The Red Army Faction razes to the ground a recently completed hi-tech prison in Germany.

1997 - Ella Maillart (b. 1903), French-speaking Swiss adventurer, ethnologist, travel writer, war reporter and photographer, dies. [see: Feb. 20]

2002 - Nanterre Massacre: In Nanterre, France, a gunman opens fire at the end of a town council meeting, resulting in the deaths of eight councilors and the injury of 19 others.

2003 - Jeremiah Duggan, a young Jewish man from London in western Germany for an anti-war conference (which turned out to be a Lyndon LaRouche front), is allegedly run over by two cars on a motorway just outside Wiesbaden. The German authorities claim it is a suicide but a British coroner dismisses this.

2004 - Tony Smythe (b. 1938), British anarchist pacifist and militant, dies. Anti-nuclear activist, director of MEDACT, the Medical Campaign for Global Security. [see: Aug. 2]

2004 - Karl Ludwig Ratschiller (b. 1921), Italian geologist and anti-Nazi partisan in North-Eastern Italy during WWII, dies. [see: Jun. 22]

2005 - 30 anti-fascists from a Yorkshire-based Antifa group attacked a British National Party meeting in Halifax. The anti-fascists threw half-bricks and rocks at the BNP security, and BNP members' cars were smashed. About 40 English Defence League and South Coast Casuals are seen off by a couple of Brighton Anti-Facist group members.

2006 - Stanislaw Lem (b. 1921), Polish writer of science fiction, philosophy and satire, essayist and critic, dies. His meisterwerk is 'Futurological Congress' (Kongres Futurologiczny; 1971), a satirical exploration of utopias and dystopias. [see: Sep. 12]
1849 - Pierre-Joseph Proudhon is condemned to three years in prison and fined 3,000 francs for one of his lampoons published in the newspaper 'Le Peuple'. The unhappy tribunal explains the reasons for his harsh sentence:
"1° D'excitation à la haine du gouvernement; 2° De provocation à la guerre civile; 3° D'attaque à la Constitution et à la propriété!" (1° Stirring up hatred against the government; 2° Provoking civil war; 3° Attacking the Constitution and property!)

1870 - Karl Marx addresses his 'Confidential Communication' to his German friends to stir up hatred against Mikhail Bakunin (his anarchist nemesis) by declaring him an agent of the pan-Slavist party from which he allegedly received 25,000 francs per year. It was, of course, a lie.

1871 - Paris Commune: Over 200,000 people turn out at the City Hall to see their newly elected officials, whose names are read to great and festive acclaim, making this day a revolutionary festival. The red flag, raised over all public buildings, is emblematic of the Commune.

[1871 - Commune de Narbonne: the insurgents seized the Arsenal.

[1871 - Commune de Saint-Étienne: at six in the morning, the City Hall is circled, the red flag is removed.

1871 - Commune du Creusot: Order in Le Creusot is finally restored. Many of the leaders of the Republican-Socialist Committee have fled to Geneva, others are in prison. Jean-Baptiste Dumay is in hiding in Le Creusot.

1896 - [O.S. Mar. 16] Melpomena Dimitrova Karnicheva [Мелпомена Димитрова Кърничева (bg) / Мелпомена Димитрова Крничева (mk)], popularly known as Mencha Karnichiu [Менча Кърничиу] or Carmen [Кармен](March 28 [16] 1896 - September 5 1964), Bulgarian revolutionary of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешната македонска революционна организация), born. Initially a member of the group around left-wing IMRO activist Todor Panitsa (Тодор Паница), she grew disillusioned with this links with the Comintern and joined the right-wing of the IMRO, ultimately assassinating Panitsa after the latter's killing of Boris Sarafov (Борис Сарафов) and Ivan Garvanov (Иван Гарванов), which was to spark decades of internecine warfare between the leftist and nationalist wings of the IMRO. She later married the rightist IMRO leader and Axis collaborator Ivan (Vanche) Mihailov Gavrilov [Иван (Ванче) Михайлов Гаврилов].Менча_Кърничева]

[D] 1903 - A robbery is committed at the Cathedral of Saint Gatien Tours during the night of 27th-28th by Marius Jacob and Les Travailleurs de la Nuit. From the daily report of Tours Central Commissioner Caubet, March 28, 1903:
"Last night, unknown perpetrators broke into the cathedral on the side of the street from the Pralette using a ladder leant against a window that they broken, and stole four large Aubusson eighteenth tapestries marked with the arms of the city of Tours and bearing the figure S.M., 3m by 4m representing 'La Nativité', 'Jésus au milieu des docteurs' (Jesus among the Doctors), 'La fuite n Egypte' (The escape from Egypt) and 'La présentation au temple' (The Presentation in the Temple). These tapestries were framed and displayed in a chapel. An investigation was opened."
"Then he noticed the fine, heavy, 17th century Aubusson tapestries which hung on the walls . . ." [Bernard Thomas - 'Les Vies d'Alexandre Jacob', 1970]
[Costantinni pics]

1906 - Ines Lida Scarselli (d. 1985), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist, born. [expand]

1911 - Part of the Bonnot Gang is caught and killed by cops after months of joyous bank robbing and other escapades. Many letters had been sent publicising their actions and taunting the police. Comprised of unemployed anarchists, the Bonnot Gang received much enthusiastic response from the public.

1912 - San Diego Free Speech Fight: Police brutality and aggression were rampant throughout the free speech fight, and the first death of the campaign comes when sixty-three-year-old Michael Hoy, an IWW veteran of free-speech fights in Spokane and Fresno, dies after the police beat him and withheld medical attention. Arrested during the first week of protests in San Diego, Hoey spent 40 days in city jail. Although they denied it, Hoey swore that three officers – rookie patrolman Irwin, in particular – clubbed and kicked him repeatedly in the groin. Cramped with over 100 prisoners in a cell built for 60, Hoey had to sleep on a cement floor and eat inedible food. "When I asked Dr. Claude Magee [the police surgeon] for a laxative, he gave me an emetic, which caused such violent vomiting that I became seriously ill."
On March 21, Magee sent Hoey in an ambulance to Agnew Hospital with a note: the patient is in "practically normal condition", but suffers from an old rupture. Seven days later, Hoey died. A coroner’s jury diagnosed bronchial pneumonia and found "no evidence of violence". Dr. Deville of Agnew Hospital disagreed. Hoey died from unsanitary conditions at the jail, Deville told the San Diego Sun, and "police brutality".

1913 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: Olive Hocken appears before magistrates, charged with an arson attack on Roehampton Golf Club's Pavilion, Kew Garden's Orchid House, the cutting of telegraph and telephone wires and the destruction of letters. Her notoriety even reaching as far as the United States, with the 'Boston Herald' carrying a report of her trial and claiming her home in Kensington was a "depot where people foregathered, armed and prepared for any particular marauding outrage on hand".

[E] 1915 - Anarchist Emma Goldman is arrested after trying to explain to an audience of 600 people at the Sunrise Club in New York the use of contraceptive methods for the first time the history of the United States. After a stormy trial, she was sentenced to spend 15 days working in prison workshops or pay a fine of $100, Goldman chose jail to the applause of the audience. A 'Little Review' reporter said: "Emma Goldman was sent to prison to hold that women need not always keep their mouths shut and their wombs open!" She was later considered by the FBI director Edgar Hoover to be, "the most dangerous woman in America", ordering her expulsion from the country.

1915 - Maria Rosa, a 15-year-old girl who led 6000 men during the Guerra do Contestado (Contestado War), a guerrilla war fought for land between settlers and landowners, the latter supported by the Brazilian state's police and military forces, which lasted from October 1912 to August 1916, following the death of the rebels' leader, the 'holy monk' José Maria de Santo Agostinho (real name Miguel Boaventura Lucena, allegedly an army deserter wanted for rape),on October 22, 1912, herself falls in battle on the banks of the Rio Caçador, near the village of Reinchardt. [see: Feb. 8]

[B] 1917 - Ramón Cambra Turias aka 'Mone' (d. 2010), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, anti-militarist, printer, translator and poet, born.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: On the fourth day of the strike, met the Council of the Mancomunitat and the president Josep Puig i Cadafalch explained that, "required by the Captain General [Milans del Bosch] to cooperate in restoring normalcy among citizens, I offered to provide the help needed to tend to the most urgent health, supply and assistance services that concern all citizens, considering only the Council that the Mancomunitat is not responsible for any activity other than that started". The Council also agreed that it was necessary to anticipate the introduction of legal formulas to resolve conflicts when they start and that, as soon as the strike ended, the Mancomunitat would organise a conference on labour to promote a 'social truce'. In fact, earlier, on January 29, 1919, the Standing Committee of the Mancomunitat had agreed to address the employer and worker representatives of the sectors where there was a labour dispute to offer their mediation, which they did in a dispute involving print workers in Girona, with a satisfactory outcome for workers.
Milans del Bosch did not like the March 28, 1919 proposal from the Mancomunitat, and did not allow this agreement to be published in the only official newspaper published in Barcelona or in other Catalonia newspapers. Milans del Bosch wrote a letter to Puig i Cadafalch in which he said he believed that the announcement made the Mancomunitat and the organisation of a conference on labour were not appropriate "in the current state": "They are political issues that need a hiatus today and that I propose to have observed."

1919 - Criminal Syndicalism: Arkansas joins the majority of states in the union by passing Act 512, which read:
"An act to define and punish anarchy and to prevent the introduction and spread of Bolshevism and kindred doctrines, in the State of Arkansas.
§1. Unlawful to attempt to overthrow present form of government of the State of Arkansas or the United States of America.
§2. Unlawful to exhibit any flag, etc., which is calculated to overthrow present form of government.
§3. Laws in conflict repealed; emergency declared; effective after passage."
Such a crime was a misdemeanor, punishable by a fine of between $10 and a $1,000, and the perpetrator could be imprisoned in the county jail for up to six months. This anarchy bill was originally introduced as House Bill Number 473, and, on March 6, 1919, it was read in the House of Representatives. The House moved that the bill be placed back upon second reading for the purpose of amendment. The motion was passed, and the following amendment was sent up: "Amend House Bill No. 473 by striking out the words ‘association of individuals, corporations, organization or lodges by any name or without a name,’ as found in lines 2 and 3 of section 2, of the bill."
On March 12, 1919, House Bill 473 was read the third time and placed on final passage in the Senate
On March 28, 1919, Governor Charles Hillman Brough signed the bill, making it Act 512.

1928 - Alexander Grothendieck, German anarchist, anti-militarist and mathematician, the central figure behind the creation of the theory of algebraic geometry, born. His father was the Ukranian anarchist Alexander 'Sascha' Shapiro aka Tanaroff and mother the German anarchist and journalist Hanka Grothendieck. His early life is covered in his mother's unpublished autobiographical novel 'Eine Frau'. During the Spanish Civil War his parents left him in Germany with a foster family so they could fight for the Republic. His father was to die in Auschwitz.

[C] 1933 - A 2 week siege of the British Union of Fascists' HQ in Walworth Road, London, by a crowd of communists comes to an end as anti-fascists raid the building, wrecking office equipment and furniture. [PR]

[F] 1934 - The Uníos Hermanos Proletarios (UHP; Union of Proletarian Brothers or Unite! Proletarian Brothers) aka Uníos Hijos del Proletariado (Unite! Children of the Proletariat) is formalised with the signing of the Pacto CNT-UGT de Asturias.

1947 - Annamaria Ludmann aka 'Cecilia' (b. 1947), Italain secretary, tobacco shop manager and 'irregular' in the Brigate Rosse, is killed during a police raid on her flat in Genoa, which was being used as a BR 'safehouse' and arms cache. [see: Sep. 9]

1953 - Valentine de Saint-Point (Anna Jeanne Valentine Marianne Glans de Cessiat-Vercell; b. 1875), French artist, writer, poet, painter, playwright, art critic, choreographer, lecturer, journalist, feminist and futurist, who repudiated Marinetti's views on women, dies. [see: Feb. 16]

1970 - Time bomb attributable to The Angry Brigade found at Waterloo Station.

1970 - Jules Vignes (b. 1884), French anarchist publisher, propagandist and Idist, dies. The creator of a number of newspapers including 'La Torche' (Oct. 1908), the Saint-Genis-Laval liberatrian Idist paper 'La Feuille' (The Sheet) in 1917, and the original version of the Libération newspaper in 1927. He became involved in supporting the Spanish revolution and the revolutionary fighters in exile including the network around Francisco Ponzán Vidal (Spanish anarcho-syndicalist, anti-fascist guerrillero, anti-Francoist and resistance fighter captured in 1943, shot and burned by the Nazis two days before the Spanish guerrillas liberate Toulouse). In 1945 he republishes 'La Feuille' and started 'Le Vieux Travailleur' (The Old Worker, 1951-57) and 'Le Travailleur Libertaire' (1957-58). [see: Apr. 13]

1979 - A Three Mile Island cooling unit fails, leading to a meltdown that uncovers the reactor's core.

1985 - Marc Chagall (born Moishe Segal; b. 1887), Russian Modernist artist who worked in virtually every artistic medium, including painting, book illustrations, stained glass, stage sets, ceramic, tapestries and fine art prints, dies. [see: Jul. 7]

1993 - BNP plan to hold a march and major rally in Burnley where they have 2 candidates standing but, because of a fight when a group of 150 AFA activists are attacked by Burnley football supporters as they left the train station, the poilce cancel the march.

1994 - Eugène Ionesco (d. 1909), Romanian-born French dramatist and anti-fascist, whose one-act anti-play 'La Cantatrice Chauve' (The Bald Soprano; 1950) inspired the Theatre of the Absurd, dies. [see: Nov. 26]

1998 - 38-year-old anarchist Edoardo Massari is found dead in the Vallette prison in Turin. The authorities claim that he had hanged himself with a bed sheet.

2000 - Zahid Mubarek, a 19-year-old a British Asian five hours from the end of a 90-day sentence for stealing razor blades worth £6, is beaten to death with a wooden table leg by psychotic racist Robert Stewart, in what many believe was a prison officer-inspired "gladiator-style" fight.

[CC] 2005 - Thomas Schulz aka 'Schmuddel', a 31-year-old German father of two, is stabbed to death by 17-year-old neo-Nazi Sven Kahlin. The incident ocured at the Kampstraße U-Bahn station in Dortmund after Kahlin had hurled abuse at a group of about twenty punks on their way to a gig. Thomas voiced his opposition to the right-wing slogans of Kahlin. Kahlin and his girlfriend walked up to him and told him to shut up. Thomas refused and began to follow the pair. In response, the Nazi drew a 15 cm-long, double-sided polished throwing knive from his bomber jacket and stabbed Thomas in the chest. Kahlin and his girlfriend and, despite emergency surgery, Thomas died from the knife wound, which had penetrated both ventricles of his heart.
Within days, right-wing extremists in Dortmund had pasted up posters that read, "Wer sich der Bewegung in den Weg stellt, muss mit den Konsequenzen leben" (Those that stand in the way of the movement must face the consequences) all over the city. In November 2005, Kahlin was found guilty of manslaughter, not murder, and sentenced to seven years of juvenile detention. Paroled in 2010, he was involved in an attack on the alternative pub Hirsch-Q. Altogether the Hirsch-Q has been the target of Nazi attacks six times since 2006. On November 26, 2011, Sven Kahlin together with five other Nazis attacked two youths from a Turkish migrant background; consequently he was sent back to prison.

2009 - G20 protests around the world.

[AA] 2009 - Antifascists confront two Nazis after a Blood & Honour gig in Welling. Later twenty three Antifa activists are arrested on conspiracy to commit violent disorder, of which seven are stitched up in court and receive sentences. [see: Jun. 6 & Sep. 12]
[E] 1797 - A pregnant Mary Wollstonecraft, one of the earliest and most eloquent proponents of women’s rights, marries William Godwin, the most famous radical reformer of his time. She dies in the autumn, eleven days after the birth of her daughter, Mary. Her daughter Mary goes on to marry the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley (author of 'The Mask of Anarchy') and writes the novel 'Frankenstein'.

1830 - Claude Rougeot (d. 1871), French shoe-maker, Lyons anarchist and participant in the insurrection in the Guillotière suburb in Lyon (April 30) where they tried to establish a commune in conjunction with the Paris Commune and similar efforts in other cities in France, born.

1891 - Yvan Goll (Isaac Lang; d. 1950), bilingual French-German Jewish writer (poetry, novels, dramas, libretti, essays, etc.) and anarchist sympathiser, who had close ties to German expressionism, Zurich Dada and to French surrealism, who also wrote under the pseudonym of Iwan Lazang, born in Alsace-Lorraine. A law and philosophy student in Berlin, he became involved in the new wave of German expressionism then flourishing in Berlin before the First World War.
A friend of the Jewish German poet and playwright Else Lasker-Schüler, he too would became a noted Expressionist poet as well as writing for the theatre. He also collaborated on the Expressionist magazines 'Der Sturm' and 'Die Aktion'. A socialist pacifist and in 1914, to escape conscription into the German army, he took refuge in Geneva, where he adopted the pseudonym Yvan Goll in 1915. In Switzerland he became a member of the Pacifist group around the French writer Romain Rolland (Pierre Jean Jouve), spent time at the Ascona commune and became associated with Hans Arp, Tristan Tzara and Francis Picabia at the Cabaret Voltaire and continued his law studies at the University of Lausanne.
In 1919, he moved to Paris with his future wife, Claire Aischmann-Studer, where they associated with a circle of poets and painters, who were followers of Apollinaire. They were also associated with artits and writers such as André Malraux, Jean Cocteau, Louis Aragon, Philippe Soupault, Fernand Léger, Marc Chagall, Fujita Tsuguharu, Robert Delaunay and Albert Gleizes.
His artwork, previously marked by Expressionism, became informed by the Cubist and Constructivist aesthetics of the circles that he moved in, and his Cubism anticipated his later Apollinaire-influenced Surrealism. Largely derived from dreams, his Surrealism waould be particularly influencial on Devětsil and the Czech Surrealists, as well as in Latin America (on the like of Vicente Huidobro) and on English speakers such as Pound and Joyce. He would present his artistic ideas in the only issue of his 1924 magazine 'Surréalisme' in his 'Manifeste du Surréalisme' essay, which threw down the gauntlet: "Monsieur Breton, prenez-en votre parti: vous ne serez pas le Pape du Surréalisme!". Breton's own 'Manifeste du Surréalisme', published a month later, largely turned out to be an attack on Goll's views on surrealism and the pair would continue an antagonistic relationship for another 20 years, until Goll assisted Breton to settle in America, introducing him to the new intellectual world that he had become a part of, when the latter arrived in the country in 1942 as an exile. Yvan and Claire Goll had emigrated to the United States in 1939 to escape Nazi persecution, settling in New York where they remained until 1947, when Yvan was diagnosed with leukaemia and decided to return to liberated France. He died on Feb. 27, 1950. Claire survived him until May 30, 1977. Both writers are buried the Père-Lachaise cemetery in Paris.
Amongst Goll's works are his Expressionist poetry collections 'Films' (1914) and 'Der neue Orpheus. Eine Dithyrambe' (1918), which was published in 'Die Aktion' and illustrated by Georg Grosz; his famous anti-war poem 'Requiem für die Gefallenen von Europa' (Requiem for the Dead of Europe; 1916); a play 'Der Unsterbliche' (The Immortal One; 1918); 'Die Chapliniade: eine Kinodichtung' (Chapliniade: A film poem; 1920), illustrated by Fernand Léger; the 1921 satiric drama, 'Methusatern oder Der ewíge Bürger' (Methusalem, or or the Eternal Bourgeois), which anarchist film maker Jean Painlevé made into his first short film in 1926, playing Hamlet, and with Antonin Artaud as a bishop at a surreal funeral; the long experimental poem 'Paris Brennt' (Paris Burns; 1921); his Apollinaire-influenced 'Manifeste du Surréalisme' (1924); 'Der Eiffelturm: gesammelte Dichtungen' (1924), illustrated by Robert Delaunay and Fernand Léger; Marc Chagall illustrated 'Poèmes d'amour' (1925), a collection of love poems by Goll and his wife Claire; the libretto for a surrealist opera, 'Royal Palace' (1927), set to music by composer Kurt Weill, and the scenario for Weill's cantata 'Der Neue Orpheus' (1927), based on his 1918 poem of the same name; 'Chansons Malaises' (1935); the epic poem 'La chanson de Jean Sans Terre' (The song of homeless John; 1936), with illustrations contributed by Marc Chagall; 'Élégie d'Ihpetonga suivi des masques de cendre' (1949; Elegy of Ihpetonga and Masks of Ashes), illustrated by Pablo Picasso; 'Traumkraut' (Dreamweed; 1951), written between 1947 and 1950, but published after his death; 'Abendgesang. Siebzehn Gedichte aus dem Nachlass' (Evening Song. Seventeen poems from his estate; 1953); and 'Bouquet de Rêves pour Neila' (1967), with illustrations by Joan Miró.

'Requiem For The Dead of Europe'

Let me lament the exodus of so many men from their time;
Let me lament the women whose warbling hearts now scream;
Every lament let me note and add to the list,
When young widows sit by lamplight mourning for husbands lost;
I hear the blonde-voiced children crying for God their father at bedtime;
On every mantelpiece stand photographs wreathed with ivy, smiling, true to the past;
At every window stand lonely girls whose burning eyes are bright with tears;
In every garden lilies are growing, as though there’s a grave to prepare;
In every street the cars are moving more slowly, as though to a funeral;
In every city of every land you can hear the passing-bell;
In every heart there’s a single plaint,
I hear it more clearly every day.


1893 - [O.S. Mar. 17] Maria Vartanovna Petrosova [Мария Вартановна Петросова] or Mariya Vasilyevna Potresova [Мария Васильевна Потресова] (d. unknown), Russian member of the revolutionary movement since tsarist times, born. During the 1917 Civil War, she was an active participant in the Saratov Anarchist-Communists group (Саратовской группы анархистов-коммунистов) and at the end of 1920, together with her partner V.V. Barmashov (В.В. Бармашем), she was involved in clandestine activities of the Moscow Platform (Платформы) group of supporters of the position of Peter Arshinov and Nestor Makhno. In the mid-1930s, she was also a member of the anarchist group Aron Davidovich Baron [Аро́н Дави́дович Ба́рон] in Orel. She was arrested by the Soviet authorities on numerous occasions and spent long periods in the labour camp. The last official record of her is in 1957. It is not known where or when she died.

1897 - Renato Castiglioni (d. 1967), Italian socialist, anarchist, trades unionist and anti-fascist, born. A stationmaster in Bologna, he had been a militant in the rail union since 1914, and a member of the PSI since 1921. As a member of the union leadership, he was one of the organisers of the 1920-21 strikes and the anti-fascist strike on August 23, 1922, called by the Workers Alliance. In 1923, he was dismissed from his post in the Italian railways because of his activism. After being exempted from military service in December 1923, he took part from 1923 to 1925 in the work of the organisation Italia Libera. In 1925 the Central Committee of the railway trade union informed him that a warrant of arrest had been issued against him for stopping a train of carabinieri and guards going Parma. To escape arrest, he left for France later that year, settling in Paris and taking part in anarcho-syndicalist movement activities.
Working in the construction industry, he joined the CGTU and then probably the CGTSR, participating in all the strikes and demonstrations as well as the campaign for Sacco and Vanzetti. He worked at various newspapers published by Camillo Berneri and the Comité d'aide aux victimes politiques. Expelled from France in 1934, he was successively expelled from Belgium, Luxembourg and Switzerland before returning to Paris in secret. In 1935 he was on a list of anarchists in the Paris region as residents at no. 11 avenue Philippe Auguste (XI arr.).
At the outbreak of the Spanish Revolution, he left for Barcelona where he arrived on July 29, 1936, becoming the first volunteer in the Italian section of the Ascaso Column, he participated in the battle of Monte Pelato. Then, at the request of the railway workers' union, he went to Port Bou as lead coordinator for Spanish railways. He was later appointed by the Government of Catalonia as head of the radio, telegraphy and direction finding and interception service for Barcelona, and then head of aviation radio at the Sarignera (Barcelona) airfield, participating in several air missions and setting up radio interception for the Servicios Fronterizos at Port Bou. During this period he was a member of the Italian anarchist group Pisacane and, from early 1937, a member of the newspaper 'Guerra di Classe'.
In December (or July?) 1937, following a double ear infection, he returned to France where, arrested for violating the expulsion of 1934, he was sentenced to one month and fifteen days in jail. Upon his release, he did not return to Spain but settled in Marseille under a false identity. On the list of "subversives" issued by Italian Fascist authorities, he was arrested in Paris in 1940 and interned in July at camp Vernet, then to that of Remoulins d'Où where, in February 1941, he was extradited to Italy. On April 29 he was sentenced to five years internal exile on the island of Ventotene, and later in the Renicci di Anghiari concentration camp. Upon his release from confinement on September 6, 1943, he participated in the resistance and the reconstruction of the underground trade union movement in the cities and countryside of Romagna. He was the editor of the underground mimeographed bulletin 'La Tribuna Ferrovieri Dei' (The Railway Workers Tribune). After the liberation he joined the PCI.
Throughout the 1930s he also collaborated on 'Combat Syndicaliste', 'L'Espagne Antifasciste', 'L'Adunata dei Refrattari' and 'Il Martello' (New-York).

1908 - Antonio Pereira (real name Tomaso Ranieri; d. 1969), Italian anarchist, member of the Ortiz column in the Spanish Revolution, and the underground movement after the fascist Franco became dictator, born.

1924 - The weekly anarchist magazine 'Revista Nueva' begins publication in Barcelona, continuing until July 25, 1925 (69 issues).

[A] 1935 - Clément Duval (b. 1850), French anarchist illegalist, member of La Panthère des Batignolles, sentenced to death by a French court for a burglary (in which a policeman was wounded trying to apprehend him), dies in New York. [see: Mar. 11]

[B] 1940 - Godfrey Reggio, documentarian film director, screenwriter, actor, and anarchist, born.

1940 - Tosca Tantini (b. 1913), Italian ice cream maker, anarchist and miliciana, who fought in the Columna Ascaso, dies in France. [see: Nov. 16]

1943 - Joaquin Pallarès Tomás (b. 1923), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and leader of the Pallarès Action Group, one of the first anti-Franco urban guerrilla groups, which started its operations almost as soon as the Civil War ended in 1939, in and around Hospitalet, Santa Eulalia, Sans and La Torrasa (villages and districts in and around Barcelona), is executed (garotte vil) alongside Francisco Álvarez Rodríguez, Fernando Ruiz Fernández, Francisco Atarés Agustin (Francisco Atarés Martín), Josep Serra Lafort (José Serra Lopez), Benito Saute Martí, Juan Aguilar Mompart, Bernabé Argüelles Depaz (Agustin Argüelles Cabeza?) and Pere Tréssols Meix (Pedro Tresols Meix), members of his group, in Modelo prison, Barcelona. Among the operations credited to it was the execution of the chief inspector of the Hospitalet police (on April 30, 1939), as well as a number of incidents in which police were disarmed or shot, and robberies were carried out. His group was made up of Catalans, plus some Aragonese from around Huesca.
In addition to guerrilla activity, they did remarkable work on the reorganisation of the FIJL in Catalonia, setting up the first post-war regional committee and the Barcelona local committee. At the time of their arrest, three of the group's members (Pallarés, Alvarez and Ruiz) held positions on the Libertarian Youth regional committee. They were captured by the police in March 1943 and tortured; within days, Joaquin Pallarés – who displayed great integrity — and eight of his comrades were executed. Two days later three more were executed: José García Navarro, Vicente Martínez Fuster (Vicenç Martínez Fuster) and Joan Pelfort Tomàs (Juan Pelfort Tomasa). Vicente Iglesias, José Urrea, Manuel Gracia, Rafael Olalde and Hilario Fondevilla Fuentes had their lives spared. The Pallarès was one of the first Franco urban guerrilla groups.

[C] 1946 - László Baky (b. 1898), leading member of the Hungarian Nazi movement, who was state secretary in the Ministry of the Interior, responsible for deporting the country's Jews to the extermination camps, following the Nazi invasion and occupation of Hungary in March 1944, is executed for "crimes against the state" alongside fellow Interior Ministry official László Endre and the Interior Minister Andor Jaross.

1961 - Armand Robin (b. 1912), French poet, translator and anarchist, dies. [see: Jan. 19]
"Que m'importe qu'on m'abatte au coin de la rue, j'écrirai des poèmes jusqu'à ce qu'on me tue." ("What does it matter to me that I am shot on the street corner, I shall write poems until they kill me.")

[D] 1962 - A military coup topples Argentina's civilian government but instals a civilian, José María Guido, as their figurehead president.

1968 - Monny de Boully (Solomon or Salmon Moni de Buli; b. 1904) Serbian-French Surrealist writer, poet and anarchist, dies. [see: Sep. 27]

[F] 1973 - On March 29, ten thousand militant strikers block entrances at the FIAT plant in Mirafiori, and by the next day, most of Turin’s factories were in the hands of their workers as an all-out wildcat strike transforms itself into an number of armed occupations. Both unions and companies rushed to reach an agreement to defuse the situation, but even when a new contract was quickly signed, more than half the workforce at Mirafiori was absent the next day.
[ - The Subversion of Politics - European Autonomous Social Movements and the Decolonization of Everyday Life_djvu.txt]

1973 - Former Black Panther H. Rap Brown convicted for October 16, 1971 robbery.

1976 - Susana Gaggero (Emilia Susana Gaggero Pérez de Pujals; b. 1943), Argentine psychologist, who was active in the Partido Revolucionario de los Trabajadores – Ejército Revolucionario del Pueblo (Revolutionary Workers Party - People 's Revolutionary Army), is killed during a shootout with the police when a clandestine meeting of the Central Committee of the ERP is discovered. [see: Mar. 9]

2012 - Laura Gómez, secretary of the CGT-Barcelona, burns a cardboard box filled with false trading tickets in front of the Barcelona Stock Exchange (Borsa de Barcelona), a symbolic action organised as part of the Huelga del 29M general strike protests in Spain against the government's plans to reform labour law. She ends up in prison on April 25, charged with arson and fire damage to the Stock Exchange. After 24 days on remand and a court hearing, she was released on bail and had to wait until October 2015 until her trail (along side Eva Sánchez, ex-general secretary of CGT-Barcelona), when they faced calls from the prosecution for a two and half years sentence. Following a plea bargain, they received suspended sentences of nine months for damages and 4 and a half months for disorderly conduct.
[B] 1844 - Paul Verlaine (d. 1896), French Symbolist poète maudit, born. Bisexual lover of Arthur Rimbaud and, whilst never an anarchist despite the Mary Evans caricature of him as a devil with the word 'anarchist' in cyrillic letters on his forehead, he did frequent the usual Parisian anarchist haunts. French singer Léo Ferré set fourteen of his poems (along with 8 of Rimbaud's) to music on his album 'Verlaine et Rimbaud' (1964).

1869 - Emma Goldman (d. 1940), Russian-American anarchist writer, activist and feminist, born. [expand]

1882 - Bohuslav Vrbenský (d. 1944), Czech dentist , journalist, anarcho-communist, then communist politician and minister, born. Chair of the Svazu Českého Utudenstva (Union of Czech Students) between 1904-06 and active in the anti-clerical and anti-militarist movements. He also collaborated on the anarchist journals 'Komuna' (Commune; 1907), 'Přímá Akce' (Direct Action; 1907) and 'Zádruha' (The Co-operative; 1909–14). In 1909 he became head of the federal co-ordinating body of anarchist groups and began his campaign to transform the movement into a prominent political force, defined as being not only against any state but above all against the Austria-Hungarian state, a "specific political party" not involved in the state legislative body. Michal Kácha was against this idea ["a germ of next compromises"], claiming that it would betray anarchist ideals and corrupt the movement. At the April 1914 ČAF Congress in Prague Vrbenský's arguments won and the ČAF and ČFVO merged to form the Federaci Českých Anarchistů Komunistů (Federation of Czech Anarchist Communists, or FČAK).
From September 1914 to the 1917 amnesty, Vrbenský was imprisoned in Austrian internment camps. During the war anarchists had worked closely with dissident socialists and the [non-fascist] national socialists and in 1919, he was active in bringing about the merger of the faction of the FČAK that he was a member of with the Česká Strana Národně Sociální (Czech National Social Party; ČSNS) to form the České Socialistické Straně (Czech Socialist Party, or ČSS), though the more radical Vrbenský wing continued to act rather independantly. Between 1918-1923 he was a ČSS member of the National Assembly, Minister of Supply (1918-19), Minister of Public Works (1920), and Minister of Health from 1921 to 1922. However, in 1923, he was sacked as a minister and the ex-ČSNS rump was expelled from the ČSS for voting against the Law on Protection of the Republic. In 1924 he helped found the Independent Socialist Workers Party (Neodvislá Socialistickou Stranu, or NZS), which went on to closely cooperate with the Neodvislá Radikální Sociálně Demokratická Stranou (Independent Radical Social Democratic Party), forming the Socialistické Sjednocení (Socialist Unification), which ultimately fell apart at its first congress the following year. In 1925 the vestiges merged with the KSČ and Vrbenský became a full-time communist official. After a brief internement at the beginning of the Nazi occupation, he fled to Russia.

1884 - Lucy Fox Robins Lang (d. 1962), US anarchist and labour activist, born in Kiev. During her childhood, Lang worked in a cigar factory and tended her younger siblings while taking courses at the Hull House settlement. A committed anarchist by age fifteen, she participated actively in the labour and free speech movements of early twentieth-century America whilst working as a printer, waitress, vegetarian restaurant owner, and real estate broker to support her many political activities. In 1904, she contracted a completely egalitarian marriage with anarchist Bob Robins, stipulating that love alone should govern a marriage, and insisted that they sign a legal document limiting the union to five years, allowing her to continue her political activities, requiring the sharing of all household tasks, and stipulating that there would be no children. The couple did separate as specified by their contract, but soon reunited and remained married for twenty years. When the couple moved to New York, Lang met Emma Goldman and began arranging speaking tours, bail money, and publicity for the famed activist. For ten years, Lang and Robins travelled in a mobile home Lang designed, organizing activists around the country. She also played an important role in two notorious attempts at framing labour leaders: the 'Los Angeles Times' bombing in 1911, for which James and John McNamara were charged, and that of Tom Mooney, a California AFL leader falsely accused of bombing a 1916 parade held to support military preparations for WWI. In both cases her efforts gained the court cases countrywide attention. In 1918, Lang began working with labour leader Samuel Gompers of the AFL, becoming his confidante and one of the few women to speak at the AFL annual convention. In 1919 she became executive secretary and organiser of the Central Labor Bodies Conference for the Release of Political Prisoners and of the Repeal of War-Time Laws. The latter group spearheaded a national labour campaign to obtain amnesty for thousands of WWI political prisoners, including conscientious objectors, court-martialed soldiers, and those, such as socialist Eugene Debs, jailed for speaking out against the war. Her book 'War Shadows' (1922) documents the successful amnesty campaign.
She separated from Robins in the mid 1920s following his rejection of anarchism for the communism of the new Soviet Union, marrying Harry Lang, a long-time acquaintance and labour editor of the 'Jewish Daily Forward'. In the 1930s, she developed an interest in Zionism and helped raise in 1939 funds for the Kfar Blum cooperative (later a kibbutz) in Palestine for German and Austrian refugees. However, she continued her largely unsung political activities, helping keep public attention focused on the legal battles of anarchists and labour activists.
Lucy Fox Robins Lang died on January 25, 1962, in Los Angeles, having made significant contributions to American political and labour history, despite her refusal to ever be a paid employee of any political or labour organisation.

[C] 1892 - Nosaka Sanzō (野坂 参三; d. 1993), founder of the Japanese Communist Party (JCP) and anti-fascist, who worked for periods as a writer, editor, labour organiser, communist agent, politician, and university professor, born. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, he lived in Yan'an heading the Japanese People's Emancipation League (JPEL), engaged in the 're-education' of numerous Japanese POWs and creating propaganda on behalf of the Chinese Communist Party. Known as Susumu Okano (岡野進) whilst in China.

1892 - François Ravachol returns to the Restaurant Véry (24, boulevard de Magenta, Paris)[see: Mar. 27] and the waiter Jules Lhérot recognises him as the person who he had talked to 3 days before about the bombing, and who also resembles the description of the bomber given in the press. Lhérot denounces him to the police and, after a struggle, Ravachol is arrested for his bombings.
[Costantinni pic]

[BB] 1895 - Jean Giono (d. 1970), French author (novels, poetry, essays, journalism, plays) and, like his Italian-born shoemaker-father, Jean-Antoine, he was a self-taught libertarian, born. Regarded as a "paysan-anarchiste", apart from holidays and his abominated war service, spent his whole life in the small town of Manosque in Provence. Traumatised by his experiences in WWI, he became a committed lifelong pacifist. Returning to work in his local bank, he began to write fiction and following the success of his prize-winning first published novel, 'Colline' (Hill of Destiny; 1929), he quit to write full time, going on to produce a n extensive and varied output. Nature featured strongly in his work, such as 'Les Vraies Richesses' (True Riches; 1936) and the more famous 'Le Hussard sur le Toit' ( The Horseman on the Roof; 1951) and 'L'homme qui Plantait des Arbres' (The Man Who Planted Trees; 1953), both later made into films, as were a number of his other works. His more overtly political texts include his novel 'Le Grand Troupeau' (To the Slaughterhouse; 1931), which was based on his WWI experiences; pamphlets such as 'Refus d’Obéissance' (Disobedience; 1937); and the polemical 'Lettre aux Paysans sur la Pauvreté et la Paix' (Letter to Farmers on Poverty and Peace; 1938). One of his texts, 'Le Grand Théâtre', appeared in possibly the most exclusive book ever, 'L'Apocalypse de Saint Jean', encrusted with gems by Salvador Dalí, weighing 460 pounds and valued at over a million dollars. In addition, Giono directed a single film, 'Crésus' (Croesus; 1960), about the travails of a lonely shepherd who discovers a stash of money shortly after WWII.
With the rise of fascism and foreseeing another European war, he looked to join together with others to more effectively campaign against the threat of war, in February 1934 he joined the communist-inspired Association des Écrivains et Artistes Révolutionnaires (Association of Revolutionary Writers and Artists) but left in 1935 when the French Communist Party and the USSR came out in support of rearmament. His pacifism would repeated lead him into trouble during WWII. Arrested on September 14 1939 for refusing mobilisation, he escaped charges and was discharged from military service. He also continued to publish throughout the war, works that were openly critical of the Vichy regime and which he refused to submit to the censor; and was regularly accused of collaboration, despite his obvious anti-Nazism and whilst secretly protecting clandestine Jews and communists (including German Trotskyist Karl Fiedler and Marie-Berthe Aurenche, ex-wife of Max Ernst and partner of the Expressionist painter Chaïm Soutine). His supposed collaboration also resulted in the bomb that exploded outside his door during the night of 11/12 January 1943, his arrest and imprisonment in September 1944 and the banning of his books until 1947.

1900 - Nicolas Faucier (d. 1992), French anarchist, trade unionist and pacifist, born. Ran the bookshop La Librairie Sociale, and with Louis Lecoin formed the Comité pour l'Espagne Libre, (later the SIA [Solidarité Internationale Antifasciste]) and did a many stints in prison for his anti-war activities and only an escape during WWII saved him from the German camps.

1900 - Bruno Filippi (d. 1919), Italian individualist anarchist writer and activist, born. Regular collaborator on the Italian individualist anarchist magazine 'Iconoclasta!' alongside Renzo Novatore. Arrested in 1915 in possession of a recently fired gun during an anti-militarist demonstration and spent some time in prison. During the Biennio Rosso (Two Red Years) he was active in Milan with a group of young comrades who were involved in a series of bombings. On September 7, 1919 the bomb Filippi was carrying exploded as he attempted to attack the Café Biffi in the gallery Vittorio Emanuele in Milan where the 'Circolo dei Nobili (club of nobles), the richest people of the city, were having a meeting. His foot was all that was left amongst the rubble but it led to his identification and the arrest of a number of his comrades. In 1920 a pamphlet of his 'Iconoclasta!' articles was published as 'Posthumous Writings of Bruno Filippi'.

1906 - The first issue of the 'L'Affranchi' (The Freed) is published in Brussels. Initially monthly, it is printed erratically until stopping in 1914.

1911 - Francisco Ponzán Vidal (d. 1944), known as 'el maestro de Huesca' aka François Vidal, 'Paco', 'Gurriato' and 'El Gafas' (The Eye), important Spanish anarcho-syndicalist militant, anti-Franco guerrilla and Resistance fighter, born. Founder and organiser of the escape and evasion lines used by the Pat O’Leary and Sabot networks, the French security services (Travaux Ruraux), and local French Resistance organisations, from 1940 to 1943, Francisco Ponzán Vidal’s group, consisting mainly of Spanish anarchist exiles, saved the lives of hundreds if not thousands of resistance fighters, evadees and escaped prisoners of war.

1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike: With the company having given in to workers' demands, the children who had been living in foster homes in New York City are brought home.

[F] 1913 - Paterson Silk Strike: While attempting to lead a parade of nearly twenty-five thousand silk strikers out of Paterson for the two-mile hike to their Sunday meeting in Haledon, Big Bill Haywood and local IWW organiser, Adolph Lessig, are arrested just before the Paterson city line. They are loaded into a paddy wagon and taken to the city jail. The city jail guards, seeming to think that the city jail is a human zoo, escorted a crowd of the curious past Haywood's cell for a good look at the one-eyed union organiser.

1915 - Francisco Sabaté i Llopart aka 'El Quico' (d. 1960), Catalan anarchist guérilla extraordinaire, born in Barcelona. [expand]

1916 - Gala night at Cabaret Voltaire: Huelsenbeck, Janco and Tzara recite in three languages a simultaneous poem of their own creation.

1928 - The first issue of '¡Despertad!' (Awake!), CNT paper for the Región Marítima is published in Vigo. Initially printed every 10 days, it becomes a weekly until the end of the summer of 1930.

[1949 - Iceland anti-NATO Riot:

1955 - Eleanor 'Fitzi' Fitzgerald (Mary Eleanor Fitzgerald; b. 1877), US anarchist, magazine editor, director, business manager and executive director of the experimental theatre company, the Provincetown Players, dies of cancer. [see: Mar. 16]

1966 - Erwin Friedrich Maximilian Piscator (b. 1893), German theatre director and producer and poet, dies. [see: Dec. 17]

1968 - Anti-Vietnam demonstration takes place outside a US Army Hospital in Tokyo used for troops injured in Vietnam. Student demonstrators clash with riot police near hospital as demonstrators hurl stones at riot police. The riot police charge into crowd precipitating a riot leaving numerous protesters injured.]

[D] 1976 - Mass Palestinian protests across the West Bank following a decision by Israel to conficate Arab-owned land. In the resulting confrontations with Israeli police, six Palestinians are killed, hundreds wounded, and hundreds jailed. The protests gives birth to the annual Land Day potests/commemorations.

1978 - An INLA bomb blows up Airey Neave in his car as he leaves the House of Commons car park.

1980 - Henry Poulaille (b. 1896), French anarchist writer and champion of Proletarian Literature, dies. [see: Dec. 5]

1985 - Yaeko Nogami (野上 弥生子) (Yae Kotegawa [野上 ヤヱ]; b. 1885); Japanese novelist and feminist of the Shōwa period, who wrote for the anarchist-influenced feminist magazine 'Seitō' (青鞜 / Blue Stocking), and gained a substantial following with fans of the proletarian literature movement, dies. [see: May 6]

2013 - Mutiny of the prisoners of the first ward in Koridallos prison, Greece.
March 31 - Cesar Chavez Day.
A federal commemorative holiday in the U.S. proclaimed by President Obama in 2014.

[1871 - Commune de Narbonne: the commune falls.

[E] 1872 - [O.S. Mar. 19] Alexandra Kollontai [Алекса́ндра Коллонта́й] (Alexandra Mikhailovna Domontovich [Алекса́ндра Миха́йловна Домонто́вич]; d. 1952), Ukrainian-Russian Communist revolutionary, writer, novelist, feminist, Soviet commisar and diplomat, born. Alexandra was not allowed to go to school as her parents were worried that she would meet "undesirable elements". Tutored at home, her teacher M.I. Strakhov (М.И. Страхова), who sympathised with Narodnaya Volya (People's Will), was a strong influenced upon her.
A member of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (Росси́йская социа́л-демократи́ческая рабо́чая па́ртия), first as Menshevik and then, from 1915 on, as a Bolshevik. She witnessed Bloody Sunday in 1905 and went into exile, to Germany, in 1908 after publishing 'Finland and Socialism' (Финляндия и социализм), which called on the Finnish people to rise up against oppression within the Russian Empire. She visited England, France, and Germany, and became acquainted with Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht.
After the October Revolution she was appointed her Commissar for Social Welfare and with Inessa Armand, Sophia Smidovich and Nadezhda Krupskaya, was one of the few women to play a prominent role in the male-dominated Bolshevik administration. Kollontai remain a staunch feminist and with Armand and Smidovich helped form the Zhenotdel (Женотдел), the Central Commission for Agitation and Propaganda Among Working Women in 1919. Member of the left-wing Workers' Opposition faction of the party (1920-21).
[Коллонтай,_Александра_Михайловна alexandra-kollontai]

[B] 1885 - Jules Pascin (Julius Mordecai Pincas; b. 1930), Bulgarian-born American painter and anarchist, born. An Expressionist, he was influenced first by Fauvism and, for a brief period, by Cubism. A member of the so-called Paris School, his work included satirical cartoons, drawings, watercolours, oils, pastels, etching and lithographs.

1888 - Jean-Marie Guyau (b. 1854), French poet and libertarian philosopher, dies. Kropotkin labelled him as being "unconsciously anarchist". [see: Oct. 29]

[F] 1889 - London Gasworkers Strike: At a protest meeting following the lay-offs of workers at the Beckton Gas Works, one of the speakers at the meeting, Will Thorne (William James Thorne 1857-1946), suggested that the gas workers formed their own union to protect themselves from the power of their employers. Thorne told the assembled men "I pledge my word that, if you will stand firm and don't waver, within six months we will claim and win the eight-hour day, a six-day week and the abolition of the present slave-driving methods in vogue not only at the Beckton Gas Works, but all over the country." Will Thorne, Ben Tillett and William Byford formed a three man committee and that morning they recruited over 800 members. The committee then had responsibility of forming what became known as the National Union of Gas Workers & General Labourers. Thorne was subsequently elected to the post of General Secretary of the union and, following an argument over the best way to improve workers' conditions, a campaign for an eight-hour working day (down from the then current 12 hour shift system), rather than an increase in wages. Following negotiations with the owners of the Gas Light and Coke Company, Beckton Gas Works and Nine Elms Gas Works, Thorne successfully negotiated an eight hour day in the industry.

1894 - Laura Meneses de Albizú Campos (Laura Meneses del Carpio; d. 1973), Puerto Rican revolutionary, social and political activist, who campaigned for Puerto Rican independence and for the release of political prisoners in the United States and Puerto Rico, born. She was the first Latin American woman to study at Harvard University's Radcliffe College, where she met her husband Pedro Albizú Campos, later president of the Partido Nacionalista de Puerto Rico. Albizú Campos' resulted in their family being persecuted and, on June 7, 1937, he and seven fellow nationalists were imprisoned. Laura Meneses launched an international campaign for their freedom and after his release ten years later, she found she could not enter Puerto Rica and the family move to Cuba, only to be ejected after the Batista coup. Now in Mexico City, she became involved in the Cuban revolutionary struggle and, with the defeat of Batista, she move back to the island, joining the country's diplomatic service.

1898 - Eleanor Marx aka 'Tussy' (Jenny Julia Eleanor Marx; b. 1855), English socialist activist and member of Socialist League in Britain, who was Karl Marx’s youngest daughter, depressed at having discovered that her ailing husband Edward Aveling had secretly married a young actress, commits suicide. [see: Jan. 16]

1905 - [O.S. Mar. 18] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Believing them to be a source of revolutionary ideas and tension, the tsarist government orders the closure of universities until the next academic year, swelling the ranks of the radical activists.

1905 - [O.S. Mar. 18] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Since the wave of strike began, the Factory Inspectorate has so far recorded more than 20 cases of 'sackings' in St Petersburg - direct action is taken by workers against unpopular foremen, seizing the offender, putting him in a sack, and throwing him out of the factory. After two sackings at the Putilov Works, the foremen apparently learned good manners and became extremely polite to the workers.

1907 - First German Anarchist Congress, in Offenbach, with representatives from the whole country. Participants include Friedrich Kniestedt.

[1909 - [N.S. Apr. 13] 31 Mart Vakası [31 March Incident]: signals the defeat of the Ottoman countercoup of 1909

1912 - San Diego Free Speech Fight: The funeral of veteran Wobbly free speech campaigner Michael Hoy takes place. [see: Mar. 28]

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: Miguel Burgos, a secretary of the CNT's sindicato de ramo de curtidores (tanners), is killed in prison under the Ley de fugas, allegedly while attempting to escape.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: In Barcelona the sometent militia hold a rally in the Plaça de Catalunya, where 8,000 people attend.

1927 - Cesar Chavez (César Estrada Chávez; d. 1993), Mexican-American labour leader and civil rights activist who, with Dolores Huerta, co-founded the National Farm Workers Association (later the United Farm Workers union) in 1962. Despite his being a much heralded advocate of nonviolence, he was happy for the union in 1973 to organise the setting up of a 100-mile-long 'wet line' of military-style tents along the United States-Mexico border to prevent Mexican immigrants from entering the United States illegally and potentially undermining the UFW's unionisation efforts during a UFW-led seven-month-long strike outside Yuma, Arizona.

1934 - Emidio Recchioni (b. 1864), Italian anarchist, anti-fascist and father of Vernon Richards, dies in Paris whilst undergoing an operation on his vocal cords. [see: Oct. 4]

1936 - Marge Piercy, American poet, novelist, and social activist, born. Author of 'Woman on the Edge of Time'.

1943 - José García Navarro, Vicente Martínez Fuster (Vicenç Martínez Fuster) and Joan Pelfort Tomàs (Juan Pelfort Tomasa) are executed by garotte vil in Modelo prison, Barcelona. [see: Mar. 29]

1945 - Maria Skobtsova [Мария Скобцова] (Elizaveta Yurievna Pilenko [Елизавета Юрьевна Пиленко]; b. 1891), Russian noblewoman, revolutionary, poet, nun, and member of the French Résistance during World War II, is executed in one of Ravensbrück concentration camp's gas chambers, a week before the camp was liberated by the Red Army. [see: Dec. 20]

1945 - Maurice Donnay (b. 1859), French playwright, dies. [see: Oct. 12]

1959 - Winston Churchill's home burgled to the tune of £10,000.

1964 - Right-wing coup topples the Brazilian government of President João Goulart. Years of military repression follow.

1972 - CND members begin a 56-mile march from London to Aldermaston. More than 500 people attend a rally in London ahead of a four-day demonstration against nuclear arms.

[A/D] 1990 - Poll Tax Riots: 250,000 people battle the police in central London.

1994 - Léon Joseph Marie Ignace Degrelle (b. 1906), Belgian Walloon National Socialist and historical revisionist, who founded the nationalist Parti Rexiste and later joined the Waffen SS (becoming a leader of its Walloon contingent) which were front-line troops in the fight against the Soviet Union, dies of cardiac arrest in a hospital in Málaga. [see: Jun. 15]

2000 - Gisèle Freund (Gisela Freund; b. 1908), German-born French photographer and photojournalist, socialist and anti-fascist, best known for her documentary photography and portraits of writers and artists and her book 'Photographie et Société' (1974), about the uses and abuses of the photographic medium in the age of technological reproduction, dies. [see: Nov. 19]

2001 - Rob Stolk (b. 1946), Dutch Provo stalwart, anarchist and street activist, dies. [see: Jan. 23]

[C] 2007 - Stanislav Korepanov a 17-year-old Russian skater and Antifa activist, dies in hospital from injuries sustained in an attack by neo-Nazis 3 days prior. Stanislav had been with a goup of fellow skaters in Izhevsk on March 27 2007 when they came under attack by a gang of neo-Nazi skinheads armed with metal bars, empty bottles and wooden laths shouting "White power" and "Kill Antifa". One of the attackers even had a small hatchet. Several people sustained minor injuries but Stanislav, who was beaten by 5 to 7 people, suffered an open craniocerebral injury and other serious trauma. The attack was also videotaped and the video was later posted on the neo-Nazi website Format 18.

2011 - 29 year old black Birmingham resident Kingsley Burrell-Brown is pronounced dead at Queen Elizabeth Hospital 4 days after having been arrested by West Midlands Police and sectioned under the Mental Health Act.
On March 27, 2011, 29 year old Kingsley Burrell called the police (dialled 999) claiming that he abd his 5 year old son had been threatened by a gang of youths in Icknield Port Road, Ladywood. The West Midlands Police Officers who arrived at the scene detained the trainee security guard under the Mental Health Act. Within hours, he was sectioned and taken to Mary Seacole House Mental Health Unit in the city, where his family say he was not allowed to speak to them. En route t the mental hospital he was beaten up by the police, and his son witnessed it, something he later told his family. When they did manage to see him, he had three massive bumps and a swelling to the head and the brain. His sister Kadisha Brown-Burrell said: “The only reason they allowed us to see him is because we insisted. After this visit he was refused the right to see us and later taken to Queen Elizabeth hospital, where he was put on life support machine."
He was later transferred, on March 30, to a mental health facility at Queen Elizabeth Hospital. When he arrived at Mary Seacole, Brown alleged he had been beaten up by the police. When he arrived at the second hospital he was in a critical condition. His family believe he was also beaten en route to the hospital. His body not released for burial until 17 months after his death.
In March 2013 4 police officers were arrested on suspicion of the manslaughter but in June 2014 it was announced that none of them would be charged in connection with his death.

2014 - Irene Fernandez (b. 1946), Malaysian human rights activist and the director and co-founder of the non-governmental organisation Tenaganita, which promotes the rights of migrant workers and refugees in Malaysia, dies of heart failure. [see: Apr. 18]
Daily pick: 2013 [A] 2014 [B] 2015 [C] 2016 [D] 2017 [E] 2018 [F]
Weekly highlight: 2013 [AA] 2014 [BB] 2015 [CC] 2016 [DD] 2017 [EE] 2018 [FF]
Monthly features: 2013 [AAA] 2014 [BBB] 2015 [CCC] 2016 [DDD] 2017 [EEE] 2018 [FFF]
PR: 'Physical Resistance. A Hundred Years of Anti-Fascism' - Dave Hann (2012)


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AfrikaansAlbanianArabicArmenianAzerbaijaniBasqueBelarusianBengaliBosnianBulgarianCatalanCebuanoChichewaChinese (Simplified)Chinese (Traditional)CroatianCzechDanishDutchEnglishEsperantoEstonianFilipinoFinnishFrenchGalicianGeorgianGermanGreekGujaratiHaitian CreoleHausaHebrewHindiHmongHungarianIcelandicIgboIndonesianIrishItalianJapaneseJavaneseKannadaKazakhKhmerKoreanLaoLatinLatvianLithuanianMacedonianMalagasyMalayMalayalamMalteseMaoriMarathiMongolianMyanmar (Burmese)NepaliNorwegianPersianPolishPortuguesePunjabiRomanianRussianSerbianSesothoSinhalaSlovakSlovenianSomaliSpanishSundaneseSwahiliSwedishTajikTamilTeluguThaiTurkishUkrainianUrduUzbekVietnameseWelshYiddishYorubaZulu

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