1530 - Étienne de La Boétie (d. 1563), French aristocrat and proto-anarchist, author of the classic work on tyranny 'Discours Sur la Servitude Volontaire' (The Politics of Obedience: The Discourse of Voluntary Servitude; 1548), born.

1841 - Charles-Ange Laisant (d. 1920), French soldier, mathematician, left-wing MP, Freemason, who later became an anarchist, teacher rationalist, freethinker and Esperantist, born. Father to Albert and grandfather of Maurice and Charles, all anarchists like him.

1851 - [N.S. Nov. 13] Élisabeth Dmitrieff [Елизавета Дмитриева] (Elizaveta Loukinitcha Koucheleva [Елизавета Лукинична Кушелева] d. 1910 or 1918*), Russian actress and feminist activist and Pétroleuse, who fought during the 1871 Commune de Paris, born. [see: Nov. 13]

[A / D] 1870 - Proclamation of a 'Revolutionary Commune' in Marseille. It lasts a mere 3 days.

1890 - The first issue of the French language newspaper 'Le Réveil des Mineurs', "Nous réclamons le droit à l'aisance" (We demand the right to affluence) - changing in January 1892 to "Organe des travailleurs de langue française de l'Amérique" and later to "Organe des travailleurs de langue française des États-Unis", is published in Hastings, Pennsylvania.

1897 - The first issue of the German language anarchist communist fortnightly newspaper 'Sturmvogel', which carries the subtitle "Lewwer duad wheels Slavv" (Rather death that slave), is published in New York.

[BB] 1889 - Hannah Höch (Anna Therese Johanne Höch; d. 1978), German artist, photomontagist, Dadaist and feminist, born. The lone woman among the Berlin Dada group, she was largely treated with contempt (except as Hausmann's partner) and her importance as an innovator of photomontage and collage forgotten. She also worked at Ullstein Verlag, Berlin's major publisher of magazines and newspapers, in women's magazines and handicraft department, a source of images that fuelled her highly political anti-bourgeois art and whose obvious misogyny both drove her androgynous imagery. Bisexual, she had a nine-year relationship with the Dutch writer Til Brugman in her years living in Holland. During the National Socialist regime, Höch was forbidden to exhibit but continued to live in Germany.
"None of these men were satisfied with just an ordinary woman. In protest against the older generation they all desired this 'New Woman' and her ground-breaking will to freedom. But - they more or less brutally rejected the notion that they, too, had to adopt new attitudes. This led to these truly Strindbergian dramas that typified the private lives of these men".

1898 - Rose Antonia Maria Valland (d. 1980), French art historian, member of the French Résistance, captain in the French military, and one of the most decorated women in French history, born. Four four years she worked undercover in Jeu de Paume Museum, which the Germans had converted into the headquarters of the Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg (the Nazi organisation that systematically looted art from across wartime Europe), spying on the operation and eavesdropping on conversations (the Nazis were unaware that she understood German, keeping meticulous notes on the destinations of train shipments of looted art destined for Germany and Austria. After the war she helped with the recovery of much of the looted artworks and artefacts.

1902 - The first issue of the fortnightly 'Le Flambeau', "Organe de combat révolutionnaire", is published in Brussels. A lawsuit brought against the newspaper means that only 2 issues and a special edition are ever published.

1905 - [O.S. Oct. 19] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Street fighting breaks out in St. Petersburg between Black Hundreds and workers.
Then Chairman of the Committee of Ministers Sergei Witte (Серге́й Ви́тте) revives and empowers the Council of Ministers, with himself as Chairman i.e. Prime Minister. The newly 'disenfranchised' Tsar calls Witte’s government "a lot of frightened hens".
The St. Petersburg Soviet proclaims freedom of the press, but outlaws government newspapers.

1905 - [O.S. Oct. 19] Rostov-on-Don Anti-Jewish Riots: The only people who have been standing up in defence of the Jews of Rostov and against the Black Hundreds and Cossack units rampaging across the city are a few Jewish-Russian troops and small self-defence groups organised by members of the Poale Zion (Поалей Цион / Workers of Zion) organisation, the liberals, students and the workers from the Vladikavkaz railway workshops, who are at the forefront of the strike. In the morning the city police chief A.M. Prokopovich (А. М. Прокопович) sends detachments of Cossacks against them, as the pogrom resumes with him "sitting in a phaeton with a revolver in his hand, shouting:"Jews, give up this minute, otherwise you will all be shot!" ("Жиды, сдавайтесь сию минуту, иначе всех вас сейчас перестреляем!").
Almost all of New Bazaar (Новый базар) and Moscow Street (Московскую улицу) are destroyed by fire. An emergency meeting of city council is held, which decides to take decisive action to stop the pogroms. The Cathedral archpriest accompanied by banners from nearby churches went to Cathedral Square and, getting down on his knees, asked the rioters to stop looting. From the Cathedral Square the procession went down another street on which the bewildered looters stopped to stare as the procession went by but as soon as it was out of sight, they resume the pogrom. [see: Oct. 31]

1907 - Alfred Jarry (b. 1873), French writer, novelist, playwright, anarchist, freelance scoundrel, proto-surrealist inventor of Pere Ubu and of Pataphysics, the science of imaginary solutions and the laws governing exceptions, dies. [see: Sep. 8]

1910 - L'Ecole Ferrer school founded in Lausanne by the anarchist podiatrist Jean Wintsch and Émile Durand, inspired by l'Escuela Moderna of Francisco Ferrer.

1910 - At the Palacio de Bellas Artes in Barcelona, the second Congress of the regional Confederation of Solidaridad Obrera (Oct. 30 - Nov. 1) decides to the constituent congress of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo.

1915 - Revolución Mexicana: Pancho Villa with 6,000 remaining troops attack Agua Priesta and are beaten off. 400 desert Villa.

1915 - The first issue of the Italian language anarchist newspaper 'L'Allarme', "Contro ogni forma di autorita' e di sfruttamento" (Against all forms of authority and exploitation), is published in Chicago.

1918 - Kiel Mutiny [Kieler Matrosenaufstand]: The squadron commander Vizeadmiral Hugo Kraft exercised a manoeuvre with his battleships in the Heligoland Bight. When it "functioned perfectly" (tadellos funktionierte) he believed he was master of his crews again. While moving through the Kiel Canal he had 47 sailors from the Markgraf, who were seen as the ringleaders, imprisoned. In Holtenau (end of the canal in Kiel) they were brought to the Arrestanstalt (the military prison in Kiel) and to Fort Herwarth in the north of Kiel.
Having arrived in Kiel on November 1st, the sailors and stokers of the squadron now set themselves to preventing the fleet from setting sail again and to achieving the release of their comrades. That evening 250 of them met in the Union House in Kiel. Delegations, sent to their officers requesting the mutineers' release, were not heard. The sailors were now looking for closer ties to the unions, the Unabhängige Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (USPD; Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany) and the Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (SPD). In response, the Union House was closed by police, leading to an even larger joint open-air meeting on November 2, at the Großer Exerzierplatz drill ground.
Led by the sailor Karl Artelt, who worked in the repair ship yard for torpedo boats in Kiel-Wik and by the mobilised shipyard worker Lothar Popp, both USPD members, the sailors called for a large meeting the following day at the same place. This call, communicated by printed fliers as well as word of mouth, was heeded by several thousand people on the afternoon of November 3 with workers' representatives also being present. The slogan "Frieden und Brot" (Peace and Bread) was raised showing that the sailors and workers demanded not only the release of the imprisoned but also the end of the war and the improvement of food provisions. Eventually the people supported Artelt's call to free the prisoners and they moved in the direction of the military prison.
Sublieutenant Steinhäuser, who had orders to stop the demonstrators, ordered his patrol to give warning shots and then to shoot directly into the demonstrators. Seven men were killed and 29 were severely injured. Some demonstrators also opened fire. Steinhäuser was severely injured by rifle-butt blows and shots, but contrary to later statements, he was not killed. After this incident, which is commonly viewed as the starting point of the German Revolution, the demonstrators dispersed and the patrol withdrew.
The mass protest turned into a general revolt. On the morning of November 4 groups of mutineers moved through the town. Sailors in a large Wik Garrison barracks compound at the Tirpitz Hafen base in northern Kiel refused orders: after a Division inspection of the commander, a spontaneous demonstrations took place. Karl Artelt organised the first soldiers' council, and soon many more were set up. The governor of the navy station, Wilhelm Souchon, had to negotiate. The imprisoned sailors and stokers were freed.
Soldiers and workers took public and military institutions under their control. When, despite Souchon's promise, different troops advanced to quash the rebellion, they were intercepted by the mutineers and were either sent back or joined the sailors and workers. By the evening of November 4, Kiel was firmly in the hands of approximately 40,000 rebellious sailors, soldiers and workers, as was Wilhelmshaven two days later.
Late in the evening of the November 4, a meeting of sailors and workers representatives in the union house led to the establishment of a soldier's and a worker's council. The Kiel fourteen points of the soldier's council were issued:

Resolutions and demands of the soldiers’ council:

The release of all inmates and political prisoners.
Complete freedom of speech and the press.
The abolition of mail censorship.
Appropriate treatment of crews by superiors.
No punishment for all comrades on returning to the ships and to the barracks.
The launching of the fleet is to be prevented under all circumstances.
Any defensive measures involving bloodshed are to be prevented.
The withdrawal of all troops not belonging to the garrison.
All measures for the protection of private property will be determined by the Soldier’s Council immediately.
Superiors will no longer be recognized outside of duty.
Unlimited personal freedom of every man from the end of his tour of duty until the beginning of his next tour of duty.
Officers who declare themselves in agreement with the measures of the newly established Soldier’s Council, are welcomed in our midst. All the others have to quit their duty without entitlement to provision.
Every member of the Soldier’s Council is to be released from any duty.
All measures to be introduced in the future can only be introduced with the consent of the Soldiers’ Council.

These demands are orders of the Soldier’s Council and are binding for every military person.
On the same evening the SPD deputy Gustav Noske arrived in Kiel and was welcomed enthusiastically, although he had orders from the new government and the SPD leadership to bring the rising under control. He had himself elected chairman of the soldiers' council and reinstated peace and order. Some days later he took over the governor's post, while Lothar Popp from the USPD became chairman of the overall soldiers council. During the coming weeks Noske actually managed to reduce the influence of the councils in Kiel, but he could not prevent the spreading of the revolution to all of Germany. The events had already spread far beyond the city limits.
On the morning of November 5 at sunrise, all the warships in the port hoisted red flags except the battleship König, whose captain had the battle standard raised instead. The König's captain, Carl Wilhelm Weniger, commanded two officers, Bruno Heinemann and Wolfgang Zenker, to defend the flag at the masthead. In a prolonged firefight the three were badly wounded, after which the red flag was also raised on the König. A sailor and the 2 officers died, and Weniger survived. The Nazis would name two destroyers in the mid 1930s, Bruno Heinemann and Wolfgang Zenker.
On November 7, the Kiel workers and soldiers declared in an appeal: "Die politische Macht ist in unserer Hand" (Political power is in our hands); the same day the revolution had reached Munich, causing Ludwig III of Bavaria to flee. Three days later on November 10, a large crows gathered at the Eichhof Park Cemetery to bury the fallen of November 3rd, with Gustav Garbe and Lothar Popp giving graveside orations. The military personnel were buried a day later at the Nordfriedhof (North Cemetery) in Kiel. Gustav Noske gave the graveside speech.
[ mutiny–%C2%A0the-kiel-mutiny/]

1919 - In 1918, amid wartime conditions, coal operators obtained rising profits, but union members' pleas for wage increases went unheeded by Fuel Administrator Harry Garfield and President Wilson. The United Mine Workers of America leadership and its membership, although resentful about this decision, decided against striking during wartime. The end of the war increased the distress of the coal miners, who experienced declining income and a rising cost of living. These conditions convinced the union leadership to demand higher wages and shorter hours as well as nationalization of the mines. The rejection of these demands by the coal operators led to a nationwide coal stoppage that begun on November 1, 1919, when about 400,000 rank-and-file UMWA miners struck nationwide, despite the fact that Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer had invoked the Lever Act, a wartime measure that made it a crime to interfere with the production or transportation of necessities, and obtained an injunction against the strike on October 31. In Indiana County not a man at the organised mines appeared for work, and some of the unorganised miners also struck. At the Rochester and Pittsburgh Coal Company, the dominant producer in the county, all mines closed, and 4,500 miners walked out. At the Clearfield Bituminous Coal Company, another major producer, almost all miners struck. Independent and non-union mines, however, continued operation.
Facing criminal charges, union head John L. Lewis withdrew his strike call, though many strikers ignored his action. As the strike dragged on into its third week, coal supplies were running low and public sentiment was calling for ever stronger government action. A final agreement that provided for a 27% wage increase came on December 10.

1920 - Patagonia Rebelde / Patagonia Trágica: In the aftermath of WWI, the price of wool had dropped significantly, provoking an economic crisis in sheep-breeding Argentine Patagonia. In August and September 1920 there had been a number of strikes in the province of Santa Cruz, organised by the Sociedad Obrera de Río Gallegos, affilated to the Federación Obrera Regional Argentina an led by Spanish anarchist Antonio Soto, against police repression and in support of better working conditions and increased wages. The bosses organisation, the Sociedad Rural, rejected the demands and a general strike (the first Patagonia Rebelde strike) was declared on November 1, with most of the strikers being shearers and rural workers.

1921 - Patagonia Rebelde / Patagonia Trágica: The car that is carrying Antonio Soto's comrades Luis Sambucetti, Severino Fernández and Pedro Mongilnitzki into Rio Gallegos is stopped by the Police and they are taken prisoner.

1922 - Mollie Steimer and Senya Fleshin, who had earlier help set up the Society to Help Anarchist Prisoners, are arrested on charges of aiding criminal elements in Russia and maintaining ties with anarchists abroad (they had been corresponding with Alexander Berkman and Emma Goldman, then in Berlin). Sentenced to two years’ exile in Siberia, they declared a hunger strike on November 17 in their Petrograd jail, and were released the next day. They were forbidden, however, to leave the city and were ordered to report to the authorities every forty-eight hours.

1922 - Lima Barreto (Alfonso Henriques de Lima Barreto; b. 1881), important Brazilian libertarian, novelist, journalist and social critic, dies. He wrote for the labour and anarchist press. Author of the classic novel 'Triste Fim de Policarpo Quaresma', a satire of the first years of the República Velha in Brazil. [see: May 13]

1927 - The Union Anarchiste Communiste congress in Paris (Oct. 30 - Nov. 1) splits to create to 2 separate organisations, the majority Union Anarchiste Communiste Révolutionnaire (U.A.C.R) and the Association des Fédéralistes Anarchistes (A.F.A), the latter grouped around Sebastien Faure.

[FF] 1928 - Ruhreisenstreit [Ruhr Iron Dispute]: In their on-going pay dispute with the unions, employers in the Rhineland-Westphalian iron industry carry out their threat and precipitate the largest and most complete lock-out during the Weimar Republic, affecting around 230,000 workers. The lock-out lasts until December 3, and although it was confined to the Rhine-Westphalian industrial area, it had consequences for the entire empire.
On September 24, the metalworkers' unions in the Rhineland-Westphalian iron industry, the socialist Deutsche Metallarbeiter-Verband (DMV), the Christian Metallarbeiterverband and the liberal Gewerkverein Deutscher Metallarbeiter, had announced a collective demand of a wage increase of 15 Pfennig per hour for all workers aged over 21 years old to be agreed by the employers' association, the Nordwestgruppe of the Vereins deutscher Eisen- und Stahlindustrieller (Association of German Iron and Steel Industries) aka the Arbeit-Nordwest, by the end of September. In response, the Arbeit-Nordwest offered to extend the previous collective agreement for a year and to slightly improve 1% of their workers' incomes. Both sides then took part in the Reichsarbeitsgericht official conciliation procedure but to no avail, and on October 13 the employers' side announced that they would terminate all employment contracts and lock-out their employees on November 1.
On October 26, the state conciliator Wilhelm Joetten announced a 6 Pfennig increase in the hourly rate and 2 Pfennigs on the piecework rate. Five days later, the trade unions accepted the arbitration, despite their "serious doubts". The Arbeit-Nordwest refused to endorse it and locked out around 230,000 workers on November 1. On November 12, the Arbeit-Nordwest managed to persuade the Duisburg Arbeitsgerichtes (Labour Court) to throw out the Joetten arbitration award and, as a result, the union side made a series of concessions. However, the employers' decision and ensuing behaviour had caused indignation in the Reichstag and the SPD and KPD now demanded state support for the locked-out workers. On November 17 the Reichstag decided by a large majority to support the sacked workers with public funds. With the locked-out workers now receiving state aid and the Duisburg court decision being overturned by the Landesarbeitsgerichtes (National Labour Court) in Düsseldorf on November 28 and, with the state now on their side, the unions withdrew their previous concessions. However, the employers, who had the support of the Verband Deutscher Arbeitgeberverbände (Federation of German Employers' Associations) and the Reichsverband der Deutschen Industrie (National Federation of German Industry) remained steadfast.
After separate discussion with both sides, representatives of the Reichsregierung (government) announced on November 30 a new conciliation procedure to be conducted by the Social Democratic Minister of the Interior, Carl Severing. The employers quickly accepted the process, believing that it would favour their side and come up with a lower offer than that of Joetten, a possibility that the socialist DMV very much feared. However, they could not risk rejecting the government's offer and reluctantly agreed on December 2, despite considerable resistance from within its own ranks.
The morning of the following day, the iron and iron-processing industries on the Ruhr re-opened their doors and the workers returned to work. On December 21, 1928, Severing delivered his decision: wages were increased by between one to six Phennigs and working time reduced from 60 to 57 or 52 hours, much worse than the original arbitration and a major blow to the unions. The Reichsarbeitsgericht ratified Severing's decision on January 22, 1929.

1939 - The 40th anniversary of New York's Yiddish anarchist weekly, the 'Freie Arbeiter Stimme' (Free Voice of Labour).

[E] 1943 - Suzanne Masson (b. 1901), French industrial designer, trade unionist and communist activist, is guillotined by the Nazis in Hamburg, having been given two death sentences for her Résistance activities. [see: Jul. 10]

1952 - Andre Breton's 'La Luminosa Torre' appears in 'Le Libertaire'. Published by the Federacion Anarquista Francesa, the surrealists previously published articles here, including a manifesto, May 22, 1947, 'Freedom is a Vietnamese word', signed by Bonnefoy, Bousquet, Breton, Péret, Tanguy and 10 others.

1954 - The revolt against French colonial rule in Algeria begins.

1956 - 1956-os Forradalom [Hungarian Revolution]: Soviet troops in the Hungarian countryside go on the move, encircling Ferihegy Airport. The Soviet Ambassador Yuri Andropov is unable to supply a satisfactory explaination of the troops' movements. Nagy
is told that 2 aircraft stand ready at Budapest airport is the government needs to escape.
The Hungarian government responds to Soviet actions by announcing its withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact and declares its neutrality. It also asks the UN for support.

1971 - Army Tank HQ in Everton Street, London, bombed by the Angry Brigade.

1979 - 'L'Age d'Or' has its formal première exhibition in the U.S., at the The Roxie, in San Francisco.

1993 - Georges Navel (Charles François Victor Navel; b. 1904), French writer, novelist and libertarian, dies. [see: Oct. 30]

1998 - Over 2,000 people gather in Santiago's public cemetery on Day of Dead to pay tribute to Pinochet's victims, while thousands more watch the march and cheer them on. Carrying flowers, the mourners chant: "The blood of the victims is not negotiable!"

2001 - Animal rights activist Barry Horne dies whilst on a hunger strike.

2001 - An Anarchist Platform event against the war in Afghanistan and capitalist exploitation takes place in Istanbul. The protesters forced the gates of the park Beyazit (a hotbed of protest in Turkey) and burn American flags, but whilst a statement is being read, the police attack the crowd. Sixty activists are arrested and beaten.

2009 - Claude Levi-Strauss (b. 1908), French social anthropologist, ethnologist and leading exponent of structuralism, dies. [see: Nov. 28]

2011 - Fanny Edelman (Fanny Jabcovsky; b. 1911), Argentine textile worker, music teacher, Communist and feminist, who was active in International Red Aid and a member of the International Brigades in defence of the Second Spanish Republic, as well as honorary president of the Communist Party of Argentina, dies just four months short of her 101st birthday. [see: Feb. 27]

2011 - Cyril Paskin (b. 1922), British anti-fascist, who was a co-founder and later a field commander of the 1962 Committee or 62 Group, dies. [see: Aug. 26]

[B] 2012 - Agustín García Calvo (b. 1926), Spanish philologist, translator, linguist, playwright, poet, philosopher and anarchist, dies. [see: Oct. 15]

[C] 2013 - Two members of the neo-Nazi Golden Dawn, Manolis Kapelonis and Giorgos Fountoulis, are killed, and a third (Alexandros Gerontas) wounded, in a drive-by shooting by 2 masked men on a motorcycle outside the local party office in the Athens suburb of Neo Heraclio.
1843 - Rebecca Riots: Perhaps the best recorded of the attacks in the Rhayader area is a first hand account describes the attempts of a Metropolitan Police Sergeant (Thomas P. Davies) and his small band of Special Constables to thwart the determined attacks of large groups of local Rebeccaites: "Between 2 and 3 am when the moon had disappeared he [Sergeant Shaw] heard that men were levelling the North Gate on the Llanidloes Road. By the time he got there the place had been razed and the men had gone."
The keeper had been awoken by a voice saying "lie still or death will be your doom" and had wisely stayed indoors while the gates were wrecked. "From here they proceeded across the fields to the East gate on the Penybont Road. The Sergeant followed but all was demolished by the time he reached there. The toll keeper here was an old woman called Sarah Rees who had received the same warning as the Keeper at the North gate. The Sergeant caught up with the rioters near the Bear Inn. They had warned the specials not to come too near and one who did so was hit with a musket. They marched four deep around the Lion and Castle...The front and rear ranks carried muskets loaded with ball and the centre rank had blank. They demonstrated in North Street before Mr John Harvey's mill. Two constables had been stationed at the Wye Bridge gate. They were drawn off by two women who told them that the New Gate was being attacked. Immediately they had gone the Rebeccas demolished the gate and house."
Thomas describes the rioters as wearing the typical Rebecca outfit of bonnets and petticoats over their working clothing.

1847 - Georges Sorel (d. 1922), French anarcho-communist, theorist of revolutionary syndicalism and direct action, author of 'Reflections on Violence', born.
[ d'anars.htm]

1872 - Henri Zisly (d. 1945), French individualist anarchist, libertarian naturist, proto-primivitist and writer, active in the Milieux libres, born. Considered vegetarianism as 'unscientific': "si les animaux pullulent, ils nous mangent à leur tour" (if animals proliferate, they will eat us in turn).
"A bas la Civilisation! Vive la Nature!"

1890 - Moa Martinson (Helga Maria Swarts; d. 1964), Swedish kitchen maid, pantry chef, journalist, novelist, syndicalist and feminist, who was one of Sweden's most noted authors of proletarian literature, born.

1892 - Jean Roumilhac (d. 1949), French libertarian activist, born. Fought in the Spanish Revolution and was first president of the French section of the S.I.A. (International Solidarity Antifascist). In the 1940s Roumilhac created an agricultural company in the Rhone delta, enabling Spanish anarchist refugees to obtain legal residence permits.

1905 - [O.S. Oct. 20] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: In Moscow an immense armed funeral processions for the slain Bolshevik Nikolai Bauman (Никола́й Ба́уман) [see: Oct. 31] and for the protesters killed in Revel (Tallinn) [see: Oct. 29] takes place. The police are directed to avoid using the emergency powers that were granted to them by Trepov on October 27th [14th]. In the grandiose demonstration, staged by the Bolsheviks to emphasise their growing power, Bauman's coffin is draped in red with six party members in leather as pall bearers and a man in black at its head swinging a palm branch. 100,000 mourners followed behind, with party leaders to the fore carrying flags, wreaths and banners. At the Conservatory a student orchestra played 'You Fell Victim to a Fateful Struggle'. By night torches were lit and Bauman's widow made a speech urging vengeance on the Tsarist government. Fights broke out with Black Hundred gangs.
The street fighting of previous days between Black Hundreds and workers continues in St. Petersburg.

1905 - [O.S. Oct. 20] Rostov-on-Don Anti-Jewish Riots: Rostov-on-Don Anti-Jewish Riots: On the third day of rioting the "pogrom reached such proportions that the bourgeoisie asked workers to organise self-defence. However, the forces were unequal, the Cossacks rushed at us. When all was smashed and looted, when the danger was threatened and the government itself, then only the authorities take steps to stop the pogrom." [memoirs of S.M. Gurvich (С. М. Гурвич), 1925]
According to police reports, the city's hospitals reported up to 40 killed and 160 wounded; 514 Jewish shops were looted, 2 steam mills, 5 coal warehouses and 8 private apartments. As the result of 25 acts of arson, 311 buildings were destroyed by fire. According to a report of Karl Walter, the German consul in Rostov-on-Don, details of which were published by a member of the State Duma, V.P. Obninsk (В. П. Обнинским), 176 people died and 500 were wounded. For comparison, during the October 1905 riots across Russia 936 people were killed and 1,918 injured.
It was reported that more than 10,000 Jews were left without means of livelihood, with the municipal duma having to allocate 10,000 roubles on October 24th.
What is clear is that the pogrom was well organised and had been some time in planning - rumour of the possibility had spread well before October 31 [O.S. Oct. 18]. Even if the authorities had not participated in its planning, though many believe they did, they certainly co-opted it in order to also attack the strikers and their supporters. [see: Oct. 31]

1906 - Following her October 30 arrest, Emma Goldman pleads not guilty to criminal anarchy charges before the New York City magistrate.

1907 - Lorenza Sarsa Hernández (d. 1982), Spanish libertarian schoolteacher and member of the Résistance, is born into a well-to-do family in Huesca, Aragon. She studied medicine in Madrid but serious fever attacks had made it impossible for her to continue her education far from the family home. Back in Huesca she entered the Teacher Training School there, where she too came under the direct sway of Ramón Acín and became acquainted with the rest of his disciples, including Ponzán and Viñuales Larroy Evaristo (1912-1939), her future partner. Having decided not to continue an attachment to a young count that she had met in Madrid, she told her father of her plans to make Evaristo her life partner. By then Evaristo was well known in Huesca as an anarchist activist. Lorenza’s father’s reaction was quite simply against her having anything to do with him. Lorenza returned to Berbegal and Evaristo, setting up home together. Along side working as a schoolteacher, she set up a people’s kitchen to help those most in need. Every pupil would bring along a handful of beans and she would add the bacon and see to it that the dish of the day was prepared on the school stove while she got on with her teaching.
In December 1933 she had had to flee Berbegal and moved to Barcelona. There she became head of the Rationalist School in the Bonanova barrio up until 1939: and it was there that she gave birth to their daughter, Zeika Sonia Viñuales Sarsa, born on November 11, 1938. Two months after surviving the heavy air raids inflicted on the city, they crossed the border into France along with several hundred thousand other refugees. Interned in the Vigan concentration camp, they spent nearly a year there with the rest of the female prisoners, many of whom were Barcelona workers and prostitutes from the Barrio Chino.
Meanwhile, with the war lost on the battlefield, it fell to Evaristo to serve on the National Committee of the Spanish Libertarian Movement (MLE) set in Valencia on 7 March 1939. Defeat inevitable and trapped along with thousands of republican fighters, Evaristo committed suicide in a left-handed handshake with his friend Máximo Franco, in the rat-trap that the port of Alicante had become. The promised fleet of ships due to ferry them all into exile failed to arrive at the port. His tragic end (not without its grandeur) has often been remembered by lots of surviving eye-witnesses and writers: the double suicide of Evarisato and Máximo came on 1 April 1939 by way of one last protest against fascism from Upper Aragon’s Máximo Franco and Evaristo Viñuales. Soon the living, incarcerated and tortured in Francoist concentration camps, would come to envy their dead comrades. Alone and in confinement, Lorenza took the news of Evaristo’s death badly: after reading the news she became hysterical: his cousin Mariano Viñuales Farina confirmed the deadly news in a letter.
She and Zeika were rescued from the camp by Francisco Ponzán and taken to Toulouse and from there on to Varilhes, half way to Andorra. She was reunited with the libertarian teacher Pilar Ponzán (sister of Francisco Ponzán) and like many other women, together Pilar and Lorenza joined the anti-Nazi resistance and both were issued with the papers and back-up they needed to survive thanks to the underground resistance network formed by Paco Ponzán, whose internal security practice was to produce a baby picture of Zeika Viñuales as the recognition code between all the members of the Ponzán underground network. As a result of her activities, Lorenza was arrested by the Gestapo but was freed en route whilst being taken to the St Michel prison in Toulouse under an escort of Vichy gendarmes. Paco Ponzán himself was to be murdered shortly after that. It was August 17, 1944, the Second World War was drawing to an end but in their retreat from Toulouse the Nazis executed him and a sizeable group of captured resisters. Like the rest of the refugees who had risked their lives fighting the Nazis she had another tough blow coming, as hard as or harder than the loss of Evaristo: The Allied armies of the USA, Britain and France reneged on promises they had made to the Spanish people and dropped any thoughts of wiping out General Franco’s fascist regime. Lorenza was to build herself a new life at the side of the anarchist writer and journalist Felipe Alaiz de Pablo (1887-1959) who became a father figure to Zeika. So she shared her time in exile with Alaiz and other leading Aragonese libertarians like Ramón Liarte and Amparo Poch from whom she was to learn so much. Lorenza died in exile in 1982. Her daughter Zeika also died in exile, in Toulouse on August 1, 2009.

1909 - Spokane Free Speech Fight: The Industrial Workers of the World formally begins the Spokane free-speech fight – the first of a series of free speech fights that lasted up til the wartime repression of the IWW began in 1917 – begin a continuous series of street speeches in defiance of the recently introduced ordinance that banned street speeches, an ordinance directed against IWW organising. On this day, one by one, IWW members mount a soapbox (an overturned crate) and begin speaking, upon which Spokane police yank them off the box and take them to jail. On the first day, 103 Wobblies are arrested, beaten, and incarcerated. Within a month, arrests will mount to 500, including the fiery young Wobbly orator Elizabeth Gurley Flynn. The Spokane free-speech fight will end with the City revoking the ordinance. It will inaugurate free-speech fights in other cities, and is considered one of the most significant battles to protect freedom of speech in American history. [expand]

1910 - Cambrian Combine Miners' Strike: South Wales authorities enquire about the procedure for requesting military aid, in the event of disturbances caused by the striking miners. The Glamorgan Constabulary resources were stretched, as in addition to the Cambrian Combine dispute, there was a month-old 'Block Strike' in the neighbouring Cynon Valley; and the Chief Constable of Glamorgan, Lionel Lindsay, had by Sunday November 6 assembled 200 imported police in the Tonypandy area. [see: Sep. 1]

1910 - Aberdare Miners' Strike or 'Block Strike': In Aberaman on November 2 the first major scenes of violence had occurred. This, plus the appeal by the leaders, made the Aberdare strike headline news. Even 'The Times' devoted a long article to it on the 4th. The overtly hostile coverage of the strike by the 'Western Mail' was attacked by Stanton, and on the 3rd a 'Western Mail' reporter was chased off the railway station by a crowd of strikers. The violence at Aberaman had happened when a train carrying about 100 labourers who were still working at the pits was stormed at the Tonllwyd Crossing and several of the occupants were "badly mauled". Later the same day, the houses of many colliery officials who were still working were stoned. By the 4th every colliery and most of the officials' houses were being picketed.

1910 - Paul Berthelot aka Marcelo Verema (b. 1881), French Esperantist, anarchist, journalist, writer, scientist and anthropologist, dies. [see: Jul. 26]

[C] 1914 - Josef Valčík (d. 1942), Czech soldier and resistance fighter, one of a team of Czechoslovak British-trained paratroopers who took part in Operation Anthropoid, the assassination of acting Reichsprotektor (Reich-Protector) of Bohemia and Moravia, SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich, on May 27, 1942, born.

1915 - Emilio Covelli (b. 1846), Italian anarchist organiser involved in the Matese insurrection of 1877, member of the Fédération Italienne de l'AIT, dies. [see: Aug. 5]

1918 - Kiel Mutiny [Kieler Matrosenaufstand]: In response to yesterday's meeting of sailors and stokers in the Kiel Union House, it is closed by police, leading to an even larger joint open-air meeting at the Großer Exerzierplatz drill ground. Led by the sailor Karl Artelt, who works in the repair ship yard for torpedo boats in Kiel-Wik and by the mobilised shipyard worker Lothar Popp, both Unabhängige Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (USPD; Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany) members, the sailors call for a large meeting the following day at the same place. As a contributor, Artelt moves beyond the demand for immediate release of the imprisoned, calling for the "overpowering of the militarism and the overthrow of the ruling class" and seeks to join hands with the shop stewards of the USPD. During this night the first leaflets are printed.
[ mutiny–%C2%A0the-kiel-mutiny/]

1919 - Laurent Tailhade (b. 1854), French satirical poet, writer, anarchist polemicist, opium addict ('La Noire Idole', after de Quincey) and translator ('Satyricon de Pétrone'), dies. [see: Apr. 16]

[D] 1920 - Ocoee Massacre: A violent race riot breaks out on the day of the presidential election of 1920, in Ocoee in Orange County, Florida. African-American-owned buildings and residences in northern Ocoee were burned to the ground, and as many as 500 African Americans may have been killed throughout the conflict. The African-Americans residing in Ocoee who were not direct victims of the race riot were later driven out by threats or force. Ocoee would then become an all-white town and remain as such until sixty-one years later in 1981.
The two men were Mose Norman and Julius 'July' Perry. Both land owners and payees of the poll tax who, when they turned up at the poll station, were told that they were not on the register, were turned away and told not to come back. Mose Norman returns to the polls later that evening with a shot gun. An altercation ensues,
and Mose Norman is pistol whipped and sent away a second time.
Later that evening a lynch mob led by Colonel Sam Salisbury, a prominet white Ocoee resident and former chief of police of Orlando, went in search of Mose Norman. Told his was at last seen at July Perry's house, theyw ent there annd demanded the pair surrender. When they received no answer, the crowd tried to force their way into Perry's house. Two whites, Elmer McDaniels and Leo Borgard, were shot and killed as they attempted to enter the back door. Salisbury was wounded in the arm. Later, a white mob stormed into Ocoee and burned 25 black homes, two churches and a Masonic lodge.
The white mob then withdrew to gather reinforcements. By nightfall, over 250 Klansmen from around the state of Florida and white Ocoee residents had collected inside the town and began a burning spree in the Black section of town. The Black citizens fled for their lives into the orange groves, swamps and neighbouring towns. However, many were burned in their homes or shot as they tried to flee the infernos. In the aftermath, twenty five homes, two churches, and a masonic lodge were incinerated; and the death toll is said to have been above fifty. That night, and in the weeks that followed, the Ocoee area's black population — estimated at 495 — disappeared.
On the morning of November 3rd, July Perry's body was found hanging from a lamppost. Mose Norman is never seen or heard from again. The land left behind by the fleeing black citizens was divied up and sold for $1.50 an acre. Blacks would not inhabit the city until sixty one years later in 1981.

[B] 1923 - Robert Bodanzky, aka Danton (born Isidor Bodanskie; b. 1879), Austrian journalist, essayist, playwright, poet, librettist, artist, anti-militarist and anarcho-communist, dies. [see: Mar. 18]

1927 - Assault by the Portuguese government on the anarchist Confederação Geral do Trabalho (General Confederation of Labour), including arrests, attacks on union offices, and restriction of labour activities. [expand]

[F] 1928 - Police protecting scabs clash with 2,000 striking waterfront wharf workers at Prince’s Pier in Melbourne, Australia. As the workers were retreating from the onslaught by the baton-wielding police, the commander ordered the police to open fire. Three workers were shot in the back, one fatally wounded. Several unions demanded an inquiry, but the government refused to investigate the shootings.

1956 - 1956-os Forradalom [Hungarian Revolution]: Further Soviet troops arrived in Hungary, increasing the number of Soviet divisions stationed in the country from five to seventeen. The newly arrived troops crew were mainly from Central Asia, and they were informed by their superiors that they will be fighting against German Nazis. Nagy protested to the Soviet ambasador Yuri Andropov about the troop movements and continued to keep the other ambassadors in Budapest informed of developments. Another telegram was sent to the United Nations, which repeated the called for recognition of the neutrality of Hungary as a guarantee of the withdrawal of Soviet troops. Artillery batteries are positioned at key locations in Budapest.

1960 - A verdict of not guilty is declared in the No. 1 court of the Old Bailey at the end of R v Penguin Books Ltd., as D.H. Lawrence's 'Lady Chatterley's Lover' is found to not be obscene under the terms of the Obscene Publications Act 1959.

1973 - Robert Siewert (b. 1887), German communist, anti-Stalinist and member of the anti-Nazi Resistance, dies. [see: Dec. 30]

1979 - Political bank robber and France's public enemy number one, Jacques Mesrine machine-gunned by flics in Paris.

[A/E] 1979 - Members of the Black Liberation Army free black radical Assata Shakur (JoAnne Deborah Byron) from the Clinton Correctional Facility for Women in New Jersey. A former Black Panther Party and Black Liberation Army member, Assata Shakur had been convicted of murder two years earlier following a shoot-out with New Jersey State Troopers in May 1973. After her liberation, she spent more than four years underground before escaping to Cuba in 1984, where she was granted political asylum.

1980 - Kikue Yamakawa (山川菊栄) (Kikuei Morita [森田菊栄]; b. 1890), Japanese writer, and socialist and feminist activist, dies on the eve of her 90th birthday. [see: Nov. 3]

2002 - 50 prisoners killed in fire at overcrowded Sidi Moussa Prison in coastal town of El Jadida, Morocco. Authorities blamed electrical short circuit for Morocco's worst prison fire.

[AA] 2010 - Three days of disturbances begin at HMP/YOI Moorland near Doncaster leaving more than £1m worth of damage. The same evening there are disturbances at HMYOI Warren Hill also.

2011 - General strike in Oakland, USA, shuts down the port and the city. Kayvan Sabehgi, a former US Army Ranger who served tours in both the Afghanistan and Iraq wars, on his way home after participating in the General Strike is detained and severely beaten by Oakland police. He suffers a ruptured spleen and is hospitalised in an intensive care unit as a result of the beating.
1783 - John Austen has the dubious honour of being the last of more than 1,200 people to be hanged at Tyburn, which occupied the site where modern day Edgware Road meets Bayswater Road.

[E] 1793 - Olympe De Gouges (Marie Gouze; b. 1748), French feminist pioneer, pacifist, anti-slavery campaigner, and prolific author of pamphlets and posters, including the 'Déclaration des Droits de la Femme et de la Citoyenne' (Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen; 1791), is executed by guillotine during the Reign of Terror for attacking the regime of the Revolutionary government and for her close relation with the Girondists. [see: May 7]

1852 - [N.S. Nov. 15] Praskovya Semyonovna Ivanovskaya [Прасковья Семёновна Ивановская] (Praskovya Semenovna Voloshenko [Прасковья Семеновна Волошенко]; d. 1935), Russian revolutionary, member of Zemlya i Volya (Land and liberty), Narodnaya Volya (People's Will) and later of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party (Партии социалистов-революционеров) and the S-R's Combat Organisation (Боева́я организа́ция), born. Member of the post-Revolution Society of Former Political Prisoners and Exiles (Общества бывших политкаторжан и ссыльнопоселенцев). [see: Nov. 15]

1871 - Hanns Heinz Ewers (Hans Heinrich Ewers; b. 1943), German writer, poet, novelist, playwright, song writer, filmmaker, globetrotter, comedian and Stirnerite individualist, born. A notorious best-selling author of fairy tales and children's books, as well as his more scandalous novels, plays and films, which he had to repeatedly defend, both in public and in the courts, against the charges that his works were trivial, immoral and pornographic.
His first literary works appeared in 'Der Eigene' (The Treasury), considered to be the first gay magazine and he was involved in the Gemeinschaft des Eigenen (Community of the Self), a pioneering association campaigning for equal rights for homosexuals. He was also imprisoned for fornication i.e. homosexual acts. He was also involved in the Cabaret Überbrettl in Berlin, on of the first literary cabarets in Germany, writing satirical texts and reciting them on stage. There he met fellow 'Der Eigene' contributor Erich Mühsam, with whom he collaborated on the children's book 'Billy's Erdengang. Eine Elephantengeschichte für Artige Kinder' (Billy's Life. An Elephant Story for Kids; 1904).
However, he was also a cultural nationalist, acting as a propagandist for the German Empire in America during WWI, and was eventually interned by the US administration. He was also an occultist associated with Aleister Crowley and Ernst 'Putzi' Hanfstaengl, who would later go on to become an ardent Hitler supporter. He himself joined the NSDAP in 1931 and engaged in propaganda work. But in 1934 he suffered a general ban on his publications and, with the passing of the Nuremberg Laws in 1935 he left the Party and campaigned for exit visas for his Jewish friends.
Amongst his other works were the novel 'Alraune. Die Geschichte eines lebenden Wesens' (1911), which involved the artificial insemination of a prostitute with the sperm of a sex killer taken during his execution. The baby, Alraune (or Mandrake), then grows up to pursue the head of the team involved in the experiment. The book was the supposed basis for 6 different films, including 'Alraune, die Henkerstochter, genannt die rote Hanne' (Alraune, the hangman's daughter, named Red Hanna), a 1918 silent vampire film directed by Eugen Illés and Joseph Klein, whose only link was the name Alraune. Closer to the original is the 1928 silent classic starring Brigitte Helm in the lead role. Another vampire novel was his much translated classic 'Vampir Ein verwilderter Roman in Fetzen und Farben' (Vampire. A feral Novel of Scraps and Colours; 1921).
[ Heinz Ewers]

1886 - Kurt Wilckens (d. 1923), German anarchist, member of the IWW and a pacifist, born. [EXPAND]

1889 - Amelia 'Amelio' Robles Ávila (d. 1984), Mexican revolutionary, who from 1924 onwards took the name Coronel Amelio Robles Ávila and lived as a man, born. From an early ages she learned not only to ride, but to tame horses and roping, and then to handle weapons, particularly unfeminine pursuits earning the nickname 'la Güera Amelia'. She became involved in the anti-Carrancista movement around 1911 in the Maderista cause. In 1912, he joined the armed struggle when General Juan Andrew Almazán went through Xochipala, being present at the taking of Iguala, on May 14, 1911. Between August and November 1911, Amelio was sent to the Gulf of Mexico on a commission to extort money from oil companies for the revolutionary cause. From 1913 until November 1918, when she delivered weapons, Amelio Robles participated in the Zapatista ranks under the command of the main revolutionary leaders of the state, as Jesús H. Salgado, Heliodoro Castillo and Encarnación Díaz. In 1923, she retired from the ranks of the army but rejoined in 1924 in support of Gen. Álvaro Obregón against the Huerta rebellion and, whilst under the command of General Adrián Castrejón, she took part in the Batalla de la Hacienda de Pozuelos, where the Huertista Gen. Marcial Cavazos was killed and Amelio injured. That same year she took the name Coronel Amelio Robles Ávila or simply Señor Robles, and adopted a masculine demeanour, wearing men's clothes and openly having relationships with women, forming a 10 year relationship with Ángela Torres and raising an adopted daughter daughter, Regula Robles Torres.
In August 1970 she was officially recognised as a Veterano de la Revolución and the Legionario de Honor del Ejército Mexicano, and awarded a medal for services rendered between February 20, 1913 and August 15, 1914.
Amelia Robles died on December 9, 1984, when she was 95 years old. She was buried according to her last two requests: that she be buried in accordance to the honours that she earned and that she be dressed as a woman to "commend her soul to God".

1890 - Kikue Yamakawa (山川菊栄) (Kikuei Morita [森田菊栄]; d. 1980), Japanese writer, and socialist and feminist activist, born. She attended a lecture by the anarchist Sakae Ōsugi (大杉 栄) in 1915, which put her on the path to socialism, and, three years later, met Hiratsuka Raichō (平塚 らいちょう), which led to her writing articles for the monthly feminist arts and culture magazine 'Seitō' (青鞜 / Blue Stocking) and joining the anarchist-influenced feminist group Seitō-sha (青鞜社 / Bluestocking Society). However, she is probably best known for being one of the founding members of the socialist group Sekirankai (赤らん会 / Red Wave Society) in 1921.

1892 - Pierre Chardon (Maurice Charron) (d. 1919), French militant individualist anarchist and anti-militarist, born.

1898 - Negros Revolution / Al Cinco de Noviembre: Revolutionaries on Negros Island (part of the Visayas Islands) in the Philippines meet and decide to begin their planned revolt on November 5 in an attempt to end Spanish control of the island and form a government run by the Negrense natives.

1898 - Concha Monrás Casas (María de la Concepción Monrás y Casas; 1898 - 1936), Catalan Esperantist, life-long partner of Ramón Acín and mother of the artist Katia Acín Monràs, born.

1901 - André Malraux (d. 1976), French novelist, art theorist, anti-fascist and post-war Minister of Cultural Affairs, born.

[F] 1902 - New Orleans Dock Strikes: New Orleans dockworkers maintained a long-standing tradition known as '50-50' or 'half-and-half', under which both black and white workers insisted that any work crew hired by ship owners be 50% black and 50% white. Workers would work side by side, performing the same job for the same pay, as a way of preventing employers from undermining one group by playing them off against the other. The only area of exception to this was the 'screwmen', the highly skill cotton bale compactors, a critical task that put them at the top of the labour force on the docks and allowed them to insist on the highest wages. Up until the turn of the twentieth century, the white screwmen had insisted on limiting the number of black screwmen employed but the advent of new shipping technologies, larger ship size, and the shippers’ search for non-union labour was undermining their position of power. In the autumn of 1902, black and white screwmen finally agreed to embrace the '50-50' rule and to negotiate new 50-50 work-sharing agreement, would not recognise any foreman who was not a member of either the black or white screwmen’s unions, and would resist the 'speed-up' of the new 'shoot-the-chute' loading scheme (loading only 100 to 120 bales of cotton a day, as opposed to the 400 and 700 under shoot-the-chute). From 1902 through 1903, they launched a series of strikes (and responding lock-outs from employers) that ended in the acceptance of their production rate and 50-50 demands, protests that enjoyed the backing of other waterfront unions – both black and white – and the newly formed Dock and Cotton Council (set up in October 1901 by the separate black and white unions to coordinate union activities on the docks).
The first strike began on November 3, 1902 when screwmen struck all employers who did not adhere to the new joint contract demands. Despite the fact that employers accused black unions of breaking the terms in their earlier separate contract and threatened them, the strike remained united and ended in early December 1902; by December 25, screwmen were packing on average 110 bales per day.

1905 - [O.S. Oct. 21] October All-Russian Political Strike: The St Petersburg Soviet orders an end to the general strike. According to the Soviet history books, strikers are supposed to have returned to work in disciplined ranks.

[B] 1913 - Albert Cossery (d. 2008), Egyptian-born French novelist, self-proclaimed anarchist and "lazy old sod", writing only one book per decade, born. Cossery was a dandy who practised a type of contemplative idleness and lived most of his life unemployed. His novels, which explore the political and cultural pitfalls of the Middle East, display a biting wit and characters that display a common outlook: the only true recourse against a world governed by "scoundrels" is an utter disregard for convention.

1914 - Pierre Chabert (d. 2012), French professor of French, Latin and Greek, poet and anarchist, born.

1915 - Bernardino Verro (b. 1866), Sicilain socialist and syndicalist, who helped found Fascio Contadino di Corleone (Peasant Fascio of Corleone) in 1892 and became the first Socialist mayor of Corleone in 1914, is assassinated by a Mafia gunman as he returns home. [see: Jul. 3]

1916 - The first issue of the Italian language political arts and literature journal 'Il Martello' (The Hammer) is published in New York. Initially put out by Luigi Preziosi, but is taken over at the end of 1917 by Carlo Tresca.

1917 - Léon Bloy (b. 1846), French novelist, essayist and diarist, dies. [see: Jul. 11]

1918 - Kiel Mutiny [Kieler Matrosenaufstand]: On board the Markgraf 57 more sailors and stokers are rounded up and, after protests from the rest of the crew, taken to Fort Herwarth. A meeting of high ranking marine officers in the Stationsgebäude of Kiel during the morning decides that the town alarm should be raised at around 16:00, in order to prevent sailors from attending the meeting scheduled for 17:00. The alarm is raised but has no impact.
The call put out by the sailors of the III. Battle Squadron yesterday, communicated by printed fliers as well as word of mouth, is heeded by 5-6,000 people, 80% of whom are sailors, during the afternoon, with workers' representatives also being present. At the Großer Exerzierplatz (large drill ground) the slogan "Frieden und Brot" (Peace and Bread) is raised showing that the sailors and workers demand not only the release of the imprisoned but also the end of the war and the improvement of food provisions. The main speakers are Gustav Garbe (union chairman in Kiel) and the sailor and USPD member Karl Artelt. Eventually the people come round to supporting Artelt's call to free the prisoners and they move in the direction of the Arrestanstalt (military prison).
At the junction of the Feldstraße and Langer Segen, Sublieutenant Steinhäuser, who has orders to stop the demonstrators, orders his patrol to give warning shots and then to shoot directly into the demonstrators. Seven men are killed and 29 are severely injured, two of whom die later on. Some demonstrators return fire. Steinhäuser is severely injured by rifle-butt blows and biullet wounds, but contrary to later statements, he is not killed. After this incident, which is commonly viewed as the starting point of the German Revolution, the demonstrators disperse and the patrol withdraws.
The mass protest turns into a general revolt.
[ mutiny–%C2%A0the-kiel-mutiny/]

[D] 1920 - Patagonia Rebelde / Patagonia Trágica: Antonio Soto, organiser of the Sociedad Obrera de Río Gallegos and leader of the ongoing strike in Patagonia, survives an assassination attempt.

1935 - Mosley and his Blackshirts return to South Shields to try and hold a rally in the Palace Cinema. Located in the Holborn riverside district of South Shields and home to a sizeable Yemeni community, they hope to provoke a race riot. Fascist stewards were bused in from all over the country, but the anti-fascists mobilised thousands. Fighting inside and outside the hall broke out, and the fascist buses from London, Leeds and Liverpool were bricked on their way out. The meeting turned out to be yet another failure for BUF. [PR]

1938 - Jean Michel Rollin Roth Le Gentil (d. 2010), French cult erotic horror filmmaker, actor, novelist and anarchist, born. Rollin is best known for his work in the fantastique genre such as the vampire films 'Le Viol du Vampire' (The Rape of the Vampire; 1968) and 'Lèvres de Sang' (Lips of Blood; 1974); the erotic horror 'Les Démoniaques' aka 'Deux Vierges pour Satan' (The Deamoneses; 1974); as well as the first French gore film 'Les Raisins de la Mort' (1978) and the rare thriller 'La Nuit des Traquées' (Night of the Hunted; 1980). His pseudonyms included Michel Gentil, Michael Gentle, J.A. Laser, J.A. Lazar, J.A. Lazer, Jean Pierre Sammut and Robert Xavier.

1956 - 1956-os Forradalom [Hungarian Revolution]: A new coalition government is formed and Hungarian-Soviet talks continue in the Parliament building. It was agreed that these talks would continue taht evening in Tököl, where the Hungarian delegation is arrested by the KGB. That night Budapest is completely encircled by Soviet troops and armour.

1957 - Wilhelm Reich (b. 1897), author of 'The Mass Psychology of Fascism', 'Sex-Pol Essays', 'Function of the Orgasm', etc., dies in prison a week before he is eligible for parole. Reich had the dubious honour of having his works banned in Nazi Germany, the US and USSR (and publicly burnt in the first two).

1959 - Hal Hartley, American film director, screenwriter, producer and composer, wrote and directed many films with anarchist themes, including 'Simple Men' (1992), a fictional tale about the children of an anarchist on the run from the law.

1972 - Following the arrival of the Trail of Broken Treaties caravan in Washington DC, the protesters set up camp outside the BIA HQ. Evicted by police they occupy the building for 6 days, during which time Nixon is re-elected.

1975 - First Campaign Against Arms Trade demonstration at Defence Sale Organisation in London.

[C] 1979 - Five anti-Fascists are shot dead by the KKK and the American Nazi Party at a protest in Greensboro, North Carolina, United States. 10 protesters are also injured.
Those murdered:
- Sandi Smith, president of the student body and a founding member of the Student Organisation for Black Unity (SOBU) at Greensboro’s Bennett College. She was a community organiser for the Greensboro Association of Poor People (GAPP) and became a worker at the textile mill where she and others formed the Revolution Organising Committee (ROC) to unionise the plant. Sandi was a leader of a march of over 3,000 people in Raleigh to free the Wilmington 10, ten young activists jailed on false charges to stop them from organising. In her work at a Cone Mills textile plant, she battled sexual harassment, low wages, and unhealthy working conditions.
- Dr. Jim Waller who received his medical degree from the University of Chicago and trained at the Lincoln Hospital Collective in New York City. In 1973 at Wounded Knee, South Dakota, Waller organised medical aid and set up a clinic to aid American Indian Movement activists under siege by the FBI. When he moved to North Carolina to teach at Duke University he coordinated Brown Lung screenings in textile mills, co-founding the Carolina Brown Lung Association. He later gave up his medical practice to organise workers becoming vice president of the AFL-CIO local textile workers union Waller and went to work in a Cone Mills textile plant in Haw River. From inside he helped organise and eventually became president of the AFL-CIO union local after leading a strike in 1978 that helped the union grow from about 25 members to almost 200.
- William 'Bill' Sampson was a student anti-war activist and president of his college student body. He studied at the Sorbonne in Paris during college, received his Masters degree in Divinity from Harvard in 1971, then studied medicine at the University of Virginia. As a medical student he organised health care workers to support the liberation struggles in southern Africa. Bill left medical school to work and organise in one of Cone Mills’ Greensboro textile plant, where he built the union and focused on training new leaders. The workers had chosen Bill to run for president of the local.
- Cesar Cauce was a Cuban immigrant who graduated magna cum laude from Duke University, where he was a campus leader in the anti-war movement. He rejected a full scholarship to study history at the University of California at Berkeley and instead to help to unionise Duke Hospital workers. Cesar organised strike support for union struggles throughout NC and was a regular participant in the Goldkist strike, a campaign to organise poultry workers in Durham. He also travelled extensively throughout the South, writing about class struggles for the Workers Viewpoint.
- Dr. Michael Nathan, chief of pediatrics at Lincoln Community Health Center in Durham, a clinic that helped children from low-income families. Nathan had been an anti-war and civil rights student activist at Duke University. He organised and led a chapter of the Medical Committee for Human Rights (MCHR), an organisation that fought for improved health care for poor people. Mike studied child health and treated sick children in a mountain clinic in Guatemala in 1972 and 1973, and was a leader in a movement to send aid to liberation fighters who eventually toppled the apartheid system is what’s now Zimbabwe.

1983 - May (Marie-Jeanne) Picqueray (b. 1898), French militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, feminist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Jul. 8]

1984 - May 19th Communist Organisation members Susan Lisa Rosenberg and Timothy Blunk are apprehended by police as they were hiding 740 pounds of high explosive, 14 guns (including semiautomatic weapons), and hundreds of phony IDs in a storage facility in Cherry Hill, New Jersey.

[A] 2006 - Anarchist Black Cross activists invade the Philippines embassy in Kensington Palace Gardens, London in support of the Sagada 11 and are eventually removed by armed police.
1801 - Kathinka Zitz-Halein (Kathinka Therese Pauline Modesta Halein; d. 1877), German poet, short story writer, journalist, translator, novelist and feminist, who has been called "the poet laureate of the German Revolution" (of 1848-49), born. During the German revolutions of 1848-49 she founded and was first president of the Humania Association, the largest revolutionary women's organisation.
She wrote essays, short stories, poems, translations, newspaper articles, short stories and novels she under her birth name Katinka Halein and various pseudonyms such as Zianitzka; Theophile Christlieb; Emeline; Eugénie; Auguste Emilie; Doktor Schmid; Rosalba Stephanie; Johann Golder; Tina Halein; etc.

1811 - Luddite Timeline: After a brief lull, Luddites destroy six more knitting frames in Bulwell, near Nottingham, UK.

1837 - Jean-François Varlet (b. 1764), French revolutionary considered by many an anarchist precursor, involved with Les Enragés faction in the French Revolution, dies. [see: Jul. 14]

1839 - Newport Rising: Thousands march on Newport, Wales, to demand the release of imprisoned Chartist leader Henry Vincent and others. More than 20 people died and 50 were injured in the ensuing battle with the military. Hundreds of Chartists were arrested; leaders of the Newport Rising were found guilty of treason. Chartism was the first modern mass labour movement in England; its central issue was universal suffrage for men. [expand]

1870 - Comte de Lautréamont (pseudonym of Isidore-Lucien Ducasse; b. 1846), Uruguayan-born French poet and proto-surrealist, dies at the age of 24. [see: Apr. 4]

1877 - Theodor Bartošek (d. 1954), Czech lawyer, freethinker, anarchist fellow traveller and then communist politician, born. Destined to become a priest, he rebelled against his family and co-found the Svazu Českého Studentstva (Union of Czech Students), forming a close association with the Czech anarchist movement including his life-long friend Bohuslav Vrbenský. In 1903 he co-founded, with the anarchist poet S.K. Neumann, the Spolek Volných Myslitelů Augustin Smetana (Augustin Smetana Association of Free Thinkers) in honour of the Czech Hegelian philosopher and ex-communicated priest of the same name - the organisation would be banned in 1909. In 1905 he became editor of the group's newly founded monthly magazine 'Volné Myšlenky' (Free Thought), which in 1915 was also banned [its header was designed by František Kupka]. During WWI Volných Myslitelů was officially disbanded and its members interned including alongside Bartošek, Bohuslav Vrbenský, Vlastimil Borek, Václav Krampera, František J. Havelka, Emil Špatný and the nationalist politician Václav Klofáč.
Post-WWI, he sat in the Revoluční Národní Shromáždění (Revolutionary National Assembly), winning a parliamentary seat for the new Česká Strana Socialistická (Czech Socialist Party), of which he became a representative in the National Assembly for the České Socialistické Straně (Czech Socialist Party, or ČSS), formed from the merger of the Federaci Českých Anarchistů Komunistů (Federation of Czech Anarchist Communists, or FČAK) with the Česká Strana Národně Sociální (Czech National Social Party; ČSNS). Expelled from the ČSS, along with the rest of the Vrbenský group, for voting against the Law on Protection of the Republic and helped found the Independent Socialist Workers Party (Neodvislá Socialistickou Stranu, or NZS) in 1924 as the principal author of its programme statement.
He was also a co-creator of the first Constitution of the Czechoslovak Republic, later joining the KSČ and was a member of both the Svazu Proletářských Bezvěrců (Union of Proletarian Atheists) and of Mezinárodní rudá pomoc (International Red Aid ). After the rise of fascism in neighbouring Germany, he became the president of the Spolku na Ochranu ak Podpoře Obětí Boje Proti Fašismu (Society for the Protection and Support of Victims of the Fight Against Fascism). On the first day of the Nazi occupation, the Gestapo smashed up his apartment, arresting and interrogating him. Arrested and interned a number of times, he also defended anti-Nazi resistance fighters in court, later defending those persecuted by Communism as well.

[B] 1885 - Delfín Lévano (Delfín Amador Lévano Goméz; d. 1941), Peruvian anarchist propagandist, anarcho-syndicalist agitator, journalist, poet, musician and lecturer, born. Son of another prominent activist, anarchist, Manuel Caracciolo Lévano and founder of the newspaper 'La Protesta' in its first phase (1911-26).

1889 - London Gasworkers' Strike: Representatives of gas company managements from all over London meet National Union of Gas Workers & General Labourers representatives at the Cannon Street Hotel for discussions concerning the union's demands for double time on Sundays. The Union representatives agreed to ask their membership to consider a compromise for some reduced hours and double pay in return for a shorter working day and the meeting broke up to re-convene a week later on November 11. Instead, George Livesey, the chair of the South Metropolitan Gas Company, introduced plans to smash the union, reduce costs and implement his grand and long dreamt of scheme for partnership of consumer, shareholder and workforce – the latter had been put to the board in the past and rejected but was now seen as a useful tool to help 'divide and rule' the workforce.
Many workers signed the 12-month agreement (which implicitly removed their right to strike, forfeiting their bonus if they broke the agreement) for membership of the profit sharing scheme at once, sending their thanks "to the Employers – for their generous concession". However, these workers would now become company-owned blacklegs, continuing to work whilst their former union colleagues were out on strike defending the NUGWGL and would become victims of Livesey's plans to remove the NUGWGL from the South Met. [see: Sep. 5]

1889 - Vittorio Pini (1860-1903) is sentenced to 20 years in prison for political banditry. An Italian shoemaker and illegalist living in Paris, his expropriations supported Intransigenti groups and their propaganda efforts. He also supported the 'Cloche de Bois', an organisation discreetly helping those unable to pay their landlords: "Nous, anarchistes, c'est avec l'entière conscience d'accomplir un devoir, que nous attaquons la propriété."

1890 - Klabund (psedonym of Alfred Henschke; d. 1928), German Expressionist poet, playwright, novelist, consumptive and anarchist, who influenced German literature with his adaptations and translations of Oriental literature, born. His pseudonym derived from a conflation of the words Klabautermann (hobgoblin) and Vagabund (vagabond) which appeared in the title of his first volume of poetry 'Morgenrot! Klabund! Die Tage Dämmern!' (Dawn! Klabund! The Days Break!), and which stuck. A close friend of Hugo Ball, they went on to collaborate on poems under the joint pseudonym of Klarinetta Klaball following the 1913 confiscation of copies of 'Die Revolution' and 'PAN' for allegedly obscene poems by both (Ball, for the poem 'Der Henker', in the first and Klabund in 'PAN'). It is also claimed (one of the many attributions to the name's origins) that Dada first appeared in one of their jointly authored poems first performed by Marietta di Monaco in 1914 at the Simplicissimus cabaret in Munich.
Amongst his 25 plays, 14 novels,17 volumes of poetry and his adaptations from the Chinese is his 1925 drama 'Der Kreidekreis' (The Chalk Circle), based upon some of his Chinese poetry translations, that went on to be the inspiration for both Alexander von Zemlinsky's opera 'Der Kreidekreis' (1933) and Bertolt Brecht's play 'Der Kaukasische Kreidekreis' (The Caucasian Chalk Circle; 1948).

1897 - Cipriano Mera Sanz (d. 1975), French anarcho-syndicalist, militia leader and army commander in the Spanish Revolution, born. [expand]

1897 - Giuseppe Ciancabilla (1872-1904) publicly declares himself an anarchist, in Malatesta's paper, 'L'Agitazione'. In October, Ciancabilla met Malatesta to do an interview for 'Avanti!'. This meeting and the response of the PSI (Italian Socialist Party) leadership to the discussion led Ciancabilla to leave the socialist party in disgust and to declare himself an anarchist. Ciancabilla was one of the important Italian figures of the anarchist movement that emigrated to the US in the late 1800s. [see: Sep. 16]

1905 - [O.S. Oct. 22] October All-Russian Political Strike: Black Hundred outrages continue in Moscow, with two dozen workers and students killed. The newly installed Prime Minister Witte vigorously condemns the right-wing violence.
In St. Petersburg the Soviet, having called an end to the strike the previous day, cancels a mass funeral and demonstration that was set for November 5th, for fear of police action.

1905 - [O.S. Oct. 22] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: According to a Moscow newspaper, Nikolai Fedotovich Mikhalin (Николай Федотович Михалина), the 29-year-old former soldier and peasant farmer from Tambov who killed the prominent Bolshevik Nikolai Bauman (Никола́й Ба́уман) on October 31 [18], is freed when: "A crowd of demonstrators besieged the district court and demanded that the prosecutor immediate release Bauman's killer from the Trial Chamber. The prosecutor agreed and ordered the immediate release of the arrested. The demonstrators went to jail and solemnly brought out the killer, gaving him a standing ovation." The RSDLP (b) version of events claimed that a Black Hundreds mob forced the release of Mikhalin. Mikhalin was later rearrested and sentenced in June 1906 to one and a half years in prison for the equivalent of manslaughter. At a retrial in March 1907, after Mikhalin had appealed his sentence, he was convicted of murder in "a fit of temper" but his original sentence was not increased. However, the Bolsheviks had their revenge in 1926 when Mikhalin, having changed his name to Mikhal'chuk (Михальчук), was arrested by the GPU, tortured and shot.

[F] 1910 - Révolte des Cossiers / Révolte des Vignerons de la Champagne: A tax strike is proclaimed in several municipalities of the Marne. 'Manifestations punitives' are organised, destroying caves and cellars of several traders labelled as 'fraudsters' selling non-appellation Champagne, notably in Ay and Epernay. At the request of the préfect of the Marne, the 31e Régiment de Dragons, as well as four other regiments, are brought in as reinforcement, in particular to cut access to towns and protect wine merchants.

[A] 1913 - The 'Peoples Army' - formed to resist police interference with the demonstrations of the East London Federation of Suffragettes - begin paramilitary assembly and gun drill in Victoria Park.

1917 - Carlos Vidal Pasanau (d. 1950), Catalan mechanic, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist member of Francisco Sabate Llopart 'El Quico' guerrilla group, born [expand]

1918 - Kiel Mutiny [Kieler Matrosenaufstand]: During the morning, groups of armed mutineers move somewhat aimlessly from barrack to barrack and through the town. The III. Battle Squadron except the König, which has already docked , sets sail for Travemünde, hoping that the brewing trouble could be defused that way. The crews do not take part in casting off, this has to be done by ensigns and deck officers. Around 1000 sailors from the III. Squadron remain on shore. At 10:00, workers at the Germania ship yard and from the torpedo workshop in Kiel-Friedrichsort down tools.
Meeting of shop stewards are held in the union house.
During the early afternoon sailors in a large Wik Garnison barracks compound at the Tirpitz Hafen base in northern Kiel refuse orders: after a Division inspection of the commander, a spontaneous demonstrations takes place. Karl Artelt organises the first soldiers' council, and soon many more are set up. The town commander and chief of the military police now admit that they no longer control the situation. The governor of the navy station, Wilhelm Souchon, is now forced to negotiate, summonsing representatives of the rebels to submit their demands. Karl Artelt and other sailors go by car to the governor. On their car they carry a large red flag.
At 15:00 the first negotiations between the governor and the sailors and representatives from the SPD and the USPD take place. Their demands are communicated to all navy units in Kiel by the governor at around 17:00. After a "triumphal procession" from the Wik to the navy prisons in the in the Feldstraße, several thousand sailors receive their released comrades.
Soldiers and workers take public and military institutions under their control and when, despite Souchon's promise, different troops advance to quash the rebellion, they are intercepted by the mutineers and are either sent back or join the sailors and workers. By the evening, Kiel is firmly in the hands of approximately 40,000 rebellious sailors, soldiers and workers, as Wilhelmshaven is two days later.
Later that evening, a meeting of sailors and workers representatives in the union house leads to the establishment of a soldier's and a worker's council. The 14 Kieler Punkte des Soldatenrats (14 Points of the Kiel Soldiers' Council) are issued:

Resolutions and demands of the soldiers’ council:

The release of all inmates and political prisoners.
Complete freedom of speech and the press.
The abolition of mail censorship.
Appropriate treatment of crews by superiors.
No punishment for all comrades on returning to the ships and to the barracks.
The launching of the fleet is to be prevented under all circumstances.
Any defensive measures involving bloodshed are to be prevented.
The withdrawal of all troops not belonging to the garrison.
All measures for the protection of private property will be determined by the Soldier’s Council immediately.
Superiors will no longer be recognized outside of duty.
Unlimited personal freedom of every man from the end of his tour of duty until the beginning of his next tour of duty.
Officers who declare themselves in agreement with the measures of the newly established Soldier’s Council, are welcomed in our midst. All the others have to quit their duty without entitlement to provision.
Every member of the Soldier’s Council is to be released from any duty.
All measures to be introduced in the future can only be introduced with the consent of the Soldiers’ Council.

These demands are orders of the Soldier’s Council and are binding for every military person.
That same evening the SPD deputy Gustav Noske arrives in Kiel and is welcomed enthusiastically, although he has orders from the new government and the SPD leadership to bring the rising under control. He goes on to have himself elected chairman of the soldiers' council and reinstates peace and order. Some days later he took over the governor's post, while Lothar Popp from the USPD became chairman of the overall soldiers council. During the coming weeks Noske actually managed to reduce the influence of the councils in Kiel, but he could not prevent the spreading of the revolution to all of Germany. The events had already spread far beyond the city limits.
[ mutiny–%C2%A0the-kiel-mutiny/]

1921 - Victorine Brocher-Rouchy aka Victorine B (Victorine Malenfant; 1838-1921), French member of the International, Communard, militant anarchist and and socialist educator, dies. [see: Sep. 4]

[C / (CCC)] 1924 - Urbano Lazzaro aka 'Bill' (d. 2006), Italian communist partisan who played an important role in capturing Benito Mussolini near the end of World War II, born. He was with the partisans of the 52nd Garibaldi brigade, checking lorries carrying German troops to the Swiss border, when one of the partisans became suspicious about a man in the corner of the fifth truck. He was wearing glasses, wrapped in a greatcoat with his helmet pulled down. One of the Germans explained that he was a "drunken comrade". But the partisan remained dubious. Knowing that Italy's fascist dictator was attempting to flee the country, and the troop convoy had been given safe passage only on condition no Italians were hidden among the retreating soldiers, he called in the political commissar of his unit.
"When I saw him," Urbano Lazzaro recalled, "I called out 'excellency'. But he didn't reply. I also shouted 'comrade'. Still nothing. So I got into the lorry. I went up to him and I said: 'Cavaliere (sir) Benito Mussolini'. It was as if I had given him an electric shock."
Lazzaro was not present at Mussolini's subsequent execution. However, he investigated the execution after the war and came to believe that Mussolini was shot the same day he was arrested, in contrast to the officially accepted version of events.

1925 - Socialist deputy Tito Zaniboni (1883 - 1960) is arrested for his part in an assassination attempt against Benito Mussolini. [expand]

1931 - Luigi Galleani (b. 1861), influential Italian anarchist, dies at the age of 70 of a heart attack. [see: Aug. 12]

1936 - Four leaders of the anarcho-syndicalist CNT - Juan Garcia Oliver (Justice), Juan Peiro (Industry) Juan Lopez Sanchez (Trade), Federica Montseny (Health; she is the first woman minister in a Spanish cabinet) - split the Spanish anarchist movement by joining the new Republican Popular Front government as Cabinet Ministers.

[E] 1951 - Cosey Fanni Tutti (Christine Newby), English sex-positive feminist performance artist and musician, best known for being a member of COUM Transmissions, Throbbing Gristle and Chris & Cosey, born.

1954 - Natalia Yakovlevna Magnat (Наталья Яковлевна Магнат; d. 1997), Soviet and Russian translator of English, author of works on literary criticism and aesthetics, who founded the 'new left' underground radical organisations Left School (Ле́вая шко́ла) [December 1972 - January 1973] and the Neo-Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Неокоммунистическая партия Советского Союза) [September 1974 - January 1985], dies as the result of Crohn's disease. [see: Nov. 5]

1954 - Stig Dagerman, (b. 1923), Swedish playwright, novelist, poet and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Oct. 5]

[D] 1956 - 1956-os Forradalom [Hungarian Revolution]: Soviet tanks enter Budapest to "restore order" / put down the anti-Stalinist uprising, acting with immense brutality, even 'finishing off' wounded people. Tanks are used to drag bodies through the streets of Budapest as a warning to others who are still protesting. Nagy appeared on Radio Budapest at 05:20 as the tanks their attack on the capital: "This is Imre Nagy speaking. Today at daybreak Soviet forces started an attack against our capital, obviously with the intention to overthrow the legal Hungarian democratic government. Our troops are still fighting; the Government is still in its place. I notify the people of our country and the entire world of this fact." And that was it. Nagy’s voice disappeared – no one ever heard it again. Seconds later, the old National Anthem played (i.e. not the communist version). A couple hours later, at 8.10, Radio Budapest broadcast its last appeal: "Help Hungary… help, help, help," before being taken off air. Just after 13:00 on 4 November, Moscow radio announced: "The Hungarian counter-revolution has been crushed."
At 06:00, in the town of Szolnok, János Kádár proclaimed his own Forradalmi Munkás-Paraszt Kormány (Hungarian Revolutionary Worker-Peasant Government). His statement declared: "We must put an end to the excesses of the counter-revolutionary elements". He would be forced to remain in Szolnok under Soviet protection much longer than anyone had predicted due to the heavy resistance the invaders faced. Even though 1,000 Russian tanks had rolled into Budapest and the Hungarian army had been rapidly destroyed, ordinary members of the Hungarian public - even children - continued fighting the Russian troops with machine guns. They face a force comprised of 16 Soviet divisions, roughly 200,000 troops, and 2,000 tanks. The odds are heavily in the Soviet's favour.
In the end, approximately 2,500-3,000 Hungarians were killed (though some sources quote figures up to 10 times that) and 13,000 were wounded. Amongst those swept up in the mass arrests that followed, 3,000 were later executed in retaliation for the Hungarian's decision to take their destiny into their won hands.
To flee the expected Soviet reprisals, over 200,000 Hungarians fled across the border into Austria and the West until that escape route was sealed off. Nagy sought sanctuary in the Yugoslavian embassy and was replaced by the more hardline János Kádár, who, loyal to Moscow, welcomed the return of Soviet force to crush the 'counter-revolutionary threat'. Imre Nagy, lured out of the embassy by a promise of safe passage to Belgrade, a promise written by Kádár himself, was arrested and taken to Romania. Later, he was smuggled back into Hungary, charged with treason, tried and, on the orders of Kádár, was hung on June16 1958. He was buried in an unmarked grave in the prison yard.
By November 14, order had been restored and Soviet rule re-established.

1960 - First session of the Situationist International's Central Council in Alsemberg, near Brussels, November 4-6th. Participants: Guy Debord, Attila Kotànyi, Jørgen Nash, Helmut Sturm and Maurice Wyckaert (Asger Jorn absent).

1985 - Ado (Adonis) Kyrou (b. 1923), Greek-born French filmmaker, cinematographer, critic, author and anarchist, dies. [see: Oct. 18]

1988 - Greve de 1988 em Volta Redonda: A meeting of Companhia Siderúrgica Nacional (CSN) metalworkers in Volta Redonda in Argentina decides to hold a peaceful strike beginning on November 7 in support of the demands of a salary readjustment based on the inflation index released by DIEESE, the Inter-union Department of Statistics and Socioeconomic Studies (Departamento Intersindical de Estatística e Estudos Socioeconômicos), reemployment of those workers dismissed during the previous year, the creation of a Comissão Interna de Prevenção de Acidentes (Internal Commission for the Prevention of Accidents) elected by the workers, a 40-hour working week, the implementation of the 6-hour shift and the end to persecution for union activity. The directorate of the Sindicato dos Metalúrgicos de Volta Redonda also proposes an occupation of the company works to prevent work during the strike. The strike and occupation would ultimately lead to the Massacre de Volta Redonda five days later. The strike woukld last until November 22, when the striking Companhia Siderúrgica Nacional workers, exhausted by the constant repression by the military, decide to return to work.

1995 - Gilles Deleuze (b. 1925), influential libertarian anti-capitalist French philosopher, commits suicide by throwing himself out of a window. [see: Jan. 18]

2005 - Simon Watson Taylor (b. 1923), English anarchist, actor and translator, closely associated with the Surrealist movement, dies. [see: May 15]

2013 - Leon Briggs, 38, is detained in Luton under the Mental Health Act. Witnesses claim that he was screaming during his arrest and complaining his handcuffs were too tight as two officers "pinned" him down. He later became ill at Luton police station and was taken to hospital where he was pronounced dead. Five police officers and two staff are later suspended from duty pending an Independent Police Complaints Commission (IPCC) investigation.
[A / D] 1605 - Guy Fawkes is unfortunately caught with a large amount of gunpowder and a slow fuse in a cellar underneath the House of Lords.

1775 - Native American Indians burn every building in the Spanish enclave of San Diego.

1849 - Louis Dejoux (d. unknown), French anarchist activist and brother of François Dejoux, born. [see: Mar. 19]

1855 - Eugene Victor Debs (d. 1926), US locomotive fireman, wholesale grocery salesman, city clerk, union leader, editor, founding member of the Industrial Workers of the World and jailed seditionist, who stood five times as the candidate of the Socialist Party of America for President of the United States, born. Debs had a long history in the trade and industrial union movements, beginning with several smaller unions, including the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen, with whom he was involved in the disastrous 1888 Burlington Railroad Strike. He then played a key role in the founding of the American Railway Union (ARU), and as president of the latter, and despite his initial misgivings over the success of industrial action at that time, he called an ARU boycott of the handling trains with of Pullman cars, in what became the countrywide 1894 Pullman Strike. The then president Grover Cleveland sent the US Army in to break the strike, resulting in the death of 30 strikers and the blacklisting of thousands more. Debs was convicted on federal charges for defying a court injunction against the strike to stop obstructing the US Mail, serving six months in prison. Debs came out of prison a convinced socialist and Debs helped found the short-lived Social Democratic Party of America in 1898, which three years later would form the core of the Socialist Party of America. Debs would go on to be the SPA's candidate for president in 1904, 1908, 1912, and 1920 - the final time from a prison cell.
Debs was present along side the likes of Big Bill Haywood, leader of the Western Federation of Miners, and Daniel De León, leader of the Socialist Labor Party, and other prominent labour activists of the time such as Mary Harris 'Mother' Jones and Lucy Parsons at the Founding Convention of the Industrial Workers of the World on June 27, 1905, in Chicago, Illinois. Debs would remain active within both the Socialist Party and the IWW, as would Haywood, but increasing friction over the IWW's direct action tactics and, in particular, Haywood's Cooper Union speech in December 1911, when he effectively told a New York audience that the parliamentary road to socialism was a waste of time, led to Haywood's ejection from the party in early 1913 and the split between the SPA and the IWW. Thousands of IWW members also quit the party but Debs and Haywood remained friends.
The split resulted in Debs committing his time fully to the SPA and his various election campaigns, and on June 16, 1918, Debs gave a speech in Canton, Ohio, urging resistance to the WWI military draft, resulting in his being arrested on June 30 and charged with ten counts of sedition. At his trial in September that year he offered no defence save for a two hour address to the court. He was found guilty on September 12 and at his sentencing hearing two days later he made a second, and still famous, speech. On November 18, Debs was sentenced to ten years in prison and disenfranchised for life. At that hearing he uttered the following words:
"Your Honour, years ago I recognised my kinship with all living beings, and I made up my mind that I was not one bit better than the meanest on earth. I said then, and I say now, that while there is a lower class, I am in it, and while there is a criminal element, I am of it, and while there is a soul in prison, I am not free." Debs appealed his conviction to the Supreme Court but was eventually sent to prison on April 13 the following year, precipitating a massive protest campaign.
One of the protest demonstrations in Cleveland, Ohio on May 1, 1919 resulted in a mass brawl between the socialists, anarchists, communists, trade unionists and the unemployed on the march when part of the crowd was attacked by WWI veterans and others. The widespread rioting that ensued was eventually put down by mounted police and the army (who deployed tanks), leaving two dead, dozens injured and 116 arrested. The Socialist Party headquarters was also ransacked by a mob.
Debs ran for president in the 1920 election while in the Atlanta Federal Penitentiary, receiving 3.4% of the vote. The various calls for clemency for Debs in 1919 were strenuously opposed by the notorious Attorney General Alexander Mitchell Palmer of the anti-radical 'Palmer Raids' fame and ultimately rejected by President Woodrow Wilson. However, in January 1921, Palmer changed his mind and proposed clemency himself, citing Debs' deteriorating health. Wilson rejected the call and it fell to Warren G. Harding on December 23, 1921 to commute Debs' sentence to time served. Debs time in prison ruined his health and he died of heart failure in the Lindlahr Sanatorium in Elmhurst, Illinois on October 20, 1926, at the age of 70. Apart from his various presidential bids, Debs probably remains best known today as the author of the prison critique, partly written whilst incarcerated, 'Walls and Bars: Prisons and Prison Life In The 'Land Of The Free' 1899-1922' (1927). He also appeared as a historical figure in John Dos Passos 'U.S.A Trilogy' and the lead character and narrator, Eugene Debs Hartke, in Kurt Vonnegut's novel 'Hocus Pocus' is named in his honour.

1862 - [N.S. Nov. 17] Olga Nikolaevna Figner (Ольга Николаевна Фигнер; d. 1919), Russian revolutionary, narodnitsa and one of the organisers of the Socialist-Federalist (Cоциалистов-федералистов) group (1887-89) in St. Petersburg following the crushing of Narodnaya Volya (Наро́дная во́ля / People's Will), born. [see: Nov. 17]

1863 - Guildford Guy Riots: Troops are called in to prevent Guildford celebrating its ritual November Fifth Bonfire Night riots. 200 troops occupy the town to prevent trouble. [see November 20]

1871 - Kōtoku Shūsui (幸徳秋水), pen name of Kōtoku Denjirō (幸徳傳次郎; Kōtoku Denjirō; d. 1911), Japanese journalist, writer, and one of the most outstanding figures of Japanese anarchism, who translated many works of contemporary European and Russian anarchists, such as Peter Kropotkin, into Japanese, born. Partner of Kanno Sugako (管野須賀子), he would dies alongside her following their supposed involvement in the High Treason Incident (大逆事件; Taigyaku Jiken) or Kōtoku Incident (幸徳事件; Kōtoku Jiken) plot against the Japanese Emperor's life. [see: May 20] Wrote '廿世紀之怪物帝国主義' (Imperialism, Monster of the 20th Century; 1901). NB: Some sources claim Sept. 22 as his birth date.

[B] 1878 - Mikhail Petrovich Artsybashev (Михаи́л Петро́вич Арцыба́шев; d. 1927), Russian writer, playwright and individualist anarchist, who was a major proponent of the literary style known as naturalism, born. Best remembered by the clearly Stirner-influenced novel 'Sanin' (1907). A staunch enemy of the Bolshevik regime, he published his anti-Bolshevik work 'Notes of a Writer' n 1917-18 before gaining Polish citizenship in 1923, where he edited the newspaper 'За свободу!' (For Liberty!).

1883 - Elmer T. Allison (d. 1982), U.S. socialist political activist, IWW member and newspaper editor, who was active in the Seattle Free Speach Fight of 1907 and is best remembered as the longtime editor of 'The Cleveland Socialist' and 'The Toiler', forerunners of the official organ of the Communist Party, USA, 'The Daily Worker', born.

1885 - William James Durant (d. 1981), prolific American writer, historian, and philosopher, born. Best known for the 11 volume 'The Story of Civilization' written in collaboration with his wife Ariel Durant, and published between 1935 and 1975. He was also a teacher and director at the Ferrer Modern School in NYC.

1885 - Diego Rodríguez Barbosa (d. 1936), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist militant, anarcho-naturalist propagandist, writer, poet and novelist, born. Wrote under a selection of pseudonyms (including Ile Gales, Juan de la Barre and Silvestre del Campo) for the libertarian press e.g. 'Ética', 'Germinal', 'Iniciales', 'El Luchador', 'La Madre Tierra', 'La Revista Blanca', 'La Semana', 'Solidaridad Obrera', 'Solidaridad Proletaria', 'Tierra y Libertad', 'La Voz del Campesino', etc. His output included poetry and 5 novels, published in the 'La Novela Libre' and 'La Novela Ideal' series: 'La Hija del Sepulturero' (The Gravedigger's Daughter; 1929), 'Desahuciados' (Homeless; 1933), 'Pastora' (Shepherd; 1933), 'Amor , Sacrificio y Venganza' (Love, Sacrifice and Revenge; 1935) and 'Bohemia' (1935) - all written whilst he was in prison and published by La Novela Libre and La Novela Ideal.

1886 - Guy Aldred (d. 1963), British anarchist-communist, anti-militarist and key member of the Anti-Parliamentary Communist Federation, born. Founded the Bakunin Press and edited five Glasgow-based anarchist periodicals - 'The Herald of Revolt', 'The Spur', 'The Commune', 'The Council', and 'The Word'.

1887 - Robert van 't Hoff (Robbert van 't Hoff; d. 1979), Dutch architect and furniture designer, and utopian anarchist, who was an influential member of the De Stijl movement, born. A member of the Communistische Partij Nederland in the years following WWI who, following the failure of Pieter Jelles Troelstra's call for a socialist revolution in the Netherlands in 1919 (De Roode Week/Vergissing van Troelstra [Red Week/Troelstra's mistake]), quit De Stijl and withdrew from artistic activity, declaring himself an "ex-architect" in 1922, and spending much of the rest of his life promoting utopian anarchist communities.

1894 - [O.S. Oct. 22] Varvara Fyodorovna Stepanova (Варва́ра Фёдоровна Степа́нова; d. 1958), Russian-Lithuanian painter and designer initially associated with the Cubo-Futurists and zaum poets, but later a Constructivist, born. Like her partner Aleksandr Rodchenko, she was involved in the newspaper 'Anarkhiia' but, unlike him, appears to not have been an active anarchist.

1898 - Ricard Sanz i García aka Ricardo Sanz Asensio (d. 1986), Valencian anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist fighter against Franco, born. He participated in the founding of the anarchist group Los Solidarios with Buenaventura Durruti and Juan Garcia Oliver. Author. [expand]

1898 - Negros Revolution / Al Cinco de Noviembre: The revolt began in Central and Northern Negros in the Philippines. [expand]

1898 - Benoit Perrier (d. unknown), French insurance inspector, anarchist activist and pacifist, born.

1905 - [O.S. Oct. 23] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The murderer of the Bolshevik leader Nikolai Bauman (Никола́й Ба́уман) is released following threats from a Black Hundred mob.
A peasant uprising takes place in the Chernigov province. Across the Empire, peasant unrest is reaching a crescendo, with increasing violence.

1905 - [O.S. Oct. 23] 1905 Kronstadt Mutiny / Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Thousands of people gather in Kronstadt to hear a speech by the Bolshevik leader Iosif Fedorovich Dubrovinsky (Иосифа Федоровича Дубровинского), who had been sent from Moscow to Kronstadt by the Central Committee of the RSDLP. The resolution adopted at the meeting made demands for the improvement of the legal and material condition of servicemen, as well as general political demands for a democratic republic, universal suffrage, and the abolition of the social estates.
Anti-government demonstrations in Kronstadt continue over the following days, culminating in the mutiny by the Garrison on November 8th. [t.b.c.].

1908 - The dissident supporters of the SLP of the rival 'Detroit IWW' set up the Workers' International Industrial Union at a conference convened at Paterson, New Jersey. [see: Sep. 24]

1909 - The first issue of 'La Cloche Anarchiste', an irreuglar news circular, is published by the Francisco Ferrer Club in Bourges.

1911 - The unveiling in Brussels of a monument dedicated to Francisco Ferrer, made by the sculptor Robert Gnyslens and erected thanks to an international subscription. The inscription reads: "For Francisco Ferrer shot at Montjuic on October 13, 1909. Martyr of freedom of consciousness." The Germans were to remove the monument during the WWI Occupation and it was not until 1984 that it was replaced.

[F] 1916 - Everett Massacre / Shingle Weavers' Strike: Following the brutal attack on their fellow workers six days previously in Everett, when 41 Wobbly free speech campaigners had been rounded up by a force of more than 200 armed vigilantes and forced to run the gauntlet whilst being beaten with clubs, axe handles, guns, whips and rubber hoses loaded with shot, before being run out of town and forced to walk the 25 miles back to Seattle, the Wobblies planned to keep their promise to return in greater number. On November 5, 1916, a group of about 300 young IWW members met at the IWW Hall in Seattle and then marched down to the docks, where they boarded the steamers Verona and Calista (260 had bought tickets for the Verona and 40 for the Calista) ,which then headed the 20 miles north to Everett. Meanwhile in Everett, where some helpful person had started out a rumour that the Wobblies were planning to burn the town, Sheriff Donald McRae had lined up well armed 200-250 'citizen deputy' vigilantes in order to repel the "anarchist reds".
The Verona arrived at Everett first and as they approached the Everett City Dock in the early afternoon, the Wobblies began to sing 'Hold the Fort'. As it pulled up on the dock, Sheriff McRae stepped forward and raised his hand, calling out "Boys, who's your leader?" The IWW men laughed, replying "We're all leaders", and they started to swing out the gang plank. McRae thenn drew his pistol and told them they could not land. At that point a single shot rang out (its source was never publicly identified but, given the imbalance in weaponry, it is highly likely that it came from a trigger-happy vigilante), followed by a massive volley of gun fire that lasted for about ten minutes. Most came from the vigilantes on shore as only a hndful of Wobblies were armed. Those on board the Verona, who included ordinary non-IWW passengers, rushed to the opposite side of the ship, nearly capsizing the vessel. The ship's rail broke and a number of passengers fell into the water, an unknown number of whom drowned. Over 175 bullets pierced the pilot house alone, and the captain of the Verona, Chance Wiman, was only able to avoid being shot by ducking behind the ship's safe. The captain then managed to back the boat away from the dock, then headed back to Seattle. Out in the harbour, Wiman warned off the approaching Calista and then raced back to Seattle.
On the dock two local businessman-deputies, Jefferson Beard and Charles Curtis, lay dying, shot in the back by their fellow vigilantes. Twenty others, including Sheriff McRae, were wounded. Wobblies Hugo Gerlot (1893-1916); Abraham Rebenovitz, often misspelled Rabinowitz (1886-1916); Gustav Johnson (1894-1916); and John Looney (1891-1916) lay dead on the Verona's deck. Another, Felix Baran (1894-1916), lay dying. While the 'official' count of IWW casualties was five dead and 27 wounded, an unknown number had fallen into the water and died of their wounds or were shot as they floundered in the water after the boat had hastily pulled away, their bodies later recovered surreptitiously from Port Gardner Bay. There were also non-IWW casulties on board the Verona including Oscar Carlson, who was shot 11 times and unsuccessfully sued the steamboat company for his injuries.
When the Verona and Calista returned to Seattle, 294 men were arrested and either detained in the King County jail or hospitalised. Ultimately most were set free, but seventy-four were back to the Snohomish County jail in Everett, imprisoned, and ordered to stand trial for murder.
In the town itself, after the Verona and Calista had made good their escape, the local Everett Wobblies started their street rally anyway, and as a result, McRae's deputised citizens rounded them up and hauled them off to jail and for the following few days terror hung over Everett for several days as armed deputies policed the streets. As a result of the shootings, Governor Ernest Lister of the State of Washington sent companies of militia to Everett and Seattle to help maintain order.
Teamster Thomas H. Tracy was the first brought to trial on March 5, 1917, charged with conspiracy to commit the murder of Sheriff's Deputy Jefferson Beard. Originally he was also charged with the murder of Deputy C.O. Curtis, but forensic evidence later indicated that Curtis was most likely killed by one of his fellow deputies, so that charge was quietly dropped. Tracy was found not guilty on May 5 after a two-month trial and the other 73 Wobblies were released without trial shortly afterwards.

1918 - Kiel Mutiny [Kieler Matrosenaufstand]: At sunrise, all the warships in the port hoist red flags except the battleship SMS König, whose captain has the battle standard raised instead. The König's captain, Carl Wilhelm Weniger, having commanded two officers, Bruno Heinemann and Wolfgang Zenker, to defend the flag at the masthead is involved in a prolonged firefight during which the three are badly wounded, and after which the red flag is also raised on the König. A sailor and the 2 officers died, and Weniger survived. The Nazis named two destroyers in the mid 1930s, Bruno Heinemann and Wolfgang Zenker.
On the SMS Schlesien the war flag was hoisted and the ship fled from the port of Kiel to Flensburg. There many of its sailors and stokers left the ship. It would later be included in Admiral Scheer's planned operations against the rebels, which fail to materialise.
In the early hours of the morning a workers' council is established. Gustav Garbe, SPD, is elected chairman. As of 10:00 the council controls the city authorities, with the top officials not being replaced but getting so called by-appointees from the workers' council working alongside them. Only the Food Authority is taken over directly by the worker's council.
Still afraid of a counter attack from the military, the sailors remove the rank badges and weapons from their officers. In different parts of the town patrols are fired upon from surrounding windows by, the rebels believe, officers who retain their weapons. These incidents result in 10 dead and 21 wounded. Town commander Heine is shot by a patrol when he resists his arrest.
The soldiers' council forbids the "set-up of patrols on own initiative (selbstständige Patrouillengestellung)" of the sailors and, at a 13:00 meeting on the Wilhelmplatz, Noske becomes temporary head of the soldiers' council.
The naval command in Berlin pre-empts any government decision and sends a telegram to the high sea fleet command, claiming to do so with government consent: any resistance has to be broken immediately, the IX. Army Corps shall shut off Kiel from the land side and the high sea command from sea side.
Early that evening, Haußmann returns to Berlin and in the cabinet stands up for the demands of the sailors and stresses that the issue can only be solved by the social democrats and the unions. However the state secretary of the Imperial naval authority, Ritter v. Mann and the Prussian war minister, Scheüch demand strongest measures and a cordoning off of Kiel as a warning to others. The decision is postponed. Meanwhile, at the suggestion of Admiral Scheer, the Kaiser replaces as the governor of Kiel, Wilhelm Souchon, with Admiral v. Schröder.
That evening Prinz Heinrich, the brother of Kaiser Wilhelms flees from Kiel, carrying a red flag on his car.
[ mutiny–%C2%A0the-kiel-mutiny/]

1920 - Eugene Debs, Prisoner No. 9653, receives nearly one million votes as Socialist Party presidential candidate while occupying a jail cell.

1921 - Patagonia Rebelde / Patagonia Trágica: The business of every Estancia in southern Santa Cruz is paralyzed by the strike. Workers dominate the roads, moving in columns of 60, 100 and 200 men marching with red and black flag.

[E] 1921 - Jeanne Humbert and Eugène Humbert, militant anarchists, pacifists, néo-malthusians and naturists are sentenced to prison. Under the terms of the new laws (voted in 1920) to repress anti-natalist propaganda, Jeanne and Eugene are each sentenced to one to two years in prison and fined 3000 francs.

1923 - Sacco & Vanzetti Case: In the Sacco and Vanzetti case, the Proctor motion for a new trial is made.

1933 - Rogelio Madrigal Torres (d. 1960), Spanish anarchist guerrillero, born. In 1956 he deserted the army in Seu d'Urgell and took refuge in France, settling in Dijon, where he became a mason. He entered the guerilla struggle against Franco in late December 1959, crossed the Pyrenees with group of Quico Sabaté (including Francisco Sabaté himself plus Antonio Miracle Guitart, Francisco Conesa Alcaráz and Martin Ruiz Montoya), but during the night of January 3-4, 1960, they were ambushed by the Civil Guard at Mas Clarà, Sarria de Ter, near Girona in Catalonia. The whole group, except miraculously Sabaté who escaped , were shot dead while trying to escape.

1936 - Buenaventura Durruti makes a radio broadcast from the Madrid front, in which he opposes the decree issued by the Generalidad militarising the militias, and calls for greater commitment and sacrifice from the rearguard if the war is to be won.

1937 - Julius Nolden, a car plant worker from Duisburg was sentenced by the 'The People's Court' in Berlin to a ten year prison term for "preparing an act of high treason with aggravating circumstances". Nolden had been at the head of the FAUD (anarcho-syndicalist Free Union of German Workers) in the Rhineland when that underground Organisation was dismantled by the Gestapo in January 1937. Arrested with him were 88 other male and female anarcho-syndicalists who stood trial in the Rhineland in early 1938.

1944 - Members of the Communist-led Union Nationale Espagnole shoot 4 activists in Montfort-sur-Boulzane who had refused to join their organisation. The four are the Spanish socialists Pedro Perez and José Ibanez, and the libertarians Antonio Rodriguez (aka Victoriano Vonilla), and Miguel Gonzales Espada. The latter had fought in the Jeunesses Libertaires de Calanda, Teruel, where he had been a farmer, and later in the Durruti Column. As a refugee in France he had been a lumberjack, dying at the hands of the Stalinists rather than the Fascists.

[C] 1944 The first British League of Ex-Servicemen and Women, an openly fascist and anti-Semetic organisation founded by Jeffrey Hamm, an ex-BU member and 18B internee, holds a meeting in Hyde Park, where a speaker endorses racial purity and "Britain for the British", inspiring a hostile reaction from the crowd.

1956 - 1956-os Forradalom [Hungarian Revolution]: The Soviets make a concerted attack on the Kilián Barracks and the Corvin Alley fighters who, however, drive them back. Kőbánya, Obuda, the VIII. District (Baross area), IX. District (Ferenc Square, Tűzoltó Street, Tompa Street), Széna Square and the main railway stations all continued to offer resistance to the Soviet attack. The fight was much tougher than the Soviets had expected. Outside of Budapest, serious military resistance emerged in many other localities, the most important being the city of Sztálinváros (Dunaújváros). Using its historical name Dunapentele again, the fierce fighting continued there for another 2 days as did the broadcasts of the Rákóczi radio station. Created by the revolutionaries, it broadcast from a bus that constantly moved around in the city so that it couldn't be located by the Soviets.

1960 - The unveiling, at the Statsgymnasium in Århus, of the 'Keramikrelieffet' (Ceramic Relief), 27 meters long and 3 high, created by one time Situationist Asger Jorn.

[BB] 1969 - Chicago Eight Trial: The trial of Bobby Seale is severed from the trial of what now becomes the Chicago Seven. Because of his courtroom outbursts (after being refused permission to act as or have his own defence counsel), Bobby Seale has been bound and gagged during the trial since October 29th. Judge Julius Hoffman cites Seale for contempt and sentences him to four years in jail; a retrial is ordered on Seale's case.

1974 - Angela Nathalie Gossow, German lead vocalist for the Swedish melodic death metal band Arch Enemy, born. A vegan, she also considers herself to be an anarchist.

[CC] 1980 - The Print Factory aka Wilson Press print works in Uckfield, Sussex, which is the main printing press for all facist and extreme nationalist paper and books in Britain including 'NF News', 'The Holocaust News', 'The Hoax of the Twentieth Century' by Arthur Butz, and 'Did Six Million Really Die?' by Richard Verrall, is firebombed causing more than £50,000 worth of damage. The print works were owned by Alan Hancock, one of the early leaders of the Racial Preservation Society and a former member of the British Union of Fascists, and sunbequently by his son Tony who, like if father, was a holocaust denier and member of numerous British far Right groups including the RPS, NP, BM, BNP, etc., as well as being owner of the Heidelberg Hotel in Lower Rock Gardens, Brighton, a popular visiting spot for neo-Nazis from across the world including his friend the Italian neo-Fascist terrorist Roberto Fiore.
Maurice 'Manny' Carpel, ex-62 Group member and 'freelance Searchlight researcher', was jailed for 2.5 years in April 1981 for the firebombing.

1980 - Ida Pilat Isca (b. 1896), Ukrainian-American anarchist writer, translator and activist, who was prominent in the Sacco and Vanzetti campaign in New York and later joined the Socialist Party, dies. [see: Apr. 28]

1983 - Jean-Marc Reiser (b. 1941), one of France's foremost cartoonists and comic artists, dies. [see: Apr. 13]

2001 - At least four hunger strikers protesting Turkish prison conditions die in a police raid, bringing the total to 45 deaths in the last year. Hundreds of jailed left-wing militants have joined the death fast to protest being kept in isolation cells in 'F-type' high security prisons, where torture, beatings and abuse have been a persistent problem.

2007 - Eight simultanious demonstrations in solidarity with prison uprisings in Athens, Thessaloniki, Patra, Heraklion Crete, Larisa, Volos, Ioannina, and Komotini. In Athens the riot police attacked the demo of 800-1.000 anarchists, which resulted to clashes and tear gas.
1811 - Luddite Timeline: About a 1000 men from Arnold, Hucknall and other surrounding villages gathered at the seventh milestone on the Mansfield to Nottingham road to launch a new wave of attacks.

1817 - Miloš Obrenović becomes the Prince of the Principality of Serbia following the defeat of the Ottoman Turks in the Second Serbian Uprising (Други српски устанак). [see: Jul. 26]

1886 - First issue of 'Die Autonomie', a German language anarchist weekly edited by Josef Peukert and published in London. The Autonomy group opposed Johann Most's Freiheit group, advocating instead the ideas of Kropotkin.

1887 - Eugène Edine Pottier (b. 1816), French poet, revolutionist, participant in the Revolution of 1848 and the Paris Commune of 1881, author of 'L'Internationale', dies. [see: Oct. 4]

1905 - [O.S. Oct. 24] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The St. Petersburg City Council authorises a popular civic guard to replace the police. In contrast, the Moscow city City Council, fearful of handing police powers over to the left, the following day refuses to authorise the city's own popular militia.
Count Sergei Witte (Серге́й Ви́тте) officially becomes the first Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Russian Empire, prime minister of the new constitutional monarchy. The Association of Manufacturers is formed in St. Petersburg; it adopts a hard line policy against strikers.

1905 - [O.S. Oct. 24] 1905 Kronstadt Mutiny / Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Anti-government demonstrations in Kronstadt continue. [see: Oct. 31 & Nov. 8]

1910 - Cambrian Combine Miners' Strike: By now, strikers had successfully shut down all the local pits, except Llwynypia colliery. On November 6, miners became aware of the owners' intention to deploy strikebreakers, to keep pumps and ventilation going at the Glamorgan Colliery in Llwynypia. This would lead to volent clashes between strikers and police over the following days.

1911 - Revolución Mexicana: Madero wins presidential election and takes oath of office. Slow to take action on land reform ,insisting the hacienda owners be paid for the land lost and loses liberal support. Also criticised by conservatives as being anti-business. Francisco Madero levies tax on oil companies to pay for education, angering American ambassador Henry Lane Wilson. Pascual Orozco,once an ally of Pancho Villa, raises a well equipped army of 6,000 in the north, supported by powerful hacienda landowners. He plans to march on México City. Madero turns to Gen. Victoriano Huerta to deal with Orozco.

1914 - Revolución Mexicana: The constitutional Convention of Aguascalientes recognises Eulalio Guiterrez as interim president. Venustiano Carranza refuses to accept and is declared a rebel.Guiterrez appoints Pancho Villa as military commander to drive Carranza from power.

[B] 1915 - María Bruguera Pérez (d. 1992), Spanish member of Mujeres Libres, anarchist, anti-fascist fighter, born. Daughter and sister of anarchists, she joined the Juventudes Libertarias (Libertarian Youth) since its foundation in 1932 and is particularly involved in the activities of the artistic and theatrical group called Ni No Amo Dios (Neither God Nor Master).

1917 - [O.S. Oct. 24] October Revolution [Октя́брьская револю́ция]: A Bolshevik coup in Petrograd against the Kerensky Provisional Government begins in the early hours of the night (Nov. 6-7) takes place when parties of Bolshevik operatives are sent out from the Smolny Institute, then Lenin's HQ. They take over all the major government facilities, key communication, installations and vantage points in Petrograd with little opposition.

[F] 1917 - Bisbee Deporation: Following five days of hearings, the President’s Labor Mediation Commission finish their investigation into the July 12, 1917 Bisbee deportations. The 'Report on the Bisbee Deportations. Made by the President's Mediation Commission to the President of the United States' concludes that the deportations were "wholly illegal and without authority in law, either State or Federal." Nevertheless, no individual, company, or agency was ever convicted in connection with the deportations.

1918 - Kiel Mutiny [Kieler Matrosenaufstand]: At a large meeting in Kiel SPD deputy Gustav Noske tries to convince the sailors to abandon their mutiny. Luther Popp and Gustav Garbe speak against it. A motion to abandon their struggle is turned down unanimously.
Upon Lothar Popp's initiative all units elect representatives. These in turn elect the Großen Soldatenrat (Great Soldiers' Council) and this elects an Obersten Soldatenrat (Supreme Soldiers' Council), with Popp and Noske becoming joint chairmen of the latter.
The cabinet in Berlin accepts Haußmann's proposal unanimously and, with unrest brewing in other coastal towns. Troops from Altona who were destined to be used in Kiel are ordered to put these down.
The Seekriegsleitung (naval command) in Berlin affirms their orders from the day before. The Imperial government vehemently refuses the transfer of Admiral Schröder to Kiel. Scheer suggests to the Kaiser to withdraw the order, as he also has to admit that nothing can be achieved by military force any more, and the Kaiser agrees.
As delegations from the Workers’ and Soldiers’ Councils spread out to other industrial centres in Germany, revolts broke out at the shipyard in Kiel, Hamburg and Bremen, with the creation of workers' councils there. Mass demonstrations also continued in Wilhelmshaven, where the crowds manage to free arrested sailors there. Three days later, Berlin in turn holds protests, then the whole of Germany, marking the beginning of the Spartacist revolution.
[ mutiny–%C2%A0the-kiel-mutiny/]

1918 - Christoph Hermann Probst (d. 1943), German medical student and member of the Weiße Rose (White Rose) anti-Nazi resistance group, born. He was arrested himself following the apprehension of Sophie and Hans Scholl after an anti-war leaflet drop from the atrium at Ludwig Maximilians University. Tried for treason on February 22, along with fellow Weiße Rose members Hans and Sophie Scholl, they were beheaded in Munich's Stadelheim Prison within hours of the court decision.

[E] 1919 - Consuelo Rodriguez Lopez, aka 'Chelo' (d. 2012), Galician miliciana and anti-Francoist guerrilla, born. [expand]
Fighter in the 1ª Agrupación de la Federación de Guerrillas León-Galicia (1st Group of the Federation of Leon-Galicia Guerillas) who, unlike her sister Antonia who was also a member of the group, she actively participated in the fighting.
[* NB: November 18 and 19 also given as her d.o.b.]

1921 - Patagonia Rebelde / Patagonia Trágica: In southern Santa Cruz workers now dominated the roads, moving in columns of 60, 100 and 200 men marching with red and black flag, and the business of every Estancia was paralyzed by the strike. Meanwhile, Lieutenant Colonel Héctor Benigno Varela and 200 troops well-armed troops of the Regimiento 10° de Caballería (10th Cavalry Regiment), the 'Húsares de Pueyrredón', were rapidly approaching the strike area. At a meeting of strikers called during the night of November 6-7, Chilean worker Juan Farina proposed surrender and the vast majority of rural labourers supported his motion. Another worker, Pablo Schulz, argued that they should fight the army. Antonio Soto, seeing that such a fight was unlikely, argued that it is necessary to continue the strike, and finally suggested that they send two men with a white flag to parley with army troops to discuss conditions and guarantees, in addition to demanding compliance with the terms of the agreement negotiated last year.

1922 - Huelga General de Guayaquil: The coastal city and the main port of the country, Guayaquil, known as the 'Perla del Pacífico', was a centre of rank and file workers struggle in Ecuador, with a strong anarcho-syndicalist stream. Its economy was based almost exclusively on cacao exportation for its export revenue and the collapse of international prices during and after WWI and the increased [the price of 100 pounds of cocoa fell from 26 sucres, in January of 1920, to 5.75 sucres, in December of 1921] competition from other cacao-producing countries led to deteriorating economic conditions in Ecuador, and especially in Guayaquil. Added to that, the loss in value of the sucre (Ecuador’s national currency) and rampant inflation meant that by 1922 the prices of basic foodstuffs such as flour, rice, and sugar were astronomical, rent rates rose, and employment opportunities fell.
On October 15, 1922, the Federación de Trabajadores Regional Ecuatoriana (Ecuadorian Regional Federation Of Workers), Ecuador’s largest radical labour federation, was formed at the initiative of the Sociedad Cosmopolita de Cacahueros 'Tomás Briones' (Cosmopolitan Society Of Cacahueros 'Tomás Briones') in Guayaquil in opposition to the reformist artisan-orientated Confederación Obrera del Guayas (Guayas Confederation of Workers), who had largely ignored the rural and industrial workers. Two days later on October 17, the workers of the U.S.-owned Guayaquil and Quito Railway Company in the neighbouring city of Durán issued a set of demands, drawn up on their behalf by the assembly of Trabajadores del Ferrocarril del Sur (Southern Railroad Workers), that they presented to the United States company that owned and managed the railroad. When no response was forthcoming, the workers went on strike on October 19th. The General Manager J.C. Dobbie refused to negotiate and brought in strikebreakers, but the workers continued to strike which, with the support of the Federación Regional de Trabajadores del Ecuador – the country’s largest radical labour federation, which had been formed earlier that year in opposition to the reformist artisan-orientated Confederación Obrera del Guaya, who had largely ignored the rural and industrial workers – motivated the other associations to join in. Hundreds of workers from Guayaquil also came to show their support and after a few days, Dobbie agreed to meet their demands.
The workers of Guayaquil took inspiration from this successful show of worker solidarity. From November 6-8, 1922, workers from Empresa de Carros Urbanos (Urban Tram Company), Empresa de Luz y Fuerza Eléctrica (Light and Electrical Power Company), the gas and water works, and shipyard workers met, largely led by a man named Adolfo Villacrés, president of the Asamblea General de Trabajadores, and issued a set of demands on the 8th. Tram workers were in a particularly bad position, earning barely subsistence wages, working long hours, and being required to watch the trolleys on Sundays (the one day they did not have to work), because any damage to them was paid for by their wages. The assembly of workers issued 28 demands in total, which were swiftly rejected by company management. In response, the workers struck, shutting down public transportation and much of the city’s power. Meanwhile, the military moved soldiers into the city.

1924 - CNT militants (including Durruti) attempt a revolt in Vera de Bidassoa, as cenetistas attack the Atarazanas barracks in Barcelona. Anarchists and civil guards clash for two days. A guard is killed, two militants die, four wounded, 19 taken prisoner.

1926 - Leggi Fascistissime [Fascist Laws] or Leggi Eccezionali del Fascismo [Exceptional Laws of Fascism]: Royal Decree No. 1848 'Testo Unico delle Leggi di Pubblica Sicurezza' aka TULPS (Consolidated Laws of Public Safety) are passed, extending the powers of prefects: can dissolve associations, organisations, institutions, parties, groups and political organisations, and establishing imprisonment as a sanction for actions against the regime.
Consolidated under the Legge Speciale Law No. 2008 Provvedimenti per la Difesa dello Stato (Provisions for the Defence of the State) of Novermber 25, 1926.
[,ita fascistissime.htm]

1933 - Jehan-Rictus (b. 1867), French poet and anarchist, dies. [see: Sep. 23]

[D] 1936 - The Republic's government (along with the four new anarcho-syndicalist ministers) flees Madrid for the safety of Valencia. The populace of Madrid's response is the cry of "¡Viva Madrid sin gobierno!" (Long live Madrid without government!). The "defensa de la capital a toda costa" (defence of the capital at all costs, ordered by Largo Caballero) is left in the hands of the newly constitued Junta de Defensa de Madrid.

[C] 1944 - 'Boy' Segundo Jorge Adelberto Ecury (b. 1922), Dutch communist and Resistance fighter in WWII, who was a member of the Oisterwijk Raad van Verzet (Oisterwijk Resistance Council), is shot by the Nazis at the at the Waalsdorpervlakte in The Hague. [see: Apr. 23]

1948 - José Gómez Gayoso aka 'Juan', 'Carlos' and 'López' (b. 1909) and Antonio Seoane Sánchez aka 'Julián', 'Jorge' and 'Aureliano Barral' (b. 1906), Communist (PCE) anti-Francoist guerillas, who had both spent time in Argentina following the defeat of the Republic and had returned to Spain independantly, are executed by garrote vil in the Campo de la Rata.

1956 - 1956-os Forradalom [Hungarian Revolution]: Heavily outnumber (2,000 tanks had invaded Hungary and 16 Soviet divisions, roughly 200,000 troops), large-scale rural resistance began to collapse, as did many of the centres of resistance in Budapest, Széna Square, Gellért Hill, Óbuda and, finally, Corvin, where about 500 people were taken prisoners, all fell to the Soviets on Novemebr 6th.

1960 - Olivia Rossetti Agresti (b. 1875), British author, editor and interpreter, dies. [see: Sep. 30]

1996 - Carabinieri raid the home of Italino Rossi, editor of the anarchist weekly 'Umanita Nova' and member of the Italian anarchist Federation (FAI), looking for weapons connected with attacks on electric pylons in Tuscany.

1970 - Henri Jeanson (b.1900), French libertarian pacifist, journalist, screenwriter, pataphysician and author, dies. [see: Mar. 6]

[A] 1971 - Stoke Newington Eight: Attacks are carried out against a Lloyds Bank in Amsterdam, the Italian Consulate in Basle, the British Embassies in Rome and Barcelona, all in support of the Stoke Newington Eight and the Italian anarchists imprisoned on trumped-up charges of 'conspiracy' and subversion.

1993 - Virginia Gervasini aka 'Sonia' and 'Marta' (b. 1915), Italian Trotskyist revolutionary, anti-fascist, miliciana and Résistance fighter, dies in Varese after a long illness. [see: Jan. 16]

2011 - Pussy Riot's 'Osvobodi Bruschatku' [Освободи брусчатку](Release the Cobblestones) video is released. The song calls on Russians to protest upcoming parliamentary elections, by throwing cobblestones during street clashes. On their blog, Pussy Riot worn that: "Your ballots will be used as toilet paper by the Presidential Administration".

2013 - António Ferreira de Jesus (b. 1940), Portuguese libertarian autodidact, long-term prisoner and prisoner rights activist, dies. [see: Oct. 30]

2016 - Around 17:00, up to 200 prisoners on more than one wing of HMP Bedford begin to riot, taking over sections of the prison in protest at protracted lockdowns cause by the on-going crisis of staff shortages. "Mobile phone footage apparently from inside the prison was posted online, revealing chaotic scenes, with scores of prisoners out of their cells and in the prison's gangways, shouting and bellowing." [BBC News] Guards' offices were ransacked, CCTV smashed, fires set, furniture and cells damaged, and medical supplies stolen, resulting in what was claimed to be £1m damage.
Specially trained Tornado riot officers spent more than six hours, involving the use of stun grenades, trying to bring the disorder under control.
1848 - Revolução Praieira [Praieira Revolt]: The beginning of an uprising in Brazil inspired by events in Europe that lasted through to March 1849. [expand]

1876 - Marie Murjas (Marie-Yvonne Kamoal; d. unknown), French Trapist nun and later a free-thinker, anarchist and co-founder of the Ligue des droits de l’homme, born.

1879 - Benoît Broutchoux (d. 1944), French anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist propagandist, neo-Malthusian and 'free love' advocate, born.

1884 - La Bande Noire: The miner Brenin, who had been recruited as a police spy and agent provocateur by police Commissioner Thévénin, persuades Gueslaff to try a second attempt on the life of Etienney, the publican from Ciry-le-Noble who is a prosecution witness in the Montceau trial. However, Brenin had set up a trap for Gueslaff and, ambushed by gendarmes, he opens fire on the police, seriously wounding three officers. Knowing himself betrayed, Gueslaff denounced many of his Bande comrades. Many are arrested and appear at a second trial of the Bandes Noire in May 1885, and eleven of the 30 or so in the dock are found guilty and sentenced to between 2 and 20 years - the longer sentences being of forced labour.

1886 - Carlo Molaschi (d. 1953), Italian anarchist individualist, editor and journalist, born. Youthful attraction to anarchist circles, he was arrested in 1901 for handing out leaflets during a strike. Loosing his job as a result, he is ostracised by his family and takes up with Luigi Molinari, founder of the Università Popolare, on whose newspaper (of the same name) he starts his journalistic career. This continues with his own publications: 'Grido della Folla' (Cry of the Crowd) 1907; 'La Rivolta' (The Uprising) 1911, and 'La Libertà' (Freedom) 1913-14; as well as starting a publishing project called Editrice Sociale between 1910-1915.
At the outbreak of WWI, he and many of his comrades leave for Switzerland and face the inevitable Fascist persecution and arrest upon their return. He begins a second publishing project called Casa Editrice Sociale (1919-1926), which changes its name to Casa Editrice Monanni (1926-1933), surviving Fascism and financial hardship and publishing all the anarchist classics, the complete works of Nietzsche, Darwin, and many others. In June 1921 he also launched the review 'Pagine Libertarie' and helped co-founded the 'L'Università Libera' (Free University) review with Joseph Monanni in 1925.
In 1941 he was arrested and sent into internal exile in Istonio Marino, on the Abruzzo coast, returning to the anti-fascist fight after 9 months. After the liberation he joined the Italian Socialist Party (PSI).

1889 - [O.S. Oct. 27] Nestor Ivanovich Makhno (Не́стор Іва́нович Махно́ [uk] Не́стор Ива́нович Махно́ [rus]) aka батько Махно [father Makhno](d. 1934), Ukrainian anarcho-communist guerilla leader, born. [expand]

1891 - Gregor Gog (d. 1945), German anarchist, anti-militarist and founder of the FAUD-aligned international movement Bruderschaft der Vagabunden (Brotherhood of Vagrants), born.

1891 - Santiago Salvador Franch tosses two bombs into the audience at Teatre Liceu opera house during a performance of the opera William Tell, killing 22 people. The bombing was initially blamed on the anarquista José Codina, then on Mariano Cerezuela (both executed on May 21, 1894) and and finally attributed to Salvador.

1891 - [O.S. Oct. 26] Sophia Mikhaylovna Ginsberg (Софья Михайловна Гинсбург; b. 1863), Russian revolutionary, member of Narodnaya Volya, commits suicide by cutting her neck with scissors after being sentenced to perpetual servitude (internal exile plus hard labour). [see: Mar. 20]

1893 - Felice Orsini tosses two bombs into a Barcelona opera house to avenge the execution of Pauli Pallas (who killed a civil guard during an rebellion September 24, 1893). 20 dead and several casualties. A state of siege is declared in the city and hundreds of anarquistas arrested and tortured by the army.

1905 - [O.S. Oct. 25] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Fearful of handing police powers over to the left, the Moscow city City Council, unlike its St. Petersburg counterparts [see: Nov. 6], refuses to authorise a popular militia.

1905 - [O.S. Oct. 25] 1905 Kronstadt Mutiny / Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Anti-government demonstrations in Kronstadt continue. [see: Oct. 31 & Nov. 8]

[FF] 1910 - Tonypandy Riots / Cambrian Combine Miners' Strike: Having heard the previous day that the owners planned to bring in blacklegs to maintaining the pumps and other machinery at the Llwynypia colliery, thousands of striking miners from across the Rhondda valley surrounded and picketed the Glamorgan Colliery in Llwynypia, to prevent strikebreakers from entering. This resulted in sharp skirmishes with police officers posted inside the site. One striker, a miner named Samuel Rhys, was killed by a blow from a police baton, as mass pickets failed to stop the police from 'scab herding' the scab workers that had been bussed in from Cardiff to keep the colliery running. Although miner leaders called for calm, a small group of strikers began stoning the pump-house. A portion of the wooden fence surrounding the site was torn down. Fierce hand-to-hand fighting with the police took place and after several baton charges the miners were pushed back into the square at Tonypandy, just after midnight. There they were charged by mounted police from Cardiff and there were several injuries on both sides.
This led Glamorgan's chief constable, Lionel Lindsay, supported by the general manager of the Cambrian Combine, to request military support from the War Office.
Churchill, as Home Secretary, now learned of this movement and, after a brief conference with the War Office halted it. He rightly surmised that the local authorities were over-reacting and certainly hoped that a Liberal government could calm matters down. However, he did accede to the extent of despatching Metropolitan police officers (foot and mounted) and some troops (the cavalry) did proceed to Cardiff that day.

1910 - Florencio Sánchez (b. 1875), Uruguay's leading playwright, journalist and anarchist, dies. [see: Jan. 17]

[B] 1912 - Ernest Riebe's Mr. Block, IWW labour comic strip, makes it's first appearance in the 'Industrial Worker'.

[BB / C] 1913 - Albert Camus (d. 1960), French novelist, playwright, journalist, libertarian sympathiser, opponent of totalitarianism and campaigner against capital punishment, born into a poor French 'pied-noir' settler family in Algeria. His father was killed in WWI and Camus spent much of his time with his uncle, butcher and anarchist Gustave Acault, who was a great influence on him. His high school philosophy teacher Jean Grenier also introduced him to revolutionary syndicalist theories. In 1935, he joined the French Communist Party and, when the independence-orientated Algerian Communist Party (BCP) was formed the following year, joined its rank. However, he also became involved with the Le Parti du Peuple Algérien (Algerian People's Party), which got him denounced as a Trotskyite and expelled from the party in 1937.
During WWII, Camus joined the French Resistance cell Combat, which published an underground newspaper of the same name, assuming the nom de guerre Beauchard. Camus became the paper's editor in 1943 and, when the Allies liberated Paris in August 1944, Camus witnessed and reported the last of the fighting.
In 1948 anarchist André Prudhommeaux introduced Camus to the Cercle des Étudiants Anarchistes (Anarchist Student Circle) and Camus went on to write for anarchist publications including 'Le Libertaire', 'La Révolution Proletarienne' and 'Solidaridad Obrera'. He also supported the anarchists' stand support for the uprising of 1953 in East Germany, the 1956 workers’ uprising in Poznań, Poland and, later the same year, the Hungarian Revolution.
"L'histoire d'aujourd'hui nous force à dire que la révolte est l'une des dimensions essentielles de l'homme." ("Present history forces us to say that revolt is one of the essential dimensions of man.") - 'L'Homme Révolté' (1951).

1915 - Emiliano Zapata finally issues a proposed labour law. It includes an 8-hour day, prohibition of work for children under age14, worker cooperatives to run factories abandoned by owners, and a fixed minimum wage. But "it failed to respond to some of the most important demands [of the] Mexican labour movement", and exposes Zapata's lack of understanding of his urban counterparts.

[D] 1917 - [O.S. Oct. 25] October Revolution [Октя́брьская револю́ция]: A Bolshevik coup in Petrograd against the Kerensky Provisional Government begins in the early hours of the night (Nov. 6-7) takes place when parties of Bolshevik operatives are sent out from the Smolny Institute, then Lenin's HQ. They take over all the major government facilities, key communication, installations and vantage points in Petrograd with little opposition.
As Red Guards 'storm' the Winter Palace at 02:10, the Cossacks guarding the building desert when they approach, and the Cadets and the 140 volunteers of the Women's Battalion surrender rather than resist the 40,000 strong army. The Aurora was then commandeered to then fire blanks at the palace in a symbolic act of rejection of the government. In fact the effectively unoccupied Winter Palace fell not because of acts of courage or a military barrage as the Bolshevik mythology has it, but because the defenders were heavily outnumbered and there was no one inside the building worth defending and the 'takeover' resembled little more than the changing of the guard.

1918 - Bavarian Council Republic [Bayerische / Münchner Räterepublikthe]: On the afternoon of November 7, 1918, the first anniversary of the Russian revolution, USPU (Unabhängige Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands / Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany) politician Kurt Eisner addressed a 60,000-strong crowd, on the Theresienwiese in Berlin. He demanded an immediate peace, an 8 hour workday, relief for the unemployed, abdication of the Bavarian king, King Ludwig III, and Kaiser Wilhelm II, and proposed the formation of workers' and soldiers' councils. The crowd marched to various army barracks - those of the Ersatzkompanie (Alternate Company) of the Münchner Landsturmbataillons (Munich militia battalion), the Marsfeldkaserne and Türkenkaserne barracks, and the barracks on the Oberwiesenfeld and Dachauer Straßes - and won over most of the soldiers to the side of the revolution. That night, the King went into exile.

[A] 1918 - Kiel Mutiny [Kieler Matrosenaufstand]: Lothar Popp becomes chairman of the overall soldiers' council. The Kiel workers and soldiers declare in an appeal: "Die politische Macht ist in unserer Hand" (Political power is in our hands). "Unser Ziel ist die freie soziale Volksrepublik." (Our aim is the free social people's republic.) Gustav Noske replaces Admiral Souchon as governor, Kiel gets back to "orderly circumstances".
The Seekriegsleitung (naval command) in Berlin again reaffirms its orders but they are singularly unable to carry them out because the necessary troop numbers are unavailable.
The same day the revolution has reached Munich, causing Ludwig III of Bavaria to flee.
[ mutiny–%C2%A0the-kiel-mutiny/]

1921 - Patagonia Rebelde / Patagonia Trágica: Arriving at Cerro Comisión, the commander of the detachment of soldiers Captain Viñas Ibarra was surprised to find two Chilean delegates from the previous night's strikers' meeting calling for an interview with the head of the troops, as equals, to talk about the conditions of the arrangement. Outraged that two "ragged and smelly" foreign-raised bandits dared to ask for conditions, Viñas Ibarra had the two envoys immediately shot. When the troops reached the estancia La Anita, Viñas Ibarra demanded the unconditional surrender to all the strikers. Antonio Soto then made a dramatic speech encouraging them to continue the fight but he was ignored by most of the strikers, who decided to surrender and end their strike. Varela's troops would subsequently summarily execute a good number of these strikers. Soto and twelve men subsequebtly fled on horseback to Chile, evading capture by the authorities.

1922 - Huelga General de Guayaquil: In Guayaquil, Empresa de Carros Urbanos' tram (trolleybus) drivers and conductors are on strike, largely paralysing the city. They would be followed over the next few days by workers from the mule-pulled trolleybuses, tram maintenance, train drivers, gas, electricity, water, and shipyard workers, as large sections of the working class came out in support of their own demands or in solidarity with their fellow workers. At a meeting of workers, the Federación de Trabajadores Regional Ecuatoriana (Ecuadorian Regional Federation Of Workers), Ecuador’s largest radical labour federation, proposes setting up a Gran Asamblea de Trabajadores that, together with the existing workers in dispute, would draw up a list of demands for all the guayaquileños workers. Meanwhile, Empresa de Luz y Fuerza Eléctrica (Light and Electrical Power Company) workers come forward with their own set of demands: 8 hours of work, salary improvement, notice in case of dismissal with 30 days notice, etc.

1925 - The first issue of the Barcelona anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist weekly 'El Productor', "Periódico de ideas y crítica", is published by the group of the same name. The paper will be banned by the authorities in March 1926 and cease publishing.

1925 - Henri Roorda van Eysinga (b. 1870), Swiss libertarian educator, writer, journalist, polemicist and a great humourist, commits suicide. [see: Nov. 30]

1925 - Luís Andrés Edo (d. 2009), Spanish anarchist propagandist, anarcho-syndicalist, anti-militarist, deserter, anti-Francoist fighter, born.

1925 - The first issue of the Barcelona anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist weekly 'El Productor', "Periódico de ideas y crítica", is published by the group of the same name. The paper will be banned by the authorities in March 1926 and cease publishing.

1931 - The first issue of the pacifist weekly 'La Patrie Humaine' is published in Paris by Victor Meric.

1931 - At the Labor Temple in Ybor City, Tampa, Police Officer David Wilson is hit on the head by a brick and Police Officer J. N. Byrd is wounded in the shoulder by a bullet. Thirteen men and two women were arrested in connection with the incident and sentenced to a total of fifty-three years – chain-gang and county-farm sentences in sweat-box jails, under circumstances of such brutaltiy that three of the prisoners went insane. The National Committee for the Defense of Political Prisoners and the International Labor Defense organisations, together with the Ybor City Labor Temple and local members of the Tampa Tobacco Workers Industrial Union, took up campaigning for their release. The tobacco workers would hold a three-day strike at the end of the month to demand the prisoners release. [see: Nov. 27 & 28]

1931 - Giuseppe Guidi (b. 1881), Italian painter, printmaker/etcher and anarchist, dies. [see: Sep. 15]

1936 - Francisco Pérez Mateo (b. 1903), Spanish sculptor, communist and anti-Francoist fighter, dies during the defence of Madrid. [see: May 17]

1937 - Hugo Cores (d. 2006), Uruguayan anarchist and influential political activist. Born in Argentina, he went to Uruguay as a child. As a student, he joined the Federacion Anarquista Uruguaya, the anarchist organisation set up by exiled Spanish and Italian anarchists. When the military seized power in 1973, Cores was one of thousands of radical political activists who left for Argentina, where he helped to found the anti-capitalist, anti-authoritarian and socialist Partido por la Victoria del Pueblo (PVP) and became a target of Operation Condor. [expand]

1938 - Ethel Mannin, Irish novelist and anarchist, successfully assumes Emma Goldman's role as SIA representative in London.

1938 - Charles Malato (b. 1857), French revolutionary, journalist, theoritician and anarchist propagandist, dies. [see: Sep. 7]

1944 - Ingrid Schubert (d. 1977), German doctor and one of the founding members of the Rote Armee Fraktion, born. Ingrid Schubert participated in the freeing of Andreas Baader from the Dahlem Institute for Social Research in May 1970. Schubert was arrested in October of that year with Horst Mahler, Irene Goergens, and Brigitte Asdonk. She was later given 13 years in prison for her participation the Baader breakout. In 1976 she was transferred to Stammheim prison, supposedly to comfort Gudrun Ensslin after the suicide of Ulrike Meinhof. After the Stammheim suicides of Ensslin, Baader, and Jan-Carl Raspe, Schubert was transferred to Munich’s Stadelheim prison. Two weeks later, on November 12 1977, Schubert supposedly committed 'suicide' in prison, despite the fact that the Thursday before her death she had assured her lawyer that she had no intention of committing suicide. As in the case of Meinhof and Ensslin the autopsy did not indicate the usual signs of death by hanging.

1949 - Judi Bari (d. 1997), US environmentalist and labour activist, feminist, musician and the principal organiser of Earth First! campaigns against logging in the ancient redwood forests of Northern California in the 1980s and '90s. She also organised efforts through the EF!-IWW Local 1 to bring timber workers and environmentalists together in common cause, born.
On May 24, 1990, in Oakland, California, the vehicle used by Bari and her partner, fellow musician and environmentalist Darryl Cherney, with whom she wrote 'Spike a Tree for Jesus' and 'Will This Fetus Be Aborted', was blown up by a powerful pipe bomb, seriously injuring Bari. She was arrested by the FBI whilst still in critical condition in hospital with a fractured pelvis and other major injuries, as the Bureau tried to pin eco-terrorism charges on the pair, accusing them of knowingly carrying a bomb for use in an act of terrorism. However, despite a full-blown FBI investigation, no evidence aginst the pair of non-violent activists was ever found or charges filed. Eventually, the charges against Bari and Cherney were dropped, the FBI having discovered that the bomb was placed directly under Bari's seat and after someone signing themselves 'The Lord's Avenger' had claimed the attack, having targetted Bari followig her defence of a Planned Parenthood clinic in Ukiah, California.
In May, 1991, a year after the bomb blast, Bari and Cherney filed a federal civil rights lawsuit against the "illegal, politically-motivated instigation of the FBI."
Judi Bari died of breast cancer on March 2, 1997.

1956 - 1956-os Forradalom [Hungarian Revolution]: At dawn, János Kádár and members of the Soviet-backed government, arrived in Budapest accompanied by Soviet tanks. Resistance in Sztálinváros (Dunaújváros) is finally ended and martial law is declared. Russian tanks are stationed on most street corners.

1960 - Charles d'Avray (Charles Henri Jean; b. 1878), French anarchist poet and prolific propagandist songwriter, dies. His concerts (conférences chantées) were advertised with the slogan 'Avec le passé détruisont le présent pour devancer l'avenir' (With the past destroy the present and anticipate the future). [see: Sep. 9]

1971 - Joseph Spivak (b. 1882), Russian-born American anarchist, dies. Co-founder of the Libertarian Book Club in NY City. [see: Mar. 4]

1971 - Paweł Lew Marek (born Melajach Lew; b. 1902), Polish journalist, anarcho-syndicalist and anarchist, co-founder of the Anarchistycznej Federacji Polski during the Second Republic, dies. [see: Aug. 16]

1974 - A huge wall poster, critical of the regime, is posted on Peking Road in Canton. Entitled 'Concerning Socialist Democracy and Legal System: Dedicated to Chairman Mao and the fourth National People's Congress', it is written by a group of ex-Red Guards under the collective pseudonym of Li I-che.

1975 - Indonesia invades and occupies the territory of Portuguese Timor.

1981 - William James Durant (b. 1885), prolific American writer, historian, and philosopher, dies. [see: Nov. 5]

[F] 1988 - Greve de 1988: The strike in Volta Redonda in Argentina begins, with more than 10,000 metallurgists demanding better working conditions and more decent wages facing off against the leadership of Companhia Siderúrgica Nacional, the Polícia Militar and the Army. The strike would last 17 days, and for the first two days the workers occupied the company before being forced out following the Massacre de Volta Redonda. [see: Nov. 4]

[E] 1989 - Nadezhda Andreyevna Tolokonnikova [Наде́жда Андре́евна Толоко́нникова] aka 'Nadya Tolokno' [Надя Толокно], Russian conceptual artist, political activist, and ex-member of the anti-Putinist punk rock group Pussy Riot [Пусси Райот] and the street art group Voina [Война](War), born. She is also the cofounder (along with Maria Alyokhina [Марией Алёхиной]) organisation to protect the rights of prisoners Zona Prava [Зона Права](Zone of Rights) and the media network MediaZona [Медиазона].

1990 - Lawrence George Durrell (b. 1912), British-born novelist, poet, dramatist, biographer, travel writer and anarchist fellow-traveller, dies. [see: Feb. 27]

2004 - Sébastien Briat (b. 1982), 21-year-old French anti-nuclear militant and trade unionist is crushed and killed by a train of radioactive waste bound for Germany. [see: Aug. 17]

2016 - Two prisoners, James Anthony Whitlock, 31, and Matthew Baker, 28, escape from HMP Pentonville sometime during the night [Nov. 6-7], having used diamond-tipped cutting equipment to break through bars on their 5th-floor cell window before scaling a 25ft perimeter wall, leaving homemade 'mannequins' behind so nobody would suspect they were gone. Their escape was not discovered by guards until 12:00, despite the fact that staff are expected to conduct a visual check on prisoners at around 07:00 each day. Baker broke his leg during the escape and was recaptured two days later on November 9 in Ilford, north-east London. Whitlock was arrested on November 13 in Homerton, east London.
1793 - Madame Roland aka Jeanne Manon Roland (Marie-Jeanne Phlippon; b. 1754), French salonnière, prominent supporter of the French Revolution and an influential member of the Girondist faction, dies under the blade of the guillotine. Before placing her head on the block, she bowed before the clay statue of Liberty in the Place de la Révolution, uttering the famous remark for which she is remembered: "O Liberté, que de crimes on commet en ton nom!" (Oh Liberty, what crimes are committed in thy name!) [see: Mar. 17]

1830 - Fire and riot ensues at Robertsbridge, East Suusex after Poor Law administrators (all of them millers) try to distribute bad flour. No one can be found to enlist as special constables to quell the mob.

1856 - Étienne Cabet (b. 1788), French philosopher, lawyer, utopian socialist and founder of the Icarian movement, dies. [see: Jan 1]

1867 - Carl Sadakichi Hartmann (d. 1944), critic, poet and playwright of German and Japanese descent, born. Helped found the magazine 'Mother Earth' with Emma Goldman, Edwin Bjorkman, and John R. Coryell.
"One of the strangest and most original men of letters of the day — in the United States at all events — is Sadakichi Hartmann, the poet, art critic, and lecturer. He was born in the land of wistarias and chrysanthemums, and he sees life with that Japanese anarchy of perspective." - Vance Thompson, 'Paris Herald', (September 1906)

[E] 1875 - Qiu Jin (秋瑾; d. 1907), Chinese revolutionary, feminist, writer and poet, who was executed after a failed uprising against the Qing dynasty, and is now considered a national heroine in China, born. Her sobriquet (artist/pen) name is Jianhu Nüxia (鉴湖女侠), roughly 'Woman Knight of Mirror Lake'. [expand]
'Chinese Women's News' (中國女報館; 1907).

1884 - In today's issue of the 'Chicago Alarm' (edited by Albert Parsons): "Workers of America, learn the manufacture and use of dynamite ... Then use it unstintingly, unsparingly. The battle for bread is the battle for life ... Death and destruction to the system and its upholders, which plunders and enslaves the men, women, and children of toil".

1887 - Demos in London banned (8th & 18th Nov), by order of Charles Warren, commissioner of the Police of the Metropolis.

1892 - Anarchist Émile Henry places a bomb at the Carmaux Mining Company in Paris. It is discovered and taken to a police station, where it explodes, killing five officers.

1892 - New Orleans General Strike: Approximately 25,000 workers in New Orleans – half the city’s workforce – begin what will be a three day general strike in support of a strike by three other unions over hours, wages, and job security. [expand]

1899 - Syndicats 'Jaunes': A new 'syndicat jaune', the Syndicat des Corporations Ouvrieres, is set up by employers in rebellious mining commune of Montceau-les-Mines in an attempt to stem the tide of industrial militancy amongst its coal miners.

1897 - Dorothy Day (d. 1980), American journalist, social activist, pacifist anarchist and Catholic Worker founder, born.

1905 - [O.S. Oct. 26] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The formation of the proto-fascist Union of the Russian People (Союз Русского Народа), an attempt at a right-wing mass party, led by the unbalanced anti-Semite and promulgator of the Zhidomasonstvo (Judeo-Masonic) conspiracy theory Alexander Dubrovin (Алекса́ндр Дубро́вин), is announced.

1905 - [O.S. Oct. 26] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: On their own initiative, St. Petersburg factory workers begin introducing eight-hour workdays over the following two days. The workers' increasingly radical demands are beginning to isolate them from the bourgeois liberals factions.

[DD] 1905 - [O.S. Oct. 26] 1905 Kronstadt Mutiny / Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Renowned throughout Russia as fearless troops, the Kronstadt garrison is one of the first military units to mutiny during the unrest of October-November 1905.
Angered by decades of "bad food, maltreatment by officers... and humiliating prohibitions" [Israel Getzler - 'Kronstadt 1917-1921', 2002] the sailors and soldiers stage a spontaneous uprising. During the morning of October 26 soldiers of the 2nd Fortress Infantry Battalion present their demands to the officers and stage a demonstration. By evening 52 soldiers have been arrested and a number of sailors and soldiers attempt to free them. During one clash a sailor is killed and several wounded. When this news spreads through the garrison, sailors of the 4th and 7th ship’s crews and the mine and artillery training detachments rebel. Before the day is over, the rebels have been joined by the sailors of 12 of the 20 ships’ crews, as well as by the soldiers of the fortress artillery.
A total of about 3,000 sailors and 1,500 soldiers (25 percent of the sailors and 20 percent of the soldiers stationed in the city) took part in the uprising. Although the active sailor participants do not succeed in winning over the majority of military units, by the evening of October 26 [i.e. Nov. 8], Kronstadt is, in effect, in the hands of the rebels.
The Kronstadt Mutiny marks the start of widespread military mutinies in Imperial Russia: there are 211 incidents in the army alone by late December, involving a third of all infantry units.

1909 - Gérard Bernard Leretour, French anarchistic activist, conscientious objector and pacifist propagandist, born.

[FF] 1910 - Tonypandy Riots / Cambrian Combine Miners' Strike: The strikers returned to the pit at Llwynypia on November 8, and again heavy fighting between police and miners began. Some two hours into the fighting, mounted police succeeded in dispersing the miners into two groups, one of which headed for the middle of Llwynypia, the other heading again for Tonypandy. Fighting intensified in Tonypandy as the mounted police failed to disperse miners in the town, who began to smash shop windows. Homes in Tonypandy were left untouched by the angry miners, and a small police presence might have deterred window-breakages, but police had been moved from the streets to protect the residences of mine owners and managers.
It should be noted that the social elite of the township of Tonypandy was, above all others, the shop-owning class. The angry, wealth-producing crowd turned against the symbol of social attainment, the conspicuous, wealth-making shops. And they did so in a manner that expressed contempt and resentment rather than greed and fear. The shops were smashed systematically but not indiscriminately. The amount of looting was not so important as the display of bravado enacted on the streets. Goods were scattered about on the road. Clothes were worn in parade – top hats and overcoats in a festival atmosphere – and mufflers, braces and caps (more useful items to colliers) pinched and exchanged as trophies. Women and children were involved in considerable numbers, as they had been outside the Glamorgan colliery. No police were seen until the Metropolitans arrived around 22:30 (almost 3 hours after the riots began) and then the disturbance fell away of its own accord. Some shops were completely untouched – the most famous exception to the general damage done to chemists’ establishments being that of Willie Llewellyn who had the good luck to be known as Wales’s greatest wing-three quarter of the day!
At 01:20 on November 9, orders were sent to Colonel Currey at Cardiff, to despatch a squadron of the 18th Hussars to reach Pontypridd at 08:15. Upon arrival, one contingent patrolled Aberaman and another was sent to Llwynypia, where it patrolled all day. Returning to Pontypridd at night, the troops arrived at Porth as a disturbance was breaking out, and maintained order until the arrival of several hundred extra police from London. Although no authentic record exists of casualties, since many miners would have refused treatment, from fear of prosecution for their part in the riots, nearly 80 police and over 500 citizens were injured. One of them, a miner named Samuel Rhys, who sustained head injuries from a policeman's baton, later died of his injuries. Authorities had reinforced the town with 400 policemen, one company of the Lancashire Fusiliers, billeted at Llwynypia, and the squadron of the 18th Hussars.
Thirteen miners from Gilfach Goch were arrested and prosecuted for their part in the unrest and the authorities, fearing more trouble, transformed Tonypandy and the surrounding area into a near military camp. The trial lasted for several days and on each day 10,000 men marched through the valley and held mass meetings outside the town in support of their friends in jail, despite the streets being filled with soldiers and policemen. Eventually, several of the miners standing trial were sentenced to prison terms ranging from two to six weeks, while the others were fined and released.
Sporadic fighting continued for several more weeks and on November 22 a group of picketing miners were forced by soldiers with bayonets drawn onto a hillside near Penygraig, where they fought alongside the women of the community for several hours with troops and police. A local newspaper running a story on the event commented on the actions of the women:
"Women joined with the men in the unequal combat, and displayed a total disregard of personal danger which was as admirable as it was foolhardy. But these Amazons of the coalfield resorted to other and more effective methods. From the bedroom windows came showers of boiling water, which fell unerringly on the heads of police, while in one case a piece of bedroom ware found its billet on the skull of a Metropolitan policeman."
Major disturbances were also reported at the town of Blaenclydach in April 1911, where heavy fighting took over the centre of the town with shops being looted as they had been in Tonypandy. The strike however, ended several months later with the miners, feeling the strain of being without pay for so long, being forced to accept a small pay increase. They returned to the pits in early September, exactly a year after the strike had begun.

1910 - Aberdare Miners' Strike or 'Block Strike': On November 8, following a meeting in the Miners' Institute, Aberaman, where the educationalist, socialist, and campaigner for free, compulsory, secular education and free school meals Mary Bridges-Adams had been speaking, those attending had assembled in front of the Institute where their numbers swelled to about 2,000, including many women and children. A contingent of 500, in a diversionary move, proceeded to attack the Aberaman Colliery where they were kept at bay with fire hoses. The rest of the crowd, preceded by an advanced guard of 200 youths, marched to the colliery power station and washery at Cwmbach, which were still in operation, and began to stone the buildings. Several attempts were made to storm the power station, but the 29 policemen inside kept the crowd at bay by electrifying the perimeter fence and by hosing the rioters with hot water from the boilers. As the demonstration was breaking up in confusion, the police charged, injuring 60 and pushing many into the nearby canal.
Somehow, the people of Aberdare did not appreciate what the police were doing for them. The following day a train was stoned and there was a disturbance at Aberaman when two mounted police tried to disperse a crowd of women and children by riding into them. Attacks on colliery officials and their houses became daily occurrences. The following Sunday, a chapel service was interrupted by the congregation and a colliery official was removed from their midst.

1916 - Everett Shingle Weavers' Strike: Three days after the Everett Massacre, the Shingle Weavers at Jamison Mill vote to end the six month strike in the hope of establishing peace in their home town. No concessions of any kind are made by the mill owners. [see: May 1]

1918 - IWW & Espionage Act: Suffering from the Spanish influenza, the trial of Dr. Marie Equi on charges of violating the Espionage Act begins in Portland, Oregon.

1918 - Olga Vladimirovna Rozanova (Ольга Владимировна Розанова; b. 1886), Russian Cubo-Futurist and Suprematist painter, graphic artist, illustrator, designer, art theorist and poet, associated with early C20th Moscow anarchist circles, dies of diphtheria. [see: Jul. 4]

1918 - Rosa Luxemburg is released from prison in Breslau.

[D] 1918 - Bavarian Council Republic [Bayerische / Münchner Räterepublikthe]: In the early hours of the morning, Kurt Eisner declared Bavaria a 'free state', with him as prime minster and foreign minister of a revolutionary government composed of SPD and USPD members, one that would protect property rights.

1920 - The head of the Spanish Government Eduardo Dato appoints Severiano Martínez Anido to the civil and military governorship posts following pressure from the Sometent, the Lliga Regionalista, the Unió Monàrquica, the Foment del Treball Nacional and the Cambra Mercantil for the appointment of a strongman with the same widereaching powers then in practice in Valencia and Zaragoza. Thus begins one of the darkest period of repression of the working class, revolutionary and anarchist movements in Spanish history. Between November 11 and 14, more than 400 trades unionists were detained, with a policy of arbitary detention and deportation quickly developing into one of murder and summary execution. [expand]

1921 - Sacco & Vanzetti Case: In the Sacco and Vanzetti case, the Ripley motion for a new trial is made.

1922 - Huelga General de Guayaquil: Workers from the Empresa de Luz y Fuerza Eléctrica (Light and Electrical Power Company) and those of the Empresa de Carros Urbanos (Urban Tram Company) present their employers with their demands. The claims submitted by electric tram drivers and conductors were in essence the same as those of the Durán rail workers submitted on October 17:
The law of 8 hours, and payment of overtime;
Increase in wages;
Employment stability;
Strict compliance with the Ley de Accidentes de Trabajo (Law for Accidents at Work);
Specific approaches: regulation on number of routes, permits, tickets, cars, drivers' responsibilities, etc.
Workers on trolleybuses pulled by mule also submitted demands: to establish shifts every 12 hours with 6 alternatives given, payment of overtime that exceeded 8 hours, cessation of layoffs, wage increase, compliance with insurance law and accidents. Over the next few days more and more sectors were added to the strikes. One of the signatories to the demands document said: "There is a law that determines the daily working time, eight hours in most situations, and yet we are forced to work 18 and 20 hours a day."
The management then agreed to talk with the strikers' represntatives, so the Gran Asamblea de Trabajadores selected two lawyers, Dr. J. José Vicente Trujillo and Dr. Carlos Puig Vilazar, to represent them.
The city's newspapers, 'El Universo', 'El Telégrafo' and 'El Globo', all of a liberal persuasion picked up on the story with coverage largely sympathetic to the plight of the workers. The railway workers of Durán also sent representatives to join the assembly. However, from the beginning, the assembly did not have much control over the working population of the city. Without consulting the assembly, the printers union printed leaflets encouraging all workers (unionised and not unionised) to join the strike. A group of drunken workers also tried to make their way into the power plant to turn off the city’s power, but assembly members stopped them. Within the first few days, the Gran Asamblea de Trabajadores had grown to 3000 members, and they began holding large outdoor rallies.
Negotiations were proceeding well and an agreement was close, but the assembly then raised the issue of the devaluation of the sucre. Pay raises would become meaningless within a few months due to its decreasing value. Hence, they proposed an artificial control on the exchange rate, a suggestion that 'El Universo', one of the daily newspapers, swiftly endorsed. President of Ecuador José Luis Tamayo was then prompted to make his way from Quito to Guayaquil to address the exchange rate issue.
On November 10, factory workers joined the strike, followed the next day by artisans and builders.

[C] 1923 - Hitler-Ludendorff-Putsch: Also known as the Hitlerputsch or, more commonly, the Beer Hall Putsch (Bürgerbräu-Putsch), was a failed coup attempt by the Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler, inspired in large part by Benito Mussolini's 'March on Rome, to seize power in Bavaria (the state capital Munich being a NSDAP stronghold) and thereby launch a larger revolution against the Weimar Republic. Hatched between the NSADP hierarchy together with Generalquartiermeister Erich Ludendorff and other Kampfbund leaders, they would kidnap the state commissioner of Bavaria, Gustav von Kahr (who had rejected Hitler's overtures to become part of the plot), together with General Otto von Lossow, the Bavarian commander of the Reichswehr, and Colonel Hans von Seißer, the commander of the Bavarian police, forcing them at gunpoint to accept Hitler as their leader. Then, famed right-wing WWI general Ludendorff, acting as a figurehead, would win over the German Army, proclaim a nationwide revolt and lead a march on Berlin to overthrow the Weimar Republic.
Hearing that von Kahr as guest of honour was scheduled to address a large gathering of businessmen and members of various nationalist camps in the Bürgerbräukeller, one of the biggest beer halls in Munich, on November 8, 1923, Hitler quickly improvised a coup plan. That evening, the SA and hundreds of his followers surrounded the hall and at 20:30, half an hour into von Kahr's speech., the Nazi Party leader and about 20 of his associates burst into the hall. Climbing on to a chair and firing a shot into the ceiling, Hitler declared: "The national revolution has broken out! The hall is filled with six hundred men. Nobody is allowed to leave." He also claimed that the Bavarian government had been deposed and declared the formation of a new government with Ludendorff.
Von Kahr, Lossow and Seißer were herded into a back room where Hitler informed them that if they were to join him in proclaiming a Nazi revolution, they would become part of the new government. Von Kahr, who had been assured a few days previously that Hitler would not attempt any coup, refused to acquiesce, this despite his having waved a gun at the captives, yelling: "I have four shots in my pistol! Three for you, gentlemen. The last bullet for myself!" Hitler then ordered that Ludendorff be fetched to try and convince the three Bavarian leaders to give in to Hitler’s demands, and that Ernst Röhm, who was waiting with members of his Bund Reichskriegsflagge (Imperial War Flag Society in the Löwenbräukeller, another beer hall, was to be told to seize key buildings throughout the city. Elsewhere, Rudolf Hess and 30 armed SA-men had taken hostage Prime Minister Eugen von Knilling, Minister of Justice Franz Gurtner, Interior Minister Franz Schweyer, Agriculture Minister John Wutzlhofer, the Munich police chief Karl Coat and other high-ranking politicians, who were held in the private house of the Nazi supporter Julius Lehmann.
Meanwhile, Hitler returned to the main auditorium where Herman Göring had been giving a speech to give his own, ranting against "...the Berlin Jew government and the November criminals of 1918." The crowd in the hall backed Hitler with a roar of approval. When Ludendorff finally arrived at the hall, he appealed to the three Bavarian leaders sense of duty and managed to persuade the three to give in to Hitler’s demands.
Buoyed up by their victory, Hitler, Ludendorff and the others returned to the main hall to a round of mass backslapping and congratulatory speeches. However, Hitler then made the mistake of leaving the beer hall later that night to deal with crises elsewhere in the city, where his followers had been supposed to take over government buildings throughout Munich but their attempts were largely foiled by the city’s military. Meanwhile, Ludendorff had allowed von Kahr and the others to leave the beer hall after Hitler’s departure. By the next morning, the putsch had fizzled out like a damp squib.
At around 03:00, Röhm's contingent, who had managed to occupy only one building, the Army headquarters at the War Ministry, were ambushed by the local Reichswehr garrison as they made their way from the Löwenbräukeller to the nearby Reichswehr barracks. Taking casualties, they were forced to fall back. The garrison was now put on alert and reinforcements called for. Meanwhile, General Otto von Lossow's support for the coup had come under immediate challenge by his fellow Reichswehr commanders upon his release, and by 23:00 he had been persuaded to repudiate the putsch. Elsewhere, one member of the cabinet, the staunchly conservative Roman Catholic vice-premier and minister of education and culture, Franz Matt, had not at the Bürgerbräukeller. He had been having dinner with the Archbishop of Munich and with the Papal Nuncio to Bavaria when he learned of the putsch. He immediately set about plans for a government-in-exile in Regensburg and calling upon all police officers, members of the armed forces, and civil servants to remain loyal to the government.
By 02:55, and aware of the plans Franz Matt, Gustav von Kahr recanted, and issued a statement lambasting Hitler: "Declarations extorted from me, General Lossow and Colonel von Seißer by pistol point are null and void. Had the senseless and purposeless attempt at revolt succeeded, Germany would have been plunged into the abyss and Bavaria with it." He also announced that the NSDAP, the Freikorps Oberland (which formed the core of the SA) and Reichskriegsflagge Bund had been dissolved.
By dawn the War Ministry building containing Röhm and his troops was surrounded and Hitler, who had been up all night trying to decide what to do next, had become increasingly desperate, ordering the seizure of the Munich city council as hostages and attempting to enlist the aid of Crown Prince Rupprecht of Bavaria to negotiate between Lossow and the putschists, to no avail. Realising that the jig was up and with Hitler about to call an end to the attempted coup, when Ludendorff came up with a harebrained scheme. "Wir marschieren!" (We will march!) he shouted, claiming that because of his WWI fame, no one would dare fire on him.
At around 11:00, Hitler, Göring and Ludendorff set out on a spontaneous march towards the city centre, leading around 2,500-3,000 supporters in the direction of the Bavarian War Ministry. Along their route, the marchers were blocked by a group of about 130 armed state police officers. Hitler shouted at them to surrender. They didn't. In an exchange of fire that lasted about a minute, four police officers were killed along with 16 Nazis, who included amongst their number four merchants, three bank officials, a milliner, a head-waiter, a locksmith, a student, a High Court Judge, an engineer and a diplomat.
Göring was hit in the groin. Hitler suffered a dislocated shoulder when the man he had locked arms with was shot and pulled him down onto the pavement. Hitler's bodyguard, Ulrich Graf, then jumped onto Hitler to shield him and took several bullets, probably saving Hitler's life. He crawled along the pavement and fled in a car waiting nearby, leaving his comrades behind. Ludendorff walked straight ahead into the ranks of the police, who refused to fire on him, and was then arrested. The rest of the Nazis scattered or were arrested. Hitler went into hiding at the home his friends, the Hanfstaengls, where he contemplated suicide and was arrested after three days. He was taken to the prison at Landsberg where his spirits lifted somewhat after he was told he was going to get a public trial. Adolf Hitler in 1924 sentenced to imprisonment, while the court acquitted Erich Ludendorff.

1926 - Arrest of Antonio Gramsci under Royal Decree No. 1848 [see: Nov. 2 + 25]

[F] 1927 - 270 men, mainly miners from South Wales, take part in a hunger march through London against the Government's new Unemployment Bill. The march had been called by A. J. Cook, the miners' leader at the time, during a demonstration on September 18 – Red Sunday in Rhondda Valley – to be timed to London to arrive on November 8 (when Parliament re-opened). Initially supported by the South Wales Miners' Federation (SWMF), it withdrew its support but the march went ahead [in October, date unknown] in spite of hostility from the trades unions, press and government. They did, however, gain support from Trades Councils in every town and village they passed through (which included Pontypridd, Newport, Bristol, Bath, Chippenham and Swindon). Arriving in London, the march was harassment by various Fascists, causing the organisers to be met by an armed escort of 100 members of the Labour League of Ex-Servicemen (LLX) at Chiswick. Wal Hannington from the LLX (and the NUWM) later wote in a pamphlet entitled 'The March of the Miners: How we Smashed the Opposition' (1927) about the event.

1930 - Alexander Berkman, is denied renewal of his visa once again, is given 15 days to leave France; by mid-month he receives another three-month extension.

1936 - General Varela orders the beginning of the offensive by Nationalist forces to retake the capital.

[EE] 1937 - Austrian communist Katia Landau goes on hunger strike in order to demand news of the fate of her 'disappeared' husband, Kurt, a victim of the then Stalinist police state that Republican Spain had swiftly become. All other forms of appeal for news had been met with no response. 500 other women, mostly Germans, in Barcelona's Carcel de Mujeres with her, mount hunger strike in solidarity. A visit to the prison by an international commission of enquiry into the situation in the state prisons and the circumstances in which several foreign representatives of worker’s organisations, who included Erwin Wolf, Marc Rhein and Kurt Landau, had disappeared, in addition to that of Andrés Nin, was greeted by the singing of the 'Internationale' by hundreds of women prisoners – all "Fascist agents" according to the Stalinists. [see: Jun. 17]
[ Landau/katia_landau.htm]

[CCC] 1939 - Adolf Hitler narrowly avoids being killed by Georg Elser's concealed time bomb in the Munich Bürgerbräukeller on the anniversary of the Beer Hall Putsch.
There are at least 60 recorded instances of assassination plots and attempts on Adolph Hitler's life following his gaining of the leadership of the NSDAP, including numerous coups attempted by disillusioned Wermacht officers. All failed, with the Führer leading something of a charmed life. One of the most audacious of these was undertaken single-handedly by a humble carpenter and master electrician, Johann Georg Elser. It came within 13 minutes of changing the history of Europe, and only the July 20, 1944, 'Operation Walküre' bomb plot came closer to killing Hitler.
Born on January 4, 1903, Elser grew up in a working-class family in Württemberg and, after having to give up training as an iron turner because of ill-health, he took up a carpentry apprenticeship in 1919. In 1925 he began working as a journeyman carpenter in various establishments and companies, including a clock factory, something that would later prove useful in his assassination attempt. He returned to Königsbronn in 1932 and set up a small carpenter’s shop, later making his living from odd jobs and working in an instruments factory. A member of the Federation of Woodworkers Union, it was through them that he joined the Roten Frontkämpferbund (Red Front Fighters' Union) in 1928 but, despite his obvious anti-Nazism (refusing to give the Hitler salute, etc.), his political activities remained isolated and low key as he saw no organisation really taking decisive action against Hitler’s takeover of the government.
Then, with the Munich Agreement in the Autumn of 1938, Elser decided he had to engage in some form of militant resistance against the Nazi regime of his own, with the hope of preventing the world war that loomed on Europe's horizon. He decided to target the annual commemoration of the Beer Hall Putsch attempt of November 9, 1923, to be held in the Munich Bürgerbräukeller, where Hitler regularly spoke before the leaders and 'Old Fighters' of the NSDAP. His plan was to conceal a home-made bomb in a pillar located directly behind the platform from which Hitler traditionally delivered his speech. The pillar was also a main support for the roof and he hope that if the blast did not kill Hitler directly, then the roof falling in would.
Having failed to get a job in the bierkeller, he was forced to conceal himself in the hall overnight and, undetected, make a concealed cavity in which to hide the timer, two Westminster clocks synchronized to pinpoint the timing of the explosion, and the explosives. To source exactly the right sort of explosive, Donarit, he also got himself a job in a quarry. Beginning in August, his preparations took more than 30 nights work but, by the beginning of November he plans were in place, despite the placing of the hall under maximum security with a contingent of crack SS guards.
With Germany being in the midst of the invasion of Poland, the meeting organisers initially scaled back the programme with no speech from Hitler, but at the eleventh hour Hitler changed his mind. However, thick fog further complicated things, closing the airport and forcing him to catch a train back to Berlin, meaning he would have to cut short his speech and forgo his normal meet and greet with the rank and file. So, having instructed the driver to leave at exactly 9:31pm, he would have to leave at 9:10pm in order to make the train.
Arriving at 8p.m., Hitler strode to the platform but had to wait 10 minutes before the applause died down and he could begin his speech, a diatribe against Great Britain which lasted nearly one hour. Again and again his speech was interrupted by wild cheering. At 9:07, Hitler ended his speech and he and his entourage promptly left the hall amid the deafening cheers of his supporters. Thirteen minutes after leaving the hall on the way to the station in his car, a loud explosion was heard coming from the direction of the hall - Hitler had escaped fate yet again.
The detonation had caused a section of the roof to collapse, and would probably have killed Hitler. Instead it killed a waitress and six members of the audience. Sixty-three were injured.
Elser, who had already left Munich, was arrested at 8:45 p.m., about half an hour before the bomb detonated, on the Swiss border and handed over to the Gestapo because of suspicious items in his pockets, including an unsent Bürgerbräukeller postcard, drawings of detonators and substantial sums of money. Under repeated beatings and torture, Elser confessed to setting the bomb but steadfastly refused to implicate anyone else, even reconstructing the bombs and helping produced a film with the Gestapo showing exactly how he has done it.
Unlike other attempted assassins, he was not subjected to a show trial and execution, instead he was held in a succession of concentration camps as a "special prisoner", known under the code name 'Eller'.
A planned show trial, constructing non-existent connections between the 'communist' Elser, Hitler's old National Socialist nemesis, Otto Strasser, and the British Secret Service, never took place. On April 9, 1945, Georg Elser was shot dead in Dachau concentration camp on instructions from "the very top" and his fully dressed body immediately burned in the crematorium.
There have been various posthumous attempts to undermine Elser's act by conspiracy theorists, claiming that he was a SS agent and that Hilter and/or Himmler were in on the plot but, like the majority of such theories, these remain fantasies. Elser acted alone and nearly succeeded but for the intervention of inclement weather.

1948 - 'Le Cause Était Entendue' (The Case is Closed), declaration signed by Karel Appel, Guillaume Corneille, Christian Dotremont, Asger Jorn, Constant Nieuwenhuys and Joseph Noiret in Paris, marks the foundation of Cobra.

1949 - Group of Italian anarchists attack the Spanish consulate with grenades in Genoa. Eugenio De Lucchi (21), Gaspare Mancuso (26), and Gaetano Busico (25).

1951 - Ezequiel Endériz Olaverri (b. 1889), Spanish libertarian journalist, poet, novelist, playwright, libreticist, etc., dies. [see: Nov. 30]

1976 - Jean-Pierre Lajournade (b. 1937), French anarchist filmmaker, dies. [see: Apr. 19]

[A] 1984 - Stainforth police station in South Yorkshire is attacked by striking miners.

1991 - Bronislawa Rosloniec (Bronislawa Frydman; b. 1912), Polish anarchist activist of Anarchistyczna Federacja Polski (AFP: Anarchist Federation of Poland), dies in Uppsala, Sweden. Before WWII, she worked as a clerk. During the occupation, evicted to ghetto from where she fled and was hidden by her husband (Stefan Rosloniec). After WWII lived in Lodz (central Poland).

2004 - Marie-Christine Mikhailo (b. 1916), Swiss anarchist who was instrumental in the creation of the Centre International de Recherches sur l'Anarchisme (CIRA), dies. [see: Oct. 11]

2007 - US green anarchist Eric McDavid begins a hunger strike because he is being denied medical treatment and all inmates in his jail are denied nutritional vegan meals.

[B] 2012 - The kids book 'A Rule Is To Break: A Child's Guide To Anarchy' by writer John Seven and illustrator Jana Christy is published by Manic D Press, to the consternation of the Tea Party.
1769 - First co-operative, the Weavers' Society of Fenwick, is formed in Ayrshire.

[E] 1839 - Paule Mink (or Minck) (Adèle Paulina Mekarski; d. 1901), French writer (stories, poems and plays), journalist, seamstress, franc-maçonne (female Freemason), prominent feminist, revolutionary socialist Pétroleuse of Polish descent, who participated in the Paris Commune and in the First International, born. Daughter of Polish nobles and friend of Louise Michel and Marie Ferre, she joined the First International and founded, with her friend André Léo, the Société Fraternelle de l'Ouvrière (Female Workers' Fraternal Society), an organisation based on Proudhon's mutualist principles.
[ femmes/gdes-femmes4.html]

1845 - Gertrude Guillaume-Schack (d. 1903), German anarchist, socialist, theosophist and women's rights activist, who was prominent in the fight against state-regulated prostitution in Germany, born. Sometimes referred to as the 'anarchist countess', her father Graf Alexander Schack von Wittenau's family belonged to the old nobility of Lower Silesia and her mother was Elizabeth Countess of Königsdorf.

1849 - [N.S. Nov. 21] Anna Korba [Анна Корба] (Anna Pavlovna Mengart [Анна Павловна Мейнгардт]; d. 1939), Russian nurse, historian, editor, revolutionary, member of the Executive Committee of Narodnaya Volya (People's Will) and a member of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party, born. Member of the post-Revolution Society of Former Political Prisoners and Exiles (Общества бывших политкаторжан и ссыльнопоселенцев).

1871 - Felipe Cortiella y Ferrer (b. 1937), prominent Catalan author, poet, translator and dramatist, born. An anarchist militant and CNT fighter, the chief focus of his literary and cultural effort was the theatre (he founded the Agrupació Avenir company) which he sought to place in the service of the common people. In Cortiella’s view theatre has a duty to set out a libertarian project for society, so he rejected theatre as mere entertainment, which explains why so many of his characters embody the virtues of honesty, justice and integrity that he saw in anarchism. Thus, society should not turn a blind eye to society but indeed should have a didactic function to perform. He is mistakenly regarded by some as a Catalanist; Cortiella drew a precise distinction between language and culture on the one hand and political independence movements and creation of borders on the other; he was a dyed-in-the-wool internationalist. It is a fact, though, that some of the positions he espoused caused surprise because of the zeal he displayed in championing the Catalan tongue (he refused the editorship of 'Solidaridad Obrera' because the CNT would not accept his suggestion that it be printed in Catalan only). He contributed to the labour press ('La Revista Blanca', 'Solidaridad Obrera', 'Avenir', etc.) and a school of thought grew up around him (it included Mas Gomeri, Albert, Claudio and Bausà) and was the author of: 'Els Artistes de la Vida' (1898), 'La Brava Joventut' (an anti-Lerrouxist piece from 1933), 'Dolora' (1903), 'El Morenet' (1904), 'El Cantor de l’Ideal' (1901), 'El Plor del Alba', 'El Teatro y el Arte Dramático', 'La Vida que jo he Viscut', 'La Vida Gloriosa' 2 vols. (1918-1927). These in addition to poetry ('Anarquines', published in 1908) and translations in which his enthusiasm for Ibsen was evident.

1872 - Raissa Adler (Raissa Timofevna Epstein [Раиса Тимофеевна Эпштейн]; d. 1962), Russian-Austrian feminist and Trotskyist, who co-founded the Internationalen Arbeiterhilfe (Workers International Relief) in Austria and was a member of Roten Hilfe and the Kommunistischen Partei Österreichs, born in Moscow. Married to the Austrian psychotherapist Alfred Adler, together they had four children, Valentine, Alexandra, Kurt and Cornelia, but largely led separate lives due to her political activities and his frequent lecture tours and work.

1880 - Louise Michel is freed by amnesty after nine years in prison, is met in Gare Saint-Lazare by an enormous crowd cheering her with cries of:
"Vive Louise Michel, vive la Commune, A bas les assassins!"

1885* - Delfín Lévano (Delfín Amador Lévano Gómez; d.1941), Peruvian anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, journalist and baker worker, as well as a poet, clarinetist and lecturer, born. His parents were the prominent anarchist activist, Manuel Caracciolo Lévano, aka Manuel Chumpitás or Comnalevich, and Hermelinda Gómez, a worker and social activist. Lévano was founder and editor of the newspapers 'La Protesta' (1911-21) and 'El Proletariado', founded in 1921, in addition to other publications and anarchist groups. Along side his father, and despite suffering persecution and imprisonment, he was a constant campaigner and prolithetiser for the eight-hour day, which the Limean unions – led by the Federación de Obreros Panaderos "Estrella del Perú" (Federation of Baker Workers "Star of Peru"), of which Lévano was a leader – would succeed in securing in 1919 after years of arduous struggle. He was also prominent in the founding of the .Federación Obrera Regional del Perú in 1912. [expand]
[* some sources mention Nov. 4]

1899 - Mezz Mezzrow (Milton Mesirow; d. 1972), American jazz clarinetist and saxophonist, who claimed that a "creative musician is an anarchist with a horn, and you can't put any shackles on him", born. His identification of jazz and freedom strectched to his personal life, where his disregard for the law and his prolific dealing of marijuana earned him 3 spells in jail and the nickname of the 'Muggles King' [muggles being slang for marijuana. He also married a black woman and declared himself a "voluntary Negro", something that he insisted upon when he was jailed in 1940 for the possession of sixty joints whilst trying to enter a jazz club, resulting in his transfer to the segregated prison's black section.

1899 - Acácio Tomás de Aquino (d. 1998), militant Portuguese anarco-syndicalist who was active in the Confederação Geral do Trabalho and the Organização Libertária Prisional, born. He spent the period 1933-1949 in various prisons and concentration camps after having been sentenced to 12 years in exile by a Military Tribunal for being involved in an attempted inssurection (it was claimed he was delivering bombs to another militant when arrested). [see: Dec. 11]

1905 - [O.S. Oct. 27] 1905 Kronstadt Mutiny / Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Following the outbreak of the spontaneous uprising yesterday, events begin to deteriorate as the rebels have no central aim. There is also a lack of any organised political groups influential enough to help organise the rebellion (including the Bolsheviks who, despite the presence of the Bolshevik leader Iosif Fedorovich Dubrovinsky (Иосифа Федоровича Дубровинского), are numerically too weak to seize control as they would in 1917). This situation is exploited by the police and the Black Hundreds. Led by the priest Johann of Kronstadt, they organise some of the more 'disreputable' elements in raids on liquor storehouses, shops, and residences. Some of the more unstable and opportunistic elements among the rebels join them. The attempts of the politically conscious sailors and soldiers to prevent these raids and organise resistance to troops loyal to the government fail and the uprising begins to breakdown into a drunken riot. Most of the rebels disperse, returning to their crews and barracks.
In Moscow the following day, the November 10 (Oct. 28) edition of the newspaper 'Russian Word' (Русское Слово) carried the following news:
"Last night sailors from the 7th and 4th naval crews mutinied. Soldiers sent to put down the uprising refused to open fire. In the city complete anarchy reigned. Many officers have been killed. Gostiny Dvor [a shopping arcade] was looted and set on fire."
"Father Johann of Kronstadt went to the square with a cross to try and persuade the rebels, but his exhortation had no effect and he left for St. Petersburg."
"Tonight the Pavlovsky and Preobrazhensky regiments have been sent to Kronstadt."
"According to the latest reports, the military revolt in Kronstadt was halted at 7 pm. In general, the military mutiny involved up to 10 thousand people, of which the largest part were sailors. The total number of dead and wounded is unknown. Currently, corpses still litter the streets of Kronstadt."

1905 - [O.S. Oct. 27] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The first issue of the Bolshevik RSDLP newspaper 'Novaya Zhizn' (Новая Жизнь / New Life).

1907 - [O.S. Oct. 27] Dora Brilliant [Дора Бриллиант] (Dora Vladimirovna Vulfovna [Дора Владимировна Вульфовна] b. 1879), Russian revolutionist and dedicated member of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party (Партия социалистов-революционеров) and its Combat Organisation (Боева́я организа́ция), dies in Peter and Paul Fortress having gone insane. Born in Ukraine into a family of Jewish merchants, after leaving school began training as a midwife, but in 1902 she joined the Socialist Revolutionary Party and would dedicate the rest of her short life to the revolutionary cause. Initially an active member of the S-R Committee in Kyiv, by 1904 she was working in a dynamite workshop created by the Combat Organisation in Geneva and was also a member of the Committee of the Combat Organisation. However, her burning desire was to take part in the S-R attentats, despite her openly expressed fears about participating in the killing her fellow human beings:
"Silent, modest and shy Dora lived only one - her belief in terror. Loving the revolution, tormented by her failures, recognizing the necessity of slaughtering Plehve, she was also afraid of this murder. She could not reconcile herself to the blood, it was easier for her to die than to kill. Still, her constant request was to give her a bomb and allow her to be one of the throwers." [Boris Savinkov in 'Memoirs of a Terrorist' (Воспоминания террориста), 1917]
She would go on to take a prominent part in the conduct of the largest terrorist acts carried out by the Combat Organisation, helping build the bombs used and organise the assassinations of the Minister of Interior Vyacheslav Plehve (Вячеслава Плеве) on July 28 [15] 1904 and Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich (Сергея Александровича) on February 17 [4], 1905. At the end of 1905, she was arrested in a secret S-R chemical laboratory/bomb factory in St. Petersburg. Tried for her part in the assassinations, she was imprisoned in the Peter and Paul Fortress, where she went insane, tormented with remorse over the deaths of Plehve and Sergei Alexandrovich, dying in late October 1907 - some sources give the year as 1906 or 1909 [c.f. Boris Savinkov in 'Memoirs of a Terrorist', who gives the year as 1909].

1910 - Tonypandy Riots / Cambrian Combine Miners' Strike: It was not until the morning of November 9th, that soldiers eventually arrived on the scene, patrolling without serious incident in the Tonypandy and Llwynypia areas. There were clashes in Porth and Pontypridd but, generally speaking, the soldiers were – at the time, at least – more welcome than the policemen from outside the valley.
Other than the death of Samuel Rhys, no reliable casualty record exists, since many miners would have refused treatment, from fear of prosecution for their part in the riots, but nearly 80 police and over 500 citizens were injured. Thirteen miners from Gilfach Goch were arrested and prosecuted for their part in the unrest. The trial of the thirteen occupied six days in December. During the trial, they were supported by marches and demonstrations by up to 10,000 men, who were refused entry to the town. Custodial terms of two to six weeks were issued to some of the defendants; others were discharged or fined.
The strike ground on for several months although the violence of the initial riots in Tonypandy was rarely repeated. The strike finally ended in August 1911, 12 months after the lock out that had begun it. It left bitter scars on the community of the Rhondda, particularly as the miners were forced to return to work after agreeing to a paltry figure of just two shillings and three pence per ton of coal extracted.

1911 - Revolución Mexicana: In Texas, revolutionary leader Emilio Vázquez Gómez calls for revolt against Francisco Madero.

1914 - Zivia Luibetkin (Cywia Lubetkin) aka 'Celina' (d. 1976), Polish Jewish activist in the Warsaw ghetto underground, who was a member of the leadership of the Žydowska Organizacja Bojowa (Jewish Fighting Organisation) and participant of the Warsaw ghetto uprising, born. In her late teens she joined the Zionist youth movement Dror, and in 1938 became a member of its Executive Council. After Nazi Germany and later the Soviet Union invaded Poland in September 1939, she made a perilous journey from the Soviet occupied part of the country to Warsaw to join the underground there. In March 1942, Lubetkin helped found the left-wing Zionist Bloku Antyfaszystowskiego (Anti-Fascist Bloc) and in July that year she was also one of the founders of ŽOB. She was one of the leaders of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising and one of only 34 fighters to survive the war. After leading her group of surviving fighters through the sewers of Warsaw with the aid of Simcha 'Kazik' Rotem in the final days of the ghetto uprising (on May 10, 1943), she continued her resistance activities in the rest of Warsaw outside the ghetto. She took part in the Polish Warsaw Uprising in 1944, fought in the units of the Armia Ludowa (People's Army). After the war, she and her husband went to Israel, where she was one of the founders of the Ghetto Fighters' House.

1918 - Bavarian Council Republic [Bayerische / Münchner Räterepublikthe]: Revolutionary uprising of workers, sailors and soldiers spreads throughout Germany. The Weimar Republic is declared in Berlin as Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates and the Chancellor, Max von Baden, hands power over to Friedrich Ebert, the leader of the Sozialdemokratischen Partei Deutschlands (German Social Democrat Party). Rosa Luxemburg is released from prison. [expand]

1918 - Kiel Mutiny [Kieler Matrosenaufstand]: The III. Squadron, which left Kiel on November 4, returns and it too hoists the red flag whilst coming into the port. A majority of the officers had already left the ships before their return.
The Weimar Republic is declared in Berlin as Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates and the Chancellor, Max von Baden, hands power over to Friedrich Ebert, the leader of the Sozialdemokratischen Partei Deutschlands (German Social Democrat Party). Rosa Luxemburg is released from prison.

1919 - Marian Pankowski (d. 2011), Polish writer, poet, literary critic and translator, and anti-Nazi fighter, born. He made his debut as a poet with the publication of his poem 'Czytanie w zieleni' (Reading the green) in the leftist Lviv magazine 'Sygnały' (Signals). He took part in the September 1939 campaign and later joined the Związek Walki Zbrojnej (ZWZ; Union of Armed Struggle). In 1942, he was arrested by the Gestapo and held as a prisoner in Auschwitz, Gross-Rosen, Nordhausen, and Bergen-Belsen concentration camps. After the war, he settled in Belgium, where he died in Brussels from pneumonia on April 3, 2011, at the age of 91.

[A] 1921 - Metropolitan Police Commissioner, Sir William Horwood, is poisoned by arsenic-laced chocolates.

[D] [1923 - Hitler-Ludendorff-Putsch / Beer Hall Putsch:

1925 - Perez Millan, the rightwing nationalist who killed the anarchist Kurt Gustav Wilckens whilst he was in his prison cell, is killed in an asylum in Buenos Aires. Boris Vladimirovitch, a doctor and biologist serving time for an "expropriation", feigned madness so as to be transferred to Millan's asylum. Vladimirovitch was unable to get close enough (Millan was "protected"), so pursuaded another internee to kill him.

1926 - Ettore Molinari (b. 1867), Italian chemist and anarchist, dies. [see: Jul. 14]

1928 - At 04:00 in Montevideo, 300 Uruguayan police and soldiers encircle the house at 41-J.J . Rousseau street, trapping a group of anarchist illegalists inside that had been involved in the currency exchange robbery taht took place on October 25. They include the 3 Catalans - glazier Jaime Tadeo Peña (22 years old), cabinetmaker Agustin Garcia Capdevilla (23) and glazier Pedro Boadas Rivas (32), plus brothers Antonio and Vicente Moretti and their companions Pura Ruiz and Dolores Rom. To avoid certain death, they decide to surrender, all except Antonio Moretti, who burns the robbery money and shoots himself in the head. Those sent to prison escape on March 18, 1931 thanks to a tunnel built by anarchist comrades.

1928 - Paul Florent Gourmelon (aka 'Paulus' & 'Mahurec'; b. 1881), French militant, neo-Malthusian and, according to the police, a "dangerous anarchist", dies of tuberculosis whilst in prison. [see: Dec. 20]

1929 - Imre Kertész, Hungarian author, Holocaust concentration camp survivor, and recipient of the 2002 Nobel Prize in Literature, born. He was deported at the age of 14 with other Hungarian Jews to the Auschwitz concentration camp, and was later sent to Buchenwald. His best-known work, 'Sorstalanság' (Fatelessness; 1975), describes the experience of 15-year-old György Köves in the concentration camps of Auschwitz, Buchenwald and Zeitz.

[C] 1932 - Fusillade du 9 Novembre 1932 / Blutnacht von Genf: In Geneva, the army opens fire on a crowd of thousands gathered for an anti-fascist demonstration,
killing 13 and wounding nearly a hundred others.
On the night of November 5-6 a poster from the Union Nationale (the Swiss fascist party founded by Georges Oltramare in 1930, whose members wore a uniform of berets and grey shirts) appeared on the streets announcing public indictment of the leaders of the Parti Socialiste Suisse (PSS), Léon Nicole and Jacques Dickers, on November 9 at 20:30 in the Plainpalais community hall in Geneva. A demand by the PSS on the 6th for the UN meeting to be banned was refused by the state adviser to the justice and police department, Frédéric Martin, on the grounds of freedom of assembly. The following day, the Socialist newspaper 'Le Travail' called for mobilisation: "The fascist rabble trying get tough in Geneva... These gentlemen want to talk... We will fight them with the weapons that they themselves have chosen." That same day an anonymous leaflet hit the streets: "The foul Nicoulaz, the Jew Dicker and their clique are preparing civil war. They are the servants of the Soviets. Cut them down! Down the revolutionary clique."
On the morning of November 9, at the request of Frédéric Martin the State Council appealed to the military to send troops to reinforce the city's gendarmes and those police drafted in from the surrounding countryside. The decision was taken to dispatch 610 recruits, just in their sixth week of training, together with thirty officers under the leadership of Major Ernest Lederrey. A select number of troops were told that "the revolution had erupted in Geneva" and given live ammunition. When four soldiers refused to follow the orders, they were immediately placed under arrest.
By later afternoon, the first anti-fascist protesters (around 4-5,000) had already converged on the Plainpalais and were being refused entry by the gendarmes as they lacked official UN invitations. Meanwhile, roadblocks were being set up by police in nearby streets to prevent protesters from approaching the hall and at 17:30 the 610 raw recruits arrived in Geneva to support the city's police.
At 18:45, 15 minutes after the meeting had commenced, a number of socialists, communists and anarchists had managed to gain entry to the Plainpalais but were quickly ejected. Outside the hall, standing on the shoulders of a militant a voluble Nicole, who would later leave the PSS to set up his own Stalinist grouping after the party refused to form a united front with the communists, harangued the waiting crowd. At 21:15, the 108 men of the Première Compagnie, which had been ordered into position to strengthen the police roadblocks when they had begun to be breached by the protests, encountered a crowd of counter-demonstrators. Eighteen of their number were disarmed and called upon to refuse orders and join the crowds. The officer in charge, Lieutenant Raymond Burnat, ordered the troops to fall back to the entrance of the Palais des Expositions where, after a bugle call, he gave the order to open fire: "A coup, tirez bas feu!" In the following 12 seconds, 20 soldiers fired 150 rounds, killing thirteen protestors and wounding 65 more, three of whom would later succumb to their injuries. Many of those shot were bystanders (only 3 of the dead were active militants) who had not taken part in the disarming of the soldiers. The crowds quickly dispersed as more troops were sent in to set up further roadblocks nay of which were manned with machineguns.
On November 10, the committee of the Union des Syndicats du Canton de Genève (USCG; Union of Trade Unions of the Canton of Geneva) and the various unions affiliated to the Union Syndicale Suisse rejected the Communists' call for a general strike but the following day a meeting of 225 USCG delegates voted in favour of a general strike to honour the dead, whose funerals were scheduled for November 12.
The funerals for the victims attracted thousands of angry Genevois but there were no clashes. The general strike was only partially successful, as the Christian unions did not participate.
In the opinion of the Geneva authorities, blame for the bloodshed itself laid fairly and squarely at the door of Léon Nicole and the communists. On November 10, the State Council "prohibited any gathering or procession on public roads", placed certain public buildings under the protection of the Geneva regiment, and decreed the application of military law to civilians. Frédéric Martin issued warrants for the arrest of Nicole and 39 other leftists. In June of the following year, Nicole received a 6-month sentence for riot. Others tried alongside him got 4-month terms. The cases brought against the officers and soldiers involved in the massacre all ended in acquittals, as they were held to have acted in self-defence.
In December 1932, the Geneva State Council decreed a series of laws on public order with penalties up to 10 years of imprisonment to be imposed against anyone who participates in, or writes in favour of, collective acts that tend not only to change through the means of violence the constitutional order, but also to "disrupt" public services and "break into a building site!". In addition, State officials enrolled in the Communist Party and all civil servants participating in the demonstration on November 9 were sacked in early 1933 and excluded from public office. This 'Berufverbot' (professional ban) against communist employees would last for decades in Switzerland.
[à_Genève [bizarre anti-communist website]

1933 - The first issue of the fortnightly journal 'L'Action Libertaire', "Organe révolutionnaire", is published in Paris.

[F] 1935 - The Committee for Industrial Organization is formed by 8 AFL-affilated unions to promote industrial unionism within the American Federation of Labor and to organise – on an industry-wide basis – unorganised and often unskilled workers. On September 10, 1936, the AFL suspended the then 10 CIO member unions. At the CIO's first convention, held in Pittsburgh, November 14-18, 1938, the organisation changed its name to the Congress of Industrial Organisations, and elected John L. Lewis its first president.

1938 - Kristallnacht takes place during the night of the 9-10 November 1938.

[CC] 1938 - Maurice Bavaud (1916 - 1941), a Swiss Catholic theology student abandons his plan to assassinate Adolf Hitler in the Feldherrnhalle, Munich on the anniversary of the 1923 Beer Hall Putsch as he did not want to injure any other Nazi leaders who he would be marching with. Having made a second failed attempt to gain an audience with Hitler via a forged letter, and having run out of money, he jumped a train to Paris, only to be arrested. Interrogated by the Gestapo, he admitted his plans to assassinate Hitler. He was tried by the Volksgerichtshof on December 18, 1939. Found guilty, he was executed by guillotine in the Berlin-Plötzensee prison on the morning of May 14, 1941.

[B] 1950 - The première of Luis Buñuel's 'Los Olvidados' in Mexico where the film was shot.

1953 - Dylan Thomas (b. 1914), Welsh boyo, poet and prose writer, dies of pneumonia, with pressure on the brain and a fatty liver as factors contributing to his death. No sign of liver cirrhosis was found post-mortem, despite his image as a hard drinker. [see: Oct. 27]

1961 - Interview with Asger Jorn in the Danish journal 'Aften-Posten' on the foundation of the Scandinavian Institute of Comparative Vandalism in Silkeborg.

1962 - Wolfgang Wendland, German musician, filmmaker, actor, politician and satirist, born. Singer in the German anarchist punk band Die Kassierer. A member of the Anarchistische Pogo-Partei Deutschlands (AAPD), he stood as their 2005 candidate for the chancellorship and joined the Pogoanarchistischen Pogo-Partei (POP) when they split from the AAPD.

1977 - The Anti-Nazi league (ANL) is officially launched in the House of Commons.

1980 - Toyen (Marie Cermínová; b. 1902), Czech-born Surrealist painter, printmaker, and anarchist, dies. [see: Sep. 21]

1986 - Remeberance Sunday: 2,000 anti-fascists march up Whitehall and Celia Stubbs, the partner of Blair Peach, lays a wreath at the Cenotaph for all those, past and present, who lost their lives in the struggle against fascism. [PR]

1988 - Massacre de Volta Redonda / Greve de 1988: Companhia Siderúrgica Nacional refuse to negotiate with the unions and on the morning of November 9, the acting president of Brazil, José Sarney, authorises the army under the command of General José Luiz Lopes to invade the factory. At about 19:00, around 600 soldiers begin dispersing a peaceful public demonstration in front of the CSN Central Office, turning the centre of Vila Santa Cecília into a battlefield before attempting to invade the CSN site. During the military action, three workers are killed by the security forces: Carlos Augusto Barroso (19 years old), Walmir Freitas Monteiro (27 years old) and William Fernandes Leite (22 years old); as well as hundreds of wounded. Barroso is killed by a blow to the head from a rifle butt as he lay on the ground. The other two are shot, in the back in Walmir's case. The following morning the remaining strikers in the plant peacefully withdrew and the army were able to fully occupy the plant.
In the wake of the army attack and general repression of the strike, the workers vow to stay out and the lack of compromise on both sides leads the then Minister of Industry and Commerce, Roberto Cardoso Alves, to threaten to close the works down. On November 22, in response to the appeals of trade unionists and other representatives of civil society, the population of Volta Redonda gives a symbolic "hug" around the 12 km of the Presidente Vargas Steelworks as a way of showing their support for the movement. Two days later at a new meeting, the workers decided to end the strike, due to the exhaustion of the movement and the international repercussions that had followed in reaction to the intervention of the Army. Due to the actions of the Army on the 9th, the trade union movement began to refer to the 1988 strike as the Volta Redonda Massacre. The Memorial 9 de Novembro, a monument designed by Oscar Niemeyer and erected in honour of the victims, was inaugurated on May 1, 1989 and partially destroyed by a bomb the following day. It was only in 1999 that it was discovered that the army had bombed the monument. [see: Nov. 4]

1988 - John Cage reads from 'On Anarchism' at the Cooper Union in New York City.

1989 - The Berlin Wall falls.

2004 - Stieg Larsson (b. 1954), Swedish author and journalist, dies. [see: Aug. 15]

[2012 - A riot breaks out at Welikada Prison in Sri Lanka during a search for illegal arms that leaves 27 people dead and 40 injured. [expand]

2103 - Supporters of the neo-Nazi Golden Dawn party attempting to hold a rally at the Greek embassy are intercepted by members of the AFN. Golden Dawn flags are seized and burnt.

2015 - Bottled Wasp hero, the Russian conceptual artist and political activist Pyotr Pavlensky, has been at it again. This time round in an action he called 'Menace', he set fire to the door of Federal Security Service's Lubyanka headquarters in Moscow yesterday in protest against the architecture of repression and the "never-ending terror" of the state security system. He then posed in front of the burning door holding his petrol can before being arrested for vandalism.
Previous Actions included the 2012 'Seam', where he sewed his lips up in front to Kazan Cathedral, St. Petersburg in protest against the imprisonment of members of Pussy Riot. In May 2013 and the 'Carcass' action he was encased naked in barbed wire in Red Square in protest against repressive government policies and on November 10 that year he nailed his scrotum to stone pavement in front of the Lenin's Mausoleum on the Red Square, again naked, on Russian Police Day, in an action entitled 'Fixation'. The following year saw his pro-Maidan action, 'Freedom', where he and a number of collaborators burned tires, beat drums and shouted Maidan slogans on Little Konushennaya bridge in Saint Petersburg. This was followed in October 2014 by 'Segregation', during which he cut off his earlobe with a chef's knife while sitting naked on the wall outside the Serbsky Institute of Psychiatry in Moscow in protest against political abuse of psychiatry in Russia, and no doubt the State's continued attempts to have him committed to psychiatric prison as an attempt to silence him and rid themselves of his regular acts of provocation.
[F] 1811 - Luddite Timeline: Luddites destroy machinery and Edward Hollingworth's house at Bulwell, Nottinghamshire. One of their number is shot and killed.

[E] 1821 - Grito de independencia de La Villa de Los Santos: Rufina Alfaro, a legendary figure in the Panamanian independence movement, leads an uprising against the Spanish rulers by local people who, armed only with stones and sticks, seize the local police fortress without any resistance from its soldiers. At a town meeting Rufina declares Los Santos a 'Ciudad Libre'.

1831 - Première Révolte des Canuts: Following the intervention of the préfet du Rhône in the canuts' attempts to negotiate a fixed price for their labours, the manufacturers reject the salary claims of the canuts, which they considered to be exorbitant. This attitude infuriated much of the working class. [see: Oct. 18]

[BB] 1859 - Théophile Alexandre Steinlen (d. 1923), Swiss-born French Art Nouveau painter and printmaker, born. His anti-bourgeois, anti-militarist, socialist and anarchist sympathies led him to become a regular contributor to the anarchist press, including the magazine 'Temps Nouveau' - alongside Aristide Delannoy, Maximilien Luce, Theo van Rysselberghe, Camille Pissarro, Paul Signac, Van Dongen, George Willaume, etc. - as well a other radical and satirical newspaper and magazines.

1868 - Matawhero Massacre: Just before midnight on November 9, 1868, Māori resistance fighter Te Kooti and around 100 of his followers, 60 of them on horseback, forded the Waipāoa River near Pātūtahi on the Poverty Bay flats. They moved quietly towards the nearby Pākehā settlement of Matawhero. By dawn they had killed about 60 people in Matawhero and the adjacent kāinga (Māori village) – roughly equal numbers of Māori and Pākehā (New Zealanders of European descent) – and torched their homes. The victims ranged from babies to the elderly. Some were shot, but most were despatched with bayonets, tomahawks or patu to avoid alerting their neighbours.
The attack was utu (revenge) for Te Kooti’s treatment after his capture at Waerenga-a-hika in October 1865 (he was accused of being a spy and was arrested after the siege ended, and rearrested 6 months later and interned without trial for 2 years).

1869 - Gaetano Bresci (d. 1901), Italian-American anarchist who assassinated the King of Italy in revenge of the army's butchery in repressing the 1898 Milan massacre (300 demonstrators were slaughtered protesting bread prices; see May 7-8), born.

1871 - In the worldwide atmosphere of hysteria that followed in the wake of the Paris Commune, a vote is taken in the Cortes, in which 192 deputies - Unionists, 'Sagastinos' Progressives and Carlists - are in favour of the prohibition of the FRE-AIT and 38 (Federal Republicans) against. However, in a circular issued by the Tribunal Supremo prosecutor on Nov. 23, it was pointed out that the right of association of the AIT was enshrined in the Constitución de 1869. The Minister of Justice responded by dismissing the prosecutor.

1875 - [O.S. Oct. 29] Anastasia Bitsenko [Анастасии Биценко] (Anastasia Alekseevna Kamorista [Анастасии Алексеевна Камористая]; d. 1938), prominent Russian revolutionary, born. From a peasant family in the Ukrainian province of Ekaterinoslav (Екатеринославская), she studied at the Society of Educators and Teachers (Общества воспитательниц и учительниц) in Moscow and, having been exiled to Saratov (Саратов), married a merchant there, before abandoning him for the Revolution. Bitsenko joined the Socialist-Revolutionary Party (Партии социалистов-революционеров / ПСР) in 1902 and, after periods in Smolensk, St. Petersburg, and then Moscow, joined the S-R's Combat Organisation (Боева́я организа́ция) in 1905. On December 5 [Nov. 22], 1905, at the home Pyotr Stolypin (Пётр Столыпин), she shot Adjutant General Viktor Sakharov (Ви́ктор Са́харов), who had pacified the agrarian unrest in the Saratov province in autumn 1905. She was sentenced to death on March 15 [3], 1906, later commuted perpetual servitude.
Released in March 1917 following the February Revolution, Bitsenko headed the educational commission in the Chita Council of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies (Читинском Совете рабочих и солдатских депутатов). A delegate to the 3rd Congress of the Socialist-Revolutionaries (May-June) from the Trans-Baikal region, she was elected to the presidium of the congress and was nominated to the Central Committee, but withdrew from the running. Following the split within the ПСР at the Constituent Assembly held in St. Petersburg from Dec. 9-18 [O.S. Nov 26 - Dec. 5], 1917, when the rump of the ПСР – the so-called Right S-Rs (правых эсеров) – eject the Left Socialist-Revolutionaries, Internationalists (Партия левых социалистов-революционеров-интернационалистов / ПЛСР) and others who supported working with the Bolsheviks, she was elected a member of the Central Committee of the Left S-R party and became a member of the editorial committee of the group's magazine 'Our Way' (Nash Put / Наш Путь). She also ran for membership in the Constituent Assembly (Учредительного Собрания), but was not elected.
From November 1917 to March 1918, Bitsenko was the only female member of the Soviet delegation to the Brest-Litovsk peace talks and, in 1918, was elected as a delegate to the All-Russian Central Executive Committee (Всеросси́йский Центра́льный Исполни́тельный Комите́т / ВЦИК). During the same period she occupied a number of other prominent positions, including the deputy chair of the Council of People's Commissars of Moscow and Moscow Region (Совнаркома Москвы и Московской области), and was a member of the Presidium of the Moscow Soviet (Президиума Московского Совета) and of the Executive Committee of the Moscow Regional Council (Исполнительного комитета Московского областного Совета). She also collaborated on the ПЛСР's central organ 'Знамя Труда' (Znamya Truda / Banner of Labour), and at the party's 2nd Congress in April 1918 supported collaboration with the Bolsheviks.
At the Fifth All-Russian Congress of Soviets (V Всероссийского съезда Советов), which began on July 5, the long simmering enmity between the Bolsheviks and Left S-R Internationalists (which stemmed from the Bolsheviks' attacks on the Left S-R's powerbase amongst the peasant and rural communities) finally came to the surface. Though in the minority [approx. 30% of the delegates], the Left S-R's actively opposed Bolshevik policy at all turns, condemning the Brest Peace, the 'surplus-appropriation' from rural communities and the arrest of former S-R comrades, with Maria Spiridonova characterising the Bolsheviks as "traitors to the revolution" and "continuers of the policy of the Kerensky government". A delegate at the Congress, Bitsenko opposed this position and reacted negatively to the July 6 news that Left S-R members had assassinated the German ambassador. Bitsenko now joined the group of opponents of the struggle against the Bolsheviks based around the newspaper 'Volya Truda' (Воля Труда / Will of Labour) and, at the First Congress of the supporters of the Platform of the 'Volya Truda'; she was elected a member of the Central Committee of the new Party of Revolutionary Communism (Партии революционного коммунизма)
During the trial of 12 members of the Central Committee of the Socialist-Revolutionaries Party and other Right S-Rs, including Abram Gotz (Абра́м Гоц), Boris Savinkov (Бори́с Са́винков) and Evgeniy Timofeev (Евгений Тимофеев), who were accused of organising terrorist attacks against the Bolshevik leaders, including a failed attack on Lenin in 1918, which took place in Moscow from June 8 to August 7, 1922, Bitsenko was amongst those (who included along with Nikolai Bukharin) who defended those Socialist-Revolutionaries like herself "who had stepped aside from the party and condemned the methods of its struggle".
In November, Bitsenko was admitted to the RCP (b), graduated from the Institute of Red Professorship, was on teaching, economic, Soviet and party work. Arrested in 1938 on charges of belonging to the Socialist Revolutionary Organization, shot on the verdict of the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR
On February 8, 1938, she was arrested on charges of belonging to an S-R terrorist organisation and on June 16 1938 sentenced to death by the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR. She was shot at the NKVD's Kommunarka (Коммунарке) execution grounds.

1886 - Virgilio Gozzoli (d. 1964 ), Italian anarchist, anti-fascist, poet, playwright, publisher and Futurist artist, born. [expand]
Co-wrote play, 'L'Aquila e il Cigno' (The Eagle and the Swan) with Enrico Arrigoni.

1887 - Chicago Haymarket defendant Louis Lingg (b. 1864), cheats the state the day before he and the other anarchist's scheduled execution, commiting suicide in his prison cell with the use of a blasting cap smuggled in by another prisoner, which he places in his mouth and lights. [see: Sep. 9]
"...I despise you. I despise your order, your laws, your force-propped authority. Hang me for it!"

1889 - The Certamen Segundo Socialista (second Socialist Competition) takes place in the Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts) in Barcelona. The work of many anarchists are made presented, including those of Fernando Tarrida del Marmol, Ricardo Mella, Anselmo Lorenzo, Soledad Gustavo, Josep Llunas, etc.

1891 - Simón Radowitzky (Szymon Radowicki) (d. 1956), aka 'The Martyr of Ushuaia', Ukrainian-born legendary Polish anarchist freedom fighter, born. One of the best-known prisoners of the penal colony in Ushuaia, where he was held for the assassination of Ramón Lorenzo Falcón, a head of police responsible for the brutal repression of Red Week in 1909 in Buenos Aires. Radowitzky was pardoned after 21 years, he left Argentina and fought with the Republicans during the Spanish Civil War. [poss. alternate d.o.b. Oct. 10]

1891 - Arthur Rimbaud (b. 1854), French poet, anti-bourgeois anarchist, deserter and gun-runner, dies. [see: Oct. 20]

1893 - [N.S. Nov. 22] Grigori Petrovich Maximov (Григорий Петрович Максимов)[also rendered as Gregory or G.P. Maximov or Maximoff] aka Gr. Lapot (Гр. Лапоть)(d. 1950), Russian-American anarcho-syndicalist propagandist and author, born. [see: Nov. 22]
[NB: Some sources give d.o.b. as Nov. 11]

1896 - Gregoria Montoya y Patricio, aka 'Henerala Gregoria' (b. 1863), Filipina revolutionary and military leader, is killed during the Battle of Binakayan-Dalahican, hit by a cannonball fired from a Spanish navy boat off Dalahican beach, but not before her efforts leading a thirty-man unit bought the Filipino forces enough time for reinforcements to arrive and pave the way for a decisive victory against the Spanish. [see: Nov. 28]

1905 - [O.S. Oct. 28] 1905 Kronstadt Mutiny / Russian Revolution of 1905-07: During the morning warships with specially selected crews approach Kronstadt. In the city martial law is declared, and the sailors and soldiers are disarmed. As many as 4,000 sailors and about 800 soldiers are arrested and threatened with field court-martials and severe punishments.
The following day workers in St. Petersburg rose up in defence of Kronstadt's revolutionary sailors and meetings were held across the capital demanding the release of those who had been arrested.

1910 - Germania Hall Incident: Attempting to organise a commemoration of the Chicago Haymarket victims' hangings of 1887, IWW Local 13 was met with police resistance, as Germania Hall, where the event was to be held, was forcibly closed by authorities to prevent the gathering. Members then proceeded to continue the festivities unabated by moving into the streets of the business district, where they were promptly arrested and released after a brief but embarrassing detainment that included fingerprinting and photographing them. This incident was a foretaste of what would come during the San Diego free speech fight, beginning on February 1, 1912.

1913 - Karl Shapiro (d. 2000), American poet, Pulitzer Prize-winner in 1945 and Gandhian anarchist, born.

"I am an atheist who says his prayers.

I am an anarchist, and a full professor at that. I take the loyalty oath.

I am a deviate. I fondle and contribute, backscuttle and brown, father of three.

I stand high in the community. My name is in Who’s Who. People argue about my modesty.

I drink my share and yours and never have enough. I free-load officially and unofficially.

A physical coward, I take on all intellectuals, established poets, popes, rabbis, chiefs of staff.

I am a mystic. I will take an oath that I have seen the Virgin. Under the dry pandanus, to the scratching of kangaroo rats, I achieve psychic onanism. My tree of nerves electrocutes itself.

I uphold the image of America and force my luck. I write my own ticket to oblivion.

I am of the race wrecked by success. The audience brings me news of my death. I write out of boredom, despise solemnity. The wrong reason is good enough for me.

I am of the race of the prematurely desperate. In poverty of comfort I lay gunpowder plots. I lapse my insurance.

I am the Babbitt metal of the future. I never read more than half of a book. But that half I read forever.

I love the palimpsest, statues without heads, fertility dolls of the continent of Mu. I dream prehistory, the invention of dye. The palms of the dancers’ hands are vermillion. Their heads oscillate like the cobra. High-caste woman smelling of earth and silk, you can dry my feet with your hair.

I take my place beside the Philistine and unfold my napkin. This afternoon I defend the Marines. I goggle at long cars.

Without compassion I attack the insane. Give them the horsewhip!

The homosexual lectures me brilliantly in the beer booth. I can feel my muscles soften. He smiles at my terror.

Pitchpots flicker in the lemon groves. I gaze down on the plains of Hollywood. My fine tan and my arrogance, my gray hair and my sneakers, O Israel!

Wherever I am I become. The power of entry is with me. In the doctor’s office a patient, calm and humiliated. In the foreign movies a native, shabby enough. In the art gallery a person of authority (there’s a secret way of approaching a picture. Others move off). The high official insults me to my face. I say nothing and accept the job. He offers me whiskey.

How beautifully I fake! I convince myself with men’s room jokes and epigrams. I paint myself into a corner and escape on pulleys of the unknown. Whatever I think at the moment is true. Turn me around in my tracks; I will take your side.

For the rest, I improvise and am not spiteful and water the plants on the cocktail table."

'I Am an Atheist Who Says His Prayers'


1913 - Miguel Grau Caldú (d. 2011), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, anti-fascist resister and poet, born. Partner of the FILJ, MLE and CNT member Antonia Lisbona Celma. Author of 2 books of poems 'El Abuelo de los Doce' (The Grandfather of Twelve) and 'Poemas de un Campesino Aragonés' (Poems of an Aragonese Peasant).

1917 - 41 suffragettes are arrested for protesting in favour of women’s rights outside the White House. They are imprisoned and subjected to violent abuse while in jail.

1918 - Kiel Mutiny [Kieler Matrosenaufstand]: A large crows gathers at the Eichhof Parkfriedhof (Park Cemetery) to bury the fallen of November 3rd, with Gustav Garbe and Lothar Popp giving graveside orations. The military personnel are buried a day later at the Nordfriedhof (North Cemetery) in Kiel. Gustav Noske gives the graveside speech.
[ mutiny–%C2%A0the-kiel-mutiny/]

1919 - Pew Bombing: After forty-one hours of deliberation, the jury in the trial of Philadelphia machinist and IWW organiser Charles Krieger, who was standing trial for the second time on charges with destroying property belonging to J. Edgar Pew, a senior manager for the Carter Oil Company, in an October 29, 1917, bombing, fails to reach consensus, with the final vote counting seven for conviction and five for acquittal. Tulsa judge Redmond S. Cole declared a mistrial and ordered Krieger returned to jail on a $2,500 bond. The 'Tulsa Democrat' newspaper paid the bond and he was released after twenty one months in custody. He would stand trial for a second time in May 1920 and on June 8th would be acquitted after two and a half years in prison.

1921 - Patagonia Rebelde / Patagonia Trágica: Colonel Varela returns to Rio Gallegos, where striking labourers and workers ending up before firing squads. With the Chilean government working with Argentine forces, the army pursues fleeing strikers, with those caught subject to summary execution. In total, around 1500 workers and strikers were killed.

1922 - Huelga General de Guayaquil: Factory workers join the strike. [see: Nov. 6 & 8]

1924 - CNT militants 26-year-old José Llacer and 19-year-old Juan Montejo, are executed following the November 6th attack on the Atarazanas barracks. Both were also implicated in assassinating Rogelio Pérez, the 'Torturer of Barcelona', on May 28 1924.

1928 - Anita Berber (b. 1899), German dancer, actress, writer and icon of the Weimar era, who was the subject of a famous Otto Dix painting, dies of tuberculosis. [see: Jun. 10]

1936 - A Public Order Bill is introduced in Parliament: An Act to prohibit the wearing of uniforms in connection with political objects and the maintenance by private persons of associations of military or similar character; and to make further provision for the preservation of public order on the occasion of public processions and meetings and in public places.

1938 - The first issue of the weekly 'S.I.A.', "Organe de la Solidarité Internationale Antifasciste", is published in Paris under the editorship of Louis Lecoin Nicolas Faucier and Fernand Vintrigner. Aimed at poltical refugees, it is written in French, Spanish and Italian and operates from the 'Le Libertaire' offices. Its circulation will reach a height of 50,000 copies.

1939 - Charlotte Despard (Charlotte French; b. 1844), Anglo-Irish novelist, suffragist, Sinn Féin activist, communist, vegetarian and anti-vivisection advocate, who quit the NUWSS for the WSPU because of the former's "votes for ladies" stance and later quit the WSPU to help form the Women's Freedom League because of Emmeline Pankhurst' dictatorial manner, dies. [see: Jun. 15]

1944 - Ehrenfeld Group: Hans Steinbrück and twelve of his followers (incl. six teenagers, members of the Edelweiss Pirates) are executed without trial in Cologne.

1949 - Louis Rimbault (b. 1877), French anarchist and propagandist for vegetarianism, dies. [see: Apr. 9]

1956 - David 'Chim' Seymour (Dawid Szymin; b. 1911), Polish photographer, photojournalist and anti-fascist, known for his images from the Spanish Civil War, dies under Egyptian machine gun fire during the Suez conflict. [see: Nov 20]

[C] 1961 - Operação Vagô [Operation Vague]: A group of six Portuguese anti-fascists - Hermínio da Palma Inácio, Amândio Silva,, Camilo Mortágua, João Martins, Fernando Vasconcelos and a pregnant Helena Vidal - conduct the first 'hijacking' of a commercial airplane whilst in the air in history, diverting a TAP (Air Portugal) Super-Constellation plane on a flight between Casablanca and Lisbon in order to drop approx. 100,000 anti-fascist leaflets over Lisbon and four other Portuguese cities.
On the morning of November 10, the six boarded the plane as passengers carrying the Frente Antitotalitária dos Portugueses Livres no Estrangeiro (Anti-totalitarian Front of Free Portuguese Abroad) leaflets protesting against the Portuguese dictator Oliveira Salazar and denouncing the electoral farce that was to perform two days later in their bags, which escaped being opened by airport security. At 09:15, the plane took off on its one and a half hour direct flight to Lisbon. Fourty-five minutes later Maria Helena withdrew the five concealed pistols she had carried on to the plane strapped around her waist and Palma Inácio immediately went to the cockpit, where he pointed his long-barrelled revolver at the head of the pilot, Jose Marcelino, announcing: "This is a revolutionary action. I do not want to hurt anyone."
The plan of the revolutionaries was risky: they intended to follow the route to Lisbon, simulate landing at Portela and then fly low over the capital, Barreiro, Setúbal, Beja and Faro, whilst launching their leaflets appealing for a popular revolt against the dictatorship. Once safely landed back in Tangier, Ignacio Palma and his comrades would then appeal for political asylum. In the cockpit co-pilot Teles Grilo, the flight engineer Alberto Coelho, and the chief mechanic António Coragem all remained silent but the pilot Marcelino tried to claim that they did not have enough fuel to return to Tangier. However, Palma Inácio was an aircraft mechanic and had qualified as a transport pilot in the USA and was not fooled. Demanding the plane's flight records, Palma found there was more than enough fuel on board. Now the pilot tries another diversionary tactic, "How are you going to throw out your leaflets? I can not open the plane windows", Marcelino argued. Palma's response silenced him: "You can. Fly as low as possible, depressurise the cabin and we can open an emergency window."
Now fully in control of the situation, the other revolutionaries did not have to display their weapons and the actions of the steward Orloff Esteves and his two assistants, Maria del Pilar and Luísa Infante, who remained clam through out, meant that some of the other thirteen passengers remained ignorant of the hijack until they were about to land back in Tangiers.
Having been given permission to land at Lisbon airport and followed a normal approach, shortly before touchdown the plane the plane aborted its landing, gaining height and moving away from the airport. José Marcelino then reported to the tower that he had been compelled by those on board to make a close flyby of Lisbon and other cities to the south. At the same time an Air Force general, Costa Macedo, witnessing the incident from a plane nearby, ordered an alert. Minutes later, two F-84 fighter jets were scrambled from Monte Real airforce base with orders to shoot down the plane if they could not force it to land on Portuguese soil.
Thus began a dangerous game of cat and mouse, with the Super-Constellation having to fly low, just 100 meters above the ground, in order to escape being tracked by radar and to evade the fighters. This it managed to do, whilst the revolutionaries discharged their cargo of leaflets, which rained down over Lisbon, Barreiro, Setúbal, Beja and Faro. Having dropped the last load of leaflets over Faro, the pilot Marcellin continued to fly at low altitude over the sea to avoid being seen on radar. However, on this beautiful clear autumn morning the pilots spotted two warships on their flight path and there was only one way to escape the possibility of being shot down by the ships' guns: dive to half a dozen meters above the waves and pass directly between the two - and that's exactly what José Marcelino managed.
At 12:45, three and half hours after taking off from Casablanca, the plane landed safely at Tangiers airport. Waiting for them were Captain Henrique Galvão, a prominent leader of the non-Communist opposition the Salazar regime, numerous journalists and the Moroccan authorities, who Galvão had persuade to grant the six revolutionaries temporary asylum status until they find a country to take him in permanently, which turned out to be Brazil. Operação Vagô had proved to be a total success and had a major impact on world press. Salazar was left foaming with rage too.
Interestingly, the origins of the Operação Vagô plan had been somewhat different. Henrique Galvao and another member of the non-Communist opposition, General Humberto Delgado, had joined forces with other exiled opponents of the Estado Novo regime, including elements of the opposition within Portugal itself, in order to organise a coup sometime in late 1961. Thus, the Operação Vagô leaflets had originally been meant to call for insurrection and carry instructions on how to make bombs but, with plans for the insurrection about to be delayed, and the plotters' base of operations in Tangiers plagued with PIDE secret police agents and spies, Operação Vagô itself could not be delayed any longer. So, the original leaflets were replaced by new ones denouncing the fraudulent elections for the National Assembly, scheduled for two days later, but also still calling for popular revolt.
The delayed coup attempt eventually took place on the night of December 31, 1961 - January 1, 1962. The little-know Golpe de Beja - an assault on the barracks of the Regimento de Infantaria 3 at Beja by a small number of members of the military and accompanying civilians, designed to spark a general uprising amongst the military against the regime - failed, due largely to a lack of communication and the militaries had some forewarning of the coup attempt (though not of its intended target). One rebel died in the attack, as did Lieutenant Colonel Jaime Filipe da Fonseca, Deputy Secretary of the Army. On the rebel side Captain João Maria Paulo Varela Gomes was left with serious wounds, ending up being dismissed from the army and spending 6 years in fascist prisons. Hundreds were arrested in connection with the attempted coup; many others sought refuge in foreign embassies. A total of 82 people eventually stood trial in civilian and military courts, of whom 65 received prison sentences and 17 were found not guilty.
Operação Vagô and the Golpe de Beja, one a success, the other a failure, ended what was an annus horribilis for the Salazar dictatorship, one that had begun with Operação Dulcineia, the hijacking of the Santa Maria, marked the beginning of the end for the Estado Novo and Salazar.

[B] 1973 - Kurt Vonnegut's novel 'Slaughterhouse 5' is burned as "tool of the Devil" by the school board in Drake, North Dakota, and the teacher who assigned it for reading is fired.

[A] 1976 - London Murray Defence Group occupy Aer Lingus offices in Regent Street. Similar protests are made in Madrid and Sydney, the first 'reciprocal' protest to be made in Spain for years.

1985 - 100 AFA members take over the NF assembly point for Remembrance day march at Bressendon Place in Victoria, London, causing them much confusion and embarrassment.

[D] 1989 - Bulgarian Communist leader Todor Zhivkov is forced out of office after 35 years of dictatorship dyring the November Plenum of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (Централният комитет на Българската комунистическа партия ). Having survived the Sino-Soviet split, Khrushchev's fall in October 1964, an attempted Stalinist-Maoist coup d’état in 1965, Brezhnev's death in 1982, and Mikhail Gorbachev's post-1985 reforms, he no doubt felt immortal. However, following a number of 'miss-steps', including the riots and massive death toll that stemmed from his December 1984 policy of the forced assimilation of Bulgaria's Turkish minority, which also led to his granting permission in May 1989 of all Turks to emmigrate, with over 300,000 leaving for Turkey within three months; and the international opprobrium resulting from brutal beating of Bulgarian environmental activists and supporters from Ecoglasnost by CSS secret police and militia officers at the October 1989 OSCE (Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe) environmental summit in Sofia and the subsequent abuse of 36 other opposition activists, his days were numbered. Shortly after Foreign Minister Petar Mladenov (who later became president) threatened him that unless he resigned the Politburo would vote him out and have him executed. He went quietly realising that the the jig was up.

1991 - AFA draws 3,500-4,500 to their (unopposed) National Demonstration through Bethnal Green in east London on Remembrance day. The demonstration is called to draw attention to rascist attacks and the BNP's 'Rights for Whites' campaign in the area.

1999 - Ken Saro-Wiwa, author and activist, hanged by the Nigerian state for daring to resist Royal Dutch Shell, alongside eight other people.

2001 - Julián Ángel Aransáez Caicedo (b. 1916), Basque anarchist, anarcho-communist and anti-Francoist and anti-Nazi fighter, dies. [see: Oct. 18]

2004 - The Comisión Valech (Comisión Nacional Sobre Prisón Politica y Tortura / National Commission on Political Imprisonment and Torture) report covering the abuses under the 1973-90 dictatorship of General Augusto Pinochet is submitted to President Ricardo Lagos. The commission concludes that torture was a habitual practice of the armed forces and police throughout Pinochet’s dictatorship, something that we all knew anyway.

2006 - Around a hundred Romanian anarchists hold an anti-fascist march in Bucharest under the legal cover of 'Asociaţii Aquarius'.

2007 - Milja Marin (Milja Toroman; b. 1926), the young Yugoslav partisan nurse made famous for the photograph 'Kozarčanka' (Woman from Kozara) taken by Yugoslav photographer Žorž Skrigin in northern Bosnia during the winter of 1943-44, dies.

2008 - The 'Ta Nea' newspaper publishes photographs showing young men in civilian clothes carrying metal clubs and other crude weapons within police ranks in the center of Athens. The related article includes the eyewitness account of Theodoros Margaritis, an official of the Synaspismos party (which later evolved to today’s Syriza party), according to which five hooded protesters carrying rocks attempted to join a rally of GSEE (the General Confederation of Greek Workers) but fled when confronted and asked to show their IDs.
The police denied that undercover police were among the protesters engaged in violence at the demonstrations, saying that such actions are forbidden. The force however acknowledged that plainclothes police forces were present at the demonstrations with the aim of facilitating arrests, and ordered an investigation into the identities of the violent protesters. The mayor of Patras also claimed that demonstrations were being infiltrated by individuals belonging to far-right groups, a claim supported by photographs and other evidence.

2008 - Seven days into the first organised widespread protest against Greek prison conditions, 4,500 prisoners are now on hunger strike.

2010 - During student protests, Millbank 30 (the campaign headquarters of the Conservative Party) is stormed.

2010 - María Martínez Sorroche (b. 1914), Adalusian textile worker, baker, maid, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Sep. 9]

2013 - Russian conceptual artist and political activist Pyotr Pavlensky, in an act timed to coincide with Russian Police Day, nails his testicles with the hammer to the stone pavement of the Red Square in Moscow in a protest against the Russian "police state". After the police pried him loose, he was arrested and charged with 'hooliganism'. However, in April 2014 the charge was dropped after an expert report on the performance found "a lack of motive of political, ideological, racist, ethnic or religious hatred or enmity, or a motive of hatred against any social group. Considering this, the investigating officer decided to close the case due to the lack of a crime."
1761 - Filippo Giuseppe Maria Ludovico Buonarroti (d. 1837), Italian revolutionary and political theorist, who became a French citizen, born.

[1812 - Whitehaven magistrates report huge foods riots in the Town

1813 - Saverio Friscia (d. 1886), Sicilian physician and anarchist, born. One of Michael Bakunin's most ardent advocates in Italy at the time, along with Carlo Gambuzzi, Giuseppe Fanelli and Alberto Tucci, who together formed the Neapolitan section of the First International.

1821 - [O.S. Oct. 10] Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoyevsky (Фёдор Миха́йлович Достое́вский; d. 1881), Russian novelist, short story writer and essayist, born. His most famous works are 'Записки из подполья' or 'Zapiski iz podpol'ya' (Notes from Underground; 1864), 'Преступлéние и наказáние' or 'Prestupleniye i nakazaniye' (Crime and Punishment; 1866), 'Идиот' or 'Idiot' (The Idiot; 1869), 'Бесы' or 'Bésy' (Demons aka The Possessed; 1872) and 'Братья Карамазовы' or 'Brat'ya Karamazovy' (The Brothers Karamazov; 1880). One of the main protagonists in 'Demons' is Pyotr Stepanovich Verkhovensky, who was inspired by the revolutionary Sergey Nechayev, is used by Dostoyevsky to critique the Russian radical movement.

1863 - Paul Victor Jules Signac (d. 1935), French neo-Impressionist painter and anarchist, born.[expand]
"The anarchist painter is not the one who will create anarchist pictures, but the one who will fight with all his individuality against official conventions."

1871 - Joan Mir i Mir (d. 1930), Spanish anarchist intellectual, syndicalist, libertarian educator and Mason, born.

[A] 1887 - Haymarket Martyrs August Spies [see: Dec. 10], Albert Parsons [see: Jun. 20], Adolph Fischer [see below] and George Engel [see: Apr. 15] are hanged. [expand]

1887 - Adolph Fischer (b. 1858), German- born American anarchist propagandist and Haymarket Martyr, dies.

1890 - Attilio Bulzamini (d. 1938), Spanish anarchist militant and member of the Ascaso column, born. [expand]

1890 - The first issue of the jornal 'Freedom', "A Revolutionary Anarchist-Communist Monthly", which is edited by Lucy E. Parsons, is published in Chicago on the third anniversary of the execution of the Haymarket Martyrs. Amongst the employees of the newspaper are John Arthur Andrews, Lizzie Holmes, William T. Holmes and Johann Most.

1891 - Lilya Yuryevna Brik (born Lilya Kagan; d. 1978), Russian writer, film director and Futurist muse, born. Older sister of Elsa Triolet, wife of Osip Brik and later lover and muse of Futurist poet Vladimir Mayakovsky.

1894 - Emma Goldman speaks at a poorly attended commemoration of the Haymarket martyrs in New York; other speakers include Charles Mowbray, German anarchist and barkeeper Justus Schwab, Voltairine de Cleyre, Max Baginski, and John Edelmann, editor of the anarchist journal 'Solidarity'.

1894 - Juan Bautista Vairoleto (d. 1941), Argentine anarchist and bandit, born.

1895 - Umberto Nicola Palmiotti (d. 1969), Italian-American anarchist, who emigrated to America to avoid fighting in WWI, born.

1898 - Antonio Cieri (d. 1937), Italian anarchist rail worker, anti-fascist militant and Spanish Civil War fighter, born. He served as an officer in the Italian Army during World War I and was decorated. After the war he became active in the anarchist movement in Ancona and worked as a technical designer for the Italian railways. Because of his participation in the mass working class resistance to Italy's imperialist intervention in Albania, in 1921 he was disciplined and transferred to Parma. There he became a leading light in the anti-fascist Arditi del Popolo in the working class neighbourhood of Borgo Naviglio, defending it and the neighbouring areas against fascist provocations. Sacked from the railways in 1923 and forced into exile, he finally arrived in Paris together with his wife in 1925 where he continued his anarchist activity. He founded the anarchist paper 'Umanita Nova' with Camillo Berneri and others and for a long time was its editor. In 1936 he moved to Spain and enlisted in a military column. He was one of the founders of the Italian Column which became attached to the Ascaso Column and was one of its commanders alongside fellow anarchist Giuseppe Bifolchi from December 1936 until April 1937 (both refused to continue with the positions upon militarisation). On April 7th (or possibly the 8th), he was killed leading a team of Bomberos during the assault on Huesca. There were strong suspicions that he had been shot in the back by a Stalinist and this allegation was made in 'Guerra di Classe', Berneri’s paper.
His two children, Ubaldo and Renee, were adopted and brought up by Giovanna Caleffi, the companion of Camillo Berneri.

[E] 1902 - Miquelina Sardinha (Miquelina Maria Possante Sardinha; d. 1966), Portuguese educationalist and militant anarcho-syndicalist, born.

1905 - [O.S. Oct. 29] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: St. Petersburg workers are frantically arming themselves in response to rumours of a pogrom. Despite some reservations, the St. Petersburg Soviet proclaims an eight-hour working day. Employers respond with massive lock-outs. By the end of the month the Soviet has abandoned its eight-hour working day campaign.

1905 - [O.S. Oct. 29] 1905 Kronstadt Mutiny / Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Workers in St. Petersburg rise up in defence of Kronstadt's revolutionary sailors. Meetings are held in the capital demanding the release of those who had been arrested.

[F] 1919 - Centralia Massacre: American Legion 'patriots' attack and destroy an IWW labour hall in Centralia, Washington. Five of their number are killed. Later the same day, Wesley Everest, a WWI veteran and IWW organiser, is seized from the local jail, tortured and lynched. [expand]

1922 - Huelga General de Guayaquil: Artisans and builders now join the strike. [see: Nov. 6 & 8]

1924 - At the Sixth Congress of Trade Unions (VI съезд профсоюзов), November 11-18, 1924, the first following the formation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the All-Russian Central Council of Trade Unions (Всесоюзный центральный совет профессиональных союзов) is renamed as the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions (Всесоюзный центральный совет профессиональных союзов). It would remain in place until October 29, 1990, when it was abolished.

1929 - Hans Magnus Enzensberger, German author, poet, playwright, essayist, translator and editor, born. A utopian anarchist because he believes that all political systems are systems of domination: "politics equals crime!" ['Politik und Verbrechen'; 1964] He has also written under the pseudonym Andreas Thalmayr. Expelled from the Hitler Youth for being, in his own words, "incapable of being a good comrade".
He wrote 2 novels on Spanish anarchism: 'Das Verhor von Habana' (Hearings from Havana; 1970) and 'Der Kurze Sommer der Anarchie. Buenaventura Durrutis Leben und Tod' (The Short Summer of Anarchy. Buenaventura Durruti's Life and Death; 1972), the later he also made into a film, 'Durruti – Biographie einer Legende' (1972), writing, producing and directing it.

1942 - A group of 22 prisoners, led by Stefan Finkiel escape from the Lipowa Street camp in Lublin with arms taken by force from their German guards.

1943 - Gusta 'Tova' Dawidson Draenger aka 'Justyna' (1917), Polish Jewish member of the anti-Nazi rsistance in the Kraków ghetto and author of the posthumously published 'Justina’s Diary' [published in part in Poland in 1946 as 'Pamiętnik Justyny'; in full as 'גוסטה 'דוידזון דרנגר' (1953) in Israel and reprinted in English as 'Justyna’s Narrative' (1996)], is executed alongside her husband Shimshon 'Marek' Draenger (b. 1917) by the Germans in the Wiśnicz forest outside of Kraków, effectively signalling the end of ŽOB activities in the city.
A member of the Akiva youth movement, she was the editor of Akiva’s newspaper 'Tze’irim' (Youth), as well as a record keeper for the movement and a member of the central committee. When the movement’s older leadership fled to Palestine in 1939, she was amongst the group's younger members who chose to remain behind in Krakow to fight the Nazis, and would join with the Dror group in the ghetto to form the He-Haluz ha-Lohem (Fighting Organisation of the Pioneering Jewish Youth) under the mantle of the Žydowska Organizacja Bojowa (ŽOB; Jewish Fighting Organisation).
Gusta was involved in organising a network of safehouses outside of Krakow so that they could be used by fighters after each action taken against the Nazis. She was also adept at forging identity documents for members of the movement, enabling them to move freely among the various ghettos. Sale of these papers to those who wished to leave the ghetto constituted a source of income for the underground. On January 18, 1943, Marek was arrested in the wake of the Cyganeria operation on December 22, 1942 [when a grenade attack on a popular hang-out of the Germans by resistance fighters killed at least seven German officers and wounded many more], and Gusta set out to find him, only for the Gestapo to arrest her too. On April 29, 1943, she took part in the escape staged by prisoners at Montelupich prison as they were being taken to the 'Hill of Death' [Hujowa Górka (Prick Hill)] at the nearby Płaszow concentration camp for execution. She was one of only two women to escape (Mire Golą being the other). Marek was also luck enough escape and the couple were reunited at Bochnia before moving on to a group bunker in the forest at Nowy Wiśnicz, from where they produced their underground newspaper, 'He-Haluz ha-Lohem' (The Fighting Pioneer).
On November 8, 1943, Shimshon Draenger was captured as he attempted to collect forged documents that the couple planned to use to cross into Hungary. When Justyna learnt that he had been arrested, in accordance with the pair's pact, she decided to give herself up. However, on November 11, 1943, the Gestapo arrived and arrested her and it is assumed that she died later that day or soon afterwards.

1946 - Selina Cooper (b. 1864), English mill worker, trade union activist, Suffragist, anti-fascist and the first woman to represent the Independent Labour Party in 1901, when she was elected as a Poor Law Guardian, dies. [see: Dec. 4]

1949 - Juan Vilella Peralba aka 'Moreno', his daugter Lourdes Vilella Soler and son-in-law José Bertobillo Moles Delgado, José Puertas Puertas, and Miguel and Jaime Guitó Gramunt. Vilella Peralba was accused of allowing his farm to used as a base for the anarchist guerilla Marcelino Massana Bancells aka 'Pancho', and the rest of collaborating with Pancho. All were horribly tortured by the Guardia Civil in Berga and, on November 14, Juan Vilella, José Bartobillo and José Puertas were taken to the nearby Vilada bridge and murdered (ley de fugas).

[D] 1956 - 1956-os Forradalom [Hungarian Revolution]: The longest sustained armed resistance by independence fighters was in the Csepel (XXI.) district of Budapest and, with its occupation, the armed resistance is finally ended after 7 days. János Kádár makes his first radio speech since November 4, declaring that the revolt had been crushed.
At the end of the fighting, Hungarian casualties totalled at around 2,500 dead with an additional 20,000 wounded. Budapest bore the brunt of the bloodshed, with 1,569 civilians killed. Approximately 53 percent of the dead were workers, and about half of all the casualties were people younger than thirty. On the Soviet side, 699 men were killed, 1,450 men were wounded, and 51 men were missing in action. Estimates place around 80 percent of all casualties occurring in fighting with the insurgents in the eighth and ninth districts of Budapest.

1961 - Joseph Heller's novel 'Catch-22' is first published.

1961 - Vasily Vasilevich Kamensky (Васи́лий Васи́льевич Каме́нский; b. 1884), Russian Futurist poet, playwright, artist and pioneer Russian aviator, dies. [see: Apr. 17]

1964 - Juan de Dios Filiberto (Oscar Juan de Dios Filiberti Rubaglio;b. 1885), Argentine anarcho-syndicalist, instrumentalist (piano, guitar, violin and harmonium), conductor, poet and composer, who became prominent in the Argentine tango genre, dies. [see: Mar. 8]

[B] 1968 - Gorki Águila (Gorki Luis Águila Carrasco), Cuban punk rock musician, dissident and anarchist sympathiser, born. He is leader of the band Porno para Ricardo.

1970 - Declaration by Guy Debord, René Riesel and René Viénet announcing the formation of a tendency within the Situationist International.
"As for us here, we can take part in the SI only if we don’t need it. We must first of all be self-sufficient; then, secondarily, we may lucidly combine our specific (and specified) desires and possibilities for a collective action which, on that condition, may be the correct continuation of the SI..." - Guy Debord, 28 January 1971.

1971 - Haverstock Street, Islington, raided. Angie Weir arrested, taken to Albany Street and charged with conspiracy to cause explosions. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1978 - Gay San Francisco city supervisor Harvey Milk and mayor George Moscone are assassinated by ex-supervisor Dan White.

1981 - Greta Kuckhoff (b. 1902), member of the German Resistance group, the Red Orchestra during the Nazi era, dies. [see: Dec. 14]

1989 - Esther Dolgoff (Esther Miller; d. 1989), US anarchist activist, member of the IWW and life companion of Sam Dolgoff, dies. [see: Jan. 7 / Dec. 25]

2000 - Julia Miravé Barrau [sometimes rendered as Miravet, Mirabé Vallejo, Mirabé Barreau, etc.] (b. 1911), Spainish anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and member of the anti-Franco resistance, dies. [see: Jan. 20]

2007 - Carlos Javier Palomino (b. 1991), a young Spanish anti-fascist on his way to a protest against a local neo-Nazi party, Democracia Nacional, is stabbed to death by a neo-Nazi on Madrid Metro. Having called a protest "anti-Spanish racism", Madrid antifa organised a counter-demonstration against the Democracia Nacional rally. On their way to it, a small group of antifa encountered some of the neo-Nazis in or near a train station. A fight broke out, and 16-year-old Carlos was stabbed to death, and a number of others (perhaps six) injured. Josué Estébanez de la Hija, a 23-year-old soldier, who eventually sentenced to 26 years in prison for the murder.

[C] 2013 - During the annual nationalist Independence March, a few hundred strong breakaway group of fascists attacks Przychodnia squat in Warsaw. Squatters defend themselves with rocks, bottles and molotov cocktails and, despite the building suffering damage, they manage to defend it successfully during the half an hour assault.
[B] 1853 - Leopold Hermann Oskar Panizza (d. 1921), German anarchist, psychiatrist, avant-garde author, playwright, novelist, poet, essayist, publisher and literary journal editor, born.

1858 - [N.S. Nov. 24] Marie Bashkirtseff (Maria Konstantinovna Bashkirtseva [Мари́я Константи́новна Башки́рцева]; d. 1884), Ukrainian-French painter, sculptor, diarist and feminist, who wrote a number of mysandrist articles for Hubertine Auclert's newspaper 'La Citoyenne' under the pseudonym Pauline Orrel, born. [see: Nov. 24]
"Let us love dogs, let us love only dogs! Men and cats are unworthy creatures."

1871 - The anarchist Jura Federation adopts a constitution designed to counter the Marxist influence within the First International.

1878 - [O.S. Oct. 31] Vera Vladimirovna Vannovsky (Вера Владимировна Ванновская; d. 1961), Russian revolutionary, member of Lenin's League of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class (Союз борьбы за освобождение рабочего класса) group in St. Petersburg and later of the RSDLP group 'Will' (Воля), born. Her father V.I. Yakovenko (В. И. Яковенко) was a member of Black Partition (Чёрный_передел).

1884 - John Graudenz (Johannes Graudenz; d. 1942), German press photographer and resistance fighter in anti-Nazi Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra) resistance group, born. One of the founding members of the Kommunistischen Arbeiterpartei (Communist Workers' Party) in 1921 and travelled extensively in the Soviet Union. There he witness the hunger and misery endemic under the regime and was subsequently expelled from the country because of his public criticism of the situation. In 1928 he and Franz Jung founded the Berlin photo agency Dephot and from 1928 to 1932 he worked for the 'New York Times'. In 1933 he began making contacts with various resistance groups, as well as maintaining those that he already had with Franz Jung and the Roten Kämpfern (Red Fighters). He also helped the daughter of Jung's old friend the anarchist Otto Gross escape the country. In the spring of 1939, via Jung's contacts, he joined the Schulze-Boysen circle and began participating in the Berlin Rote Kapelle group's activities, writing and printing pamplets and leaflets and secretly obtaining information on the latest aviation technology.
John Graudenz was arrested on September 12, 1942 and on December 19, 1942 the Reich Court Martial sentenced him to death. Three days later he was hanged in Plötzensee prison.

1893 - The first issue of the satirical newspaper 'L'Escarmouche', created by Georges Darien involving Henri-Gabriel Ibels, is published in Paris.

1895 - The first issue of the French language 'Le Cyclone', "Organe Communiste Anarchiste", is published in Buenos Aires.

[D] 1905 - [O.S. Oct. 30] Vladivostok Uprising [Владивостокские Восстания]: A ban imposed on junior ranks attending meetings and rallies and leaving the barracks to go to the city aroused general indignation. So, when 2,000 sailors appeared in the streets, they were joined by 10,000 soldiers of the Khabarovsk Reserve Regiment (by the fall of 1905 the Vladivostok garrison numbered 60,000 men). Rioting broke out spontaneously, and shops in the bazaar were smashed up and set on fire. The small military units called up by the garrison commander refused to shoot at the rebels, and some soldiers crossed over to the other side. In the evening, the rebels continued to set fire to parts of the city. Matrosskaya Sloboda (Матросская слобода), the district military court, the Orsk Assembly(орское собрание), and numerous shops were burned. Reactionary elements, fired up by the Black Hundreds 'chernosotentsy' and encouraged by some of the tsarist authorities in an attempt to discredit the revolutionaries, began looting food and vodka shops and setting fire to Jewish homes and businesses.
The following day, the rebels, many of whom were now drunk, had managed to capture the brig, the military prison and guard house, destroying them and freeing the prisoners. By the end of November 13th nearly all of Vladivostok was in their hands. However, despite the fact that the Tsarist troops sent against them refused to fire on them, they were unable to take advantage of the situation. The sailors and soldiers did not have strong leadership and the revolutionary organisations in the city were weak and few in number. So, whilst they spontaneously rioted, smashing everything around them, the authorities managed to easily put down the rebellion by the simple tactics of moving some of the military units out of the city, whilst promising to fulfill some of the requirements of the rebels, thereby quietening the revolutionary mood of the riots.
A second and much larger uprising in the city followed shortly afterwards, mirroring the uprising that started in Moscow in December 1905, and which spread across the whole of the country leading to its bloody suppression by tsarist forces.

1908 - Albert Libertad (aka Albert Joseph) (b. 1875), French individualist anarchist militant, one-legged street orator and rough-and-tumble brawler, who used his crutches as a weapon, dies. Founded the influential anarchist publication 'L’Anarchie'.
​[Costantini pic]

1912 - In Madrid, Spanish anarchist Manuel Pardiñas assassinates President José Canalejas, then commits suicide in revenge for Canalejas' actions the previous September, when he had ended a general railways strike by conscripting all railway-workers into the army.

1912 - Black Tuesday / Waihi Miners' Strike: In May 1912 the New Zealand Federation of Labour, aka the 'Red Feds', had gone on strike in protest at the formation of a breakaway union for engine-drivers, which they alleged was backed by the company. The local police had adopted a low profile in the dispute, but were overruled by the tough Police Commissioner John Cullen, who ordered extra forces to be sent to the town. Eventually about 80 police – 10% of the New Zealand Police Force – were deployed in the town. Leading strikers were arrested, and more than 60 were imprisoned. The Red Fed leaders began to lose control of the strike as workers influenced by the radical American-based Industrial Workers of the World demanded more militant action.
In October the company reopened the mines with non-union labour. Travelling to and from work under police protection, the 'scabs' were showered with stones and taunts by the striking miners and their wives, who took an increasingly prominent role. Escalating violence in Waihī culminated in the dramatic events of 'Black Tuesday', when a crowd of strike-breakers and police stormed the miners' hall, at the time defended by just three or four men. Amongst them was Fred Evans, one of the leading strikers wo had faced arrest during the strike. Both sides were armed. What happened next is still disputed, but during a struggle at the door, a scab called Thomas Johnston was shot in the knee, possibly by Evans or another striker. A police constable, Gerald Wade, was shot in the stomach, but managed to fell Evans with his baton. According to some witnesses, Evans went down under a barrage of boots and blows.
Left for an hour and a half in police cells before being taken to hospital, Evans never regained consciousness and died the next day. Johnston's injuries were slight, but Constable Wade faced a long, difficult recovery, carrying a bullet near his spine for the rest of his life. As the strike collapsed, strikers and their families were hunted through the streets by armed mobs. The violence was as vicious as any seen in a civil conflict in New Zealand, and hundreds of people fled Waihī over the following days.
The Red Feds gave Evans a massive political funeral in Auckland. If Evans had shot a policeman as was claimed, Red Fed leader Bob Semple thundered, then he was "doing his duty and should have shot more of them."
Each year a commemorative service is held at his grave in Auckland's Waikaraka Cemetery.

1914 - Revolución Mexicana: Emiliano Zapata declares war on Venustiano Carranza.

1920 - Vladimiro Muñoz (d. 2004), Spanish anarchist propagandist and historian, born.

1921 - Gunnar Dyrberg (d. 2012), member of the Danish resistance movement during World War II, leading the Holger Danske, a Danish resistance group in the capital Copenhagen (1943-45), born

1922 - Huelga General de Guayaquil: The two lawyers chosen to represnt the strikers' Gran Asamblea de Trabajadores returned to the assembly to get the workers' approval of a settlement in which the management agreed to their demands, but would double trolley fares. At the same time, members of Confederación Obrera del Guayas (Guayas Confederation of Workers) presented a petition to the assembly calling for a moratorium (limit) on exchange rates. The assembly rejected the settlement, and added the call for the moratorium to their list of demands, in addition to a call for a seven-person governmental committee (four of whom would be workers) to work on helping solve the economic crisis. Governor Pareja promised to send this new demand on to President Tamayo. [see: Nov. 6 & 8]

1924 - The Anarchist Red Cross hold a benefit show at the Jewish Art Theater at 27th St. and Fourth Avenue in New York. Outings and dinners were also organised for the benefit of the political prisoners in Russia.

1926 - José Nakens Pérez (b. 141), Spanish journalist, radical republican, insurectionist, anticlerical, writer and poet, dies. [see: Nov. 21]

[F] 1928 - Matanza de las Bananeras [Banana Massacre] / Santa Maria Massacre: One of the most notorious strikes by United Fruit workers breaks out on the Caribbean coast of Colombia, near Santa Marta. During early November, the discontent among the more than 25,000 workers on the banana plantations of the United Fruit Company had turned into a united effort with a well-organised strike against the massive American corporation, with demands for a direct written contract with the company, six-day working weeks, eight-hour days, medical care and the elimination of scrips, food coupons that were only good at company stores, that were paid to the workers instead of cash. The strike ended on December 6 with the Matanza de las Bananeras, when up to 2000 people were mown-down by the army's machineguns, an event that took centre stage in Gabriel Garcia Marquez’s 1967 masterwork 'One Hundred Years of Solitude'.

1931 - William Barbotin (pseudonym of Joseph Barbotin; b. 1861), French painter, sculptor, engraver and libertarian, linked to anarchist geographer Elisée Reclus, dies. [see: Aug. 25]

1937 - Francis Vielé-Griffin (b. 1864), US-born French symbolist poet and anarchist, dies. [see: May 26]

1940 - Jacky Toublet (b. 1940), French anarcho-syndicalist, militant, director of the weekly 'Le Monde Libertaire', son of Julien Toublet, born. He worked on Radio Libertaire and on the CNT's 'Les Temps Maudits'.

1946 - Elisa Acuña y Rossetti (María Elisa Brígida Lucía Acuña Rosete; b. 1872), Mexican professor, journalist, revolutionary and anarcha-feminist, dies of cancer. [see: Oct. 8]

1951 - Konstantin Biebl (b. 1898), Czech proletarian poet and Poetist, dies. [see: Feb. 26]

1961 - The first issue of 'Despertar', the internal newsletter of the Spanish CNT in exile and dedicated to the culture and social information, whose editor is Federica Montseny, is produced in Toulouse.

1968 - Jules-Félix Grandjouan (b. 1875), French libertarian, revolutionary syndicalist, painter, caricaturist, illustrator and poster artist, dies. [see: Dec. 22]

[E] 1977 - Ingrid Schubert (b. 1944), German doctor and one of the founding members of the Rote Armee Fraktion, is found hanging in her cell, a supposed Stadelheim 'suicide'. On the Thursday before her death she had assured her lawyer that she had no intention of committing suicide. As in the case of Meinhof and Ensslin the autopsy did not indicate the usual signs of death by hanging. [see: Nov. 7]

[C] 1978 - 3,208 police officers are deployed to marshall an anti-fascist demonstration against the annual display of hypocrisy that is the National Front Remembrance Sunday march, which took place from Bressenden Place to the Cenotaph in London. Twenty eight people are arrested and four police officers injured. [The figures come from 'Hansard' and, as is traditional, do not include how many suffered injuries at the hands of the cops.]

[A] 1984 - US Plowshares protesters, including Helen Woodson, a mother of eleven children and founder of the Gaudete Peace and Justice Center from Madison, Wisconsin, target a Minuteman II nuclear-missile silo in Missouri, taking a pneumatic drill to the silo cap. Four activists are arrested and, in March 1985, they are convicted of conspiracy, destruction of government property, and intent to damage the national defence. Their prison sentences range from eight to 18 years.

1984 - Marcel Body (Jean Alexandre Body; b. 1894), French typographer, Bolshevik, translator and later, anarchist, dies. [see: Oct. 23]

1989 - Dolores Ibárruri aka 'La Pasionaria' (the Passionflower) (Isidora Dolores Ibárruri Gómez; b. 1895), Basque, seamstress, maid and Marxist, who gained fame as a Spanish Communist political leader during the Second Spanish Republic and, in particular, the Civil War, gaining her legendary reputation as an impassioned orator, coining the Republican battle cry, "No pasarán!" (They shall not pass!), dies of pneumonia, aged 93. [see: Dec. 9]

1990 - A march of 100,000 school students through Paris demanding better education provision ends in looting and rioting.

1990 - Police evict three homeless squats in the Pfarrstrasse and the Cotheniusstrasse in Berlin Following protest actions in the Friedrichshain neighbourhood, water cannons begin to spray 12 squatted houses in the Mainzerstrasse. A riot starts and last into the night, forcing the police to retreat.

1991 - Dili (or Santa Cruz) Massacre: Indonesian troops fire on an East Timorese pro-independence demonstration. At least 250 are killed and television pictures of the massacre are shown worldwide.

1992 - Lucien Bernizet (b. 1903), French militant anarchist, pacifist and Mason, dies. [see: Jun. 16]

1998 - Renato Lacquaniti (b. 1932), Italian anarchist, anti-militarist and painter, dies. One of the co-founders of the artistic group 'Atoma' (created in the local group of the Anarchist Federation of Livorno) and in 1960 painted 'Composizioni Anarchiche'. [see: Mar. 6]

2005 - The International Centre for Research on Anarchism (CIRA) celebrates its fortieth anniversary in Marseilles, along with the chance to commemorate the hundredth anniversary of the famous trial of Alexandre Marius Jacob.

2010 - Carmen Bueno Uribes (b. 1918), Spanish nurse and midwife, and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: May 11]

2011 - Berlusconi resigns as Prime Minister of Italy.

2013 - Terry Smith, 33, is arrested on suspicion of a drugs-related offence but is then detained under the Mental Health Act by police in Stanwell, Surrey at about 22:00 GMT, after a call for assistance from an ambulance crew. Partially clothed, he is taken under restraint to Staines Police Station where he is arrested and continues to be restrained. 'Taken ill', he is moved to St Peter's Hospital, Chertsey, where he dies approx. 24 hours after being detained. On Nov. 19, the IPCC announce a criminal investigation into eight Surrey Police officers and two police staff for potential offences including gross negligence manslaughter.
[E] 1806 - Countess Emilia Plater (Emilija Pliaterytė / Emilia Platerówna; d. 1831), Polish-Lithuanian noblewoman and revolutionary, who fought in the November 1830 Uprising against the Russians as a captain in the Polish insurgent forces (the highest rank awarded to a woman at that time), born. She would later become a national heroine Polish, Belarus and Lithuania.

1811 - Luddite Timeline: Mass Luddite attack at Sutton-in-Ashfield.

[EE] 1851 - [O.S. Nov. 1] Élisabeth Dmitrieff [Елизавета Дмитриева] (Elizaveta Loukinitcha Koucheleva [Елизавета Лукинична Кушелева]; d. 1910 or 1918*), Russian actress and feminist activist and Pétroleuse, who fought during the 1871 Commune de Paris, born. The illegitimate daughter of German nurse and a Tsarist officer and land owner, from a young age she was invloved in socialist circles in St. Petersburg. In 1868, Elizaveta contracted a marriage to a retired Colonel M.N. Tomanovski (М.Н. Томановским), who was already terminally ill with tuberculosis (and who died soon after, in order to go abroad.
Soon after, she moved to Switzerland where she participated in the creation of the Russian Section of the International (AIT). In late June 1870 Elisabeth moved to London, where she became friends with Karl Marx and his daughter Jenny and was active in the AIT there. Following the proclamation of the Paris Commune, Élisabeth Dmitrieff, then still only 20 years old, was sent to the French capital in March 1871 by Karl Marx on a fact-finding missions. There she participated in the unionisation of workers and was one of the most active leaders, along with the likes of Nathalie Lemel, with whom she was the main facilitator, of the Union des femmes pour la défense de Paris et les soins des blessés (Women's Union for the Defence of Paris and the care of the wounded), dealing with policy issues and especially with the organisation of cooperative workshops. She later took part in the street fighting during the Semaine Sanglante, after which she managed to escape and return to Russia, possibly via Geneva. She later married Ivan Mikhailovich Davydovsky (Ивана Михайловича Давыдовского), who was eventually deported to Siberia in 1877 for his criminal activities, despite the intervention of Marx. Élisabeth followed him there and in 1905, when Davydov was pardoned, the family returned to Moscow. Nothing is know of Élisabeth Dmitrieff after that date, and she is presumed to have died in either 1910 or 1918.
[*sources vary]
[Élisabeth_DmitrieffМарксизм/Дмитриева femmes/gdes-femmes4-2.html,fr,8,58.cfmКлуб_червонных_валетов]

1882 - François Le Levé (d. 1945), French militant anarcho-syndicalist, born. One of the 15 who signed the 'Manifeste des Seize', along with Kropotkin, Grave and others, favouring the Allies during WWI. A member of the Résistance during WWII, he was captured and interned.
[ leve]

1887 - Bloody Sunday: Three people are killed and 200 injured during a public meeting in Trafalgar Square against coercion in Ireland and to demand the release from prison of MP William O'Brien, imprisoned for incitement. Amongst those present included Walter Crane, William Morris, H. H. Hyndman, George Bernard Shaw, Annie Besant and John Burns.

1887 - Over 20,000 workers join the funeral march for the Haymarket anarchists. [expand]

[B] 1887 - William Morris' 'A Dream of John Ball' begins serialisation in 'The Commonweal' [Nov. 13, 1886 - Jan. 22, 1887].

1893 - Fasci Siciliani Uprising: A fascio dei lavoratori is formed in Giardinello with a peasant Giuseppe Piazza named as its president. Immediately after his election as president, Piazza had submitted a request for reduction of taxes on bread, on vehicles and on duties of consumption. The Mayor Angelo Caruso, after promising to ease the harshest levies, actually tightened enforcement. The first explosion of discontent occurred December 3, 1893 with the demonstration of protest against the mayor who had signed an agreement with the Duke of Aumale about the waters from the Scorsone spring without provision for the building of public washing facilities promised by the Duke, a washhouse was essential for the needs of the population.

1893 - Leon-Jules Léauthier, a young anarchist shoe-maker, stabs and seriously wounds the minister of Serbia in Paris. Condemned (23 February 1894) to life in prison, where he was killed during the suppression of the October 21, 1894 prison uprising at Iles du Salut.

1903 - Camille Pissarro (b. 1830), French Impressionist painter, anarchist, contributor to the magazine 'Le Temps Nouveaux', dies. [see: Jul. 10]

[D] 1905 - [O.S. Oct. 31] Vladivostok Uprising [Владивостокские Восстания]: The rebels, many of whom were now drunk, captured the brig, the military prison and guard house, destroying them and freeing the prisoners. By the end of the day nearly all of Vladivostok was in their hands. However, despite the fact that the Tsarist troops sent against them refused to fire on them, they were unable to take advantage of the situation. The sailors and soldiers did not have strong leadership and the revolutionary organizations in the city were weak and few in number. So, whilst they spontaneously rioted, smashing everything around them, the authorities managed to easily put down the rebellion by simply promising to fulfill some of the requirements of the rebels, thereby quietening the revolutionary mood of the riots.

1905 - [O.S. Oct. 31] Markovo Republic: Peasants in the 'Markovo Republic' (Марково Республика) 150 kilometers outside Moscow declare themselves independent of Russia, announcing via a resolution (prigovor) that henceforth they will refuse to obey the established authority, pay taxes or rents, or provide any conscripts for the draft.

1909 - The first issue of 'Solidaridad Obrera', "Periódico Sindicalista - Organo de las Sociedades Resistencia Gijónesas", is published in Gijón. It replaces the paper of the same name published in Barcelona which was forced to move after the Semaine Tragique. Initilly fortnightly, it becomes a weekly from issue number eight (29 January 1910).

1912 - Wiesław Protschke aka 'Wieslaw' (d. 1945), Polish syndicalist and anti-Soviet and anti-Nazi fighter, born in Lemberg, Lwiw, the son of an architect. Graduated from the law faculty of Jan Kazimierz University in Lwiw. During his studies, he co-operated with the 'Sygnaly' (Signals) periodical. From 1935-39, he was an activist in Związku Polskiej Młodzieży Demokratycznej (ZPMD; Union of Polish Democratic Youth) and the Robotniczego Instytutu Oświaty i Kultury (RIOK; Workers Institute of Education and Culture). Great propagator of cooperative ideas of the political philosopher Edward Abramowski (a famous Polish anti-state socialist). A member of the Związku Związków Zawodowych (ZZZ; Union of Workers Unions) and of the editorial staff of 'Front Robotniczy' (Workers’ Front), 'Głos Pracownika Umysłowego' (Intellectual Workers’ Voice), the ZZZ paper (1934-37), and 'Przebudowa' (Reconstruction), the ZPMD paper. His article 'Bakunin – the freedom fighter' in 'Front Robotniczy' was the cause of his conflict with Stanisław 'Cat' Mackiewicz (famous conservative and monarchist editor of the paper 'Słowo') who appealed for police intervention against "Bolsheviks in ZZZ". In November 1939, together with Bolesław Stein, he founded the underground anti-Soviet organization Rewolucyjny Zwiazek Niepodleglosci i Wolnosci (Revolutionary Union of Independence and Freedom) which was created by syndicalists, socialists and peasant organisation members. The organisation was destroyed in January 1940 as a result of the arrests of the NKVD. From 1940, Protschke was chair of the Central Committee of the Syndykalistyczna Organizacja 'Wolność' (SOW-a; Syndicalist Organisation 'Freedom'). During WWII, he was working in publishing cooperative Czytelnik (Reader) in Krakow. Protschke, together with Tomasz Pilarski aka 'Tomasz Pilarski', represented SOW-a on the Centralny Komitet Ludowy (CKL; Central Committee of the People). After unification of the military division of SOW-a with the Armia Krajowa (AK; Home Army), he became a political officer of AK. In September 1944, during Warsaw Uprising he was arrested and sent to Auschwitz concentration camp, then to Mauthausen, where he was murdered in the Melk sub-camp in January 1945.

1922 - Huelga General de Guayaquil: The Federación Regional de Trabajadores del Ecuador seizes control of the city's urban centre of the city, assuming the functions of police security, although they did not force the withdrawal of the public force. The Assembly declares a general strike across the city. [see: Nov. 6 & 8]

1938 - Jean Dorothy Seberg (d. 1979), US actress, who was effectively blacklisted and became a major target for the FBI's COINTELPRO program for her support of the Black Panther Party, and ultimately drove her to suicide, born. A regular provider of financial support to the NAACP and Native American school groups, she also gave a number of large donations to the Panthers' various projects, such as their Free Breakfast for School Children program. Deciding to 'neutraliser' her, and having discovered via a phone tap that she was pregnant, the FBI planted a story in the press that Seberg's child had not been fathered by her husband, French writer and diplomat Romain Gary, but by Raymond 'Masai' Hewittt, the party's minister of information, who had (with Elaine Brown) been Seberg's Panther contact. [At the time, both Elaine Brown and Masai's wife, Ester Soriano, were pregnant with children by Masai, something that may also have been discovered by phone taps.] The story was reported in May 1970 by gossip columnist Joyce Haber of the 'Los Angeles Times', and was also reprinted by 'Newsweek' magazine:
"Let us call her Miss A… She is beautiful and she’s blond…
… According to those really “in” international sources, Topic A is the baby Miss A is expecting, and its father. Papa’s said to be a rather prominent Black Panther."
Seberg went into premature labour and, on August 23, 1970, gave birth to a 4 lb (1.8 kg) baby girl, Nina Hart Gary. The child died two days later. Seberg and Gary later sued 'Newsweek' for libel and defamation, winning damages. Seberg never fully recovered from the trauma and on September 8, 1979, nine days after she had mysteriously disappeared from her Paris home, her decomposing body was found wrapped in a blanket in the back seat of her Renault, parked close to her Paris apartment in the 16th arrondissement. Next to her was a bottle of barbiturates, an empty mineral water bottle and a suicide note.

1962 - Kidnap of Spanish Vice-Consul Isu Elias: On the first day of the trial of the kidnappers of the Spanish vice-consul in Milan, fugitive Amedeo Bertolo manages to get right inside the courtroom in Varese, despite the massive presence of Carabinieri. There he surrenders to the judges.

1964 - Georges Marie Valentin Vidal (b. 1903), French anarchist, poet, novelist and proofreader, dies. [see: Apr. 24]

1968 - André Prudhommeaux (b. 1902), French communist, then an anarchist, agronomist, editor of 'Le Libertaire' and 'Le Monde Libertaire', dies after a long illness. [see: Oct. 15]

1969 - Lori Helene Berenson, US journalist and political activist convicted in Peru in 1996 for working with the Movimiento Revolucionario Túpac Amaru (Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement), born. Pulled off a public bus on November 30, 1995 after leaving the Peruvian Congress building together with awoman who Berenson said she’d hired as a photographer for assignments for two American publications that she was working on, she was arrested when the other woman turned out to be the wife of Nestor Cerpa, a leader of the MRTA. Tried in a closed courtroom by a military tribunal on a charge of treason against the fatherland (sic) for leadership of a terrorist organisation, she was convicted on all charges and sentenced to life in prison on January 11, 1996, just six weeks after her arrest. [expand]

[A] 1973 - The Heath government declares a state of emergency (the fifth in 3 years) following a ban on overtime by electricity and coal workers.

[F] 1974 - American chemical technician, union activist and whistleblower Karen Gay Silkwood (b. 1946) dies under "mysterious circumstances" while en route to a meeting with an Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Union health and safety staffer and a 'New York Times' investigative reporter. She was bringing them documents proving that the company she worked for – Kerr-McGee Nuclear Corporation – had falsified quality control records of nuclear fuel rods. [see: Feb. 19]

1975 - Golpe de 25 de Novembro: As what can be seen as a prelude to the forthcoming coup and one of the last acts of the verão quente (hot summer) of left-right tensions, building workers go on strike in Portugal. 30,000 march to the Parliament in Sao Bento, Lisbon, blockading it and trapping Ministers inside, an event often called the 'cerco a S. Bento' (siege of St. Benedict). The government, swayed by Mário Soares' claim that there was a threat of a 'communist assault' on the Constituent Assembly ("I went to a window and realized that a true paramilitary militia, which ringed the protesters, was preparing to occupy certain key positions near the exits"), called on COPCON (Comando Operacional do Continente / Continental Operations Command) to save them, but COPCON troops having turned up, refuse to intervene. The workers are demanding higher wages, nationalisation of the main sites and a collective contract. They refuse to compromise, and when the Prime Minister told them he had to leave to attend an important meeting, they told him to stuff his meeting. At 01:00 in the following morning the Prime Minister caved in and accepted all their demands. As a result, the Socialists called for Brigadier General Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho to be sacked for COPCON’s failure to defend the government. The bourgeois government felt under threat, not only from the events taking place on the streets but also with the growing rumours of a left-wing coup, which sectors of the right were activiely preparing to counter. The verão quente was coming to the boil!
[ de Novembro]

1984 - Valentina Sáez Izquierdo aka Valentina del Olmo (d. 1984), Spanish anarchist militant, dies. [see: Feb. 14]

1991 - Catina Ciullo (Caterina D'Amico Willman; d. 1991), Italian-American anarchist and anti-fascist activist, dies. [see: Apr. 26]

1994 - Enrique Marco Nadal (b. 1914), Valencian CNT militant and anti-fascist, who fought with the Iron Column during the Spanish Revolution of 1936, dies. After leaving Spain he fought with other exiles for the Allies during WWII, captured at Colmar and sent to the Langwasser camp in Nurenberg. Following the war Marco joined the anti-fascist underground in Spain and was secretary of the clandestine National Committee of CNT inside Spain from May 1946 to April 1947. Betrayed, he was arrested on May 27, 1947, and condemned to death in 1949, but his sentence was commuted to 30 years imprisonment. He then spent 17 years in Franco’s jails. Author of 'Todos contra Franco. La Alianza Nacional de Fuerzas Democráticas, 1944-1947' (All against Franco: National Alliance of Democratic Forces, 1944-1947; 1982) and the autobiographical 'Condenado a Muerte' (Sentenced to Death; 1966).

[AA] 1995 - At HMP Full Sutton, a high security dispersal prison, up to 250 prisoners go on work strike against the introduction of the new Incentives and Earned Privileges Scheme, a pernicious carrot and stick (light on the former and heavy on the latter, needless to say) prisoner discipline system created following the Strangeways riot.

[C] 2005 - Timur Vladimirovich Kacharava (Тиму́р Влади́мирович Качара́ва; b. 1985), Russian member of the punk/hardcore band Sandinista!, anti-fascist activist and participant in Food Not Bombs, is murdered by a group of about 10 neo-Nazi skinheads after a Food not Bombs action in Vladimirskaya Square in the centre of St. Petersburg. His friend Max 'Zgibov' Zgibai was also attacked and has been hospitalised with serious injuries.

2008 - The 300 strong Totobiegosode tribe won a legal battle to stop their land being cleared for cattle ranches in what we know as Paraguay.

2010 - Luis García-Berlanga Martí (b. 1921), Spanish screenwriter, film director, actor and anarchist, dies. [see: Jun. 12]

2010 - In line for an honorary Oscar at today's award ceremony, Jean-Luc Godard backs out following a sustained campaign against his alleged anti-Semitism (i.e. his anti-Zionism) in the US press.

2014 - Tanisha Anderson, a 37-year-old schizophrenic black woman, dies after being restrained face down on the ground by Cleveland police after her family had requested that they escort her to a hospital to undergo a psychiatric evaluation. Her death was ruled a homicide by the Cuyahoga County Medical Examiner's Office on January 2, 2015.
2014 - Tanisha Anderson, a 37-year-old schizophrenic black woman, dies after being restrained face down on the ground by Cleveland police after her family had requested that they escort her to a hospital to undergo a psychiatric evaluation. Her death was ruled a homicide by the Cuyahoga County Medical Examiner's Office on January 2, 2015.
[FF] ca. 1152 BCE* - Strike at Deir el-Medina under Ramses III: On the 10th day of the second month of Prt^, in the 29th year of Ramesses III's reign (ca. 1184–ca. 1153 BC), the scribe Amennakhte personally delivered a formal complaint about this situation to the Temple of Horemheb, part of the large administrative complex of Medinet Habu. Although a payment was forthcoming soon after, the poor conditions continued and in the sixth month of that year*, the men of the two work gangs, hereditary craftsmen who worked on the Royal Necropolis and other pharaonic tombs at Deir el-Medina (in the area known as the Valley of the Kings), stopped worked and marched together to one of the royal mortuary temples, perhaps Tuthmosis III, where they staged what would now be called a sit-in, the first recorded strike in history. They wrote a letter to the vizier complaining about the lack of wheat rations. Village leaders attempted to reason with them but they refused to return to work until their grievances were addressed. They responded to the elders with "great oaths". "We are hungry", the crews claimed: "Eighteen days have passed this month" and they still had not received their rations. They were forced to buy their own wheat. They repeated their protests on the following day within the complex of another temple, possibly Ramesses II, and possibly a third, that of Seti I, until the men's complaints were recorded by the priests and sent across the river to Thebes. Only then were the rations owed finally distributed, but the events of this strike would be repeated before the reign of Ramesses III ended.
[*NB: Interpretations of the papyrus texts vary and another possible date is Nov. 23 1170 BCE]
[^Prt, the Season of the Emergence = winter in a 30 day / 12 lunar month / 3 season year.]
[ el Medina/pages/deir_el_medina_4.htm]

1817 - Policarpa Salavarrieta aka 'La Pola' (María Policarpa Salavarrieta Ríos; b. 1795), Colombian (Neogranadine) seamstress and revolutionary, is executed by a Spanish royalist firing squad for spying for the for high treason during the Revolutionary Forces during the Spanish Reconquista of the Viceroyalty of New Granada. She and her brother Bibiano had managed to enter the capital and Reconquista stronghold Bogotá on forged doucuments (La Pola under the name Gregoria Apolinaria, which may in fact have been her real name), where La Pola used her skills as a seamstress to gain entry to the houses of royalists and officers and spy on them, listening to conversations, collecting maps and intelligence on their plans and activities, identifying who the major royalists were, and finding out who were suspected of being revolutionaries. She also secretly recruited young men to the Revolutionary cause.

1844 - Flora Tristán (Flora Célestine Thérèse Henriette Tristán y Moscoso (b. 1844), Franco-Spanish woman of letters, militant socialist and early feminist theorist, dies of typhus in Bordeaux whilst on her 'tour de France' to publicise her book 'Union Ouvrière' (The Workers' Union). [see: Apr. 7 & Jun. 1]

1848 - Zamfir Constantin Arbore (Zamfir Ralli; d. 1933), Romanian amateur historian, geographer, ethnographer, member of the International Workingmen's Association, international anarchist and a disciple of Mikhail Bakunin, born.

1869 - The foundation by Eugène Varlin, delegate of the AIT and president, with Nathalie Lemel, of the Société d'Épargne de Crédit Mutuel des Relieurs (Saving Society of Credit Mutuel of Binders), of the Fédération Parisienne des Sociétés Ouvrières (Parisian Federation of Workers' Societies) based on the pre-existing Société de Solidarité des Ouvriers Relieurs de Paris (Solidarity Society of Bookbinding Workers of Paris). It goes on to become the nucleus of the future national Confédération générale du travail.

1878 - [N.S. Nov. 26] Zinaida Vasilevna Konoplyannikova (Зинаида Васильевна Конопля́нникова; d. 1906), rural school teacher, member of the revolutionary movement in Russia, born. [see: Nov. 26]

1897 - The first issue of 'Free Society', which replaces 'The Firebrand', is published in San Francisco. It goes on to be published in Chicago from February 1901 and finally in New York where the last issue is on November 20, 1904.

1897 - The first issue of the weekly newspaper 'La Cravache' (The Whip), "Organe International des Travailleurs", is published in Roubaix.

[B] 1898 - Benjamin Fondane or Benjamin Fundoianu (born Benjamin Wechsler, Wexler or Vecsler; d. 1944), Romanian-born French poet, critic and existentialist philosopher, also noted for his work in film and theatre, born. Influenced by libertarian and anarchist thought, and fiercely anti-communist and anti-fascist, he opposed the move by the Paris Surrealist group to affiliate themselves with the French Communist Party and became involved in a prolonged conflict with Breton and Aragon, and those associated with them. He later became involved with the 'Le Grand Jeu' group and a follower of the existentialist philosopher Lev Shestov.

1900 - Aaron Copland (d. 1990), American composer, composition teacher, writer and conductor, born. As a teenager, he was rebuked by his father and uncles for his interest in the Russian Revolution. Copland would go on to be active in various left-wing political and cultural groups, and his progressive-leftist political philosophy would bring him into conflict with McCarthy and HUAC. He was also prominent in asserting the importance of mass singing as a vehicle for communicating the "day-to-day struggle of the proletariat" as part of the development of working-class movements.

[D] 1905 - [O.S. Nov. 1] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The St. Petersburg Soviet of Workers’ Deputies (Петербургский совет рабочих депутатов) calls a second general strike to show solidarity with the Kronstadt rebels and to protest the lock-outs and government repression in Poland and in support of the struggle for the eight-hour day. The bosses put up stiff resistance and the strike ends in failure, with the Soviet calling off the strike on November 25 [O.S. Nov. 12].

1907 - In Rome the republican, socialist, and anarchist leagues threaten to hold a General Strike unless the government releases 50 anarchists.

[E] 1909 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: Theresa Garnett (1888-1966) attacks Winston Churchill with a horsewhip on a Bristol railway station platform, but fails to cause him any injury. She was later sentenced to a month in HMP Bristol for disturbing the peace (Churchill didn't press charges for the assault itself), where she went on hunger strike, was force-fed, tried to set her cell on fire, and finish her sentence in hospital. For her actions, she received a brooch from the WSPU for her imprisonment, and a medal of honour for the hunger strike.

1909 - Simón Radowitzky (Szymon Radowicki; 1891-1956), aka 'The Martyr of Ushuaia', legendary Ukrainian-born anarchist freedom fighter, assassinates the Argentine capital's police chief Ramón Lorenzo Falcón with a bomb in Buenos Aires. Falcon had ruthlessly suppressed the July 1907 rent strike (during the southern hemisphere winter) and the 1909 Semana Roja (Red Week) workers' May Day celebrations in Buenos Aires (the brutal suppression of a FORA-organised demonstration resulted in 11 people killed and more than 105 wounded, many of whom died over the following days, and around 80 dead over the following week). [see: May 1 & Nov. 10]

1917 - Suomalainen Yleislakko [Finnish General Strike]: The success of the Bolshevik takeover in Russia following the October Revolution emboldened the Finnish workers to begin a general strike on November 14, 1917, and within forty-eight hours they controlled most of the country. The most radical workers wanted to convert the general strike into a full seizure of power, but they were dissuaded by the SDP leaders, who were still committed to democratic procedures and who helped to bring an end to the strike by November 20. Already there were armed clashes between the Red Guards and the White Guards; during and after the general strike, a number of people were killed.

1920 - The founding congress of the Union Anarchiste, the first national anarchist organisation after the war.

1920 - The Turin anarchist weekly 'Cronaca Sovversiva' announces that it will cease publication as its editor, Luigi Galleani, and manager, Piero Rayneri, have been arrested.

1920 - Cato Bontjes van Beek (d. 1943), German artist and member of the anti-Nazi resistance, who was a member of the so-called Rote Kapelle network, born. She was arrested by Gestapo agents on September 20, 1942, during the rounding-up of the network and, on January 18, 1943, she was found guilty at the Reichskriegsgericht military court of "abetting a conspiracy to commit high treason" and sentenced to death. An appeal for clemency was personally denied by Hitler, despite a recommendation from the court, and she was guillotined on August 5, 1943, at Plötzensee Prison in Berlin, together with a fellow Red October member, 19-year-old Liane Berkowitz, who had given birth to a daughter, Irina, in custody in April.

1920 - Audrey Goodfriend (d. 2013), American lifelong anarchist militant, radical educator and "black diaper baby" (her parents were anarchists, and she was raised in that culture), who was was instrumental in the formation of the Walden Center and School in Berkeley, California, born. She grew up speaking Yiddish as a first language, and when she started school, could not yet speak a word of English. [expand]

1921 - Patagonia Rebelde / Patagonia Trágica: In the vicinity of Punta Alta the Regimiento 10° de Caballería (10th Cavalry Regiment), the 'Húsares de Pueyrredón' commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Héctor Benigno Varela, attack a poorly armed (with a few firearms, most having only knives) group of a hundred strikers with, killing 5 strikers and taking prisoners about 80, of which they shot about half.

1922 - Huelga General de Guayaquil: The city of Guayaquil is totally paralysed, with the whole city now engaged in what was Ecuador's first general strike. Businesses were closed, electricity and gas were turned off, and all transportation stopped. Even the newspapers had ceased publication. Workers took to the streets, holding large rallies downtown, and passed out leaflets calling for the moratorium, an end to tobacco and salt taxes, the turning over of unused farmland to landless peasants, and opposition to the proposed trolleybus fare rises.
At 14:00, more than thirty thousand striking workers marched to the Governorate, and handed over to Jorge Pareja, the governor, a manifesto with their petitions. They gave a deadline of 24 hours for a response from President José Luis Tamayo.
However, Tamayo had already decided upon his response. As Fernando Falconí wrote in an editorial in the 'El Telégrafo' newspaper at the time: "The 'gran cacao', the bankers and merchants ordered their puppet, Jose Luis Tamayo, to restore 'order' in Guayaquil. Obediently, he did." On November 14, 1922, he ordered the head of the Zona de Guayaquil, General Enrique Barriga, by telegram [as revealed by José Alejo Capelo Cabello, one of the FRTE leaders, in his book 'El 15 de Noviembre de 1922' (Dec. 1922)]: "I hope that tomorrow, at six o'clock in the afternoon, you will inform me that you have restored tranquility to Guayaquil, by whatever means necessary, for which you are authorised." Later in the day 3,000 troops of the Batallón Marañón and Cazadores de los Ríos arrived in the city.

1925 - First Paris exhibition of Surrealist paintings at the Galerie Pierre. The catalog has a preface by Breton and Robert Desnos : a text plays on the titles of paintings on display: "Le moment sera venu de nous séparer de tout ce qui nous a jamais retenus, de ne plus nous perdre aux jeux du cadran muet ou de la borne : 6.396.78. Désormais la nuit est reine ; rien ne saurait émouvoir ceux dont elle comble les maisons et les cœurs - rien, pas même le silence, à peine un dialogue d'insectes." (The time is right to separate ourselves from everything that has ever held us, do we lose more games silent dial or terminal: 6.396.78. Now the night queen, nothing can move those which it fills homes and hearts - nothing, not even silence, barely a dialogue insects.)

1927 - A rally takes place in Quadrado do Congresso (Congress Square) in Buenos Aires demanding the release of Simon Radowitzky on the eighteenth anniversary of his gesture of social revenge.

1940 - Jacques Mesnil (pseudonym of Jean-Jacques Dwelshauvers; b. 1872), Belgian anarchist, historian, journalist and scholar of Florentine Renaissance art, dies. [see: Jul. 9]

1949 - Juan Vilella, José Bartobillo and José Puertas are taken to the nearby Vilada bridge and murdered (ley de fugas). [see: Nov. 11]

1951 - 75 members of the CNT are tried in Seville prison, accused of reorganising their union and aiding guerrilleros, in particular the attempted evacuation a group of guerillas by sea in 1949. Two are sentenced to death, others get eight to thirty years’ imprisonment.

1952 - Agustín Rueda Sierra (d. 1978), Spanish militant anarchist, who was active in the Coordinadora de Presos en Lucha (COPEL) whilst imprisoned following his arrest together with a number of his comrades on explosive charges following their betrayal by an informer, born. Following the discovery of an escape tunnel at Carabanchel prison, he was beaten and tortured together with 7 other prisoners and dies from his injuries in the early hours of March 14, 1978.

1967 - 'The Society of the Spectacle' by Guy Debord, the primary theoretical text of the Situationist International, is published in Paris.

[A] 1968 - London Squatters Campaign formed, beginning the modern UK squatters movement.

1970 - The resignation of Raoul Vaneigem from the French section of the Situationist International.

[C/DD] 1973 - Athens Polytechnic Uprising: The Athens Polytechnic uprising begins as students from Athens Polytechnic, also known as the Polytechneion or the National Technical University, go on strike, barricading themselves inside buildings and broadcasting to the populace using a homemade radio transmitter, constructed from materials liberated from the laboratories. "This is the Polytechneion! People of Greece, the Polytechneion is the flag bearer of our struggle and your struggle, our common struggle against the dictatorship and for democracy!" (Εδώ Πολυτεχνείο! Λαέ της Ελλάδας το Πολυτεχνείο είναι σημαιοφόρος του αγώνα μας, του αγώνα σας, του κοινού αγώνα μας ενάντια στη δικτατορία και για την Δημοκρατία!)
The revolt at the University was the key events of the dictatorship and effectively heralded the beginning of the end for the Colonels, who from April 21, 1967 onwards had imposed a brutal dictatorship in the country. The countdown began on February 14, 1973, the eve of the 'Trial of the Eleven' - eleven students arrested in late January 1973 when they and others challenged a police raid at the Athens Polytechnic and were to face charges, including "insulting authority" and "teddyboyism" - when students occupied the Law School in protest against police brutality. They also demanded the abolition of decree 1347/73, which provided for the forced conscription of male students who acted in an "anti-national" manner i.e. those involved in union activities during their studies. Even though the occupation only lasted a few hours, 120 male students who were supposedly among the most active were told at short notice that their suspension of military service for study purposes was no longer active and that they should appear in the army headquarters in order to "serve the patria".
A second occupation followed on February 21, when 3-4,000 mainly law and humanities students in an action organised by the Anti-EFEE (Anti-Dictatorship Students Union) occupied the building of the Law School in the centre of Athens. For the first time the slogans "Democracy", "Down with the junta" and "Long Live Freedom" were heard, together various anti-American slogans. Once again the police intervened to quell the rebellion, but the forcible expulsion of students from the building of the Law further strengthened their militancy. A third occupation of the Law School took place the following month, however it was not until the November of that year that the militancy showed its true colours.

"Ψωμί, Παιδεία, Ελευθερία, Εθνική Ανεξαρτησία" (Bread, Education, Freedom, National Independence) - the 'official' slogan of the occupation.

On the morning of November 14, University students gathered in the courtyard of the University and decided the declaration of abstinence courses, seeking to hold elections for student unions in December of that year and not at the end of next year, as announced by the regime. Student assemblies also quickly followed at the Medical and Law Schools. At the latter, law students adopted a resolution, which demanded the withdrawal of the decisions of the junta to conduct student elections, democratisation of universities, increase spending on education to 20% of the overall budget, and the withdrawing of decree 1347/73.
As the day went on, more and more students began to gather at the University as news of the protests spread. The police were powerless to prevent their numbers swelling and by mid afternoon the decision had been taken to occupy the Polytechnic. Calling themselves "Ελεύθεροι Πολιορκημένοι" (The Besieged Free), they barricaded themselves inside the faculty building at Patission Street and began the operation of an independent radio station, built in a few hours in the laboratories of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering. A coordination committee of all the faculties was also formed to organise the gathering of foods and medicines, distribution of megaphones and "imposes control over irresponsible slogans". Now they had to galvanise the growing support for their actions across the city and further afield, which would culminate in the erecting barricades and conducting of street fighting between insurgents and the police.

1984 - Teodora Badell (b. 1893), Spanish militant anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies.

1988 - Augusta Deyanira la Torre Carrasco, aka 'Comrade Norah' (b. 1946), Peruvian Maoist and feminist, who was number two in command of Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path) guerrilla organisation, dies in mysterious circumstance, a possible suicide. [see: Aug. 29]

1992 - Pedro Calvo Calvo (b. 1908), Aragonese basketmaker, railway worker, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, dies. [see: Aug. 23]

1993 - Nosaka Sanzō (野坂 参三; b. 1892), founder of the Japanese Communist Party (JCP) and anti-fascist, who worked for periods as a writer, editor, labour organiser, communist agent, politician, and university professor, dies aged 101. [see: Mar. 30]

1997 - The Indonesian Military enters the grounds of University of East Timor to quell anti-government protests, shooting at least six students.

2003 - Ramón Álvarez Palomo 'Ramonín' (b. 1913), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Mar. 7]

2003 - Jacques Perdereau (b. 1953), French libertarian activist, member of the Anarchist Federation, technical manager and producer on Radio Libertaire, dies.

2011 - Franz Josef Degenhardt (b. 1931), German poet, satirist, novelist, screenwriter, folk-singer/songwriter (Liedermacher), lawyer and leftist, dies. [see: Dec 3]
[E] 1720 - Famed female pirates Anne Bonny (Anne McCormac; ca. 1700 - ca. 1782) and Mary Read (ca. 1690 - 1721) are taken prisoner when pirate hunter Captain Jonathan Barnet takes the crew of John 'Calico Jack' Rackham (Bonny partner) by surprise as they are hosting a rum party with another crew of Englishmen at Negril Point off the west coast of Jamaica.
Rackham and his crew were arrested and taken to what is now Spanish Town in Jamaica for trial, where they were convicted and sentenced by the Governor Nicholas Lawes to hang for acts of piracy. Read and Bonny however both 'pleaded their bellies', revealing that they were both "quick with child", thereby escaping the noose. Both women received a temporary stay of execution until they gave birth. Read died in prison, most likely from a fever from childbirth, whilst there is no historical record of Bonny's release or of her execution.
Bonny's last words to the imprisoned Rackham were said to have been: "Had you fought like a man, you need not have been hang'd like a dog." [Captain Charles Johnson - 'A history of the robberies and murders of the most notorious pyrates from their first rise and settlement in the island of Providence to the present year', 1724]

1816 - Prelude to the Spa Fields Riots: A mass meeting (~10,000) is called at Spa Fields, Islington, to seek popular support for the delivery of a petition to the Prince Regent, requesting electoral reform and relief from hardship and distress. Henry Hunt is elected to deliver the petition but is refused an audience. A follow-up meeting on Dec 2 results in the Spa Fields Riots.

1852 - [O.S. Nov. 3] Praskovya Semyonovna Ivanovskaya [Прасковья Семёновна Ивановская] (Praskovya Semenovna Voloshenko [Прасковья Семеновна Волошенко]; d. 1935), Russian revolutionary, Russian revolutionary, member of Zemlya i Volya (Land and liberty), Narodnaya Volya (People's Will) and later of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party (Партии социалистов-революционеров) and later of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party (Партии социалистов-революционеров) and the S-R's Combat Organisation (Боева́я организа́ция), born. Joined Narodnaya Volya in spring of 1880, running safe houses and clandestine printing presses. Arrested and tried in the 'Process of 17' (Процесс 17-ти), sentenced to death, later commuted to perpetual servitude. Escape from Chita (Читу) in 1903. Arriving in St. Petersburg, she joined the Combat Organisation (Боева́я организа́ция) of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party (Партия социалистов-революционеров). [expand]
Member of the post-Revolution Society of Former Political Prisoners and Exiles (Общества бывших политкаторжан и ссыльнопоселенцев).

1862 - Alfred Marpaux (d. 1934), French militant federalist, syndicalist, co-operativist and typographer, born. Author of 'L'Évolution Naturelle et l'Évolution Sociale' (1894).

1862 - Gerhart Hauptmann (d. 1946), German Naturalist dramatist and novelist, chiefly known today for his early naturalistic social drama 'Die Weber' (The Weavers; 1892), born. 'Die Weber' portrays the 1844 weaver revolt in Silesia and features a realistic portrayal of the suffering and humanity of the poor, and the hopelessness of their situation. The play was inspired by the work of Max Baginski in the 'Proletarier aus dem Eulengebrige', and he helped Baginski research the play in Silesia. While Hauptmann argued that the play was merely a faithful depiction of a historic event, the Prussian government feared that it condemned contemporary conditions for weavers. Public performances were temporarily banned in Berlin and elsewhere in Europe out of a fear that it would lead to class conflict. When it was performed publicly, the German imperial family cancelled their theatre box in protest. The anarchist Johann Most participated in an American staging that included extra incendiary sections provided by its leftist performers. Hauptmann's early social dramas successfully revealed the suffering of the poor to a new middle-class audience who might otherwise have turned a blind eye to the conditions of the poor. He was criticised by leftists for not being militant enough, while conservatives considered his early social dramas to be troubling and potentially dangerous. Member of the Friedrichshagener Dichterkreis (Friedrichshagener circle of poets) naturalist writers circle.

1891 - The first issue of the newspaper 'El Porvenir Anarquista' (The Anarchist Future), "órgano comunista-anarchico", led by the Italian anarchist Paolo Schicchi, is published in Gracia, Barcelona.

1899 - Urania Mella (María Urania Mella Serrano; d. 1945), Spanish anarchist, anarcha-feminist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. [expand]

1901 - Francisco Ferrer publishes the first issue of 'La Huelga General', "Periódico Libertario", is published in Barcelona. Printed 3 times a month, is promotes revolutionary syndicalism and the wider workers' struggle through the tactic of the general strike.

1902 - In Brussels, Gennaro Rubino, an Italian individualist anarchist attempts to kill King Léopold II with the cry "Long live the social revolution Long live anarchy!" Firing three shots from his revolver at the wrong carriage, the king is oblivious to the attack and the only injury is to a royal official, cut in the face by broken glass. Seized by the crowd, Rubino barely escaped with his life. Rubino's ill-fated and ill-thought-out plan stemmed from his having been exposed as a spy for the Italian Secret Service whilst living in exile in London (he had in fact been dismissed from his position when the Italian embassy discovered his anarchist sympathies, having fled Milan in the wake of the 1898 bread riots and facing a lengthy prison sentence) and had decided to commit the assassination in order to prove his allegiance to the anarchist cause.

1905 - [O.S. Nov. 2] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Despite the weak and patchy response from the exhausted workers to yesterday's call by the St. Petersburg Soviet for a second general strike to show solidarity with the Kronstadt rebels and to protest the lock-outs and government repression in Poland, the majority of the capital’s industries and railroad junctions are affected today and tomorrow.
Premier Sergei Witte (Серге́й Ви́тте) attempts to prevent the general strike with a telegram beginning "Brother workers!"

1905 - [O.S. Nov. 2] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Police arrest the staff of the Bolshevik RSDLP newspaper 'Novaya Zhizn' (Новая Жизнь / New Life), but within six days the paper reappears unchanged.

1908 - Ricardo Peña Vallespín (d. 1956), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, and novelist, who was part of the artistic and theatrical group Mistral, born. He wrote a large number of novels which were published by La Novela Libre and La Novela Ideal. Among these were: 'Llamas de Odio' (Flames of Hate; 1926), 'La Virgen Tonta' (The Silly Virgen; 1927), 'El Asedio' (The Siege; 1929), 'Cerebro y Corazón' (Mind and Heart; 1930), 'La Propia Obra' (The Work Itself; 1930), '¡Qué Salga el Autor!' (The Exit of the Author; 1930), 'La Hechizada' (The Bewitched; 1931), 'El Amo' (Master; 1932), 'Índice Rojo. Novela Histórica' (Red Index. Historical novel; 1933), 'Redención' (Redemption; 1933), 'De la Vida que Pasa' (The Life that Passes; 1934), 'Tribunal de Amor' (The Court of Love; 1934), 'Cómo se Debe Amar' (How to love ; 1935), 'Las Leyes del Mal' (Las Laws of Evil; 1936), etc.

1910 - The first issue of 'The Agitator', "A Bimonthly Advocate of the Modern School, Industrial Unionism and Individual Freedom", is published in Home (Lakebay, Washington) by the members of the Home anarchist colony.

1912 - Paint Creek-Cabin Creek Miners' Strike: Martial law is re-imposed. [see: Sep. 2 & Oct. 15]

1913 - Revolución Mexicana: Pancho Villa takes Ciudad Juarez by commandeering a coal train and sneaking into town. Several hundred executed.

1915 - The first issue of the fortnightly 'Pendant la Mêlée', "acrate, individualiste et éclectique" (a-cratie = total absence of authority), is published in Paris. From January 1916, the newspaper is published i Orléans and changes its name to 'Par delà la Mêlée' (Beyond the Fray).

[A / F] 1919 - Palmer Raids: The IWW headquarters in New York City is destroyed in one of a series of ant-radical/trades union organisations raids organised by US Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer.

[B] 1920 - Ernst Toller's play 'Masse Menschen' (Mass Man), about the armed workers' struggle against was profiteers, premières in the Stadttheater Nürnberg directed by Friedrich Neubauer.

1922 - Guayaquil Massacre / Huelga General de Guayaquil: The city had now been without electricity for three days, food essentials were running low and the atmosphere in the city was becoming increasingly restless. By 13:00, 30,000 men, women, and children had gathered downtown for a scheduled 15:00 rally, one of two massive strikers' rallies. Whilst en route to Guayaquil, President Tamayo had appointed a commission of government officials and workers in Guayaquil to write up a moratorium decree on the 15th. By 13:00, they had drawn up the decree and sent it as a telegram to Tamayo for approval. Dr. Carlos Puig Vilazar now read the decree to the assembly and was met with cheers. The assembly then sent Governor Pareja a note saying the rally and strike would stop once Tamayo signed the decree into law.
Meanwhile, Dr. Jose Vicente Trujillo had delivered a fiery political speech, in which he said: "¡Compañeros! Ha llegado el día de estar hoy día ya no vestidos de lana de borregos sino con piel de tigre" (Conrades! The day has come to be today no longer dressed in sheep's wool but in tiger's skin), which he followed up by announcing that the government had decided to release two labour leaders from jail. The crowd then set off toward the police station in celebration. Members of the military were there and grew increasingly nervous as the crowd approached. One soldier fired his weapon, and the others soldiers joined in. As soon as the crowd began to panic, the soldiers opened fire on the crowd, shooting down anyone they could, putting Tamayo's order to General Barriga into full effect. Affluent members of the city also joined in from their balconies, firing on workers in the street.
Oscar Efrén Reyes, in his 'Historia del Ecuador', says of the massacre: "The masses were surrounded and the soldiers carried out a terrible carnage in the streets, in the squares and inside the houses and warehouses. The massacre did not end until late in the afternoon. As many groups as possible were saved only by a speedy escape. Then, at night, numerous trucks and carts were dedicated to pick up the corpses and throw them into the estuary."
Elsewhere other groups of workers decided to try and disarm the public force, whilst others allegedly incited looting of stores. On Avenida 9 de Octubre the looting was answered by the police, first with shots in the air and then with lethal fire. By 17:00, the violence had lessened. 15 soldiers were wounded, though none had been killed. The civilian death toll was unclear, but estimated range from 300 at the low end up to a more realistic 1000-1500. With the Police and military now in control, the bullet-riddled corpses were gathered up and buried in hastily dug common graves, which up to today still have not been located, or their bellies opened up so that they did not float when they were thrown to the river Guayas. Subsequently, those who had demanded that the full might of the state be used to control the excesses of the workers were silent when they saw the magnitude of the repression, forcing General Enrique Barriga to declare "I am the sole responsible for these events". José Luis Tamayo would even go as far as later claiming that the Guayaquil massacre was justified on the grounds that "looters" and "delinquents" had fired first.
After the massacre, the assembly broke up and the strike subsided. Within a few days, the majority of the city was functioning again. However, the events in Guayaquil had stirred workers elsewhere, who staged a series of strikes across the country from November 15-20.
The people of Guayaquil commemorate the massacre every November 15th, when they launch crowns of flowers and buoys with crosses on the Guayas River.

1926 - The founding congress (15th-16th) of the Confédération Générale du Travail - Syndicaliste Révolutionnaire (C.G.T-S.R), the new Pierre Besnard instigated anarcho-syndicalist reaction against the power of the stalinist CGTU. Its newspaper, 'Le Combat Syndicaliste', will go on to produce important analysis of the Spanish Revolution.

1930 - James Graham 'J. G.' Ballard (d. 2009), English novelist and short story writer, born.

1932 - 'свободно общество' (Free Society) is republished [see: Feb. 15] as the monthly theoretical magazine of the FACB (Bulgarian Communist Anarchist Federation). It will be banned again following the fascist coup d'état on May 19, 1934.

[D] 1936 - 1,800 Durruti Column militiamen from the Aragon front arrive in Madrid at 09:00 to help defend it from the Nationalist forces that had launched their offensive on November 8, entering the Casa de Campo park via the Puerta de Rodajo and penetrating as far as the banks of the Manzanares river by the Nov. 13th. November 14 had seen little by way of combat, as both sides prepared for their own planned offensives the following day. General Varela planned to ford the river and press the attack on the defensive positions at the Ciudad Universitaria (University City). The Junta de Defensa de Madrid meanwhile ordered the Columna Libertad, together with the Brigada Catalana and Brigada Sabio, to retake the Cerro Garabitas, the high point in the Casa de Campo overlooking the Manzanares, whilst reinforcing the Ciudad Universitaria against possible further attacks.
Upon his arrival, Durruti immediately requested that his men and women be placed in the forefront of the fighting, and they were sent to positions in front of the Hospital Clínico to be ready for action.

[C] 1939 - Twenty seven Republicans are shot in secret and buried in a mass grave in the Alicante cemetery, with the dictatorship later putting date of "death" as 1942:
Ricardo Baeza Sancleto (Ricardo Baeza Sandeto), soldier 28 years old; Francisco Berenguer Estenaga, 29, a mason from Banyeres; Evaristo Botella Jordá, clerk, 29 years old; Raimundo Cots Alonso, 32; al papelero de Cocentaina; Salustiano Espí Reig, 24, a furrier and socialista from Elda; Rafael García Segura, 47; a farmer from Tibi; Carlos Jorquera Martínez, barber from Alicante, 25 years old; Francisco Maestre Payá, Elda lawyer and member of the Tribunal Popular nº2 de Alicante, 46 years old; Antonio Rech Picó, 30, bricklayer from Relleu; Vicente Rico Mollá, jornalist and CNT militant from Castalla, 36 years old; Emilio Rodríguez Carbonell, empleado de 28 years old; and Francisco Salort Cristóbal, 23, mason from El Vergel; plus 4 anti-fascist militants from Elche: Pedro Escalante Coves (Pedro Escalante Cores), shoemaker, 32 years old; Manuel Granados Irles, chauffeur, 54; Onofre Núñez Cantos (José Núñez Cantos), 39 years old worker; Francisco Valero Quiles, baker, 27 years old; six anti-fascists from Rojales: Jesús Cartagena Gil, carpenter, 48 years old; Manuel García León, farmer worker, 35 years old; Manuel Hurtado Huerta, 30 years old, an agricultural worker from Almoradí; Cayetano Manchón Sarabia, 37 years old, a farmer from nearby Callosa de Segura; Antonio Martínez Sala, 28 years old, a carpenter from Torrevieja; and José Pastor Navarro, 38 years old labourer from Rojales. Also were shot with them a group of prisoners from other locales: José Acosta Téllez, 25, a worker from Jerez; Francisco Boades Soler, 22 year old weaver from Girona; José Feliu Fernández (José Felín Fernández), 27, weaver from Formentera; José Martí Guillen, 56, metalworker from Nules and Etelvino Vega Martínez, 33 years old metalworker from Mieres, who was also a central committee of the PCE and military commander of Alicante.
On March 27, 2005, a monument was erected to their memory.

1939 - Jaume Soler Lloret (b. 1898), Alicante born CNT member, teacher and town clerk in Manresa during the war, is shot at Camp de la Bota Barcelona.

1941 - Heathcote Williams, English poet, actor, playwright, one-time anarchist, resident of Frestonia and 'International Times' stalwart, born.

1942 - Annemarie 'Miro' Schwarzenbach (Annemarie Minna Renée Schwarzenbach; b. 1908), bisexual Swiss-German writer, journalist, photographer, traveler, anti-fascist and androgenous style icon, dies from the effects of a misdiagnosed serious head injury that she sustained when she fell from her bicycle on September 7, 1942 in the Engadin (Swiss Alps). [see: May 23]

1947 - Oswald Mosley addresses a meeting in the Memorial Hall, Farringdon Street attended by delegates from over 50 different fascist organisations, announcing his re-entry into politics with a new organisation, the Union Movement. Despite their spies in various fascist organisatons, the 43 Group are unable to dicover the exact venue and when the location is discovered, they are pevented by truncheon wielding police from shutting it down. [PR]

1947 - During a general strike by peasants and protest march in Cerignola, Foggia, against neo-fascist outrages and widespread unemployment, police opened fire, killing Domenico Angelini and Onofrio Perrone. In response, the protesters attack the local agricultural offices of M. Cirillo and the party offices of the Democrazia Cristiana, FUCI (Federazione Universitaria Cattolici Italiana), Partito Democratico del Lavoro, the Don Minzoni cooperative and EU agriculture office. The police announce a state of siege as 2 cops are killed and a number of protesters are wounded. 114 workers are arrested.

1950 - Huelga Ferroviaria en Argentina: The 1950-51 railway strikes in Argentina stemmed from a claim for salary increase and that came from union members outside the ranks of the Peronist lackies at the top of the Unión Ferroviaria union, which organised the majority of rail workers. The strikes then continued despite the fact that the government of President Juan Domingo Perón declared it illegal and the intervention of the Confederación General del Trabajo against the strikers, and the workers only returned to work when, under a Perón decree of January 25, 1951, the workers were drafted (came under military law). Hundreds of workers were imprisoned for taking part in the strike and about 2,000 of them were fired.
The Railway Union's Board of Directors refused to file a claim for a salary increase that came to them from the rank and file workers, arguing that the "existing price and wage balance" should not be broken and, later, they expressed their repudiation of the movement and claimed that it was a purely political action. A group of workers who came to the union offices to demand the resignation of the leaders were violently dispersed by the police. The state-owned railway authorities, the Unión Ferroviaria and the Confederación General del Trabajo, along with the official press, all lined up against the strikers to condemn the strikers and their demands.
Conducted by an elected Comisión Consultiva de Emergencia (Emergency Advisory Committee), on November 15, 1950, the workers of the Ferrocarril General Roca, one of the Argentinian state railway divisions, began a strike in persuit of a wage claim. By the 21st, the Ferrocarril Roca was at a standstill. The following day the strike had extended to three other lines and on the 23rd ended when a meeting of the Emergency Committee with senior officials of the Ministerio de Trabajo reached a "gentlemen's agreement" according to which the workers would return to work on the 24th, would be granted a salary increase (starting salary of $ 550, increasing to $700 after 10 years service) and no reprisals would be taken against the strikers. However, in the first week of December the authorities of the Union Ferroviaria took action against eight of its branches that had been involved in the strike. The Secretario de Transportes also reduced the agreed wage increases following a meeting on the 7th between the Board of Directors, Eva Perón and himself, and some the leaders of the strike movement were dismissed and imprisoned. Disagreeing with the efforts made by the transport minister, Colonel Juan Castro, Perón made him resign on January 16, 1951.

1966 - Francois Truffaut film version of Ray Bradbury's novel 'Fahrenheit 451' is released.

[DD] 1973 - Athens Polytechnic Uprising: By the next morning, the buildings and forecourt of Athens Polytechnic were filled by students and tens of thousands of people and students, who had come from schools across the city, gathered as the radical students brought more and more food, medicine and other resources for the occupation. A Steering Committee was elected, consisting of 22 students and two workers from the University, in order to manage the occupation. The Steering Committee swiftly announced that the occupation was an explicity anti-fascist and anti-imperialist protest. In addition, committees were created in all the other university faculties, to organise the wider occupation and communications with wider Greek society.
For this purpose, it began operating a radio station, initially in the Chemistry faculty building and later in a building in the Mechanical Engineeringv faculty, with Maria Damanaki, Dimitris Papahristos and Miltos Charalambides as its announcers; "Here is Polytechneion! Here is Polytechneion! We are speaking from the Radio Station of the free struggling students, the free struggling Greeks. Down with the junta, down with Papadopoulos, kick out the Americans, down with fascism, the junta will fall by [the hands of] the people ...
O people, come down on the pavements, come stand with us, your are free to come and see ... "
Elsehwere, stencil machines (printers) were sourced, which worked day and night to inform students and the world for the decisions of the Coordinating Committee and student assemblies. Students formed teams to write slogans on placards, on walls, buses and taxis across the city to emplore the support of the Athenians. The University occupiers organised a restaurant and a hospital, and student groups took turns to safeguard the site, making sure that amongst the enthusiastic Athenians who had gathered at the occupation were not used as cover by potential provocateurs.
The first reaction of the dictatorial regime was to send a number of undercover agents to be blended into the crowd that that had flocked to the University and put in place snipers on top of surrounding buildings.
Across the capital and Greece protests, rallies and demonstrations against the junta and in support of the students began to take place. In Thessaloniki and Patras students also occupied university buildings. Farmers from Megara in West Attica set off for Athens to support the occupation. In Egaleo, in the western part of Athens, and in Piraeus a number of acts of revolutionary solidarity also took place, with attacks on the police.

1978 - Margaret Mead (b. 1901), American radical anthropologist, dies. [see: Dec. 16]

1987 - Joan Borràs Casanova (b. 1909), Spanish anarchist, proletarian painter, poster artist and writer, dies. [see: Apr. 3]

2009 - Anna Mendleson (or Mendelssohn; b. 1948), English poet, painter, musician, actor, anarchist, activist in the Claimants Union, etc., and Stoke Newington Eight’ defendant, dies after a long battle with a brain tumour.
[D] 1793 - Noyades de Nantes: French revolutionaries load a barge with 90 priests, then tow it out to sea and sink it off Nantes.

1849 - Fyodor Dostoyevsky receives a death sentence for engaging in socialist activities; later commuted to four years hard labor in Siberia.

1871 - Élisée Reclus is sentenced to transportation for life for his role in the Paris Commune; but, largely at the instance of influential deputations from England, the famed geographer and anarchist had his sentence commuted in January 1872 to perpetual banishment.

[F] 1883 - Arthur Caron (d. 1914), French Canadian anarchist and an organiser for the Industrial Workers of the World, born. Caron was at the forefront of the anti-Rockefeller protests that took place in response to the Ludlow Massacre in Colorado on April 20, 1914. During the massacre - the deadliest event in the Colorado Coalfield War, the bloody southern Colorado Coal Strike, which took place between September 1913 and December 1914 and in which more than 200 striking miners and their supporters were killed. The strike had begun when the Colorado Fuel and Iron Company, owned by 'the richest man in the world' industrialist John D. Rockefeller Jr., refused to accede to the demands of the United Mine Workers of America. The UMWA had begun organising the southern coal field workers and wanted CF&I to adhere to Federal mining regulations and introduce an eight-hour working day. Rockefeller and the company refused and, when the miners went out on strike, brought in strike-breakers and Baldwin-Felts detectives instead. When clashes broke out between strikers and the local sheriffs and deputy sheriffs, most of whom were in the pay of CF&I and were the frontline against the strikers, the Colorado National Guard was sent in to back up the companies hired goons. In October, the CF&I threw the miners and their mostly poor Greek and Italian immigrant families out of company housing, the latter set up a number of tent colonies, the largest of which was the one at Ludlow. It was this tent colony of 1,200 striking coal miners and their families that was attacked on the morning of April 20, 1914, initially by the Colorado National Guard armed with a machinegun and rifles, and later in the day by reinforcements of Colorado Fuel & Iron Company camp guards. By dusk many of the miners and their families had managed to escape into the nearby Black Hills, when the militia and mine guards entered to finish off the job, looting and setting fire to the camp. Some of those captured in the camp were summarily executed by the Militia. The attack resulted in the murder of at least 25 people, including two women and eleven children, asphyxiated and burned to death under a single tent. Some reports state that a minimum of forty-five people, including thirty women and children, had in fact been killed, and that the exact number would never be known as many of the bodies were completely destroyed in an oil-fueled blaze and the fact that government agencies deliberately restricted access to the campsite in the aftermath.
In New York City, there were protests against Rockefeller. A 'mourning picket' was set up on Broadway outside Rockefeller's Standard Oil offices and outside his house on West Fifty-Fourth Street. Large numbers of protesters were dragged off and arrested by the police. Others including IWW members and anarchists such as Arthur Caron decided to take their protests to the Rockefeller estate at Tarrytown, New York. Permits for the protest were refused but they went ahead anyway. On May 30, the IWW set up a soapbox in Tarrytown’s Fountain Square and one-by-one eleven IWW speakers including Caron and the only woman speaker Rebecca Edelson were arrested. They were released on bail on June 12 to stand trial in early July on charges that included being disorderly, disturbing the peace, blocking traffic and endangering health(!?). On July 3, two days before the trial was due, Alexander Berkman called a meeting at the Ferrer Center to discuss support for the defendants. Caron was amongst those who showed up for the meeting and went off for drinks at a nearby saloon afterward. The gathering broke up by midnight.
At 09:16 the following morning, a massive explosion tore through the top three floors of the six-story apartment house at 1626 Lexington Avenue, between 102nd and 103rd Streets. Centred on the apartment of Anarchist Black Cross member, Louise Berger, the explosion killed four and injured twenty others. Amongst those died were Caron and two members of the Lettish section of the Anarchist Black Cross, Carl Hanson and Charles Berg, who had been constructing a dynamite bomb believed to be destined for Rockefeller's Tarrytown mansion. Also killed was Marie Chavez, who was renting a room in the flat but not involved in the plot. On Saturday July 11, 12,000 people gathered in New York's Union Square, where Alexander Berkman, IWW leaders Carlo Tresca and Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, and Rebecca Edelson spoke in memory of those who died.
Alexander Berkman to the crowd on July 11: "We are here to honour our dead comrades, murdered by the capitalists, Rockefeller and his agents. There are two presumptions as to how these men met death. One is that they were the victims of the capitalists and their agents; another is that they manufactured the bomb themselves to be used. It is the fault of the capitalists if they did manufacture that bomb, and I want to go on record that if they did so then they were going to use it. We are ready to do anything and everything in demand of our rights. I believe in resistance and all the results therefrom. These men were murdered in the cause of humanity. As I said before, Rockefeller and his class would stop at nothing. To them it would mean only a few more cold-blooded murders to their credit."
[ Caron]

1884 - Clovis-Abel Pignat (aka Tschombine Pategnon) (d. 1950), Swiss militant anarcho-syndicalist and anti-militarist, born.

1895 - At the iniative of Sebastien Faure and Louise Michel, the first issue of the weekly newspaper 'Le Libertare' is published in Paris - the title has been borrowed from the newspaper that Joseph Déjacque published in New York between 1858 and 1861. The newspaper will cease publication on August 1, 1914 at the start of the war.

1897 - Released from Reading Gaol, Oscar Wilde writes to his friend Robert Ross: "It is curious how vanity helps keep the successful man and wrecks the failure. In old days half of my strength was my vanity."

1898 - Anthelme Girier aka Jean Baptiste Lorion (b. 1869), French anarchist orator, who was imprisoned and involved in the revolt at the Iles du Salut penal colony, dies. [see: Apr. 21]

1899 - Carlo Rosselli (d. 1937), Italian non-Marxist Socialist, journalist, historian and anti-fascist activist, born. Detained on the island of Lipari for his role in the escape to France in 1926 of the socialist politician Filippo Turati, he managed to escape to Tunisia in July 1929, from where he made his way to France. With other Italian refugees in Paris, he helped found the anti-fascist militant movement Giustizia e Libertà, later fighting for the Republicans in the Spanish Civil War. Alongside Camillo Berneri, Rosselli headed the Matteotti Battalion, a mixed volunteer unit of anarchist, liberal, socialist and communist Italians. The unit fought on the Aragon front, and participated in a victory against Francoist forces in the Battle of Monte Pelato. Having fallen ill early in 1937, he returned to Paris and, together with his brother Nello, he was assassinated on June 9, 1937 by French fascists.

1905 - [O.S. Nov. 3] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The government desperately calls on peasants to cease their disorders, and halves their redemption payments for 1906.

1905 - [O.S. Nov. 3] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The general strike in St. Petersburg continues, somewhat patchily. It is clear that the workers are too tired and that their hearts are not in it.

1910 - Ricardo Flores Magón issues a circular to all Liberal Party members informing them of the timing of Francisco Madero’s revolt, but warning them of the difference between themselves and Madero’s movement.

1913 - Tosca Tantini (d. 1940), Italian ice cream maker, anarchist and miliciana, who fought in the Columna Ascaso, born. [expand]

1918 - Rosa Luxemburg’s article 'A Duty of Honour: Against Capital Punishment', is published. She writes: "The existing penal system, which is permeated through and through with the brutal class spirit and barbarism of capitalism, must be extirpated root and branch."

1918 - The first general conference of the Nabat (Набат) Confederation of Anarchist Organisations of the Ukraine, better known simply as Nabat (Alarm), the name of its journal, is held in Kursk.

1920 - Antonio Navarro Velázquez (d. 1999), Castillian anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-Francoist and Résistance fighter, born. Known as 'Antonio el Zapatero' or simply 'Zapatero', he was 12 years old he joined the CNT in Caravaca de la Cruz. In 1935 he moved to Barcelona, where he became a militant in an anarchist group. With the fascist military coup in July 1936, he tried to join the CNT militia, but one had to be at least 17 ​​years old, and from 1937 served in the Ejército Popular (People's Army) of the Second Republic. With Franco's victory went to France and took part in the Résistance, fighting against the Nazi occupation. In 1947 re-entered the Peninsula but was arrested the following year. He was sentenced to a long prison term, spending time prison in Zaragoza, San Miguel de los Reyes and finally in Burgos. In 1960 he was paroled.
In Barcelona, ​​with José Navarro Muñoz and Joaquín Amores Ortiz, participated in the organisation of the anarchist group Perseverancia (Perseverance) which, until 1970, helped colleagues sought by Franco's police to escape to France. A few months before the death of dictator Franco, went himself returned to France fleeing arrest. He was also a member of the National Committee of the CNT, and was close to Manuel Saldaña de la Cruz. In the mid seventies he participated in the reorganisation of the CNT in Barcelona. On March 30, 1978 he was arrested, along with three other colleagues (Francisco Rodríguez Meroño , José Luis López Moreno and Ana María Álvarez López ), accused of being the 'brains' of a "specific group" (Grupos Autónomos Libertarios) of the FAI and of shooting-up, on March 19, 1978, the barracks of the Policía Armada (Armed Police) in Cornellà de Llobregat, Barcelona. In the nineties he was active in the CNT in Barcelona and, shortly before his death, in the Local Federation of the CNT in Cornellà with the intention, with Manuel Saldaña, of forming a new union.
His partner was Carmen Edo.

1922 - Huelga General de Guayaquil: President Tamayo signed the decree, but the massacre would forever overshadow that success.

1922 - José de Sousa Saramago (d. 2010), Portuguese writer of novels, short stories, poetry, plays, memoirs and travelogues, atheist and libertarian communist, born.
"A unique and authentic human freedom is that of the spirit, a spirit not contaminated by irrational beliefs and superstitions perhaps poetic in some case, but that distort the perception of reality and should offend the most basic reason."

'Não me Peçam Razões'

Não me peçam razões, que não as tenho,
Ou darei quantas queiram: bem sabemos
Que razões são palavras, todas nascem
Da mansa hipocrisia que aprendemos.

Não me peçam razões por que se entenda
A força de maré que me enche o peito,
Este estar mal no mundo e nesta lei:
Não fiz a lei e o mundo não aceito.

Não me peçam razões, ou que as desculpe,
Deste modo de amar e destruir:
Quando a noite é de mais é que amanhece
A cor de primavera que há-de vir.

'Do not ask me for reasons'

Do not ask me for reasons, I do not have them,
Or give you what you want: well we know
That reasons are words, all born
From the gentle hypocrisy we have learned.

Do not ask me for reasons if you understand
The tidal force that fills my chest,
Being evil in this world and in this law:
I was not the law and the world I do not accept.

Do not ask me the reasons, or the excuse,
This way of loving and destruction:
When the night is over and then it dawns
The colour of springtime is coming.

From: 'Nesta esquina do tempo' (In this corner of time)


1928 - Radclyffe Hall's novel 'The Well of Loneliness' is declared obscene and ordered destroyed.

1938 - The Republican army of Catalonia, made up of anarchist and communist forces, is defeated after three months by pro-Franco forces, leaving tens of thousands dead or casualties. The Republican forces had held for three months during the great battle on the front at the Ebre River.

[C] 1942 - Italian-Australian anarchist Francesco Fantin (b. 1901) is murdered by fascist fellow internees in an Australian internment camp. [see: Jan. 20]

1943 - Operation Spark*: At a long delayed viewing of a new German army uniform - the standard uniforms had proven inadequate for the harsh conditions of the Russian winter - to be adopted by the Waffen-SS and the Luftwaffe Field Divisions, in addition to the Wehrmacht, an attemtp is planned to assassinate Adolf Hitler, SS chief Heinrich Himmler and Luftwaffe commander Hermann Göring. Captain von dem Bussche (1919 - 1993), who was due to model the uniform, had volunteered to carry a landmine in the knapsack of the uniform, and detonate it when the three Nazi leaders were gathered around him. However, the night before the scheduled demonstration, the freight car containing the new uniforms was destroyed in an Allied air raid and the viewing was rescheduled. [*also translated as Operation Flash]

1944 - Panait Mușoiu (b. 1864), Romanian anarchist, who the author of the first Romanian translation of 'The Communist Manifesto', dies. [see: Nov. 18]

[B] 1945 - Jan Bucquoy, Belgian anarchist film-maker, cartoonist and author, born.

1952 - Román Delgado (b. 1894), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist who was active in Cuba (expelled for inciting the workers of the sugar to go on strike), North America and Mexico, dies. [see: Feb. 2]

1953 - Luigi 'Gigi' Damiani (aka 'Ausinio Acrate' & 'Simplicio'; b. 1876), Italian journalist, poet, novelist, jobbing painter, anarchist activist and propagandist, dies. [see: May 18]

1966 - University of Strasbourg students, sympathetic to the Situationists, blow the entire yearly student union's budget on printing 10,000 copies of 'De la Misère en Milieu Étudiant' (On The Poverty Of Student Life), causing a massive scandal and court case.

[DD] 1973 - Athens Polytechnic Uprising: Following the events of the previous day, the occupation and the various solidarity events across Greece were splashed across the country's newspapers. At the Polytechneion itself, crowds thronged around the University with more than 150,000 people thunderously chanting: "Down with the junta, the junta will fall at the hands of the people!" Under threat, the regime had to respond. The dictator Georgios Papadopoulos ordered the army on to the streets. Across the capital during the late afternoon and evening tanks and armoured personnel carriers began to take up positions. Near At Larissa station three Special Foces (ΛΟΚ) brigades and one brigades of paratroopers from Thessaloniki took up positions waiting for orders.
At 19:30, large numbers of police began to attack the crowd was gathered outside the Polytechnic with batons, teargas and rubber bullets. Many of those gathered there fled but others began to set up barricades using hijacked trolleybuses and gathered material from a nearby building site. Fires were lit to try and neutralise the clouds of teargas. Police eventually began resorting to live fire and the first deaths began to take place. The unarmed students and workers at the Polytechneion refused to give in and began hand to hand fighting with the police.
Eventually, with the police unable to gain entry into the barricaded University compound, around midnight Papadopoulos ordered the army in, something that would prolong the bloodshed into the ear.y hours of the next day.

List of the eight people who died in the hours before midnight on Friday November 16th:
Spyros Kontomaris (Σπυρίδων Κοντομάρης), 57-year-old lawyer and former MP who suffered a heart attack suffered during the teargas attack some time between 20.30-21.00;
Diomedes Komnenos (Διομήδης Κομνηνός), 17-year-old student shot through the heart by riot police between 21.30 and 21.45;
Sokratis Michail (Σωκράτης Μιχαήλ), 57, an insurance worker, between 21.00 and 22.30 he suffered a heart attack during the teargas attack;
Toril Margrethe Engeland, 22-year-old student from Norway was fatally wounded in the chest by riot police around 23.30;
Vasilis Famellos (Βασίλειος Φάμελλος), 26, around 23.30 he was fatally wounded in the head by riot police;
Yiorgos Samouris (Γεώργιος Σαμούρης), 22-year-old student, around 24.00 mortally wounded in the neck by police gunfire whilst in the greater area of ​​Athens (Kallidromiou and Zosimadon);
Dimitris Kyriakopoulos (Δημήτριος Κυριακόπουλος), a 35-year-old builder affected by tear gas in the University area and then beaten by police baton, as a result of which died from acute aortic rupture three days later on November 19th;
Spyros Marinos (Σπύρος Μαρίνος), known as Georgaras, 31, affected by tear gas in the University area and then beaten by police baton, suffering head injuries. He was taken to Penteli Infirmary where he died on Monday 19th of an acute stroke.

1981 - Felisa de Castro Sampedro (d. 1981), Spanish anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and femnist militant, who was involved in the founding of the Grupo Cultural Femenino and of Mujeres Libres, dies in Caracas, Venezuela. [see: Feb. 21]

1984 - Teodora Badell (b. 1893), Spanish militant anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [expand]

[E] 1991 - Aliaa Magda Elmahdy (علياء ماجدة المهدى‎‎), Egyptian "secular, liberal, feminist, vegetarian, individualist" internet activist and FEMEN associate, who became notorious for publishing a nude photo on her Blogspot page on October 23, 2011, born. The photo was one of a series that she had taken the year before when she still lived in her parents house as a silent protest against their restrictive and controlling behaviour, and which she claimed as "screams against a society of violence, racism, sexism, sexual harassment and hypocrisy" - the flower she wore in her hair, the lipstick and stockings, and standing with her legs apart, in fact the very thing of posing for a photo, all these were things which she had been told by her parents were not things that a 'decent' woman did or had been punished by her parents for doing.
Having eventually escape the prison of her parent's home, she became involved in the Tahrir Square protests in early 2011. In October that year, she came across the photos when she was transferring the contents of her digital camera to her laptop and, having decided that her own personal liberation at the time was mirrored by her country's, decided to confront the taboo against nudity by posting one on her Facebook page. It was quickly deleted by a Facebook administrator and, determined that no one - her parents or some anonymous censor - would ever forbid her from doing anything that she wanted to do again, she reposted it on her 'Memoirs of a Revolutionary' blog.
Pro-democracy liberals and religious conservatives and distanced themselves from her, and even the April 6 Youth Movement issued a statement denying claims that Elmahdy was a member of the group. However, it was not until the Western media got hold of the image that the death threats and false rumours about her (including one that she had been beaten up in Tahrir Square and another that she was dead, using photos of a young Brazilian woman who had died in a traffic accident in San Paulo in 2008 as 'proof') started. At one point she was kidnapped. A man contacted her to say that he had found her missing cat, but when she went to retrieve the cat, two men locked her up, stole her wallet and mobile phone and tried to tear her clothes off. She fought them off and was released the following day. Ten days later and fearing for her life and that of her family, she boarded a plane in Cairo and fled to Sweden, where she was granted political asylum.

2008 - Ruben G. Prieto (b. 1930), Uraguayan anarchist, dies. One of the founders in the 1950's of the Comunidad del Sur, a co-operative self-managed community. [see: Dec. 19]

[A] 2009 - Ivan Khutorskoy aka 'Vanya Kostolom' (Bonecrusher Vanya)(b. 1983), Russian RASH anti-fascist skinhead and prominent member of the country's anti-fascist movement, murdered. Well known for working security at anti-fascist concerts and press conferences of the Russian human rights lawyer Stanislav Markelov, he was shot dead at his home in Khabarovsk street in eastern Moscow.

2009 - Anne-Sofie Østvedt (b. 1920), Norwegian university student active in the anti-Nazi resistance, who was one of the leaders of the Norwegian intelligence organisation XU, dies. [see: Jan. 2]

2010 - To mark the Centennial of the Mexican Revolution, the remains of the Mexican revolutionary and anarcha-feminist Elisa Acuña Rossetti (1872-1946) are transferred from the 'Pateón Civil de Dolores' in Mexico City, where she had been buried, to the 'Rotonda de los Hidalguenses Ilustres' in Pachuca de Soto in the state of Hidalgo, Mexico.
1858 - Robert Owen (d. 1771), English industrialist and utopianist-socialist, dies. [see: May 14]

1862 - [O.S. Nov. 5] Olga Nikolaevna Figner (Ольга Николаевна Фигнер; d. 1919), Russian revolutionary, narodnitsa and one of the organisers of the Socialist-Federalist (Cоциалистов-федералистов) group (1887-89) in St. Petersburg following the crushing of Narodnaya Volya (Наро́дная во́ля / People's Will), born. [expand]

1866 - Sheffield Outrages: The Combination Laws passed in 1799 made trade unions illegal. The 1825 Combination Act narrowly defined the rights of trade unions as meeting to bargain over wages and conditions. Anything outside these limits was liable to prosecution as criminal conspiracy in restraint of trade. Trade unionists were banned from obstructing or intimidating others. During the 1840s - 1860s, some of the newly-formed unions used intimidation and violence where they believed workers were being under-paid or non-union or workhouse labour was being used at very low wages. Similarly, workers who refused to pay their union fees were ‘rattened’ - the belt which drove their grindstone would be removed or cut so the worker could not work.
Sheffield became one of the main centres for trade union organisation and agitation in the UK. In the 1860s, the conflict between capital and labour reached new heights culminating in a series of explosions and murders carried out by union militants. These actions, which came to a head in 1866 - 1867, became known as the Sheffield outrages. According to an article in 'The Anarchist' (1895): 'Sheffield, then the capital of English trade unionism, was the only town where the decrees of the union were enforced by the blowing up of factories or shooting capitalists. Nor were these outrages the peculiar invention of William Broadhead [secretary of the Saw Grinders Union, who was heavily implicated]. Like machine smashing or rick burning, they were an inheritance of the evil days of oppression and coercion. When strikes are criminal offences, and unions are smashed with all the might of law, what method is there left but outrage?'
William Leng, proprietor of the conservative 'Sheffield Morning Telegraph' believed the outrages were committed for mercenary reasons alone, and that a sufficiently large reward would bring forth the evidence. He called for a full investigation into the outrages. On November 17, 1866 a delegation, which included members of the Sheffield Trades Council and the London Trades Council, requested that the Home Secretary take the necessary measures to investigate.
On May 23, 1867, a Royal Commission on Trade Unions was appointed in response to the outrages to make an inquiry respecting Trade Unions and other Associations of Employers or Workmen. It was given 'extraordinary’ powers. They could give a free pardon to anyone who made a full confession, and send any man to prison that refused to answer questions or committed perjury. It found that William Broadhead, treasurer of the Associated Trades of Sheffield (and landlord of the Royal George Inn, Carver Street) had organised the outrages.
[ Study Guide v1-4.pdf]

[E] 1866 - Voltairine de Cleyre (d. 1912), American anarchist, feminist, teacher and poet, born. [expand]

1876 - August Sander (d. 1964), German portrait and documentary photographer associated with the Neuen Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity), born. Member of the Kölner Progressive group alongsdie Franz Wilhelm Seiwert and Heinrich Hoerle, whose major project 'Menschen des 20. Jahrhunderts' invovled his photographing different sections of the German people including the working classes, peasants, artist, poets, etc. He also photographed many of those involved in the Sparticist revolution and later, inevitably, the Nazis. His work also brought him into conflict with the Nazi regime and, after his son Erich (a member of the left wing Socialist Workers’ Party ) was arrested in 1934 and sentenced to 10 years in prison (dying shortly before his release), he retired to the country in order to protect his negatives.

1878 - In Naples 29-year-old Italian anarchist Giovanni Passannante attempts to assassinate King Umberto I as he is being driven along the Via Carriera Grande during a tour of major Italian cities following his accession to the Savoy throne. Shouting "Long live Orsini*! Long live the Universal Republic." [*Italian revolutionary and leader of the Carbonari who tried to assassinate Napoleon III in 1858], Passannante climbed up into Umberto's carriage, drew a knife that he had wrapped in a red cloth, attached to which was a note that Passannante had written: "Death to the King, Long live the Universal Republic, Long live Orsini.", and attacked the king. However, Passannante only managed to stab him in the right arm, as he was swiftly grabbed by the Prime Minister Benedetto Cairoli, who was riding along side Umberto and received a wound to his right thigh for his trouble. At the same time, the captain of cuirassiers, Stefano De Giovanni, hit Paissanante over his head with the flat of his sabre the head, stunning and arresting him.
Under interrogation, the unemployed cook from Salvia claimed that he had formed his plan two days earlier and obtained a knife, which had an 8cm blade that was "good only for peeling apples" according to the owner of the store where Passannante had obtained it, bartering for it with his jacket as he didn't have the half a lira it should have cost. Asked why he had carried out the attack, he gave a number of reasons: the betrayal of the Risorgimento (the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy of March 17, 1861); as a protest against poverty and taxes (especially the hated flour tax); and claimed that his "bosses have always treated me as scum" and, having come to dislike life, had decided to commit suicide by attacking and assassinating the King, hoping to be killed in the act. He stated that he had nothing personal against Umberto himself, but that he simply hated all monarchs. Despite his continued claim that he had acted alone, his interrogators tortured him in an attempt to force him to confess to an alleged conspiracy.
His trial on March 6-7, 1879, attracted a deal of controversy around the appointment of the jury and his lawyer, Leopoldo Tarantini, was ineffectual (Luigi Galleani later claimed that Passannante had been "abandoned to the executioner by his lawyer"). Giovanni Passannante was sentenced to death, despite the fact that the Penal Code provided for the death penalty only in the case of the death of the king and not his injury. His mother and siblings were also jailed, and the name of his hometown in the Basilicata region of southern Italy was changed from Salvia to Savoia di Lucania to escape its notoriety.
On March 29, 1879, Passannante's sentence was commuted by Royal Decree to life imprisonment, to be served in Portoferraio's 'bagno penale', on the island of Elba. Passannante's cell was located in the Torre della Linguella (later renamed the Torre di Passannante). Just 140cm high (Passannante stood 160cm tall), it was dark and damp (it was located below sea level and sea water seeped in turning the dirt floor into a sea of mud), had no latrine, and he was unable to talk to anyone (except on very rare occasions when visited by a number of socialist parliamentarians, who communicated via a peep hole – his guards were under strict orders not to answer his questions or communicate with him in any fashion), being held in full Isolation for 10 years whilst chained up with a short 18kg chain around his ankles.
The conditions eventually took their toll on his mental and physical health: he suffered from scurry, was infested by tapeworms, he lost his body hair, and went mad, coming to eat his own excrement. In 1889 he was secretly transferred to the Villa Medici dell'Ambrogiana, a criminal asylum in Montelupo Fiorentino, and though his material conditions improved, the deterioration in his mental and physical condition was irreversible. He was allowed to cultivate a small vegetable garden, which he ended up clearing of everything except a single plant, and to write in his notebooks.
In 1908 he went blind and died two years later on February 14, 1910 in the mental hospital at the age of 60, 5 days short of his 61st birthday.
Umberto I, Giovanni Passannante's intended victim, was ultimately assassinated on July 29, 1900, by another anarchist, Gaetano Bresci, who shot him four times with a revolver.
[Costantini pic]

[A] 1887 - Anarchist Johann Most is arrested for his use of "incendiary language" and sentenced to a year in prison in the USA.

[C] 1892 - Josef 'Beppo' Römer (d. 1944), German member of the Freikorps Oberland [which was instrumental in crushing the Bavarian Soviet Republic in April 1919 and fought against the Ruhr workers in March and April 1920], born. However, by the time of the Silesian Uprisings in 1921, he had become sympathetic to the Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands (KPD) and was involved in the Oberland's refusal to break a strike in the Silesian city of Ratibor in mid 1921. He was later expelled from the Korps for embezzlment, having channeled Oberland funds to the KPD as part of a plan to help prevent the return of the monarchy in Bavaria (something exploited by a faction sympathetic to the Nazis as it attempted to purge more left-leaning leaders), and became an organiser for the KPD and editor in chief of its periodical 'Aufbruch' (New Start). He worked against the Third Reich, actively participated in plans to assassinate Hitler in 1934 which led to his arrest and imprisonment in the Dachau concentration camp until 1939. After his release, Römer immediately became involved with the worker’s opposition, publishing a bulletin for the resistance, 'Informationsdienst' (Information Service), creating a network of opposition workplace cells, and again laying plans for another assassination attempt on Hitler. These cells were later infiltrated by the Gestapo and Römer was arrested in February 1942. Sentenced to death on June 16, 1944, he was executed on September 25 of that year at Brandenburg-Görden Prison.

[F] 1893 - Great Lock-out of 1893: By November 17, the 16 week lock-out was over. The Prime Minister now decided to intervene and he invited representatives from both sides to meet and terms were agreed between Lord Rosebery and the Miners’ Federation of Great Britain. However there were still some miners out on strike by December 7 and out of a total of 8,850 some 170 Nottinghamshire miners were still out.
This was the first occasion on which the British government had been directly involved in an industrial dispute.
[ - miner's strike.pdf]

1895 - Mikhail Bakhtin (d. 1975), Russian cultural theorist, philosopher, literary critic, literary theorist and semiotician, born. His writings, on a variety of subjects, inspired scholars working in a number of different traditions (Marxism, semiotics, structuralism, religious criticism) and in disciplines as diverse as literary criticism, history, philosophy, sociology, anthropology and psychology.

1903 - [O.S. Nov. 4] The decisions taken at the Second Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (July 17 - August 10) fially cause the irreconcilable split of the party into two separate factions - the Bolshinstvo (majority) and Menshinstvo (minority) - at a conference of Social-Democratic committees held in Pskov (Псков).

1904 - U.S. forces intervene (Nov. 17-24) in Panama to 'protect American interests.

1913 - In Germany, Kaiser Wilhelm banned the armed forces from dancing the tango.

1917 - [O.S. Nov. 4] Lenin defends the "temporary" removal of freedom of the press.

1917 - The Swiss government orders the internement of all foreign deserters and other undesirables.

1918 - Johannes Baader, soon to reincarnate himself as the Ober-Dada, Präsidenten des Erdballs (President of the Terrestrial Globe) and 'Dadaprophet', interrupts the sermon of the Lord Chaplain Dryander in Berlin Cathedral, shouting out: "Was ist Euch Jesus Christus. Er ist Euch Wurst!" (What is Jesus Christ to you? You couldn’t care less about him! [literally: Christ is Your Sausage i.e. cock, or even, shit]). The act, mocking the clergy, laity and politicians alike, provokes a public scandal, and Baader is arrested for blasphemy and passes into history as an 'art performance' despite the apparent lack of pre-planning. Baader was simply bored as well as being outraged at the obvious hypocrisy.

1919 - Criminal Syndicalism: The first trial under the Criminal Syndicalism Law of California begins against IWW member James McHugo in Oakland, California.

1934 - Joachim Ringelnatz (pen name of Hans Bötticher; b 1883), German author (poetry, novels, drama, memoirs, childrens books, painter and Kabarettist/satirical stand-up comedian, dies. [see: Aug. 7]

1942 - Ben Reitman (b. 1879), American anarchist, one-time hobo and physician to the poor, advocate of women's right to control their own bodies and lover of Emma Goldman, dies. [see: Jan. 1]

1945 - Emilio Canzi (b. 1893), Italian partisan, anarchist and anti-fascist combattant in the Spanish Civil War, dies. [see: Mar. 14]

1947 - Victor Lvovich Kibalchich aka Victor Serge (b. 1890), novelist, poet, historian and one-time French individualist anarchist who went over to the Bolsheviks, before they purged him, dies. [see: Dec. 30]

1967 - French author Regis Debray (b. 1940) is sentenced in Bolivia to 30 years in prison after being convicted of having been part of Guevara's guerrilla group (he was capture short before Guevara's own capture and subsequent murder). He was released in 1970 after an international campaign for his release which included Jean-Paul Sartre, André Malraux, General De Gaulle and Pope Paul VI. His 'Révolution dans la révolution? et autres essais' (1967) was used a the equivalent [along side Guevera's own 'La Guerra de Guerrillas' (1961)] as the 'official' handbook on South American guerrilla warfare.

[B] 1969 - Václav Krška (b. 1900), Czech writer, director and writer, dies. [see: Oct. 4]

1971 - 89 Talbot Road Raided: Chris Allen charged with conspiracy to cause explosions. [Angry Brigade chronology]

[DD] 1973 - Athens Polytechnic Uprising: With the failure of the large numbers of police deployed outside the Polytechneion to gain entry, despite their having deployed live fire in their attempts to breach the erected barricades, it was now the turn of the military to try and end the occupation.
At 02:00, three tanks came down from the Goudi towards the University. Two parked on Stournara and Tositsa streets, blocking the side entrances of the institution and the other took up a position opposite the main gate. The students outside the University began shouting: "Soldiers, we are unarmed, we are brothers, do not crush us, come join us" and chanting the National Anthem. Having been presented with an ultimatum to leave within 15 minutes of the troops would attack, the Coordinating Committee of the students tried to negotiate more time, but their request was rejected. Meanwhile, the Radio Station continued denouncing on air the brutal events unfolding at the behest of the dictator outside the University gates.
At 03:00, the tank opposite the main gate was ordered to attack. It demolished the iron gates and railings of the Polytechneion, knocking over a woman pearched on the railings holding a Greek flag - witnesses claimed that atleast two, and possible three, students were crushed under the tracks of the tank, casualties that do not appear in the official records. Other students suffered fractures amongst the rubble of the gateposts and railings. The official investigation after the fall of the Junta found that no students of the Athens Polytechnic were killed during the incident and only a few were injured by the tank.
Following the breach of the barricaded gate, a unit of armed Special Forces (ΛΟΚ) commandos entered the University courtyard and begun to lead students out via the Stournara Street entrance. Outside the Stournara Street pavements were lined with riot police, who immediately set to beating the students. In some cases the commandos intervened to protect the students from the swarms of secret police (KYΠ) and riot police gathered there. Many managed to find asylum in the surrounding apartment buildings, only to be later arrested outside and taken away to be brutally tortured by the General Security (Γενική Ασφάλεια) and Military Police (ΕΣΑ). Police snipers also opened fire from surrounding rooftops at those trying to flee. Meanwhile, the announcers at the University radio station remained in post and continued transmit the story of what was taking place for 40 minutes after the exit, until they were arrested.
At 11:00, martial law was imposed across Greece, whilst fighting continued around the University throughout the morning. Barricades were erected and street fights took place across Athens as soldiers and police continued to use live ammunition against civilians into the following day, resulting in several deaths in the area around the University and in the rest of Athens. An official police announcement that day claimed that 840 people had been arrested, but after the fall of the dictatorship, police officers, under interrogation, reported that the numbers arrested exceeded 2400. The official death toll reached 34 but the first press reports gave figures ranging from 59 to 79 dead. The figure is likely to be as much as 83, and maybe higher, given that many of the seriously injured would have refused to a hospital in order to escape arrest. Amongst the confirmed casualties was 5-year-old Dimitris Theodoras (Δημήτρης Θεοδώρας), shot in the head by a military patrol whilst crossing the road with his mother in the Zografou (Ζωγράφου) district of the Greek capital.
A week later disgruntled junta hardliner and head of the feared Military Police, Brigadier Dimitrios Ioannidis, a long-time protege of dictator, overthrew Georgios Papadopoulos in a coup on November 25, reinstating Military Law. On July 15, 1974, an Ioannidis-sponsored coup on the island of Cyprus overthrew Archbishop Makarios III, the Cypriot president. Turkey replied to this intervention by invading Cyprus and occupying the northern part of the island. As a direct result of both the Cyprus debacle and the ideological bancruptcy of the military government, the junta collapsed on July 23, to be replaced by parliamentary democracy.

1978 - ABC Trial: Aubrey, Berry and Campbell receive non-custodial sentences (a suspended jail sentence in Berry's case and conditionally discharges for Aubrey and Campbell).

1980 - The first issue of 'Courant Alternatif', the monthly journal of the Organisation Communiste Libertaire (O.C.L), and which will be published by groups within the organisation on a rotating basis, is published.

1986 - In Paris, two female members of Accion Directe shoot Renault chairman George Besse.

1989 - Kornelia 'Conny' Wessmann (b. 1965), German student and active anti-Fascist, is knocked down and killed by a car as she fled from a police charge. Conny, who was responding to a call out by comrades in Göttingen after a group of neo-Nazis had gone on a rampage in the city. By the time she and her Antifa group had arrived at the scene, the neo-Nazi skinheads had already fled. The police then followed her group, which planned to dissolve near the university campus. Close to the busy Weender Landstrasse they were attacked by the police. Trying to escape across a street, she was knocked down by a car and killed.

1989 - Sametová or Nežná Revoluce [Velvet or Gentle Revolution]: The Socialistického Svazu Mládeže (Socialist Union of Youth), a proxy of Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, a majority of whose members were privately opposed to the Communist leadership, and the Nezávislé Studentské Sdružení (Independent Student Association) had organised a mass demonstration in Prague to commemorate International Students Day. At about 19:30, the 15,000 demonstrators were stopped by a cordon of riot police at Národní Street. They blocked all escape routes and attacked the students. Once all the protesters dispersed, one of the participants – secret police agent Ludvík Zifčák – was lying on the street. Zifčák was not physically hurt or pretending to be dead; he was overcome by emotion. Policemen carried his motionless body to an ambulance. The atmosphere of fear and hopelessness gave birth to a hoax about the dead student.
That same evening, students and theatre actors agreed to go on strike. The following day the strike spread, with theatres opened their stages only for public discussions. At the initiative of students from the Academy of Performing Arts in Prague, the students in Prague went on strike. This strike was joined by university students throughout Czechoslovakia. Theatre employees and actors in Prague supported the strike. Instead of going on stage, actors read a proclamation by the students and artists to the audience, that called for a general strike on November 27. Home-made posters and proclamations were posted. As all media were strictly controlled by the Communist Party and this was the only way to spread the message. In the evening, Radio Free Europe reported that a student (named as Martin Šmíd) was killed by the police during the previous day's demonstration. Although the report was false, it heightened the feeling of crisis, and persuaded some hesitant citizens to overcome their fear and join the protests. [expand]

1992 - Audre Lorde (Audrey Geraldine Lorde; b. 1934), African-American poet, writer, radical feminist, lesbian, and civil rights activist, or "black feminist lesbian poet warrior mother" as she described herself, dies of liver cancer, having taken the name Gamba Adisa, which means "Warrior: She Who Makes Her Meaning Known" in an African naming ceremony shortly before her death. [see: Feb. 18]

2013 - Doris Lessing (Doris May Tayler; d. 1919), British author [novelist, poet, playwright, librettist, biographer and short story writer], radical, one-time communist, anti-colonialist and anti-racist, and Nobel Laureate, who was adopted as a feminist icon by the women's movement in the 1960's following the publication of 'The Golden Notebook' (1962), dies. [see: Oct. 22]
[D] 1803 - Battle of Vertières [Batay Vètyè]: A major battle of the Second War of Haitian Independence, and the final part of the Haitian Revolution under François Capois, is fought at Vertières where the Haitian rebels defeat the French expeditionary forces. The French general Donatien de Rochambeau is given ten days to embark the remainder of his army and leave Saint-Domingue. Less than 2 months later on January 1, 1804, Jean Jacques Dessalines proclaimed the independence of the Republic of Haiti, thereby delivering the final blow to the French attempt to stop the Haitian Revolution and re-institute slavery.

1842 - Rebecca Riots: During the night "Rebecca" and "her daughters" destroyed the gates at Pwll-Trap and Mermaid near St.Clears, Carmarthenshire.

1863 - Richard Dehmel (d. 1920), German poet and writer, Nietzschean individualist, friend of Gustav Landauer and outspoken advocate of free love, born. His early works featured naturalistic social themes and he was one of the first major German poets to write about the misery of the working classes. Influenced by Nietzsche, he extolled individualism and a life of uninhibited instincts and passion. Dehmel was tried for obscenity and blasphemy a number of times, most famously for his volume of poetry, 'Weib und Welt' (Woman and World; 1896). Despite being acquitted (as he was on other occasions), this time on a technicality, the court condemned the work as obscene and blasphemous and ordered that it be burned.

'Verklärte Nacht' (Transfigured Night)

Zwei Menschen gehn durch kahlen, kalten Hain;
der Mond läuft mit, sie schaun hinein.
Der Mond läuft über hohe Eichen;
kein Wölkchen trübt das Himmelslicht,
in das die schwarzen Zacken reichen.
Die Stimme eines Weibes spricht:

Ich trag ein Kind, und nit von Dir,
ich geh in Sünde neben Dir.
Ich hab mich schwer an mir vergangen.
Ich glaubte nicht mehr an ein Glück
und hatte doch ein schwer Verlangen
nach Lebensinhalt, nach Mutterglück
und Pflicht; da hab ich mich erfrecht,
da ließ ich schaudernd mein Geschlecht
von einem fremden Mann umfangen,
und hab mich noch dafür gesegnet.
Nun hat das Leben sich gerächt:
nun bin ich Dir, o Dir, begegnet.

Sie geht mit ungelenkem Schritt.
Sie schaut empor; der Mond läuft mit.
Ihr dunkler Blick ertrinkt in Licht.
Die Stimme eines Mannes spricht:

Das Kind, das Du empfangen hast,
sei Deiner Seele keine Last,
o sieh, wie klar das Weltall schimmert!
Es ist ein Glanz um alles her;
Du treibst mit mir auf kaltem Meer,
doch eine eigne Wärme flimmert
von Dir in mich, von mir in Dich.
Die wird das fremde Kind verklären,
Du wirst es mir, von mir gebären;
Du hast den Glanz in mich gebracht,
Du hast mich selbst zum Kind gemacht.

Er faßt sie um die starken Hüften.
Ihr Atem küßt sich in den Lüften.
Zwei Menschen gehn durch hohe, helle Nacht.

(Two people walk through a bare, cold grove;
The moon races along with them, they look into it.
The moon races over tall oaks,
No cloud obscures the light from the sky,
Into which the black points of the boughs reach.
A woman’s voice speaks:

I’m carrying a child, and not yours,
I walk in sin beside you.
I have committed a great offense against myself.
I no longer believed I could be happy
And yet I had a strong yearning
For something to fill my life, for the joys of
And for duty; so I committed an effrontery,
So, shuddering, I allowed my sex
To be embraced by a strange man,
And, on top of that, I blessed myself for it.
Now life has taken its revenge:
Now I have met you, oh, you.

She walks with a clumsy gait,
She looks up; the moon is racing along.
Her dark gaze is drowned in light.
A man’s voice speaks:

May the child you conceived
Be no burden to your soul;
Just see how brightly the universe is gleaming!
There’s a glow around everything;
You are floating with me on a cold ocean,
But a special warmth flickers
From you into me, from me into you.
It will transfigure the strange man’s child.
You will bear the child for me, as if it were mine;
You have brought the glow into me,
You have made me like a child myself.

He grasps her around her ample hips.
Their breath kisses in the breeze.
Two people walk through the lofty, bright night.)

[ dehmel/rdehmel.html]

1864 - Panait Mușoiu (d. 1944), Romanian anarchist, who the author of the first Romanian translation of 'The Communist Manifesto', born. He was one of the main figures of anarchism in Romanian and the founder of several left-wing magazines including 'Munca', 'Mișcarea Socială' and 'Revista Ideei' in which he published articles on political and social issues.

1881 - Le Chat Noir opens at its first site, at 84 Boulevard Rochechouart, in Paris.

1887 - Henrik Ibsen's anarchist-influenced play 'Samfundets Støtter' (The Pillars of Society) premières at the Odense Teater in Copenhagen.

1889 - London Gasworkers' Strike: A meeting is held with delegates from all South Met's works to explain the profit sharing scheme to those men who had already signed the agreements. At it Livesey states, "to speak quite plainly the Company intends to have some protection out of it", making it explicitly clear to the men that the signing of the agreements was built into the scheme in order to persuade men not to strike. The profit sharing bonus conditional on this.

1898 - Joris Ivens (d. 1989), Dutch communist and documentary filmmaker, who made the pro-Republican propaganda film 'The Spanish Earth' (1937), born.

1905 - [O.S. Nov. 4] 1905 Kronstadt Mutiny / Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Following the protests and strikes in the wake of the Kronstadt mutiny, the government is forced to publish a proclamation to the effect that the participants in the uprising will not be judged by a field court-martial but by an ordinary military court instead. In December 1905 the court sentences ten sailors to hard labour and 67 persons to prison terms of various lengths and acquits 84 others. However, the revolutionary movement in the navy is not extinguished.

1907 - Grève de Draveil-Villeneuve-Saint-Georges: The quarry workers of the Draveil sand pits had launched a successful strike in July 1907 and, having obtained a wage increase of 50 cents per hour, they demanded a contract that would guarantee the wage increase for all the worksites, relaunching the strike at Vigneux on November 18, 1907. With all the building work currently going on on the Paris metro, the quarry companies were beneficiaries and could afford to pay their workers better. At the end of the four day strike, the workers launched the Syndicat des carriers-puisatiers-mineurs de Chevreuse. In response, In front, 26 quarry companies came together to form the Société des Carrières de la Seine, and refuse any negotiation with the union, signing a pact on May 18, 1908. They also agree to use 'renards' (foxes or blacklegs) to break any strikes. [Jun. 2 & Jul. 30]

[A / E] 1910 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign / Black Friday: The Conciliation Bill (which would have given the vote to women who occupied premises for which they were responsible) was shelved by Prime Minister Herbert Asquith. On learning of this, the Women's Social and Political Union marched on the House of Commons. A riot followed and the women were assaulted – some severely beaten – by police and others. The newspaper 'Votes for Women' reported that 115 women and four men were arrested. The WSPU quickly learned the lessons of that day, and a policy decision was made to pursue their campaign using different tactics. Large deputations were considered to be too dangerous. From this moment, the suffragettes went underground and waged "guerrilla warfare" (their phrase) against the Liberal government.

1910 - The first issue of the pro-CNT weekly 'Acción Libertaria' is published in Gijon, Spain. The first 27 issues are edited by José Machargo (Avelino Iglesias), Eleuterio Quintanilla and Pedro Sierra. It is then published by Ricardo Mella in Vigo from September to November 1911, and returns to Gijon from 8 January 1915 to 4 February 1916.

1912 - América Scarfò aka 'Fina' (América Josefina Scarfó; d. 2006), Argentinian teacher, anarchist and pioneer of the anarcha-feminist movement, who used the pseudonym of Josefina Rinaldi de Dionisi, born. Sister of Paulino Orlando Scarfò and companion of the revolutionary anarchist Severino Di Giovanni, both executed, after enduring torture, by the Uriburu regime in Argentina in February 1931. América was only 17 when she left home to live with Di Giovanni, who was then in his 30s. Within months, Di Giovanni had been tracked down by police after a spree of bomb attacks on US and fascist targets. As Osvaldo Bayer, Di Giovanni’s biographer has put it: "Severino was an antifascist and he was convinced that the only counter to violence from above was violence from below." Love letters exchanged between Severino and América were confiscated by the police. For years they formed a prize exhibit in the Police Museum in Buenos Aires. Many years later, América later went into partnership with a like-minded comrade to run the Americalee publishing house specialising in anarchist and libertarian materials. Thanks to lobbying by Osvaldo Bayer, during the Menem government (1989-1999) the love letters from Di Giovanni were returned to América Scarfó by the police authorities.
She died in Buenos Aires on August 19, 2006, [not Aug. 26 as many sources erroneously cite] and her remains were cremated and her ashes buried in the small garden adjoining the HQ of the Federación Libertaria Argentina in the southern part of Buenos Aires.

1914 - Revolución Mexicana: Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata advance on Venustiano Carranza, who departs for Veracruz.

1915 - Revolución Mexicana: During the inconclusive Battle of Hermosillo, Pancho Villa losses many of his remaining 5,000 followers, retreating with only 1,400.

1918 - Alexander Kolchak stages a coup against the Socialist-Revolutionary Directory, the multi-party government in Siberia and becomes supreme leader of (White) Russia.

1919 - Ferdinand Domela Nieuwenhuis (b. 1846), Bakuninist and pioneer of Dutch anarchism and active in the International Anti-Militarist Association, dies. [see: Dec. 31]

1919 - Alternative date for the birth of Consuelo Rodriguez Lopez, aka 'Chelo' (d. 2012), Galician miliciana and anti-Francoist guerrilla. [see: Nov. 6 + 19]

1920 - The Bolshevik 'Decree on Women’s Healthcare' effectively makes abortion on demand (with certain restrictions: "abortion must not be performed for the first pregnancy unless childbirth would seriously endanger the woman's life"; "abortion must not be performed if the pregnancy has been continued for more than two and one-half months") legal in the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. In 1936 Stalin reversed most of the 1920 provisions with the 'Decree on the Prohibition of Abortions, the Improvement of Material Aid to Women in Childbirth, the Establishment of State Assistance to Parents of Large Families, and the Extension of the Network of Lying-in Homes, Nursery schools and Kindergartens, the Tightening-up of Criminal Punishment for the Non-payment of Alimony, and on Certain Modifications in Divorce Legislation' in order to increase population growth (the population had fallen sharply due to the famine that his policies had created) and to place a stronger emphasis on the importance of the family unit to communism. After Stalin’s death in 1953, the Soviet government revoked the 1936 laws and issued a new law on abortion, 'Decree of the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Council of 23.11.1955 on the abolition of the prohibition of abortion'.

1922 - At the request of Jean Cocteau, Man Ray takes a picture of Marcel Proust on his deathbed.

1924 - Iordan Chimet (d. 2006), Romanian poet, children's writer and essayist, critic and historian of art, cinema, screenwriter and translator, whose work was inspired by Surrealism and Onirism, born. An opponent of totalitarianism in general and of the Communist regime in particular, was persecuted by the latter as a dissident, and lived much of his life in obscurity. Politically active while still a teenager during World War II, he was part of an anti-fascist group in his native city, Galaţi, along with his friends Gheorghe Ursu (1926 -1985), a dissident who was killed by the Securitate secret police in 1985, and science fiction author Camil Baciu (1926 - 2005).

[F] 1929 - Port Arthur or Shabaqua Strike: Viljo Rosvall (b. ca. 1898) and Janne Voutilainen (b. unknown), two Finnish-Canadian unionists and members of the Lumber Workers Industrial Union of Canada from Thunder Bay, Ontario, are last seen alive on Onion Lake, some twenty miles north of the city of Port Arthur. Rosvall was an organiser for the LWIUC and Voutilainen a trapper who was acting as his guide. Both were Finns, and both were Communists. They had been delegated to recruit sympathetic bushworkers at a logging camp north of Onion Lake to join a strike against the timber companies which had been in progress since October 22. The camp belonged to the Pigeon Timber Company. The strike had actually begun at Shabaqua, to the north-west of the Lakehead. The two men had last been seen at about 13:00 by Pigeon Timber employees who were manning a supply depot halfway up the lake. The jobber in charge of the camp, Leonard Pappi Maki, was among them. Five months later, on April 19, 1930, the body of Voutilainen was discovered at the north end of the lake, in shallow water. He had apparently drowned. A few days later, Rosvall’s body was also discovered, again in shallow water, about half a mile upstream from Voutilainen’s, in a creek which ran into the lake. The community suspected that they had been murdered by company thugs.

1952 - Paul Éluard (Eugène Émile Paul Grindel; b. 1895), French poet and communist, a one-time Dadaist who went on to become one of the founders of the Surrealist movement, dies. [see: Dec. 14]

[B] 1953 - Alan Moore, comic writer, novelist, screenwriter, musician, cartoonist, neo-Pagan and anarchist, born. His works include 'V for Vendetta' (1982–1985); 'Watchmen' (1986–1987) and 'The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen' (1999–present).

[C] 1961 - Hacienda Maria Massacre: The last six captured conspirators involved in the assassination of the Dominican Republic dicator Rafael Trujillo on May 30, 1961 – Modesto Díaz Quezada, Pedro Livio Cedeño Herrera, Huascar Antonio Tejada Pimentel, Roberto Pastoriza Neret, Salvador Estrella Sadhalá a.k.a. 'El Turco' and Luis Manuel Cáceres Michel – are taken from La Victoria to the notorious Hacienda Maria, where they are shot one by one, placed as targets for shooting practice on a concrete platform over the pool. It is presumed that their bodies were thrown into the sea. [see: May 30]

1976 - Man Ray (Emmanuel Rudnitzky; b. 1890), American Surrealist photographer, painter, film-maker, chess-player and anarchist, dies. [see: Aug. 27]

1983 - Nakano Hatsuko (中野初子; b. 1886), Japanese editor and haiku poet of the Meiji and Showa eras, feminist and one of the co-founders, along with Raichō Hiratsuka (平塚らいてう) and others, of the monthly feminist magazine 'Seitō' (青鞜 / Bluestocking), dies. [see: Jul. 14]

1989 - Sametová or Nežná Revoluce [Velvet or Gentle Revolution]: Following the attack on the International Students Day demonstration in Prague the previous day and the decisions by students and theatre actors to go on strike, the strike spreads with theatres opened their stages only for public discussions. At the initiative of students from the Academy of Performing Arts in Prague, the students in Prague went on strike. This strike was joined by university students throughout Czechoslovakia. Theatre employees and actors in Prague supported the strike. Instead of going on stage, actors read a proclamation by the students and artists to the audience, that called for a general strike on November 27. Home-made posters and proclamations were posted. As all media were strictly controlled by the Communist Party and this was the only way to spread the message. In the evening, Radio Free Europe reported that a student (named as Martin Šmíd) was killed by the police during the previous day's demonstration. Although the report was false, it heightened the feeling of crisis, and persuaded some hesitant citizens to overcome their fear and join the protests. [expand]

1999 - Paul Frederic Bowles (b. 1910), American expatriate composer, author and translator, dies. [see: Dec. 30]

2000 - Ilya Grigoryevich Starinov (Илья Григорьевич Старинов; b. 1900), Soviet military officer, who served with the Republican forces during the Spanish Civil War and was one of the leaders of the Soviet partisan movement during the WWII, dies aged 100. [see: Aug. 2]

2002 - Britta Gröndahl (b. 1914), Swedish writer, French language teacher, editor, translator, feminist and anarcho-syndicalist militant in the Sveriges Arbetares Centralorganisation, dies. [see: Mar. 8]
1828 - Lakshmibai, the Rani of Jhansi (Manikarnika; d. 1858), queen of the Maratha-ruled Jhansi State in north-central India and military leader during India’s First War of Independence, whose death in battle is the subject of many heroic legends, born.

1862 - Liard-Courtois (Auguste Courtois; 1918), French painter and decorator, anarchist activist, neo-Malthusian and propagandist for the tactic of the general strike, born. [expand]

1899 - Emma Goldman, 'The Anarchist Orator' as she is billed, delivers a lecture at the Athenaeum Hall in London on the subject of 'The Aim of Humanity'. She follows this up with a second lecture entitled 'Woman' the following Sunday (26th) at the same venue.

1900 - Anna Seghers (Anna Reiling; d. 1983), German novelist, Communist and anti-fascist, whose novel 'Die Gefährten' (The Fellowship; 1932), a prophetic warning of the dangers of Fascism, led to her being arrested by the Gestapo, born. The daughter of Jewish family, she formally left the Jewish community in 1932 and, in 1934, emigrated via Zurich to Paris. With the Nazi invasion of France, she left for Mexico in 1941, where she founded the anti-fascist Heinrich-Heine-Klub. Her 1939 novel 'The Seventh Cross', set in 1936 and describes the escape of seven prisoners from a concentration camp, was made into a 1944 MGM film starring Spencer Tracy.

1901 - Pavlos Argyriadis (Παύλος Αργυριάδης; b. 1849), Greek journalist, writer, libertarian socialist and member of the Paris Commune, dies. [see: Aug. 15]

1904 - The first issue of the bimonthly 'Germinal', "Journal du Peuple, Libertaire", is published in Amiens by Georges Bastien and comrades. It ceases printing at the outbreak of WWI in August 1914 but reapears on 29 August 1919.

1905 - [O.S. Nov. 6] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The Second Congress of the All-Russian Peasant Union (Всероссийский крестьянский союз) is held in Moscow [Nov. 19-25]. During it Socialist-Revolutionary leader Viktor Chernov (Ви́ктор Черно́в) splits with the violent Savinkov faction [named after Boris Savinkov (Бори́с Са́винков) deputy leader of the SR Combat organisation (Боевая Организация)] and denounces terrorism. The conference passes resolutions demanding a constituent assembly, land redistribution, a political union between peasants and urban workers and for peasant strikes against landowners.

1905 - [O.S. Nov. 6] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The sixth (and last) Zemstvo Congress also begins the same day in Moscow [Nov. 19-26]. During it reformers vigorously debate whether to work with Premier Sergei Witte (Серге́й Ви́тте), to align with the revolutionary left, or to pursue centrist policies. In the end, and following a refusal by Witte to see a delegation sent by the congress, centrism prevails.

[C] 1908 - Gisèle Freund (Gisela Freund; d. 2000), German-born French photographer and photojournalist, socialist and anti-fascist, best known for her documentary photography and portraits of writers and artists and her book 'Photographie et Société' (1974), about the uses and abuses of the photographic medium in the age of technological reproduction, born. From a wealthy Jewish family, she took up photography initially as a hobby in 1925 and, whilst studying at the Institute for Social, Sciences, University of Frankfurt under Theodor W. Adorno, Karl Mannheim and Norbert Elias, she became an active member of a student socialist group and determined to use photography as an integral part of her socialist practice. One of her first first stories, shot on May 1, 1932, shows "a recent march of anti-fascist students" who had been "regularly attacked by Nazi groups." The photos also show Walter Benjamin, a good friend of Freund, and Bertolt Brecht. Being Jewish and a fervent opponent of National Socialism, Freund was also an active member of an anti-Fascist group. When one of her friends was imprisoned and murdered, Freund was told she must leave the country. On May 30, 1933, with little more than her camera, and with photographic negatives taped around her body to get past the border guards, Freund fled Germany in the footsteps of her friend Benjamin. She did not set foot on German soil again until 1957. In 1935 she began a relationship with Adrienne Monnier, poet, feminist writer, publisher, and a central figure in the contemporary avant-garde scene in France. Monnier went on to arrange a marriage of convenience for her lover with Pierre Blum so that Freund could obtain a visa to remain in France legally and the following year published Freund’s ground-breaking doctoral dissertation on photography in nineteenth-century France.
On June 10, 1940, with the Nazi invasion of Paris looming, Freund escaped Paris to Free France in the Dordogne. Her husband by convenience, Pierre, had been captured by the Nazis and sent to a prison camp. He was able to escape and met with Freund before going back to Paris to fight in the Résistance. As the wife of an escaped prisoner, a Jew, a lesbian and a Socialist, Freund "feared for her life". Finally, in 1942, through the intervention of her friend André Malraux (1901–1976), arrangements were made for her to find refuge in Argentina, becoming cultural attaché for the Ministry of Information of Free France while in South America, and founding Ediciones Victoria to publish books about France. Focusing on producing documentary reportage and films on remote areas such as Tierra del Fuego and Patagonia in 1944, she travelled through Chile, Peru and Bolivia, Brazil and Ecuador. In all these countries she wrote stories published by European and American magazines. She also visited Mexico, falling in love with the country and befriending Frida Kahlo. In 1947, Freund signed a contract with Magnum Photos as a Latin America contributor, but by 1954 she was declared persona non grata by the U. S. Government at the height of the Red Scare for her Socialist views, and Robert Capa forced her to break ties with Magnum. The same year she was also thrown out of Argentina for taking a set of photographs of Eva Peron wearing lavish jewellery that were published in 'Life' magazine, causing an international incident. Freund had returned to Paris in 1953, spending the rest of her life in France.

1910 - Revolución Mexicana: Francisco Madero crosses the border into México after Pancho Villa captures Chihuahua. Madero and Villa meet for the first time.

1912 - Bohuslav Brouk (d. 1978), Czech Surrealist, writer, journalist, esthetician, sociologist, biologist and psychoanalyst, born. He was one of the first promoters of psychoanalysis and critical interpreter of the works of Sigmund Freud in Czechoslovakia. A populariser of psychoanalysis, with a focus on sexuality and the (Surrealist) subconscious - he tried to reconcile Freud's teachings with the Surrealists' attempts to free the individual and to connect these with the social dimension of Marxism. However, he maintained that science and art should remain separate from ideology and dogma.
Member of Devětsil (Nine Forces) and a founding member of the Surrealist Group of Czechoslovakia in 1934. He was considered the enfant terrible of the inter-war Czech avant-garde, much of his provocative work from that period was focused on issues of sexuality and demystifying social mores and conventions. Among his most notorious in this regard are his essays 'Masturbation as Worldview' in Jindřich Štyrský’s 'Erotic Review', 'The Mácha Cult', the afterword on pornophilia to Štyrský’s 'Emilie Prichází Ke Mne Ve Snu' (Emilie Comes to Me in a Dream; 1933), and his books 'Psychoanalytical Sexology' (1933) and 'Autosexuality and Psychoeroticism' (1935). Took Karel Teige's part in his anti-Moscow show trial dispute with Nezval. After WWII he was heavily involved in political and journalistic activities, and was one of the few willing to speak out against the KSČ in Jozef Lettrich's 'Nové Prúdy' (New Currents). With the communist seizure of power in February 1948, Brouk fled the country, staying first in a refugee camp in Regensburg before settling for a short time in France. From 1951 to 1958 he lived in Melbourne, Australia, working at Commonwealth Serum Laboratories, and then in London until the end of his life, lecturing first at North Western Polytechnic and then Polytechnic of the South Bank.

1914 - Carlo Doglio (d. 1995), Italian architect, urban planner, editor, lawyer, university professor, anarchist, anti-fascist and pacifist, born. [expand]

1914 - Ernst Lerch (d. 1997), one of the most important people involved in Aktion Reinhard (Operation Reinhard), the annihilation of Poland's Jews, born. A member of the NSDAP since December 1933 and the SS from March 1934, by 1938 he had become a SS-Captain (Hauptsturmführer) in the Reich Security Directorate and in July 1942 he had been promoted to SS-Sturmbannführer as chief of staff to SS and Police Leader Odilo Globocnik in Lublin. After the war he managed to escape punishment for his part in the murder of 2 million people, even ecaping from prison in 1947 and going on the run for 3 years before being sentenced to just 2 years in prison by a de-Nazification court in Wiesbaden in 1960.

[A / F] 1915 - Joel Emmanuel Hägglund, better known as Joe Hill (b. 1879), Swedish-American labour organiser, folk-poet, songwriter and member of the Industrial Workers of the World, is executed by firing squad in Utah. His final word? "Fire!" [Popular sentiment has it that his final words were: "Don't mourn, organise", but these were taken from a telegram to Big Bill Haywood: "Goodbye, Bill, I die like a true blue rebel. Don't waste any time mourning. Organise!"]

1919 - An order is given to the teacher and anarchist João Penteado to close the Modern School No. 1 in São Paulo, which had opened on May 13, 1912. This follows the detonation of a bomb in a house in São Paulo that killed four anarchists, including José Alvés director of Modern School of São Caetano, a suburb of São Paulo.

1919 - Alternative date for the birth of Consuelo Rodriguez Lopez, aka 'Chelo' (d. 2012), Galician miliciana and anti-Francoist guerrilla. [see: Nov. 6 + 18]

1926 - Trotsky and Zinoviev are expelled from Politburo in the USSR.

1931 - Yevgenia Nikolaevna Figner (Евгения Николаевна Фигнер) (b. 1858), Russian revolutionary and member of Narodnaya Volya (Наро́дная во́ля / People's Will) and sister of Vera, Lydia and Olga., born. [expand]

1933 - Following the resignation of the middle-class republican governtment of Manuel Azaña, the recently formed Confederación Española de Derechas Autónomas (CEDA; Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Right-wing Groups), a coalition of largely Catholic conservative groups and Monarchists led by José María Gil-Robles y Quiñones, and which would progressively begin to ape the NSDAP, gained the most seats. However, the liberals in the Cortes clearly would not accept Robles and his grouping, with its expressed aim of defending Spain and "Christian civilization" from Marxism, and the party that came a close second to CEDA, the Partido Republicano Radical (Radical Republican Party), led by Alejandro Lerroux y García, formed a loose alliance with the winners and took all the seats in cabinet. [see: Oct. 1&4]

1936 - Buenaventura Durruti is mortally wounded at around 13:00 in uncertain circumstances in Madrid. He dies the following day. [see: Nov. 20]

[E] 1937 - Tamara Bunke aka 'Tania' (Haydée Tamara Bunke Bider; d. 1967), East German communist revolutionary and spy [in Bolivia under the name Laura Gutiérrez Bauer], who played a prominent role in the Cuban government after the Cuban Revolution and in various Latin American revolutionary movements, born in Buenos Aires to German communist parents. She was the only woman to fight alongside Marxist guerrillas under Che Guevara during the Bolivian Insurgency (1966-1967), where she was killed in an ambush by CIA-assisted Bolivian Army Rangers as the guerrilla column she was leading was crossing the Río Grande at Vado del Yeso.
Inspired by Tamara Bunke, Patti Hearst took the nom de guerre Tania during her time with the SLA.

1941 - Antonio Blanco Blanch (b. 1902), Spanish chocolatier, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, who was exiled to France after the defeat of the Spanish Republic, dies in Mauthausen's Gusen subcamp. [see: Feb. 16]

1941 - In the Riga Ghetto the Germans separate the working Jews from the rest of the ghetto inhabitants and move them into a separate "small ghetto" prior to the planned 'liquidation' of Latvia's Jews in the Rumbula massacre (November 30 and December 8, 1941) in which about 25,000 Jews were killed in or on the way to Rumbula forest near Riga.

1942 - One hundred mostly elderly Jews were taken from the Great Synagogue in Piotrkow Trybunalski, the first Ghetto set up in occupied Poland, to the Rakow forest, near Piotrkow and shot.

1942 - At exactly 07:30 hours, some 3,500 Soviet guns and mortars open fire on the breakthrough sectors. The Soviet fight to free Stalingrad has begun. By the second day of the attack, mobile forces on the South-West Front have advanced up to 25 miles.

1944 - Hutchins Hapgood (b. 1869), US journalist, author, novelist, free love advocate and anarchist, dies. [see: May 21]

[CC] 1944 - Heinz Siegfried Heydrich (b. 1905), German SS Obersturmführer in WWII and younger brother of SS General Reinhard Heydrich, who turned from being a fervent admirer of Hitler to an anti-Nazi to secretly helping numerous Jews escape occupied Europe, fearing imminent discovery of his actions commits suicide in an effort to prevent the inevitable retaliation that would of fallen upon his family. [see: Sep. 29]

1945 - Three Germans – Ernst Waldmann, Wilhelm Haffner and Albert Bury – are hung by the American army at Landsberg for killing downed U.S. pilots during the late war.

[B] 1949 - James Ensor (b. 1860), Belgian symbolist painter and anarchist, whose work was a major influence on both expressionism and surrealism, dies. [see: Apr. 13]

1975 - Golpe de 25 de Novembro: General José Morais da Silva, Chief of Staff of the Air Force, issue an order that 1,200 serving paratroopers would now become part of the military reserve. This decision would play an important part in the events of November 25th.
[ de Novembro]

1976 - No longer known as Tania, Patty Hearst is freed on $1.5 million bail. She returned to her family’s home at the William Randolph Hearst-built Beaux-Arts 1001 California St.

[D] 1999 - Tens of thousands of people welcome President Bill Clinton to Greece, fighting running street battles with riot police as banks and shops in the heart of Athens are set on fire. As the president's motorcade swept past posters likening him to Adolf Hitler, anti-American slogans were shouted and teargas canisters were fired to disperse protesters. Clinton also arrived at his hotel to see a banner denouncing him as a "fascist murderer" for the bombing campaign against Yugoslavia. At the airport he had been greeted by a small crowd waving American and Greek flags and told reporters, without any evident irony: "I know that a lot of people in Greece disagree with my position on Kosovo, and they have a right to their opinion and I have a right to mine."

2006 - Members of various anarchist, syndicalist and anarcho-feminist organisations, gather at the Montjuïc cemetry in Barcelona to pay tribute to Buenaventura Durruti on the 70th anniversary of his death.
1862 - Georges Palante (d. 1925), French philosopher and sociologist, who advocated an aristocratic libertarian individualism, born. Influenced by Schopenhauer, Nietzsche and Max Stirner, he developed a radical anarchist philosophy (even though he rejected the label) and "une morale désespérée, mais élégante, de la résistance" (a desperate, but elegant morality, of resistance).

[B] 1879 - Franz Pfemfert (d. 1954), German anarchist, publisher, editor of the mass-circulation anti-war paper 'Die Aktion', poet, literary critic and portrait photographer, born. Occasionally wrote under the pseudonym U. Gaday. His first poems appeared in Senna Hoy’s paper 'Der Kampf' (The Struggle) and in another anarchist paper 'Die Arme Teufel' (The Poor Devil) in 1904. Hoy also introduced Pfemfert to Alexandra Ramm, his future wife. In 1910, he became an editor of the radical democratic magazine 'Die Demokrat' but fell out with its publisher, quiting to set up his own magazine, 'Die Aktion'. In 1915 he created the Antinationale Sozialistenpartei (Anti-National Socialist Party), which secretly worked with other anti-war groups. At the end of the war Franz joined the Spartakusbund and the pages of 'Die Aktion' were thrown open to the various revolutionary currents. However, he broke with the KPD, joining the KAPD and, shortly afterwards in 1921, the AAUD-E (United General Workers Union). In 1926 he took part in the creation of the second Spartakusbund whilst maintaining his links with the anarcho-syndicalist union the FAUD. [expand]

1884 - The first issue of the monthly international review 'La Société Nouvelle' (Sociologie, Arts, Scienses, Lettres), whose motto is "Paix et rénovation sociale", is published in Brussels by Pierre Brouez (and who is succeed his son Fernand).

[F] 1891 - Cotton Pickers Strike: African American sharecroppers affiliated with the Colored Farmers’ National Alliance and Union go on strike for higher wages and an end to peonage in Lee County, Arkansas. Organised by Ben Patterson of Memphis, Tennesseeas part of the alliance's white founder and spokesman R. M. Humphrey's plan for a strike of black cotton pickers in order to demand a minimum wage of $1 per 100 pounds of picked cotton. The strike was crushed by a mob of local white vigilantes – led by the local sheriff – resulting in the death of fifteen strikers, including several who were lynched.

1892 - Homestead Steel Strike: With the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers now nearly bankrupted by the strike and with only 192 out of more than 3,800 strikers in attendance, the Homestead chapter of the AA votes, 101 to 91, to return to work.

1896 - [N.S. Dec. 2] Rose Pesotta (Rakhel Peisoty; d. 1965), US seamstress, labour activist, anarcho-syndicalist and feminist, born. From a family of grain merchants, Pesotta was well educated and influenced by the Narodnaya Volya (People's Will), and eventually adopted anarchist views. Pesotta emigrated to New York City at the age of 17 (1913), and found employment in a shirtwaist factory, she joined the International Ladies' Garment Workers Uion very soon after. The ILGWU was a union that represented mostly Jewish and Latina female garment workers. She was elected to the all male executive board of ILGWU Local 25 in 1920. Pesotta went to Brookwood Labor College for two years in the 1920s. In 1933 the union sent her to Los Angeles to organise the garment workers there. The organising of the Mexican immigrant garment workers lead to the Los Angeles Garment workers Strike of 1933. As a result of this success, she was made vice-president of the union in 1934, and sent to Puerto Rico to organise seamstresses. In 1944, she resigned from the General Executive Board of the union in protest of the fact that, despite 85% of the union's memebership were women, she was the sole female executive member. She returned to shopfloor organising in disgust.
Rose Pesotta died in Miami, Florida on December 6, 1965.

1898 - The first issue of the voluntary subscription 'El Rebelde', "Periódico Anarquista", is published in Santiago, Chile. The first openly anarchist periodical in Chile, it is the paper of the anarchist group of the same name and appears irreuglarly.

[BB] 1902 - Jean Painlevé (d. 1989), French biologist turned film director, actor, translator, animator, critic and theorist, anti-fascist and anarchist, born. Noted documentarist, often on scientific subjects, in particular underwater marine biology, his credo was "science is fiction". He was also the son of mathematician and twice prime-minister of France, Paul Painlevé. One of his closest friends and biggest influences on his films was fellow anarchist and film director Jean Vigo and he was associated with Surrealism, collaborating on Ivan Goll's monthly revue 'Surrealisme', without ever really being considered part of the Surrealist movement (despite self-identifying as a surrealist). After a short period as an actor and assisstant director, Painlevé directed his first short, a version of Goll's play 'Mathusalem' (1927), which he followed up with his first scientific films, 'La Pieuvre' (The Octopus; 1928) and 'Oeufs d'Épinoche' (Stickelback Eggs; 1929). He was also credited during the same period as "chief ant handler" on Luis Buñuel's 'Un Chien Andalou' (1928). The Académie des sciences rejected his efforts but his films were embraced by the avant garde of France and Man Ray, for example, used Painlevé's footage of underwater starfish in his film 'L'Etoile de Mer' (1928). The rejection also spurred hin on to co-founded L'Institut du Cinema Scientifique in 1930, which helped distribute and show documentary films made all over the world. An active ananrchist, Painlevé took part in anti-Nazi demonstrations throughout WWII and his 1945 film 'Le Vampire' was expressly anti-fascist. He also served as director of the Committee for the Liberation of French Cinema (which he co-founded during the war) which sought help ressurect the post-war French film industry.

1906 - Lucile Pelletier (Lucile Louise Simone Pelletier; d. 1991), French public service worker, anarchist an revolutionary syndicalist, born.

1910 - Revolución Mexicana: Francisco Madero calls for an uprising. Pascual Orozco launches an uprising in Chihuahua.

1910 - Leo Tolstoy (b. 1820), famed Russian novelist, religious pacifist and anarchist, dies. [see: Sep. 9]

1911 - David 'Chim' Seymour (Dawid Szymin; d. 1956), Polish photographer, photojournalist and anti-fascist, known for his images from the Spanish Civil War, born. One of the co-founders of Magnum Photos with Henri Cartier-Bresson, Robert Capa, George Rodger and William Vandivert, of which he became president following Capa's death. His famous photojournalism project 'Children of War', commissioned by UNICEF, captured the plight of children in the aftermath of World War II. He died whilst photographing the Suez conflict in 1956.

1913 - Libertas Schulze-Boysen (Libertas Viktoria Haas-Heye; (d. 1942), German former press officer in Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's Berlin branch office and anti-Nazi resistance fighter, who also gathered pictorial evidence of Nazi war crimes whilst working in the Reich Propaganda Ministry and was executed alongside her husband Harro Schulze-Boysen for her part in the activities of the (Nazi named) Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra) resistance group, born. Part of the same circle of left-leaning anti-fascists as her husband, artists, pacifists, and Communists who published anti-fascist writings amongst other activities, she was also involved in the resistance group known as the Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra).. In July 1942, the group's radio messages were intercepted and decoded, and on August 31, she and Harro Schulze-Boysen were arrested by the Gestapo. They were sentenced to death on December 19 and executed three days later at Plötzensee Prison in Berlin.

1916 - James Guillaume (b. 1844), English-born historian of the First International and anarchist active in the Swiss Jura Federation, dies. [see: Feb. 16]

1919 - Twenty two IWW members were indicted in Portland, Oregon for the violation of the criminal syndicalist act. Eleven were held in connection with the Centralia Incident and charged with first degree murder.

1920 - The Spanish government declares the anarcho-syndicalist CNT illegal and 64 union leaders are jailed.

[A] 1936 - José Buenaventura Durruti Dumange (b. 1896), legendary Catalan sindicalista y revolucionario anarquista, dies in the Hotel Ritz (then a field hospital for those wounded in the defence of the capital) at around 13:00 from the bullet wound to the chest that he had sustained in mysterious circumstances the previous day during the Battle for Madrid. What is clear is that Durruti had decided to go to the site of the battle to retake the Hospital Clínico, then in the hands of Franco's Moorish troops, and which had begun in the early hours of November 19. The fighting had been fierce, carried out floor by floor, room by room, with much confusion. After several hours, and having spent the previous four days since their arrival almost constantly involved in the fighting, with little chance to sleep or eat, the militiamen decide to retreat and return to their original positions. When the news that morale amongst the Columna Durruti fighters was low and that many were considering abandoning their positions reached Durruti himself, he decided to go to the front immediately.
Driven by Julio Graves, and accompanied by his bodyguard/adviser sergeant José Manzana (who sat beside him in the back of the car, which was led out by a second car carrying three people: Antonio Bonilla, driver Lorente, and Miguel Doga. When they arrived in the Avenida de Pablo Iglesias a few blocks away from the Hospital Clínico, Durruti encountered a group of militiamen who seem to be retreating, having abandoned their positions. He ordered Graves to stop the vehicle and got out of the car (accompanied by Manzana) with the intention of encouraging them to turn around. After a brief conversation with them, he headed back to the car. Then Julio Graves, who had remained in the driver's seat, claimed that he heard a shot and saw Durruti collapse with blood on his chest. Driven to the Hotel Ritz at full speed, where he was attended by a medical team headed by doctors Manuel Bastos Ansart and José Santamaría Jaume, who decided that an operation would not save him as he drifted in and out of consciousness, dying at dawn the following day. The official cause of the death was pleural haemorrhage caused by a gunshot wounds.
There are various versions of what actually took place, some of which clearly contradict themselves and the evidence of his wound. The ‘official’ version of event [allegedly prompted by García Oliver himself] was that, as Durruti’s car stopped in the University district of the City (the scene of the fiercest fighting) Durruti was struck by a Nationalist machine-gun bullet fired from a high window in the nearby Hospital Clínico. There were also claims that the fatal wounding occurred at 16:00, throwing further confusion over the incident. However, almost immediately the 'official' version began to be disputed, as rumours spread and suspicions were aired, with many people seriously questioning the manner of his death. Many claimed that it was part of a Stalinist plot to rid the revolution of one of its most popular commanders, just as they would later carry out the purges and assassinations of the May Days the following year and those around the militarisation of the militias.
Dr Santamaría, who later carried out the autopsy on Durruti’s body, stated that the shot was fired from a distance of just 35cm, totally discrediting the long-range sniper explanation. According to Joan Llarch: "there is a fallacy here, a shot fired from such a distance could not have left a powder residue around the entry point of it’s target. There has been sufficient evidence to suggest that Durruti’s leather coat bore significant powder residue around the entry point of the chest region. this would make the long-range sniper theory untenable". ['The Death of Durruti' (1973)]
The version given by Julio Graves, the driver that fateful day, was that Durruti had in fact accidentally shot himself in the chest with the Naranjero (Schmeisser MP28 II sub-machinegun, popular amongst the fighters of the Columna Durruti) which he was supposedly carrying. Notorious for its 'hair trigger', Graves claimed that it must have gone off as Durruti was climbing back into the car, fatally wounding himself. Yet Durruti never used the Naranjero. He always carried his trusty Colt pistol and only ever used a Mauser rifle. José Manzana however, who accompanied Durruti, and whose right arm was in a sling at the time, did use a Naranjero and was carrying it with him that day.
Buenaventura Durruti's close comrade Antonio Bonilla Albadalejo, driver of the famous Columna Durruti tiznado King Kong and later temporary commander of the column itself following Durruti's death, who had witnessed these events later claimed that: "There is no doubt that the bullet that killed Durruti came out of the Naranjero that was carried by Manzana. It could be casual or intentional. Today, in view of what happened next, I choose to believe that the shot was intended." [quoted in 'Posible', nº 80] It should however be added that Manzana, who had the full confidence of Durruti, later tried unsuccessfully to commit suicide in the wake of Durruti's death and later disappeared into anonymity in Mexico, never explaining his side of the story.
Whether Durruti's wound was the result of a deliberate action or an accident on Manzana's part, it definitely appears as though he fired the fatal shot that resulted in the death of one of the most popular anarchist revolutionaries that Catalonia and Spain has ever produced. And when his body was returned to Barcelona, over 500,000 people took to the streets to follow the funeral procession on November 22, 1936, with Durruti’s coffin draped with the familiar diagonal red-and-black FAI-CNT flag. [see: Jul. 14]

1943 - Paul Vigné d'Octon (Paul-Étienne Vigné; b. 1859), French physician, writer, poet, journalist, libertarian, rationalist, anticlerical, neo-Malthusian, freethinker and anti-colonialist, dies. [see: Sep. 7]

1943 - Oswald Mosley and his wife Diana Mitford are released from internment (ordered by Labour Home Secretary Herbert Morrison on the grounds of ill health, Mosley allegedly suffering with phlebitis), provoking widespread public protests. Jessica Mitford, Diana's sister, described the decision as "a slap in the face of anti-fascists in every country and a direct betrayal of those who have died for the cause of anti-fascism". Whilst thousands of people in the West End and other parts of London line up to sign a protest petition (which would gain over one million signatures). Others organised protest ad hoc meetings and a steady stream of trades union officials began to lobby Whitehall. Strikes in war industries were threatened.
The Mosley's were to spend the rest of the war under house arrest.

1957 - Jean-Baptiste Knockaert (b. 1877), Belgian anarcho-syndicalist, communist and free thinker, dies. [see: Mar. 25]

1962 - Mary Horgan Mowbray-Clarke (b. 1874), American art critic, writer, publisher, instructor, landscape architect, anarchist and the proprietor of the famous NY bookshop Sunwise Turn, dies.

1969 - 79 Native Americans occupy the recently abandoned Alcatraz Island, the beginning of a 19 month occupation. The Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868) between the U.S. and the Sioux returned all retired, abandoned or out-of-use federal land to the Native people from whom it was acquired. A stand-off ensued and eventually the government cut off power and phone lines to the island in May 1970. With no power or water and with dwindling support occupation numbers dropped. However, the occupation served as a focus for protest against US govn. policy and resulted in a large tranche of federal legislation being passed in favour of Native American autonomy. In June 11, 1971, a large force of government officers removed the remaining 15 people from the island.

[E] 1970 - A BBC van outside the Albert Hall in London covering the Miss World contest is bombed at 2,30 am. The prosecution claimed that Jake Prescott was responsible for this explosion, but also brought a witness who vouched that Jake was in fact in Edinburgh at the time. They were forced to drop this charge. [Angry Brigade chronology]

[E] 1970 - Women protesters disrupt the Miss World contest during live TV transmission. Flour bombs are hurled at Bob Hope.

1975 - Golpe de 25 de Novembro: Following calls by the Socialists for Brigadier General Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho to be sacked for COPCON’s failure to defend the government on November 13th, the MFA’s (Movimento das Forças Armadas) council replaced him as commander of the Região Militar de Lisboa (Military Region Lisbon) with the moderate, Captain Vasco Correia Lourenço. At the same time the Partido Socialista and the Partido Popular Democrático hold discussions about the possibility of moving the Constituent Assembly to the north, away from the radical heartland. On the same day a manifesto appears signed by junior officers calling for the arming of the working class.
[ de Novembro]

[C] 1975 - Universal rejoicing with the death of Franciso Franco.

1977 - Louis Mercier Vega (or Luis) (born Charles Cortvrint; pseud., Charles Riedel, Santiago Parane, etc.; b. 1914), Belgian journalist, activist, propagandist and libertarian thinker, who joined the movement at age 16, dies. [see: May 6]

1978 - Giorgio de Chirico (b. 1888), Greek-born Italian Nietzschean artist, painter and novelist, who was a major influence on the Surrealists, dies. [see: Jul. 10]

[D] 1980 - In China the Gang of Four (四人帮), scapegoats for the 1966-76 Cultural Revolution, are put on trial in nationally televised court proceedings. Jiang Hua led the special tribunal that was set up to try Jiang Qing and her 3 Politburo allies, Zhang Chunqiao, Yao Wenyuan, and Wang Hongwen.
Jiang Qing and Zhang Chunqiao received death sentences that were later commuted to life imprisonment, while Wang Hongwen and Yao Wenyuan were given life and twenty years in prison, respectively. Jiang Qing committ suicide in 1991 in a prison hospital, Wang Hongwen died in 1992, and Yao Wenyuan and Zhang Chunqiao both died in 2005, having been released from prison in 1996 and 1998 respectively.

1991 - Working class anarchist poet Philip Levine's 'What Work Is' wins the U.S. National Book Award for poetry.

2004 - Antonio Artero Coduras (b. 1936), Spanish libertarian filmmaker and essayist, dies. [see: Apr. 30]

2009 - The unveiling of the Santa Ana Memorial 'Halito Durruti', carved by sculptor Diego Segura.
[AA / DD] 1831 - Première Révolte des Canuts: Several hundred weavers tour the then independent commune of Croix-Rousse. They force the few weavers still at work to close their workshops. and head into Lyon where they are confronted by members of the Première Légion of the Garde Nationale, made up mostly of of traders, who bar their passage and fire on the crowd. Three workers are killed and several others injured. The silk workers head back to Croix Rousse and alert the people, shouting "Aux armes, on assassine nos frères" (To arms, they are murdering our brothers). Having armed themselves with picks, shovels, sticks, and some with guns, barricades are erected and workers march on Lyons, black flag with the inscription: "Vivre en travaillant ou mourir en combattant" at their head. The weavers of Croix-Rousse are soon joined by those of Brotteaux and Guillotière.

1841 - José Nakens Pérez (d. 1926), Spanish journalist, radical republican, insurectionist, anticlerical, writer and poet, born.

1853 - [N.S. Dec. 3] - Lydia Nikolayevna Figner (Лидия Николаевна Фигнер; d. 1920), Russian revolutionary member of Narodnaya Volya and the younger sister of Vera Figner, born. In 1872, she and her sister Vera went to Switzerland where she studied at the Medical Faculty of the University of Zurich, as well as typesetting for the journal 'Вперёд' (Forward). She was also part of the Fritsche circle, a group of young Russian radical women, including her sister Vera, Sophia Bardina, Olga Liubatovich, Anna Toporkova, Berta Kaminskaya, Alexandra Khorzhevskaya, Anna and Vera Lyubatovich, and the Subbotina sisters Evgeniya, Maria and Nadezhda some of whom would become important members of the All-Russian Social Revolutionary Organisation (Всероссийской социально-революционной организации). With their activities coming under the scrutiny of the Russian government, coupled with Mikhail Bakunin's urging of them to return home to carry out propaganda work, most reurned to Russia. Vera stayed behind in Zurich to complete her degree and Lydia went to Paris and continued her medical studies. Returning to Russia in January 1874, she entered the midwifery course at the Medical-Surgical Academy in St. Petersburg. [expand]

[B] 1855 - Émile Gravelle (d. 1920), French individualist anarchist and naturist activist, writer and painter, born.

1855 - Anarchist author Leo Tolstoy and Ivan Turgenev meet, the beginning a long and often tempestuous friendship.

[A] 1863 - Guildford Guy Riots: Despite 151 special constables having been sworn in on November 18 to relieve the troops trying to prevent a recurrence of Guy rioting, violence erupts and a constable is savagely beaten. The Riot Act is read.

1870 - Alexander Berkman (d. 1936), Vilnius-born lifelong anarchist and companion of Emma Goldman, born. Wrote one of the classics of prison literature, 'Prison Memoirs of an Anarchist' (1912).

1872 - [N.S. Dec. 3] Maria Essen [Мария Эссен], aka 'Beast' [Зверь], 'Falcon' [Сокол], (Maria Moiseevna Bertsinskaya [Мария Моисеевна Берцинская]; d. 1956), Russian revolutionary, member RSDLP and later a Bolshevik, born. [see: Dec. 3]

1878 - Ludovic-Rodolphe 'Ludovic-Rodo' Pissarro (d. 1952), French post-Impressionist painter and anarchist sympathiser, born. Camille Pissarro's fourth son, at the age of sixteen, Rodo published his first wood engravings in the anarchist journal, 'Le Pere Peinard'. His work also appeared in other anarchist publications, including 'Almanach Illustré de la Révolution', 'Les Humbles' and 'Temps Nouveaux'.

1889 - London Gasworkers' Strike: Following a meeting on November 18 between the management of the South Metropolitan Gas Company and delegates from all South Met's works to explain the profit sharing scheme to those men who had already signed the agreements - and at which the notorious head of the company George Livesey had stated, "to speak quite plainly the Company intends to have some protection out of it", making it explicitly clear to the men that the signing of the agreements was built into the scheme in order to persuade men not to strike, with the profit sharing bonus conditional on this - a second meeting is held in the Board Room at the Old Kent Road gas works with delegates of those workmen who had signed the agreements. Representatives of the National Union of Gas Workers & General Labourers had been invited to attend as observers, but none came. The proceedings of the meeting were taken down verbatim and circulated later to the men. The meeting began with Livesey explaining some current difficulties in working - of a practical nature concerning the price of coal. He talked about the threat from electricity and eventually came to the stokers' demands. They were now asking for double time on Sundays, but "the orange has been squeezed dry". He went on.. "now the time has come when it is necessary to have something more than the mere labour of the workmen - we want his interest and we want to give him a share of the profits earned by the Company in order to purchase that interest as well as his labour".
A week after the scheme had been announced the union said that they would enforce 'Rule XVI' which concerned union recognition. The company replied that the Union could not be recognised and their 'own men' would be preferred. The press began to report increased protest meetings. The likelihood of industrial action by the union, the majority of whose members had refused to sign Livesey's agreement, was now looking increasingly likely.

1894 - Santiago Salvador Franch (b. 1862), is executed in Barcelona. He threw two bombs into the audience at Teatre Liceu during a performance of the opera 'William Tell', killing 22 people. [see: Nov. 7]

1897 - [N.S. Dec. 3] Mollie Steimer (Marthe Alperine; d. 1980), Russian-American-Jewish-Mexican anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist labour activist, born. Her militant activities got her deported from both the US in 1921 (after getting 15 years of prison for publishing a leaflet opposing the landing of US troops in Russia), and by Lenin in Russia (1923). Arrested as a German Jew in France, then escaped a Nazi internment camp and fled to Mexico with long-time companion Senya Fleshin.

1898 - René François Ghislain Magritte (d. 1967), Belgian Dada, then Surrealist artist and one-time Communist Party member, born. Member of the Revolutionary Surrealist Group.

1899 - Fosco Falaschi (d. 1936), Italian brickmaker, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, born. As a child, his family emigrated to Argentina and settled in Buenos Aires. In 1916, he began working in a brick factory. In 1919, he became a member of the Societat Obrera dels Treballadors in Bòbila, affilated to the anarcho-syndicalist Federación Obrera Regional Argentina (Argentine Regional Workers' Federation; FORA), becoming secretary of the union in 1923 as well as editor of it newspaper 'El Obrero Ladrillero', "Órgano del Sindicato de Obreros Ladrilleros y Anexos". That same year, he was arrested for the first time for "incitement to strike" and went on to be arrested numerous times between 1929 and 1933. He was also a member of Umanità Nova, the coalition of anarcho-syndicalist, militant and anarchist groups, of the Alleanza Antifascista Italiana (AAI) and worked on the newspaper 'La Protesta' and its literary supplements. The authorities linked him to the group of Severino Di Giovanni who was, in December 1932, involved with other anarchist groups in the uprising organised by Colonel Atilio Cattáneo. Arrested in January 1933, he was expelled on June 23 that year for "subversive activities". Disembarking in Genoa, he was moved against his will to Città di Castello. A few days later, he fled but in September 1933 he was arrested by Carabinieri in Moncenisio as he tried to cross illegally in France. After another unsuccessful attempt to leave Città di Castello, he managed to cross into France in August 1934 and then on to Spain. In Barcelona, he worked on 'Solidaridad Obrera' and 'Tierra y Libertad', where he used the pseudonyms 'FF' and 'Gino Fosco'. Francisco Ascaso, of the Catalonia Regional Committee of the CNT, proposed him as director of 'Solidaridad Obrera' when its then editor, Manuel Villar, was imprisoned after the anarchist uprising in December 1933. After moving to Madrid, he worked on 'Revolución Social'. After the events of October 1934, he was arrested and jailed in Madrid. Following a broad support campaign, he was released in early 1936 after the amnesty that led to the triumph of the electoral Popular Front. Back in Barcelona, he joined the Ascaso Column following the military coup. On August 28, 1936, he was one of the first Italians (along with Mario Angeloni, Michele Centrone and Vicenzo Perrone) to die in the fighting in the Battle of Monte Pelado on the Aragon Front.

1905 - [O.S. Nov. 8] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The Union of Russian People hold its first meeting. This early fascist and openly anti-Semetic group aims to fight against the left, and is funded by government officials as well as having been formally blessed by Tsar Nicholas II.

1905 - [O.S. Nov. 8] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Lenin return from Geneva to St Petersburg after months of delaying. He immediately calls for an armed uprising, not really caring whether it succeeded or not: "Victory?!...That for us is not the point at all...We should not harbour any illusions, we are realists, and let no-one imagine that we have to win. For that we are still too weak. The point is not about victory but about giving the regime a shake and attracting the masses to the movement. That is the whole point. And to say that because we cannot win we should not stage an insurrection-that is simply the talk of cowards."
Meanwhile, the Union of Russian People hold its first meeting. This early fascist and openly anti-Semitic group aims to fight against the left, and is funded by government officials as well as having been formally blessed by Tsar Nicholas II.

[D] 1921 - Columbine Mine Massacre: ERROR

1922 - Huelga General de Guayaquil: Management and workers settle the strike, with the workers gaining their pay raises, shorter hours, and the rest of their demands, though the fare increase that had prevented the agreement being accepted on November 12 was also part of the settlement.

1922 - Cipriano Ricardo Flores Magón (b. 1874), noted Mexican anarchist, dies in Leavenworth Penitentiary in Kansas whilst serving 20 years for "obstructing the war effort", a violation of the Espionage Act of 1917. [see: Sep. 16]

[C] 1925 - Poncke Princen (Johannes Cornelis Princen; d. 2002), Dutch anti-Nazi fighter and colonial soldier, who in 1948 deserted and joined the pro-independence guerillas in the then Dutch Indies, born. He lived out the rest of his life in Indonesia, becoming a prominent human rights activist and political dissident under various dictatorial regimes in his adopted country and consequently spent considerable time in detention. In 1943, Princen was arrested by the German occupation authorities in Maastricht, while trying to get to Spain - from where he intended to travel to Britain and enlist in an Allied army fighting the Nazis. He was convicted by the occupation authorities of "attempting to aid the enemy" and in early 1944 was sent to the notorious Vught Camp. On D-day, he was transferred to the Kriegswehrmachtgefängnis (Wehrmacht Military Prison) at Utrecht and was later transferred to the prison camp at Amersfoort and from there to Beckum, Germany.

[F] 1927 - Columbine Mine Massacre / Colorado Miners' Strike: State Rangers and national guardsmen, attack 500 unarmed striking coal miners and their families with tear gas, automatic rifles and machine guns under the direct orders of the governor of Colorado, Billy Adams. Colorado's miners had been striking for five weeks and strikers had been holding morning rallies for the previous two weeks in the company town of Serene, close to the Columbine mine, as Columbine was one of the few coal mines in the state that remained in operation. The strike was so peaceable that Josephine Roche, daughter of the recently deceased owner of Rocky Mountain Fuel Company, the picketers had been served coffee and doughnuts on previous mornings. However, with winter fast approaching, the governor of Colorado feared a state-wide coal shortage and resolved to quash the strike. He ordered his Rangers, who had officially been disbanded before the strike largely due to their reputation for being used as an employer’s armed force but reactivated by Adams, to dress in civilian clothing so as not to alert the strikers, and positioned them on the Columbine mine slag heap. In the ensuing bloodbath, six miners were killed and dozens more injured. But, despite scores of witnesses, the authorities denied the use of machine guns, the press covered up all evidence to the contrary and, with typical authoritarian shamelessness, the strike leaders were themselves arrested and charged with the responsibility for the deaths.
[–-the-first-columbine-massacre/ Mine Massacre, Serene, Colorado, 1927/mode/exact]

1927 - Marilyn French (d. 2009), American feminist author, novelist and academic, born.

1936 - The first issue of the weekly anarcho-syndicalist newspaper 'El Productor', "Órgano de la Federación Local y Comarcal de Sindicatos Únicos", is published by the CNT in Onteniente.

1941 - Juanita Spellini is the first woman to be executed in the state of California.

1960 - Guy Debord is questioned by a police tribunal about his participation in the 'Manifeste des 121' or 'Déclaration sur le droit à l’insoumission dans la guerre d’Algérie' (Declaration on the Right to Insubordination in the Algerian War), and has it recorded in his deposition that by the fact of having signed the declaration alone, assuming complete responsibility for publication and distribution.

1962 - Kidnap of Spanish Vice-Consul Isu Elias: The jury delivers their verdicts after just 2 hours and sentences of 8-5 months are handed down, which are then suspended, as the accused had "acted for reasons of particular moral and social value".
Conill Valls himself ended up becoming a communist whilst in prison and, when he was released, he was appointed political secretary of the Partit Socialista Unificat of Catalonia (PSUC).

1972 - Chicago Seven Trial: The Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals reverses the convictions of Hoffman, Rubin, Dellinger, Davis and Hayden.

1975 - Golpe de 25 de Novembro: Following yesterday's replacement of Brigadier General Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho, officers of the Região Militar de Lisboa (Military Region Lisbon) refuse to obey his succesor Captain Vasco Correia Lourenço. Officers at the Beirlos barracks promise to distribute guns to the workers ("Enough to arm a demonstration"). At the Tancos base many of the paratroopers’ officers also walk out after the decision to transfer many of them to the reserves; the commander attempts to get the 1,200 troops under their command to go on leave and evacuate the base, which they refused to do, putting themselves under COPCON’s authority.
[ de Novembro]

1992 - Silvio Meier (b. 1965), German anti-fascist and squatter, is stabbed to death by neo-Nazis in the Berlin Samariterstraße metro station following an altercation. Two of his companions are seriously injured. The neo-Nazis are said to have shouted: "Jetzt haben wir es euch gezeigt, ihr linken Säue!" (Now we've shown you, you leftwing swine!)
In the late 1980s he had been involved in the DDR in a libertarian group, Kirche von Unten (KvU), as well as the libertarian-oriented samizdat periodical 'mOAning stAr'. On October 17, 1987, he was involved in organising a concert of the West Berlin band Element of Crime in the Berlin Zionskirche which came under attack from around 30 neo-Nazis who stormed the building, beating the audience with wooden stave and bottles. The Volkspolizei and Stasi stationed outside the church stood by and watched. From that date Silvio became an active anti-fascist.

1993 - The Neo-fascist MSI wins 36% of municipal elections in Rome.

2000 - Former Socialist health minister Ernest Lluch is shot dead by ETA in a Barcelona car park. Earlier that day, a bomb had caused great damage to an estate agency in Guernica, Biscay and grenades had been thrown at a Guardia Civil barracks in Irún. One of the grenades injured a policeman and another hit a children's school. Police defused a car bomb next to the barracks.

2002 - Robert Brentano (b. 1926), US anarchist and long-time history professor, dies.

2007 - Fernando Fernán-Gómez (b. 1921), Argentine-born Spanish actor, screenwriter, film director, theater director, novelist, anarcho-syndicalist and lifelong anarchist, dies. During his funeral his coffin will be draped in the flag of the CNT. [see: Aug. 28]

2012 - Vladka Meed (Feigele Peltel, b. 1921), Polish member of the Jewish resistance, who famously smuggled dynamite into, and also helped children escape out of, the Warsaw Ghetto, dies. [see: Dec. 29]

2014 - Two alleged members of the New Black Panther Party are arrested during an FBI sting/entrapment operation for allegedly buying explosives they planned to detonate during protests in Ferguson, Missouri following the expected grand jury decision to not press charged for the killing on Michael Brown on August 9, 2014. The same pair is also indicted for purchasing two pistols under false pretences.
[A] 1718 - Legendary pirate Blackbeard, thought to have been a native of Bristol named Edward Teach or Thatch, is killed.

1831 - Première Révolte des Canuts: Against the backdrop of poor economic circumstances and a resultant drop in silk prices, which caused a drop in workers' wages, the canuts (master silk workers, often working on Jacquard looms) had request in mid October 1831 that the préfet du Rhône, Louis Bouvier-Dumolart, help them negotiate with the manufacturers. The canuts wanted a fixed price to be established, which would stop the further decrease of the price of silk goods. The prefect organised a group of owners and workers, which was able to establish a fixed rate on October 26. A labour court, the Conseil de prud'hommes, was given the role of ensuring the rate was applied.
The intervention of the prefect was, however, poorly received by some manufacturers who considered his actions to be demagogic, and the concessions afforded by their representatives to be a sign of weakness. On November 10, 104 of them formally refused to apply the rate, claiming it was against the principles of the French Revolution. Laws such as the Le Chapelier Law and the Allarde decree of 1791 established the principle of economic non-intervention by the state, in addition to explicitly banning guilds, and denying the right to strike. The manufacturers claimed the fixed rate was contrary to freedom of enterprise.
On November 21, the rising tensions reach a head and several hundred weavers began touring the then independent commune of Croix-Rousse. They forced the few weavers still at work to close their workshops. and headed into Lyon where they were confronted by members of the Première Légion of the Garde Nationale, made up mostly of of traders, who barred their passage and fired on the crowd. Three workers were killed and several others injured. The silk workers headed back to Croix Rousse and set to alerting the people as to what had taken place, shouting "Aux armes, on assassine nos frères" (To arms, they are murdering our brothers). Having armed themselves with picks, shovels, sticks, and some with guns, st to erecting barricades. Workers then proceeded to march on Lyons. At their head was a black flag with the inscription: "Vivre en travaillant ou mourir en combattant" at their head. The weavers of Croix-Rousse were soon joined by those of Brotteaux and Guillotière.
The silk workers revolt in Lyon continued into the following day (22nd), with a bloody battle at the Pont Morand, the oldest bridge in the city across the Rhône. The Garde Nationale was routted, giving up control of central Lyon and allowing the workers to seize the fortified Bon Pasteur barracks and loot its armouries. Several units of the Garde militaire and the Garde Nationale were attacked, and when the infantry intervened it too was forced to retreat under a hail of tiles and bullets. The Garde Nationale, most of which had been recruited from amongst the canuts, changed sides, joining the insurgents, leaving the workers in control of the town. The bloody battle left 100 dead and 263 injured on the military side, with 69 dead and 140 injured on the insurgents' side. That night General Roguet, commander of the 7e Division Militaire, and the mayor, Victor Prunelle, fled the town.

1850 - Camille Camet (d. unknown), Lyon weaver, anarchist and member of the International Workers Association, born.

1871 - Georges Henri Manzana Pissarro (d. 1961), French Impressionist and Post-Impressionist painter, engraver and anarchist sympathiser, born. The second son of anarchist artist Camille Pissarro.

1872 - Ettore Luigi Bonometti (d. 1961), Italian shoemaker and anarchist, born. [expand]
[NB: some sources claim his d.o.b. as Dec. 22]

1876 - René Darsouze (d. 1962), French militant anarchist propagandist, union activist and typographer, born. Co-founder, in 1908, of the Le Phalanstère du Clos-des-Brunes community, near Limoges. Member of the l'Association des Fédérations Anarchistes founded by Sébastien Faure, and from 1929 to 1932 a writer for that organisation's newspaper, 'La Voix Libertaire'.

[B] 1880 - Edmundo Bianchi (d. 1965), Uruguayan playwright, screenwriter, poet, writer, translator, composer of tango lyrics and diplomat, born. Collaborator in the anarchist press pf Uruguay and Argentina, sometimes under the pseudonym of Espindola Lucretius. [expand]
'Nobleza de Esclavo' published in 'La Rebelión' (supplement to 'Futuro'; 1904)?
Wrote the lyrics to Osvaldo Fresedo's 'Pampero'.

1882 - [N.S. Dec. 4] Zofia Dzierżyńska aka Sofia Sigizmundovna Dzerzhinskaya [Софья Сигизмундовна Дзержинская (ru)] (Zofia Julia Muszkat; d. 1968), Polish teacher and communist activist, born. [see: Dec. 4]

1889 - The first issue of 'La Alarma', "Anarquia, Federalismo", is published by Ricardo Mella in Seville. It replaces the 'La Solidaridad' newspaper and is also printed (in Spanish) in America as 'The Alarm'.

1893 - [O.S. Nov. 10] Grigori Petrovich Maximov (Григорий Петрович Максимов)[also rendered as Gregory or G.P. Maximov or Maximoff] aka Gr. Lapot (Гр. Лапоть)(d. 1950), Russian-American anarcho-syndicalist propagandist and author, born. [expand]

[C] 1900 - Benigno Dominguez Bejarano (d. 1940), Spanish anarchist writer and journalist, born. Prolific author of literary, scientific, critical and humorous articles; short stories, novels and utopian fiction, much of it published under the pseudonyms Lazarillo de Tormes and Dionisiere. Arrested by the Gestapo in 1942, he was interned in France and transfered to the Neuengamme and then the Salzgitter-Watenstedt concentration camps. Suffering from lung disease, he was gassed by the Nazis in a 'ghost truck' in the summer of 1944.

1901 - Alexandre Breffort (1971), French journalist, screenwriter, playwright, writer, anarchist and anti-militarist, born.

1902 - In Buenos Aires the Argentine government passes a so-called 'law of residence' which will allow it to persecute any social movement that acts against the apparatus of state, and therefore the anarchist movement. The law creates the ability "to expel any foreigner whose conduct might jeopardize national security, public order or disrupt social peace (...)", via arrests and mass deportations. On 26 May 1910, it will be reinforced by another new repressive law the "Social Protection Act".

1904 - David Antona Domínguez (d. 1945), Spanish bricklayer, militant anarcho-syndicalist and one-time Secretariado del Comité Nacional CNT, born. [expand]

1905 - [O.S. Nov. 9] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Rostov-Nakhichevan Council calls for a general political strike. However, almost immediately the 12 members of the Board and the management of railway bureaus are arrested.

1905 - Jo Ann Wheeler Burbank (d. 2000), US anarchist educator, born. She taught at Stelton and Mohegan Modern schools; she wrote for the anarchist journal 'Discussion' and co-edited a new 'Mother Earth' in 1930s.

[FF] 1909 - Uprising of the 20,000 / New York Shirtwaist Strike: Members of the International Ladies Garment Workers Union go on strike in New York City against sweatshop conditions in what became known as the 'Uprising of the 20,000' or, more simply, the 'Great Revolt'. The strikers win the support of other workers and the women’s suffrage movement for their persistence and unity in the face of police brutality and the capitalist courts. A judge tells arrested pickets: "You are on strike against God."
20,000 garment workers, mostly young Jewish and Italian women and girls, abandoned their sewing machines, needles, and scissors. They’d been summoned to strike by Clara Lemlich, a 23-year-old firebrand who had already helped organise a fledgling shirtwaist workers union. During the struggle that followed, Lemlich was arrested seventeen times for picketing, and hospitalised with six broken ribs. She would recount her story in our magazine as follows, half a century later: "[S]ince every strike we called was smashed by the bosses, the union decided to call a meeting at Cooper Union. The hall was packed. On the platform was Samuel Gompers of the American Federation of Labor, Leonora O’Reilly of the Women’s Trade Union League, B. Feigenbaum of the Jewish Daily Forward. Each one talked about the terrible conditions of the workers in the shops. But no one gave or made any practical or valid solution."
Lemlich then asked for the floor. "I am a working girl, one of those who suffers from and is on strike against the intolerable conditions portrayed here," she said in Yiddish. "I am tired of listening to those who speak in general terms…. I move a general strike – now." Some 2,500 workers in attendance pledged themselves to the strike, the Uprising of the 20,000 – which would last for eleven painful weeks.
Ninety percent of the strikers were Jews. Seventy percent were women. Yet they withstood fierce opposition from the bosses, hired thugs, and the legal system, and by February 15, 1910, when the strike was called off, the strikers had forced 339 of the 353 struck firms within the Waist and Dress Manufacturers’ Association to sign contracts granting a 52-hour week, four annual paid holidays, no deductions for tools or supplies, and equal division of work during slack seasons. The Triangle Company and some of the other larger firms resisted. Most importantly, by the strike’s end, 85 percent of all shirtwaist workers in New York had joined the International Ladies Garment Workers Union. Clara Lemlich’s Local 25, which had launched the strike with 100 members, now had 10,000.

[F] 1910 - Aberdare Miners' Strike or 'Block Strike': After the November 8th protest that was violently attacked by police, more violence followed at Aberaman on November 13th, at Cwmbach on the 14th, and again at Aberaman on November 22, when a crowd gathered to look for blacklegs coming home from work. 1,500 people, mainly women and children, followed one blackleg on to Aberaman railway station and "shouted uncomplimentary remarks", struck and kicked him, and eventually allowed him to go home only to smash his windows once he had got there. Other officials were caught and tarred and twelve policemen were injured. The following day, a furniture van was held up by pickets and the contents were left strewn across the road in the pouring rain. The owner had been supplying the troops with provisions. These incidents were not on the scale of the Tonypandy riots, but they demonstrate the involvement of the wider community in the attempt to prevent any blacklegging.

[D] 1910 - Revolta da Chibata [Revolt of the Lash]: The mostly black crews of four Brazilian warships, led by João Cândido Felisberto, mutiny shortly after a sailor Marcelino Rodrigues Menezes publicly received 250 lashes. [expand]

1916 - Jack London (b. 1876), author of 'The Iron Heel' and 'People Of The Abyss' amongst other works, dies.

1917 - Bridget Bate Tichenor (born Bridget Pamela Arkwright Bate; d. 1990), also known as Bridget Tichenor or B.B.T., Mexican surrealist and magic realist painter, model and fashion editor, born. A close firend of Man Ray, Leonora Carrington, Remedios Varo and Anaïs Nin, who was infatuated with her and wrote at length about her fantasies in her journals, she frequented artistic and radical circles around the world before settling permanently in Mexico in 1953.

1924 - Nicolas Walter (d. 2000), British journalist, philosopher, atheist, anarchist, born. A founding member of the Committee of 100 and of Spies for Peace as well as author of 'About Anarchism' (1969).

1936 - Over 500,000 attend the funeral of the anarchist Buenaventura Durruti in Barcelona.

[E] 1937 - In Barcelona's Carcel de Mujeres Katia Landau is persuaded to give up her hunger strike (which she had begun in protest against the Republican authorities to give her any information about her husband Kurt, who had been 'disappeared' by the Stalinist secret police) and a week later is set free following numerous representations made by French socialists, especially Marceau Pivert. On December 8 she is again arrested and is quizzed upon, amongst other things, whether she is Jewish. She will eventually be released (apparently secured in exchange for French aircraft) at two o’clock in the morning of December 30 and told that if she refused deportation, none of her friends would be allowed to leave the country. She is later expelled to France and, like so many of the other exiled Spanish left-wingers, she went into exile in Mexico in 1940 along with her new partner, the former Spanish naval officer Benjamin Balboa (1901-1976), who had enabled the crews of the Spanish fleet to forestall the officers’ rising in 1936. [see: Jun. 17 & Nov. 8]
[ Landau/katia_landau.htm]

1944 - Carl Sadakichi Hartmann (b. 1867), critic, poet and playwright of German and Japanese descent, dies. [see: Nov. 8]

1966 - Distribution of 'De la Misère en Milieu Étudiant' (On The Poverty Of Student Life) at the official opening of Strasbourg University.

1970 - AIM activists paint Plymouth Rock bright red and occupy the Mayflower II in Plymouth, Massachusettes. They proclaim Thansgiving to be a national day of mourning.

1980 - Mary Jane 'Mae' West (b. 1893), American actress, singer, playwright and screenwriter, the Queen of Sex, dies. [see: Aug. 17]

1988 - Greve de 1988: The population of Volta Redonda, in response to the appeals of trade unionists and other representatives of civil society, gives a symbolic "hug" around the 12 kilometers of the Presidente Vargas Steelworks as a way to show support for the movement. Two days later, following a new strike assembly, the workers decided to end the strike, given the exhaustion of the movement and the repression that followed in the wake of the Army's intervention. [see: Nov. 4]

1995 - Norman Potter (b 1923), English Christian anarchist, designer, craftsman, writer and poet, born. [see: Apr. 17]

2001 - Ricky Bishop, 25-year-old black South Londoner, is arrested in a car with a friend and voluntarily taken to Brixton police station. Hours later, Ricky, cuts around his mouth and wrists, and injuries to his legs, is dead from a heart attack. The police claim that he managed to escape from his handcuffs and attacked them.
1760 - Gracchus (François-Noël) Babeuf (d. 1797), French political agitator, proto-anarchist and journalist of the French Revolutionary period, born.

1831 - Première Révolte des Canuts: Having occupied the town hall and prevented any looting, the workers are in control of the city but events have overtaken them - what was once a strike with the sole intention of making sure the fixed rate on silken goods was being applied correctly, they now have an insurrection on their hands and do not know what to do next, especially as they avow all revolutionary aims and their attempt at an insurrectionary government lacks clear authority and the support of the silk workers. Two days later, the news of the riot and the occupation of France's second largest city reached Paris, causing astonishment and consternation. The government's immediate response was to send Marshal Jean-de-Dieu Soult, a veteran of the Napoleonic Wars, at the head of an army of 20,000 to restore order.
When the army arrived in Lyon on December 3, they were able to enter without any armed opposition, and with no negotiation or agreements having to be made with the insurgent workers. The fixed rate is abolished, the prefect dismissed, the Garde Nationale disbanded, and a large garrison stationed in the town. The government then decided to build a fort to separate the commune of Croix-Rousse from the town of Lyon. 90 workers were arrested, 11 of whom were prosecuted and acquitted in June 1832.
The workers were thus left no better off and a second and inevitable insurrection by Lyon's silk weaver would take place in April 1834.

1859 - Gennaro Rubino (d. 1918), Italian anarchist who unsuccessfully tried to assassinate King Leopold II of Belgium on November 15 1902, born.

1862 - Théo van Rysselberghe (d. 1926), Belgian Impressionist, neo-Impressionist and then Pointillist painter, Member of Les XX and anarchist, born. Of a rebellious and independent spirit, he treated the official paintings "fucking art" and, when he moved to Paris in 1897, was swift to adopt the anarchist ideas of his new friends Paul Signac, Camille Pissarro and the art critic Félix Fénéon. Along with Signac, Pissarro, Maximilien Luce, Aristide Delannoy, Alexandre Steinlen, Van Dongen, George Willaume, etc., he contributed to the anarchist magazine 'Les Temps Nouveaux' as well as Émile Pouget's 'Le Père Peinard'. He also made the cover design Peter Kropotkin's 1898 pamphlet 'La Morale Anarchiste', illustrated Jean Grave's children's book 'Les Adventures de Nono' (1901) and turned his hand to decorative artworks including posters in the Art Nouveau style.

1863 - José Clemente Orozco (d. 1949), Mexican social realist painter, muralist and lithographer, born. He specialised in bold murals that established the Mexican Mural Renaissance together with murals by Diego Rivera, the anarchist David Alfaro Siqueiros, and others. During his childhood he suffered an accident while playing with gun powder, loosing his left hand and suffering permanent hearing loss and severely damaged his eyesight.
During the Mexican Revolution Orozco was an illustrator and cartoonist for the 'Batallones Rojos' of the anarcho-syndicalist Casa del Obrero Mundial (1914-15). In the early 1920s, together with Rivera and Siqueiros (Orozco, Rivera and Siqueiros were known as 'Los tres grandes'), he was one of a dozen artists invited to paint murals in public buildings by minister of education Vasconcelos. [expand]
To those who accused him later in life of being an anarchist, he answered: "Those who say I am ar anarchist do not know me. I am an partisan with absolute freedom of thought a real free thinker. Neither a dogmatist nor an anarchist. Neither an enemy of hierarchies nor a partisan of unyielding affirmations."

1885 - The first issue of the fortnightly newspaper 'La Guerre Sociale', "Organe communiste-anarchiste", is published in Brussels succeeding 'Ni dieu ni maître'.

[CC] 1911 - Alter Szmul Fajnzylberg (or Fajnzylber) aka Alter Feinsilber, Stanislaw Jankowski and 'Kaskowiak' (d. 1987), Polish waiter, atheistic Jew and Communist political delegate for the International Brigades serving in Spain, who spent 3 years in Auschwitz-Birkenau and photographed the operation of the crematoria there using a clandestine camera, born. In Spain, he joined the Jaroslaw Dabrowski Brigade, first as a simple soldier and then as a political representative, and was wounded in action. Following the defeat of the Republic, he was interned in Saint-Cyprien camp but left in the mass breakout when the French proposed transferring the interenees to Africa to take part in the construction of the trans-Saharan railway line. Living and working under a false name in Paris, he was arrested as a Jew by the French police and interned at Drancy near Paris. Deported to Germany, he arrived at Auschwitz on March 27, 1942. There he worked as a carpenter and then in the Sonderkommando (prisoner 27675), working in the crematoria and documenting its activities using a smuggled in camera, which was used by Alberto 'Alex' Errera to produce the notorious Auschwitz-Birkenau Sonderkommando photos. Fajnzylberg also took part in the October 7, 1944, Sonderkommando uprising, surviving the war.

[C] 1911 - Socialists Benito Mussolini and Pietro Nenni, and the anarchist Aurelio Lolli, arrested on October 14th in connection with the September 27th general strike, are convicted on all charges - attack on the freedom to work (picketing), resisting the police (forza pubblica) and inciting class hatred - and transferred to prison to await the appeal in Bologna. [see: Feb. 19]

1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike: Joseph Ettor and Arturo Giovannitti both deliver closing statements at the end of the two-month trial.

[D] 1913 - Revolución Mexicana: Federal forces are defeated near the small railway station of Tierra Blanca, 30 miles from Ciudad Juarez, by Pancho Villa's forces. Villa becomes provisional governor of the state of Chihuahua.

1914 - Revolución Mexicana: The last American troops leave Veracruz.

1916 - Revolución Mexicana: Pancho Villa defeated outside Chihuahua City and retreats.

[B] 1920 - Paul Celan (Paul Antschel; (d. 1970), Romanian poet, translator and utopian socialist, born. Described himself as "one who grew up with the writings of Peter Kropotkin and Gustav Landauer", in 1933 he joined a largely Jewish communist anti-Fascist group which produced a mimeographed magazine 'Red Student' and helped collect money in support of the Spanish Republic in 1936. He eventually gave up his communist affiliations but remained a utopian socialist with distinct anarchist leanings.

1928 - Albert Laisant (b. 1873), French anarchist, freemason and libertarian pedagogue, dies. [see: Jun. 1]

1931 - The Council of People's Commissars (CPC) of the Soviet Union (Sovnarkom) announces that the five-day week introduced under 'Nepreryvka' is to be replaced by a six-day week.

[F] 1936 - Tahar Acherchour, a 28-year-old Algerian worker and CGT member on strike and picketing the Cusinberche soap and candle factory in Clichy is shot by black-legs led by Paul Cusinberche, the owner's son and a member of the nationalist veterans organisation, the Croix-de-Feu aka the Association des combattants de l'avant et des blessés de guerre cités pour action d'éclat. Acherchour died of his wounds a day later in the hôpital Beaujon. The November 24 edition of the Communist daily 'L'Humanité' published three columns on its front page : "At the Cusimberghe soap factory, at Clichy, at the head of a fascist band, the boss assaults his workers and fires on them. His bullets kill one, and seven others are wounded with batons."
His assassination aroused great emotion at a period marked by the Front Populaire. More than 200,000 people attended his funeral.

1941 - Elizaveta 'Liza' Chaikina (Елизаве́та Ча́йкина; b. 1918), wartime Soviet partisan and guerilla unit organiser, is shot by the Germans having failed to reveal the location of her unit. [see: Aug. 28]

1943 - 2,000 workers take time off work to protests Mosley's release from internment outside the House of Commons.

1949 - Judy Clark (Judith Alice Clark), US radical political activist in the 1960s and '70s, who was a prominent member of the Weather Underground and is a prison AIDS awareness activist currently serving 75-years-to-life for the 1981 Brink's armoured car robbery, born.

1955 - Milly Witkop Rocker (b. 1877), Ukrainian-born Jewish anarcho-syndicalist and anarcha-feminist writer and activist, dies from a heart attack. [see: Mar. 15]

1975 - Golpe de 25 de Novembro: In Lisbon Mário Soares, leader of the Partido Socialista tells a march that he is not afraid of civil war. The crowd chants, "Discipline! Discipline!"
[ de Novembro]

1976 - André Malraux (b. 1901), French novelist, art theorist, anti-fascist and post-war Minister of Cultural Affairs, dies. [see: Nov. 3]

1980 - British Movement march from Hyde Park to Paddington Recreation Ground, where a rally is held. ANL mobilise 4,000 anti-fascists. The cost of policing the BM march and counter-demonstration is estimated at £209,000. Seventy-six people are arrested, 49 for using threatening words or behaviour; six for obstructing the highway; 15 for obstructing the police; three for possessing an offensive weapon; two for offences against the person; and one for defacing a wall. [PR]

1987 - Max Sartin (Raffaele Schiavina) (b. 1894), Italian-American individualist anarchist, dies. [see: Apr. 8]

1988 - Wieland Herzfelde (b. 1896), German journalist, author, poet and publisher, dies. [see: Apr. 11]

1995 - Louis Malle (b. 1932), French film director, screenwriter and producer, dies. [see: Oct. 30]
1838 - Hippolyte Prosper Olivier Lissagaray (d. 1901), French independent revolutionary socialist, republican, literary journalist, lecturer and member of the Paris Commune in 1871, born. Best known for his 'L'Histoire de la Commune de 1871' (1876), which was republished in Paris in an expanded version in 1896. During his post-Commune exile in London (1871-80), had a lengthy affair with Eleanor Marx , youngest daughter of Karl Marx, and Eleanor was the translator of the 'History of the Commune of 1871' into English.

1842 - Rebecca Riots: During the night "Rebecca" and "her daughters" attacked the gates at Trevaughan, owned by the Whitland Trust.

1858 - [O.S. Nov. 12] Marie Bashkirtseff (Maria Konstantinovna Bashkirtseva [Мари́я Константи́новна Башки́рцева]; d. 1884), Ukrainian-French painter, sculptor, diarist and feminist, who wrote a number of mysandrist articles for Hubertine Auclert's newspaper 'La Citoyenne' under the pseudonym Pauline Orrel, born.
"Let us love dogs, let us love only dogs! Men and cats are unworthy creatures."

1859 - Charles Darwin's 'On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life' is published.

1864 - Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (d. 1901), French painter, printmaker, draughtsman and illustrator, born. Whilst never expressly identifying himself as an anarchist he was part of the Parisian anarchist milieu, worked with Félix Fénéon on 'La Revue Blanche' and contributed set designs to a number of plays by anarchist authors including Jarry's 'Ubu Roi'. He also painted 9 portraits of his close friend Oscar Wilde.

1866 - Malvina Tavares (Júlia Malvina Hailliot Tavares; d. 1939), one of the most active of Brazil's anarchist militants, as well as being a poet and pioneer of modern education in southern Brazil, born. She was responsible for the creation of a secular Escola Moderna de Francisco Ferrer in the municipality of São Gabriel do Lajeado, in which subsequent generations of Brazil's libertarians received their education.

1875 - The United Cigar Makers of New York affiliates with the Cigar Makers’ International Union to form CMIU Local 144. Samuel Gompers was elected first president of the local and served several terms before going on to serve as the international’s vice president. “[W]e are powerless in an isolated condition,” Gompers said, “while the capitalists are united; therefore it is the duty of every Cigar Maker to join the organisation.”

1875 - Albert Libertad (aka Albert Joseph) (d. 1908), French individualist anarchist militant, one-legged street orator and rough-and-tumble brawler, who used his crutches as a weapon, born. Founded the influential anarchist publication 'L’Anarchie'.

1886 - Margaret Caroline Anderson (d. 1973), American anarchist and lesbian, founder, editor and publisher of the anarchist art and literary magazine 'The Little Review', born. Margaret Anderson and 'The Little Review' are renown for having published the first thirteen chapters of James Joyce's then-unpublished novel, 'Ulysses', beginning in 1918. The U.S. Post Office seized and burned four issues of the magazine, and Anderson and her lover and associate editor, Jane Heap, were later convicted of obscenity charges.
"Life is just one ecstasy after another."
"I felt a resentment against God or man for having imposed an incredible stupidity upon the world. And the world had accepted it..."
"Laws haven’t the slightest interest for me — except in the world of being in which they are, for the most part, unknown."

1893 - Fasci Siciliani Uprising: Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti is forced to resign as a result of the Banca Romana scandal and is replaced by Francesco Crispi. He however is unable to form a government for another 3 weeks, during which the rioting that had spread through Italy triggered by the killing of a number of migrant workers in the salt pans of Aigues Mortes in southern France on August 16-17, and which then had escalated into a more generalised working-class revolt supported by anarchists an violent riots in Rome and Naples, together with the unrest in Sicily, had brought Italy near to collapse. As a result, he launches a campaign of severe repression in Sicily based on bogus evidence of an international conspiracy and impending insurrection. [see: Jan 3 & Feb. 28]

1897 - María Remedios Beruat (d. 1979), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist, who fought in the in guerrilla battalion Agustín Remiro Manero during the Civil War, born.

1898 - International Anti-Anarchist Conference, prompted by the assassination of the Empress of Austria, is convened by Italian government officials in Rome; attended by fifty-four delegates representing twenty-one countries, including police chiefs from several European countries and major cities. Conference marks the development of strategic international surveillance of and exchange of information about anarchist activities.

1905 - [O.S. Nov. 11] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Martial law is declared in Tambov, Chernigov and Saratov Provinces. Requests to the central government for the imposition of martial law are sent from many other provinces.

[D] 1905 - [O.S. Nov. 11] Sevastopol Uprising [Севастопольское Восстание]: In order to prevent a planned large rally at the Soldiers' and Sailors' barracks in Sevastopol, where elections of deputies to the Council of Workers, Sailors and Soldiers (Совет рабочих, матросских и солдатских) were due to be held, Admiral Grigory Chukhnin (Григорий Чухнин) sent a combined unit of the sailors from various naval crews and soldiers of the Bialystok Regiment (Белостокского полка) to occupy the entrances to the barracks and prevent entry to the rally. A confrontation broke out and K. Petrov (К. Петров), a sailor, fired his rifle at Captain Augustine Stein (Августин Штейн), head of the training team of the 50th Bialystok Infantry Regiment, killing him, and wounding Rear Admiral Pisarevsky (Писаревского). Petrov was arrested, but released almost immediately by the sailors. After that, the officers on duty were arrested, disarmed and taken to the chancellery. The following morning they were released, and driven out of the barracks. The rebels sailors of the naval division are joined by the soldiers of the Brest (Брестского) regiment, garrison artillery, fortification engineer company, and the company of sailors that Chukhnin had sent from the battleship Sinop (Синоп) to quell the rebels.
That night the first Board of Sevastopol Sailors, Soldiers 'and Workers' Deputies was elected, headed by Ivan Petrovich Voronitsyn (Иван Петрович Вороницын).

[B] 1910 - Jean Meckert, aka Jean or John Amila, Edouard Duret, Edmond Duret, Guy Duret, Albert Duvivier, Mariodile, Marcel Pivert (d. 1995), libertarian novelist, screenwriter and anti-militarist, born. His libertarian father was shot for mutiny in 1917 and his mother, interned for two years, ended up only able to find work as a charwoman for the rest of her life. As a consequence Meckert grew up in a Protestant orphanage in Courbevoie. Apprenticed to a workshop building electric motors, he drifts into various jibs before joining the army, because he claims he was "starving". Post-army, he again drifts from job to job - street peddle, fairground photographer, detective agency operative, etc. until called up for WWII. He also beings to write short stories, novels and plays, in the 1930s. Following his 1941 demobilisation, his second novel 'Les Coups' (The Blows), written in 1936, is accepted for publishing. It is hailed by critics - including André Gide and Raymond Queneau - and quickly becoming a commercial success, with the first edition sold out.
He then quits his job as a minor town hall functionary and writes full time. Following his next novel, 'L'Homme au Marteau' (Man With a Hammer; 1943), he begins a prolific career writing popular fiction under a series of pseudonyms: Edouard Duret, Edmond Duret, Guy Duret and Mariodile; and thrillers under the pen names of Albert Duvivier and Marcel Pivert. Following a meeting with Marcel Duhamel , Meckert also began writing thrillers for the Série Noire (Black Series) starting with 'Y'a Pas de Bon Dieu!' (There Is No God!; 1950) and 'Motus!' (Mum's the Word!; 1953), going on to write 21 thrillers, many expounding his anarchist and anti-militarist beliefs. He also wrote a sci-fi novel, 'Le 9 de Pique' (1956), the only time he used the pseudonym John Amila.
A number of his works were adapted for film, such as 'Sans Attendre Godot' (Not Waiting for Godot; 1956) for the Yves Allégret film 'Quand la Femme s'en Mêle' (When a Woman Gets Involved; 1957); and TV e.g. 'Pitié Pour les Rats' (Pity the Poor Rats) for the 1964 novel of the same name.
Following a visit to Tahiti scouting for film locations, he published 'La Vierge et le Taureau' (The Virgin and the Bull) in 1971, a novel which denounced colonialism, nuclear testing, the army and the French secret services, and sought to defend "a people without rights". It was eventually withdrawn from sale and pulped and thought the publishers refused to give a reason, it is thought to tie into a 1974 attack on Meckert that left him hospitalised. Leaving the ORTF studios one night he was attacked by unknown assailants. Clubbed to the ground, he was found unconscious, in a pool of blood.Waking up in hospital, he did not know his name or address, but had a strange sense of "feel brand new". When questioned by the doctor as to his profession, he was able to respond: "I write thrillers." It is believed that the attack, which left him with prolonged amnesia and depression, was directly related to the publication of 'La Vierge et le Taureau'. He wrote an autobiographical novel, 'Comme un Écho Errant' (As a Wandering Echo; 1986).

[E] 1913 - Margarita Ortega (b. unknown), Mexican anarchist member of the Partido Liberal Mexicano in Baja California who participated in the armed revolt against Porfirio Diaz as guerrilla, propagandist, smuggler and nurse, is shot by Victoriano Huerta's federales after four days of torture, during which she refused to betray her comrades who were then preparing a revolt north of Sonora. [expand]

1916 - Concha Liaño (Concepción Liaño Gil; d. 2014), Spanish anarcha-feminist militant, who was one of the founders of the Agrupación Cultural Femenina (Women’s Cultural Association) and the magazine 'Mujeres Libres' (Free Women), born [expand]

1917 - Bisbee Deporation: President Woodrow Wilson's special labour commission make their report on the notorious forced deportation of IWW members from Bisbee, Arizona on July 11, 1917. This illegal kidnapping and deportation of over a thousand striking mine workers, their supporters, and random bystanders had taken place early that year during a strike called by the Industrial Workers of the World Local 800 called for June 26, 1917, in a dispute with the Phelps Dodge Corporation, the largest local employer, which owned a number of copper and other mines in Arizona. Other non-IWW members joined the dispute and more than 3,000 miners (about 85% of all Bisbee's mine workers) went out on strike. As was the norm for that time, the peaceful strikers had the local authorities, sheriffs and deputies, vigilance committees – in Bisbee's case the Citizens' Protective League, made up of local businessmen and other representatives of the bourgeoisie, and the Workmens' Loyalty League [miners who were members of the International Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers, the rival union who supported the status quo and whose members the IWW had been poaching] – and company guards ranged against them. However, demands for federal troops to break the strike were refused by Woodrow Wilson, as were those for the state militia to be deployed.
So, Phelps Dodge and the Cochise County Sheriff Harry Wheeler decided to take matters into their own hands. The previous day, Phelps Dodge had organised the deportation of 67 miners from nearby Jerome, and early the following day in Bisbee a similar plan was put into operation. More than 2,000 company officials, gunmen, businessmen, etc., armed with rifles, a list of the men on strike and each wearing a white armband for identification, rounded up 1,186* men – mostly striking miners, but their number included many non-miners seemingly picked out at random, including several local grocery store owners. They were then marched the 3km / 2 miles from Bisbee to Warren Ballpark, where they were surrounded by armed members of Bisbee's Workmens' Loyalty League and urged to quit the strike. They were then loaded onto a train pulling 23 boxcars and cattle cars – the wagons inches deep in manure – and, accompanied by 186 armed guards with a machine gun was mounted on the top of the train, headed towards Columbus, New Mexico, where they were due to be dumped in the Sonoran Desert without any provisions. When it arrived in Columbus the following day, the train was turned back by the town constable at Columbus because he claimed that there were no accommodations for so many men. On its return trip the train stopped 17 miles up the line from Columbus at the Sonoran Desert town Hermanas, New Mexico, where the men were abandoned without adequate supply of food and water and shelter for two days. A second train brought water and food rations the following day, but the men were left without shelter until July 14, when U. S. troops arrived and escorted the men to facilities in Columbus where they were housed in a camp built earlier to house Mexicans fleeing Pancho Villa's forces. Many were detained for several months.
Issued on November 6, 1917, the special labour commission denounced the Bisbee Deportation, severely criticising the persons responsible for deporting the IWW members and found that the deportations were planned by Bisbee citizens, including officials of the Phelps-Dodge and Calumet and Arizona mining interests. The commission also found that deportation interfered with operation of the draft law and the leaders of the deportations used the local office of the Bell Telephone Company to and attempted to exercise censorship over parts of interstate telephone and telegraph lines. The committee suggested that action should be taken against the Bisbee citizens who deported the IWW members. Despite the later arrest of 21 Phelps Dodge executives and various local officials, no individual, company, or agency was ever convicted in connection with the deportations.
[* some sources claim there were over 1,300 deportees]

1921 - Mollie Steimer, after serving 18 months of a 15-year sentence for handing out leaflets opposing US intervention in Soviet Russia, is deported to Soviet Russia alongside three other radicals (Jacob Abrams, Samuel Lipman, and Hyman Lachowsky).

1923 - Philippe Daudet, the French anarchist son of Léon Daudet (leader of fascist 'Ligue de l'Action Française'), dies under mysterious circumstances, presumed assassinated by police. [see: Jan 7]

1931 - Première of Eduard Borràs's 'El Proceso Ferrer' at the Teatre Talia in Barcelona, a historical drama in three acts based on the story of Francisco Ferrer y Guardia and the Tragic Week, is performed by the Companyia d'Anito Tormo.

[C] 1933 - British Union of Fascists break up a meeting being held by the Imperial Fascists at Trinity Hall, Portland Place, Darlington.

1943 - Max Baginski (b. 1864), German-American Social Democrat turned anarchist, dies. Editor of the German Social Democratic Party newspaper 'Proletarier aus dem Eulengebrige', a member of the New Free Popular Theatre in Berlin and a roommate of Gerhardt Hauptmann, he helped the author research the 1844 weaver's revolt in Silesia for his drama 'Die Weber' (The Weavers; 1892). He was also closely associated with the Friedrichshagener Dichterkreis (Friedrichshagener circle of poets) naturalist writers circle, whose members included Gustav Landauer, Erich Mühsam, Gerhart Hauptmann, August Strindberg, Knut Hamsun and Rudolf Steiner. In 1891 he was sentenced to 2.5 years in prison for "violation of the press laws", and left Germany in 1893. In America he met Emma Goldman and was appointed editor of 'Chicagoer Arbeiter-Zeitung' in 1894. In 1896, he started his owb newspaper, 'Die Sturmglocken', and worked on Johan Most's paper, 'Freiheit', 'as publicity agent for Emma Goldman's newspaper, 'Mother Earth'.

[EE] 1943 - Reina Princen Geerligs aka Leentjes Vandendriesch (b. 1922), Dutch writer (prose & poetry) and core member of the CS-6 anti-fascist resistance group, is executed by firing squad, along with fellow CS-6 members Truus van Lier and Nel Hissink-van den Brink (Cornelia Kossen), at Sachsenhausen concentration camp.

[EE] 1943 - Geertruida (Truus) van Lier (b. 1921), Dutch student and resistance fighter member of the CS-6 group, is executed by firing squad, along with fellow CS-6 members Reina Princen Geerligs and Nel Hissink-van den Brink (Cornelia Kossen), at Sachsenhausen concentration camp.

1944 - Jun Tsuji (辻 潤; b. 1884), Japanese individualist anarchist, avant garde writer, Dadaist poet, essayist, playwright, editor, translator, teacher, nihilist, epicurean, shakuhachi musician, actor, feminist and bohemian, dies. [see: Oct. 4]

[A] 1971 - "D.B.Cooper" hijacks a plane and extorts $200,000 in ransom before parachuting to freedom over Washington state, USA.

1975 - Golpe de 25 de Novembro: Received wisdom has it that the Golpe de 25 de Novembro, the coup in Portugal on November 25, 1975, was an attempted military coup that carried out by nasty ultra-leftists trying to overthrow the post-Carnation Revolution government, one that was thwarted by the collected forces of liberal democracy. However, a closer look at the evidence reveals that what in fact took place was a well-planned rightist provocation, one that had succeeded into luring elements of the radical left into actions that were intended to provide cover for a military counter-revolutionary coup – a "complex plot of contradictory alliances" [Álvaro Cunhal - 'A Verdade e a Mentira na Revolução de Abril' (1999)] aimed at the destruction of the Partido Comunista Português, and which had been in preparation throughout the verão quente, the long hot summer of left-right tensions that included strikes, bombings and assassinations. This 'grand counter-revolutionary alliance'’ was very fragmented internally, involving everyone from the Partido Socialista to various fascists and other reactionary radicals, all aiming to bring about the end of the PCP as a political force in the country and defeat the Revolution of April 25, 1974, once and for all. Mário Soares and the PS, who played an important role in the political preparations for the counter-coup, wanted the coup to bring about the military crushing of the PCP, the labour movement and the military left, aiming to paint themselves as having saved the country from possible communist dictatorship, whilst at the same time firmly seizing the reins of power.
The fascists and neo-fascists on the other hand, groups such as the Movimento Democrático de Libertação de Portugal (Democratic Movement for the Liberation of Portugal), the Exército de Libertação Português (Portuguese Liberation Army) and the Movimento Maria da Fonte, a neo-fascist front organisation, which had all been carrying out 'anti-communist' bombings and other actions throughout the verão quente, had a much different endpoint in mind. Their plans, drawn up in case of a coup, aimed at the establishment of a new dictatorship, to take violent repressive measures, including of course the banning and destruction of PCP, all on the coat-tails of the 'counter-revolutionary coup'. However, neither of their desired endpoints materialised, especially in the case of the far-right, as those reactionaries closer to the main players in the counter coup let it be known on the evening of November 25 that the 'Plano Maria da Fonte' (a maximal programme of armed rightist revolt i.e. "taking up arms and killing Communists") would not proceed, the PCP having not fallen for the 'coup' bait.
At the 'sharp end’ of the coup was the Grupo dos Nove (Group of Nine). A moderate grouping within the Movimento das Forças Armadas (Armed Forces Movement) - the organisation of lower-ranked left-leaning officers in the Portuguese Armed Forces that had been responsible for the Revolução dos Cravos - they had taken a prominent organisational role and planned to come riding over the hill to rescue democracy from the communist threat. But, with only a handful of military units linked with the revolutionary left and with the Esquerda Militar (Left Military) 'gonçalvistas' and the Esquerda Militar Radical (Left Radical Military) 'otelistas' having taken the bait and begun occupying positions around Lisbon on the morning of November 25, Grupo dos Nove officers were faced with little to do except put on a 'good show’ for the watching media. This was especially true when, at 10:00, the PCP realised that the situation, although apparently favourable to the revolutionaries, could have no really favourable outcome for them, since the President General Francisco da Costa Gomes had decided to counter the coup, gave orders to its main power bases in the military, that then was "not the time to move forward". The 'grand plan’ had in large part failed, though the Grupo dos Nove had indeed succeeded in engineering the removal of their radical left rivals from within the military power structure.

One significant target in the lead up to the counter-coup was the gonçalvista and otelista radicals who had been at the forefront of the 1974 revolution and who still remained in positions of power in the military hierarchy. Amongst the most significant to be 'culled' was Brigadeiro Graduado Eurico de Deus Corvacho, who is aligned with the Esquerda Militar, and had replaced in mid -September 1975 by with the more moderate General António Pires Veloso as commander of the Região Militar Norte (Northern Military Region) following agitation from below (the troops of the RNM were general held to be more closely aligned with the Centro Militar (Centre Military), and the Partido Socialista and Partido Popular Democrático). Another to be replaced was Brigadier General Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho, commander of the strategically important Região Militar de Lisboa (Military Region Lisbon), the heartland of the revolution. He was replaced on November 13 by a moderate, Captain Vasco Correia Lourenço, following pressure from the Socialists in the wake of COPCON (Comando Operacional do Continente / Continental Operations Command) refusal to remove striking building workers blockading the parliament building in Sao Bento, Lisbon on November 13, trapping ministers inside overnight [the Socialist Party leader Mário Soares had claimed that there was a threat of a 'communist assault' on the Constituent Assembly: "I went to a window and realized that a true paramilitary militia, which ringed the protesters, was preparing to occupy certain key positions near the exits"]. The Prime Minister, Admiral José Pinheiro de Azevedo, eventually caved in at 01:00 the following morning, accepting all the strikers' demands.
Further fuel was added to the already smouldering fire when on November 19 the Chief of Staff of the Air Force, General José Morais da Silva, issued an order demoting the 1,200 serving paratroopers based at the Tancos military base, a stronghold of the Esquerda Militar, to the military reserve. At the same time the Partido Socialista and the Partido Popular Democrático hold discussions about the possibility of moving the Constituent Assembly to the north, away from the radical heartland. On the same day that Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho was removed from his post, a manifesto appeared signed by junior officers calling for the arming of the working class. Added to that, officers of the Região Militar de Lisboa (Military Region Lisbon) were now refusing to obey his successor Captain Vasco Correia Lourenço and officers at the Beirlos barracks vowed to distribute guns to the workers ("Enough to arm a demonstration"). At the Tancos base many of the paratroopers’ officers had also walked out following the decision to transfer many of them to the reserves; the commander attempts to get the 1,200 troops under their command to go on leave and evacuate the base, which they refused to do, putting themselves under COPCON’s authority.
Things were now looking very ominous, with mass disaffection in the military and open talk of potential coups, with the leader of the Partido Socialista, Mário Soares, declaring to a crowd in the capital on the 23rd that he "is not afraid of civil war". The following day, the Communist Communist Intersindical Nacional unions called a two hour strike in the Lisbon industrial belt so that the workers could discuss the situation. The SUV (Soldados Unidos Vencerão, as soldiers organisation linked to the Partido Revolucionário do Proletariado) committee at Air Force Base 3 now declared its support for the Paratroopers at Tancos.
That same night in a telephone call from President Costa Gomes, the Secretary-General of the PCP Álvaro Cunhal dismissed the on-going speculation that the PCP was involved in any initiative that might lead to a military confrontation and insisted on pointing out the need for a political solution to the current tension. The party also contacted some of its organisations, including at the Forte de Almada and RAL 1, ordering them not to get involved in any military adventures or confrontations.
Dawn the following morning saw the build up of pressure on the leftists within the military finally produce the desired result, the military taking to the streets in what was claimed to be a 'radical leftist military coup'... the coup that never took place.
[ de Novembro]

1988 - Greve de 1988: Striking Companhia Siderúrgica Nacional workers hold a meeting and, exhausted by the constant repression by the military, decide to return to work. [see: Nov. 4]

[F] 1995 - Grèves de 1995: A general strike is called in France to protest against the 'plan Juppé', Prime Minister Alain Juppe’s plan to increase premiums for healthcare, cut welfare to the unemployed, and make changes to the pension eligibility age for public sector workers. The widespread strike ended in mid-December, when the government agreed to abandon the pension reform part of its plan.

2001 - David Gascoyne (b. 1916), English poet, novelist, Surrealist, one-time communist and later an anarchist, dies. [see: Oct. 10]

2006 - Antonia Ugeda Fuentes (b. 1917), Spanish furniture worker, nurse and anarchist activist, dies. [see: Aug. 21]

2014 - A grand jury, which had held weekly sessions over the past three months, decides not to indite 28-year-old Ferguson, Missouri, police officer, Darren Wilson in the fatal shooting on August 9, 2014, of unarmed 18-year-old black teenager Michael Brown. Announcement of the decision is followed by widespread rioting in Ferguson and protests in major cities across the USA.
1831 - Première Révolte des Canuts: In Paris, the news of the riot and the occupation of France's second largest city caused astonishment and consternation. The government sent Marshal Jean-de-Dieu Soult, a veteran of the Napoleonic Wars, at the head of an army of 20,000 to restore order.

1878 - Georg Kaiser (d. 1945), German Expressionist playwright, anti-fascist and anarchist sympathiser, born. Influenced by the ideas of Gustav Landauer, as was his friend Ernst Toller, who both frequented Landauer's anarchist-communist Neue Gemeinschaft (New Community), and together were probably the 2 most prominent German Expressionist playwrights [although Gerhart Hauptmann's and Kaiser's plays were performed in the Weimar Republic more often than Toller's].
His first major play 'Von Morgens bis Mitternachts' (From Morning to Midnight; 1912), was one of the most influential German drama of the era (both Toller and Brecht cited it as a major influence) and it went on to be made into one of the classic examples of cinematic Expressionism by Karl Heinz Martin in 1920. Other politically charged and influential plays followed: 'Die Bürger von Calais' (The Burghers of Calais; 1913/1923); and the 'Gas' trilogy, 'Die Koralle' (The Coral; 1917); 'Gas' (1918); and 'Gas II' (1920). Immersed in Weimar artistic circles, he was close to Brecht, Weill and Lotte Lenya, and collaborated with Kurt Weill on his one-act operas 'Der Protagonist' (1926) and 'Der Zar lässt sich Photographieren' (1928), as well as 'Der Silbersee' (1933), and his 1923 Volksstück (people's play), 'Nebeneinander' (Side by Side), had stage designs courtesy of George Grosz.
In 1925 Georg Kaiser provided the financial backing that allowed a monument in honour of Gustav Landauer to be erected by the Freie Arbeiter-Union Deutschlands in Munich but this was later torn down by the Nazis. Kaiser's work was also a victim of Nazi book burning on May 10 1933 and he was involved in resistance circles, writing clandestine pamphlets. Shortly before a Gestapo-house search in 1938, he fled to Switzerland, remaining there in exile. In 1940 his play 'Der Soldat Tanaka', which was critical of Japanese militarism, was passed by the Swiss censor but, under pressure from the Japanese ambassador, the performance was cancelled.

1880 - Leonard Sidney Woolf (d. 1969), English political theorist, author, publisher, civil servant, Fabian, husband of author Virginia Woolf, born. An influential member of the Bloomsbury group who established the Hogarth Press with his wife in 1917. Author of 'Quack, Quack!' (1935), a damning indictment of fascism. Fascism, he claimed was nothing new, rather it was merely a modern instance of an age-old conflict in civilisation; namely the desire of the minority to suppress the majority in order to retain their economic and social superiority. He likened Hitler and Mussolini to the barbaric leaders of savage tribes, reducing their rhetoric to quackery.

1884 - Jean Lébédeff (d. 1970), Russian-born French anarchist artist, Illustrator and printmaker, born. His book illustrations of Kropotkin, Ferrer, etc., are well-known.

1896 - Virgil Thomson (d. 1989), American modernist composer and music critic, born. Though gay, spending his entire life 'in the closet', and having spent large portions of his life mixing in avantgarde artistic and political circles in Paris, even having a close friend in the Trotskyite poet and novelist Sherry Mangan, was resolutely apolitical. Yet he provided music for Joris Ivens' pro-Republic propaganda film 'The Spanish Earth' (1937). He was also a member of the left-leaning Aaron Copland's 'Commando Unit' alongside Roger Sessions, Roy Harris and Walter Piston.

1901 - The Federación Obrera Argentina, the pluralist forerunner of the Federación Obrera Regional Argentina, is founded as Argentina's first national labour confederation at a meeting in Buenos Aires of around 50 delegates representing 35 workers' societies. With the socialist elements within FOA becoming increasingly isolate, from FOA's fifth congress, held on August 26-30, 1905, it renamed itself the Federación Obrera Regional Argentina to express its internationalism and fully adopted an anarcho-communist position.

[B] 1904 - Ba Jin (aka Pa Chin, Li Fei-Kan, Li Pei-Kan, Pa Kin [pseud. of Li Yaotang]) (d. 2005), born. Chinese novelist and short story writer who discovered anarchism with the reading of Peter Kropotkin and Emma Goldman and created his pseudonym Ba (from Bakunin ) and Jin (from Kropotkin). Ba Jin was constantly harassed by the Communists and, in 1949, was forced by them to rewrite his stories, removing or replacing all anarchist references with Communist ones. In 1966 he was again in disgrace, branded "A great poisonous weed", and his writings were condemned as seditious.
[ d'anars.htm]

[BB] 1904 - Jehan Mayoux (d. 1975), French Surrealist poet, teacher, pacifist, anti-militarist and libertarian, born. Teacher and inspector of primary education, he was drawn towards the new education methods of the Freinet movement. A trade unionist, he actively participated in the events of the Popular Front, was Assistant Secretary of the Bourse du Travail (Dunkirk region), then secretary of the Committee of the Popular Front in 1935. In 1939 he was imprisoned for refusing to respond to the mobilisation order and, when he managed to escape during the bombing of the Clairvaux prison, he was captured by the Germans and held as a prisoner of war in the Ukraine for five years. When he was repatriated after the war, he returned to teaching and, in 1951, began working on 'Libertaire'. Having signed the 'Manifeste des 121', he was suspended from duty as and Education Inspector from 1960 until 1965. He retired in 1967, participating in the May 68 movement, but was disgusted by the attitude of the unions.
He first came into contact with the Surrealists after sending André Breton and Paul Eluard "a surrealist game" in 1933 to be published in 'Le Surréalisme au Service de la Révolution' (Surrealism in the service of the revolution). A great friend of Yves Tanguy and Benjamin Peret, he remained in the Surrealist group until excluded without debate in 1967.

"Question-réponse :

Quand je serai porte de prison
je pêcherai à la dynamite

Quand je serai lapin de garenne
j'écrirai avec de l'encre de seiche

Quand je serai enclume
je laverai mon linge à la rivière

ou cette suite d'images décrivant la femme aimée :
plus spirituelle que la marée
plus sage que la hâte des suicides
plus nue que la mousse
plus discrète que l'écorce du tonnerre
plus silencieuse que Paris
plus gaie qu'un grain de sel
plus légère qu'un couteau"

(Question & Answer:

When I am prison door
I offend with dynamite

When I am rabbit
I write with squid ink

When I am anvil
I will wash my clothes in the river

or this series of images depicting the beloved:
more spiritual than the tide
wiser than hastily suicide
more naked than the foam
more discreet than the bark of thunder
quieter than Paris
gayer than a grain of salt
lighter than a knife)


1905 - [O.S. Nov. 12] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The St. Petersburg Soviet of Workers’ Deputies (Петербургский совет рабочих депутатов) calls off the general strike. Announced on November 14 [O.S. Nov. 1] in support of the struggle for the eight-hour day, it has largely proved to be a failure due to the lack of enthusiasm from the workers, as well as the stiff resistance put up by the bosses. [see: Oct. 26 & Nov. 14-16]

1905 - [O.S. Nov. 12] Sevastopol Uprising [Севастопольское Восстание]: A general strike begins in Sevastopol. A significant portion of the naval division's sailors and the soldiers of the Brest regiment now supported the rebels. During the morning, the first meeting of the Council of Sevastopol takes place. By evening, the rebels have developed demands that include the establishing of a Constituent Assembly, the introduction of the 8-hour day, the release of political prisoners, the abolition of the death penalty, lifting of martial law, and the abolition of military service. An executive body of the Council - the Sailor's Commission (Матросская комиссия) - is established. It includes: NF Kassesinov (Н. Ф. Кассесинов) and PK Kudymovsky (П. К. Кудымовский), both 28th naval crew; ID Fishing (И. Д. Рыбалка), 29th naval crew; P. Fomenko (П. И. Фоменко) and MF Schepetkov (М. Ф. Щепетков), both training squad; and others. That night, the government withdrew the Brest Regiment from the city to the Bialystok Regiment's camp. Martial law was declared in the city and the fortress placed under a state of seige.

1910 - Jules Durand, liberterian and revolutionary trade unionist, is sentenced to death in Le Havre, a victim of corrupt witnesses and smears by the local press. He was retied in 1918 and was fully exonerated. Unfortunately, by this time he had gone insane from being kept subdued in a strait jacket for 40 days, and he spent the rest of his life in an asylum.

1911 - Revolución Mexicana: Emiliano Zapata proclaims Plan of Ayala land reform to take hacienda lands. Hacienda owners pressure Francisco Madero to subdue Zapata.

1915 - The funeral service for Joe Hill is held in Chicago at the West Side Auditorium, drawing 30,000 mourners. His body was then cremated the following day at the city's Graceland Cemetery and his ashes were divided up and placed in small packages. His remains were sent to IWW halls and other workers' groups in every U.S. state except Utah. Accompanying the packages was a note that said: "Fellow Worker: In compliance with the last will of Joe Hill, his body was cremated at Graceland Cemetery, Chicago, Illinois, November 20 [sic], 1915. It was his request that his ashes be distributed. This package has been confined to your care for the fulfillment of this last will." The note ended with a request asking that a letter be sent to Big Bill Haywood with details of how the ashes were scattered.

1918 - Second All-Russian Conference of Anarcho-syndicalists meets in Moscow (November 25-December 1).

1919 - Department of Labor orders anti-war activist and anarchist Alexander Berkman's deportation to Russia. Emma Goldman's deportation order follows on Nov. 29.

1920 - Madeline 'Madge' McDowell Breckinridge (b. 1872), prominent US members of the women's suffrage movement and one of Kentucky's leading progressive reformers, dies of a stroke. [see: May 20]

1926 - Leggi Fascistissime (fascist laws) or Leggi Eccezionali del Fascismo (exceptional laws of fascism): Legge Speciale Law No. 2008 'Provvedimenti per la Difesa dello Stato' (Provisions for the Defence of the State) is passed, consolidating previous fascist security legislation, reintroducing the death penalty and allowing for the setting up of Tribunale speciale per la difesa dello Stato (Special Tribunals for the defense of the State), to try crimes of a 'political' nature. Unlike civil courts, these tribunals had the sanction of the death penalty. Antifascists would now no longer be tried in civil courts but be directed to these military tribunals operating according to the rules of the Criminal Code on Criminal Procedure for the Army in time of war. Imprisonment without trial would now become the norm.
The Special Court for State Security was formed by:
a President, chosen from among the general officers of the Army, the Navy, the Royal Air Force and the Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale (MVSN; militia for national security), in permanent active duty, retired or out of context;
five judges, selected from among the officers of the militia for national security;
a rapporteur, without the right vote, chosen from the staff of the Giustizia Militare (Military Justice).
The establishment of the court was ordered by the Minister for War, which determined its composition and where and when it was to operate.

1931 - The first issue of 'L'Action Libre', "parait tout les 20 jours", is printed to a series of popular lectures in Paris.

1935 - Mosley makes another anti-Semetic speach, this time at Manchester's Free Trade Hall. Six anti-fascists are forcefully ejected from the meeting. One, Evelyn taylor, who had fought Blackshirt stewards at Belle Vue the year before [see: Sep. 29] was arrested and fined. Disturbances following the meeting continue into the early hours. [PR]

[E] 1940 - Elizabeth Anna Duke, US former teacher and member of the May 19th Communist Movement, who was indicted on conspiracy and weapons charges in connection with the Resistance Conspiracy case (involving the bombing of the United States Capitol Building and seven other sites in 1983-85) and is still on the run, born.

1944 - Bohuslav Vrbenský (b. 1882), Czech dentist , journalist, anarcho-communist, then communist politician and minister, dies. [see: Mar. 30]

[A] 1952 - Mau Mau revolt begins, Kenya.

1956 - At its foundation in Brussels, the Alliance Ouvriere Anarchiste (AOA) adopts the 'circled-A' symbol.

[EEE] 1960 - Three of the four Mirabal Sisters (Hermanas Mirabal) aka 'Las Mariposas' – Patria Mercedes Mirabal Reyes (b. February 27, 1924), Minerva Mirabal Reyes (María Argentina Minerva Mirabal Reyes; b. March 12 1926) and Antonia María Teresa Mirabal Reyes (b. October 15 1935) – members of the clandestine opposition to the Dominican dictatorship of Rafael Trujillo, are assassinated. The four had started a group called the Agrupación Política 14 de Junio (Movement of the Fourteenth of June), named after the date of a massacre Patria witnessed. Within the group, the three were known as Las Mariposas (The Butterflies), after Minerva's underground name. Two of the sisters, Minerva and Maria Teresa, were imprisoned, raped and tortured on several occasions and their husbands arrested and tortured too. However, they persisted in their resistance and Trujillo decided to put an end to them once and for all. On May 18, 1960, Minerva and Maria Teresa, along with their husbands, were convicted and were sentenced to three years in prison for undermining the security of the Dominican state. In a strange gesture, on August 9, Minerva and Maria Teresa Mirabal were released by express provision of Trujillo. Their husbands, however, remained in prison. Purportedly a show of generosity, it was however part of a plan by whuich they would be assassinated by the Servicio de Inteligencia Militar secret police. On November 25, 1960, Patria, Minerva, María Teresa, and their driver, Rufino de la Cruz, were visiting María Teresa's and Minerva's incarcerated husbands. On the way home, they were stopped by Trujillo's henchmen. The sisters and de la Cruz were separated and clubbed to death. The bodies were then gathered and put in their Jeep, which was run off the mountain road in an attempt to make their deaths look like an accident.
The assassinations turned the Mirabal sisters into symbols of both popular and feminist resistance. In 1999, in the sisters' honour, the United Nations General Assembly designated 25 November the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women.
A fourth sister, Dedé Mirabal Reyes (Bélgica Adela Mirabal Reyes; March 1 1925 - February 1 2014), was not part of the group, but after her sisters' deaths she worked to keep their memory alive through the Museo Hermanas Mirabal.

1964 - Gaetano Gervasio (b. 1886), Italian anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, carpenter, painter and sculptor, dies. [see: Jan. 2]

1965 - Angelica Balabanoff (or Balabanova)(Анжелика Балабанова; b. ca. 1878), Ukrainian-Jewish socialist and Italian labour organiser, who later joined the Bolshevik Party, becoming secretary of the Communist Third International in 1919, and later, disillusioned with the Bolsheviks, a social democratic (PSDI) activist, dies.

1968 - Upton Beall Sinclair, Jr. (b. 1878), American novelist, writer, journalist, socialist, anti-fascist and later Democratic candidate for governor of California, dies. [see: Sep. 20]

1969 - Henri 'Dayen' Fabre (b. 1876), French anarchist (then socialist) and pacifist journalist, dies. [see: Jul. 14]

[C] 1970 - Yukio Mishima (三島 由紀夫; Mishima Yukio), pen name of Kimitake Hiraoka (平岡 公威 Hiraoka Kimitake; b. Jan. 14, 1925), Japanese author, poet, playwright, actor, film director and right-wing nationalist fruitcake, commits sepuku (ritual suicide) following the failure of the bizarre coup attempt at the Ichigaya Camp, the Tokyo headquarters of the Eastern Command of the Japan Ground Self-Defence Force, which he had plotted with members of Tatenokai (楯の会; Shield Society), his private militia of young nationalist students.

[D] 1973 - In the wake of the Athens Polytechnic uprising, disgruntled Junta hardliner Taxiarkhos Dimitrios Ioannides uses it as a pretext to re-establish public order, and staged a counter-coup that overthrows George Papadopoulos and Spiros Markezinis, and reinstates military law. He would follow this up with an abortive coup attempt on July 15, 1974 against Archbishop Makarios III, then President of Cyprus, which was quickly followed by the Turkish invasion of Cyprus.

1975 - Golpe de 25 de Novembro: An alleged radical leftist military coup supposedly fails due to action taken by members of the Grupo dos Nove (Group of Nine), a moderate grouping within the MFA (Movimento das Forças Armadas), and especially the actions of the Grupo dos Nove member Colonel António dos Santos Ramalho Eanes, who declares a State of Emergency and takes control of the MFA, COPCON and Commando units [according to fellow 'conspirator' Captain Vasco Correia Lourenço, he was "responsible for organising the operational plan", "played a key role" and "turned out to be the major operational commander" on November 25]. Eanes, a future president of the republic, also manages to resist the pressure from elements of the extreme right to send planes to bomb the 'rebel' units.

At dawn Paratroopers from the Base Escola de Tropas Pára-Quedistas (BETP; Parachute Troops Base School) at Tancos occupy their bases at Montijo, Monet Real, Ota and Tancos, the Air Force Military School, and the Regional Air Headquarters at Monsanto, holding Lieutenant Colonel Aníbal Pinho Freire and demanding the resignation of General José Morais e Silva following his decision on November 19th to make 1,200 of them reservists.
These acts are considered by the military linked to the Grupo dos Nove as evidence of possible preparations for a possible coup by the more radical sectors of the left.
These acts are considered by the military linked to the Nine Group as evidence that could be preparing a coup coming from more radical sectors of the left and as a clear opening for setting entrain their plans for the counter-revolution. A request is made by staff at COPCON for Otelo Carvalho not to leave the COPCON HQ but no one knows of his whereabouts. The confusion, added to that around the rumours of a possible Pinochet-style coup, gives rise to the rumour that Brigadier General Otelo Carvalho has been arrested.

The military, supported by 'moderate' political parties such as the Partido Socialista (PS) and the Partido Popular Democrático (PPD), and the then President of the Republic, General Francisco da Costa Gomes, decide intervene militarily to control the country.

04:30 - The first act of the containment action takes place when four armoured cars of the Regimento de Comandos stand guard at the Palácio de Belém (Presidential Palace).
05:00 - Armoured units loyal to the democratic forces leave the Estremoz Cavalry Regiment and the Escola Prática de Cavalaria (Cavalry School Practice) at Santarém, moving towards Lisbon.
06:00 - The Regimento de Artilharia de Lisboa (RALIS; Lisbon Artillery Regiment) occupies positions on access roads to the A1 (Northern) motorway, at Lisbon Portela Airport and at the Depósito-Geral de Material de Guerra (Military Goods Stores) at Beirolas. Escola Prática de Administração Militar (EPAM; Technical College of Military Administration) troops occupy the Rádio e Televisão de Portugal (RTP) studios in Lumiar and take positions on the A1 (Northern) motorway, controlling access to the Airport. Both these military units were linked respectively with the revolutionary left and with the Esquerda Militar (Left Military) 'gonçalvistas' and the Esquerda Militar Radical (Left Radical Military) 'otelistas'.
07:00 - The GDACI (Grupo de Detecção, Alerta e Conduta da Intercepção) air defence base at Monsanto is occupied by a force of 65 paratroopers from 121 Company stationed in Lumiar led by Sergeant Rebocho, and supported by GDACI Aérea de Serviço (Air Service) police. The Commander of the 1ª Região Aérea (1st Air Region), General Pinho Freire, is arrested, but despite this he is not prevented from access to a phone and he contacts Morais da Silva, activing contingency plans focused on loyalist paratroopers based at Cortegaça. He then contacts the presidency and, assisted by José Loureiro dos Santos, General Francisco da Costa Gomes takes control of the situation. Lt. Col. Antonio Ramalho Eanes of the Regimento de Comandos (Commando Regiment) at Amadora, aligned with the Direita Militar (Right Military) ultra-conservative 'spinolistas' and Centro Militar (Centre Military) PS 'meloantunistas' or 'moderados', is also informed.
09:00 - The President holds an emergency meeting with the Conselho da Revolução (Council of the Revolution) and the military commands.
10:00 - The Communist Party (PCP) realises the situation, although apparently favorable to the revolutionaries, can have no really favourable outcome for them, since the President decided to counter the coup. The PCP gives orders to its main military power base in the Fuzileiros Navais (Marine Corps), that it "is not the time to move forward."
[ Mário Soares of the PS would later claim that the Communist Party later decides not to summon its members and supporters out onto the streets.]
13:35 - The EMGFA (Estado-Maior-General das Forças Armadas / State General Staff of the Armed Forces) in an unofficial note confirms the events, warns that the rebels will use force and considers the rebellion as having a wider political objective, beyond just the support of Morais Silva and Pinho Freire. This note, on behalf of Costa Gomes is the first statement of a legal framework for the operations of the military group being led by Ramalho Eanes against the paratroopers.
14:00 - The President calls for Otelo Carvalho to present himself at the Palácio de Belém. He also announces his decision to take direct command of COPCON and orders several commanders of military units in the Lisbon region to the Palace.
14.30 - Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho comes to COPCON. Meets behind closed doors with Arnao Metellus, Eurico Corvacho and other officials for an hour and a half. However Marques Júnior, sent from Belém, arrives to lead Othello to the President.
15:00 - Otelo Carvalho leaves the COPCON towards Belém and Costa Gomes puts COPCON under his direct command.
16:30 - The President of the Republic decrees a state of emergency in the Lisbon region.
The paratroopers spread a manifesto claiming to fight for a "true socialism".
Troops from the Regimento de Comandos (Commando Regiment) of Amadora leave their barracks and trigger the offensive in four directions:
1 - Monsanto (BETP) by CCMDS 121 (121 Commando Company) commanded by Captain Gonçalves and CCMDS 122 commanded by Captain Sampaio Faria
2 - Regimento da Polícia Militar in Ajuda by CCMDS 112 commanded by Captain Apollinaire
3 - Regimento de Artilharia de Costa (Coastal Artillery Regiment) in Oeiras
4 - RALIS and EPAM in Lumiar
Each of these operations is preceded by radio messages that declare that they are taking place on behalf of the President of the Republic.
16:30 - The President sends emissaries to the premises of the Commander of the Air Force in Monsanto requesting the surrender of the rebels, but without success.
17:00 - Forces of EPAM (Military School Management Practice) take the TV facilities. Revolutionary ballets and classical music are broadcast.
The Emissora Nacional (National Radio) premises are occupied by troops of the Polícia Militar and COPCON.
Later in the evening newspaper editions a call is made for revolution in the name of Othello and of popular power.
People in the Leiria region surround the Monte-Real base occupied by paratroopers, preventing access or exit.
17.30 - The Polícia Militar (PM) make a radio appeal for military forces to send reinforcements to the Emissora Nacional station. Shortly after the Polícia Militar troops leave but Colonel Varela Gomes of COPCON attempts to run operations.
18:00 - Captain Duran Clemente (EPAM) calls, via television, for a popular mobilisation, together with that of troops and the radio and TV stations.
The Sindicato dos Operários Metalúrgicos (Metallurgical Workers Union) appeals for a strike and mass mobilisation from the barracks.
19:15 - The troops that occupied the Headquarters of Air Region 1 at Monsanto surrender to a force of Commandos from Amadora, headed by the moderate Jaime Neves. PM Captain Faria Paulino is arrested.

Also during the afternoon:
Costa Gomes telephone contact with Alvaro Cunhal and with the Intersindical in order to demobilise the civilian population civilian population concentrated around some of the barracks.
By the end of the afternoon a few barricades were erected, but the overwhelming mood was apathetic.
Mário Soares, Jorge Campinos and Mário Sottomayor Cardia, the Standing Committee of the PS, following the previously established counter-revolutionary plan which holds that if the counter-revolutionary coup in Lisbon failed and the PS actually took power, he could help trigger a civil war to crush the 'Comuna de Lisboa' (City of Lisbon), the stronghold of the PCP from the North, leave Lisbon clandestinely during the afternoon for Porto. There they present themselves to the moderate Pires Veloso at the Headquarters of the Northern Military Region via the General Airman José Lemos Ferreira, would had been intimately involved in the opposition to his previous commander Brigadeiro Graduado Eurico de Deus Corvacho.

20.45 - Radio programme transmission of the Emissora Nacional are transferred to Porto.
21:10 - One of the most famous incidents of the revolt takes place over the television. The reading of a revolutionary statement by Captain Duran Clemente is halted and the Rádio Televisão Portuguesa (Radio Television Portugal) broadcast from Lisbon, is replaced by one from the studios in Porto. The program, transmitting symphonic music and a Chinese-style revolutionary ballet is replaced by an American film starring Danny Kaye, 'The Man from the Diners' Club'. The transmission is transferred to the studios of Porto via technical action at the Monsanto antenna (Lisbon), which is already under the control of a Commando force who stormed in, lining the technicians up against the wall, ordering that Clemente's television signal is immediately cut and replaced by that from Porto
The image of Clemente Duran on television has become an icon of the failure of the rebel forces of November 25, 1975. "They are telling me that I can not speak because of technical reasons, is it?" were his last words.
21:15 - General Costa Gomes in a message to the country on radio and television announces his decision to impose a state of siege in the RML. Otelo Carvalho appears onscreen beside him.
22:00 - It is announced that General Pinho Freire has resumed command of the 1st Air Region.
Thousands of workers appear in support of RALIS.
22:10 - The Rádio Clube Português (Portuguese Radio Club) ceases transmissions.
22:20 - The surrender of the base at Monte Real is announced.

1975 - Proceso 1001: Following the amnesty by royal decree, signed by Juan Carlos, the leadership of the clanestine communist trades union, the Comisiones Obreras (Workers' Commissions; CC.OO.) have their sentences reduced to: Marcelino Camacho 6 years; Nicolás Sartorius 5 years; Miguel Ángel Zamora Antón 2 years; Pedro Santiesteban 2 years; Eduardo Saborido 5 years; Francisco García Salve 5 years; Luis Fernández 2 years; Francisco Acosta 2 years; Juan Muñiz Zapico 4 years; and Fernando Soto Martín 4 years in prison. [see: Jun. 24, Dec. 20 & Dec. 30]

1984 - Forças Populares 25 de Abril (Popular Forces 25 April) fire four mortar rounds at the U.S. Embassy, hitting two cars.

1988 - Louis Ségeral (b. 1928), French anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, engineer, Résistance fighter, poet, painter and novelist, dies of a work-related cancer. [see: May 24]
[A] 1731 - William Cowper (d. 1800), poet who provided us with the title of this diary: "...prisoned in a parlour snug and small, Like bottled wasps upon a southern wall", a line from his poem 'Retirement' (1782), born.

1864 - Hermann Gorter (d. 1927), Dutch poet and council communist, born. Part of the Dutch literary revolution known as the Tachtigers (movement of the Eighties), his first book, a 4,000 verse epic poem called 'Mei' (May), is regarded as the pinnacle of Dutch Impressionist literature.

1865 - Lewis Carroll's 'Alice in Wonderland' is published.

1878 - [O.S. Nov. 14] Zinaida Vasilevna Konoplyannikova (Зинаида Васильевна Конопля́нникова; d. 1906), rural school teacher, member of the revolutionary movement in Russia, born. Placed under surveillance for her atheist views and possession of books claiming that there is no god and therefore no "earthly king". Arrested the following year for "revolutionary propaganda among the peasants". In 1904 she joined the Socialist-Revolutionary Party, and after 1905 became a member of the S-R Combat Organisation's (Боева́я организа́ция) 'Northern combat flying squad' (Северный боевой летучий отряд / ЛБО СО ПСР). On August 26 [13], 1906, she assassinated Major General Georgy Aleksándrovich Min (Гео́ргий Алекса́ндрович Мин), one of the leaders of the brutal suppression of the December 1905 armed uprising in Moscow.
She was executed in Schlisselburg fortress during the night of September 10-11 [Aug. 28-29], 1906, becoming the first woman to be hanged in Russia in the 20th century.

[E] 1883 - Sojourner Truth (Isabella Baumfree; b. ca. 1797), African-American ex-slave abolitionist and women's rights activist, dies. Born into slavery, she spoke only low Dutch and, like most slaves, never learned to read or write and escaped to freedom in 1826 with her daughter, the youngest of five children. She went on to become a powerful figure in several national social movements, speaking forcefully for the abolition of slavery, women’s rights and suffrage, the rights of freedmen, temperance, prison reform and the termination of capital punishment.

[B] 1888 - Franz Jung (d. 1963), German Expressionist then Dadaist writer, novelist, playwright, economist, journalist and one-time anarchist, born. Helped introduce the theories of the psychoanalyst and anarchist Otto Gross into the Berlin Dadaist group and ran the anarchist and Dadaist paper 'Die Freie Straße' (1915-18) with Raoul Hausmann. Expelled from the KPD in 1920 and joined the Kommunistische Arbeiterpartei Deutschlands (Communist Workers Party) published under the pseudonym Francis Larsz and Frank Ryberg.

1895 - Arthur Arnould (b. 1833), French anarchist, journalist, novelist, member of First International and the Paris Commune, friend of Michael Bakunin, dies. [see: Apr. 17]

1899 - Emma Goldman, 'The Anarchist Orator' as she is billed, delivers a second lecture at the Athenaeum Hall in London on the subject of 'Woman'. The previous Sunday (19th) she gave a talk entitled 'The Aim of Humanity'.

1905 - [O.S. Nov. 13] Sevastopol Uprising [Севастопольское Восстание]: An uprising breaks out on the cruiser Ochakov (Очаков). Officers remove the electical conductors and leave the ship. The uprising is led by S. P. Chastnik (С. П. Частник), N. G. Antonenko (Н. Г. Антоненко) and A. I. Gladkov (А. И. Гладков).

[C] 1909 - 1909 - Eugène Ionesco (d. 1994), Romanian-born French dramatist and anti-fascist, whose first theatre piece, the one-act anti-play 'La Cantatrice Chauve' (The Bald Soprano; written in 1948 and published in 1950) inspired the Theatre of the Absurd, born. His 1959 play 'Rhinocéros', which depicts the mutation of those around him into rhinos (thugs and fascists), joining in with the destruction of their village, until he alone stands against the threat, is an anti-fascist allegory inspired by the rise of the fascist Iron Guard in Romania in the 1930s.
"Je suis un anarchiste de droit."

[F] 1911 - Paul Lafargue (b. 1842), wayward son-in-law of Karl Marx, born. Better known for being the author of 'Le Droit à la Paresse' (The Right to Be Lazy), written in 1893 whilst in Saint Pélagie Prison.

1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike: Union leaders Joseph Ettor and Arturo Giovannitti and their co-defendant Giuseppe Caruso, all charged with the murder of Anna LoPizzo, a striking textile worker taking part in a peaceful protest on January 29, 1912 during the Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike are acquitted and released,

1916 - In response to the Conde de Romanones (Álvaro Figueroa y Torres Mendieta) government having ordered the arrest of the signatories of the 'Pacto de Zaragoza', signed by representatives of the UGT and CNT on July 17, 1916, both organisations call for a 24-hour general strike on December 18 in protest.

[AA/D] 1920 - Less than two weeks after assisting Red Army units to defeat Wrangel's White Army forces, Nestor Makhno's headquarters staff and many of his subordinate commanders are arrested at a Red Army planning conference to which they had been invited by Moscow, and executed. Makhno himself manages to escape the latest act of Bolshevik duplicity.

1931 - Tampa Cigar Makers' Strike: Cigar factory owners in Ybor City, Tampa, Florida ban what they thought of as their biggest enemy – the lector (la lectura). According to the 'Tampa Daily Times', they were a source of Communist propaganda: "Originally the practice was a beneficial and instructive one, the readers sitting all day in the factories and reading aloud newspapers, novels and instructive works. The result was that the Tampa cigar maker was probably better posted on current events than the average American workman in any other industry. But in recent months the readers have turned to the reading of red-hot radical publications and anarchistic propaganda, with the result that widespread unrest developed among the cigar workers.... in the past, manufacturers had entered into an agreement with workers, allowing the reading of educational or instructional information, articles, or books, but the abuse of this privilege, and starting this morning, reading aloud is eliminated…the manufacturers will not allow readers to read anything in the factories, and no collection will be permitted in the factories".

1934 - Sophia Nikolaevna Chernosvitova (Софья Николаевна Черносвитова; b. 1872), Russian revolutionary and feminist, who was a member of the RSDLP and with Alexandra Kollontai and Inessa Armand, founded Zhenotdel (Женотдел), the Central Commission for Agitation and Propaganda Among Working Women, dies thereby avoiding the Stalinist purges that followed and in which would she would certainly have featured. [see: Mar. 8]

1964 - Emil Szittya (Adolf Schenk; b. 1886), Hungarian anarchist, writer, journalist, painter, art critic, traveler and vagabond, dies. [see: Aug. 18]

1968 - The Race Relations Act 1968 comes into force.

1966 - Germaine Violette Nozière (b. 1915), notorious French parricide of a father who had raped her throughout her teenage years, dies of cancer. [see: Jan. 11]

1971 - Ángel Falco (b. 1885), Uruguayan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist propagandist, one-time career soldier, diplomat, journalist, writer and poet, dies. [see: Sep. 21]

1971 - Pauline Conroy arrested in her flat in Powis Square and charged. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1975 - Golpe de 25 de Novembro: Following yesterday's events, COPCON is disbanded and Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho is stripped of his power. 200 far left-wing Esquerda Militar Radical (Left Radical Military) members of the military are arrested.

00:15 - The base at Ota, occupied the previous afternoon by paratroopers, returns to the control of its previous commander. Paratroopers also leave the base at Tancos.
01:00 - Members of the public help did trenches along the perimeter of the Polícia Militar (PM) base in Ajuda, just five hundred metres from the Presidential Palace.
02:00 - Having failed to gain complete control of the situation, infantry forces based at Porto de Vila Real and Braga prepare to march on Lisbon.
07:20 - Regimento de Policia Militar commanders are invited to submit to the President, but a revolutionary military plenary states that the President must first explain the reasons for the call.
A military officer from the presidency gives his word of honour that liberal officers will not be will not be arrested and two of them (Maj. Mario Tome and Maj. Rosa Cuco) present themselves in the palace at 8 o'clock.
08:15 - Soldiers of the Regimento de Comandos led by Jaime Neves, who is linked to the moderates, attack the barracks of the Regimento de Lanceiros 2 (2nd Lancers Regiment) of the leftist-linked Regimento da Polícia Militar at Ajuda.
The PM surrender leaving 2 dead on the Commandos' side (Lieutenant Coimbra and Militiaman Pires) and a PM (Cadet José Baggage).
PM commanders Majors Campos Andrada, Cuco Rosa and Mário Tomé are arrested. [Vasco Lourenço had also called for the imprisonment of Diniz de Almeida (arrested later), Campos Andrada, Cuco Rosa and Mário Tomé, all notorious revolutionary military leftist political forces, the latter including affiliated with the UDP ; Officials said many 'moderate' were then tarred with the PS (with which conspired in plan preparation and operations that resulted in the '25 November 1975 ') and the PPD.]

One of the PM soldiers when questioned claimed that the regiment had indeed circulated weapons to civilians that night, but that he had not seen them ... Later Captain Rodrigo de Sousa e Castro of the Conselho da Revolução claimed that he had seen from the Palácio de Belém windows armed civilians fire on the commandos. According to official information, these had been militia groups amongst the PM ranks, but Regimento de Comandos troops stated that they were convinced that the Furriel Comando Militiaman Joaquim dos Santos Pires had been hit by gunfire from PM recruits.
All told, only one individual in civilian clothes armed with a G3 had been arrested during the day.
Also, following a call from the President, second in command of the RALIS, Major Diniz de Almeida, goes to Belém and is immediately arrested.

10:00 - Armoured vehicles from the Escola-prática de Cavalaria at Santarém arrive at the Depósito-Geral de Material de Guerra close to RALIS HQ.
Troops of Região Militar Norte (Northern Military Region) and Região Militar Centro (Central Military Region) reinforce the Região Militar de Lisboa (RML; Lisbon Military Region), and are stationed at the Escola Prática de Infantaria (Infantry Training School) at Mafra.
Trade unions call for a general strike.

During the afternoon hundreds of people remain around the RALIS building, where the situation is tense and the military remain in defensive position.
A new commander, Major Paz replaces Capitão Luz as the commander at Forte de Almada, where the situation tends to normalise. Marines disperse the members of the public that had gathered along with that unit.
The Escola Prática de Administração Militar (Technical College of Military Administration) returns to the command of the RML.
The Setúbal Regimento de Infantaria is reinforced with armoured units of the Cavalaria from Estremoz.
The President issues a new message to the people: "What drives us is the ideal that pragmatic socialism advances with decisive but cautious advances. Not with hollow verbalism, with unfounded strikes, with professionalised demonstrations can we build a classless society."
Ernesto Melo Antunes, principal author of the political program of the Movimento das Forças Armadas and minister in the Provisional Government, states on RTP television that: "the participation of the PCP in building socialism is indispensable."
The 'Comércio do Porto' is the only newspaper to be published in the country, as Porto was not covered by the state of siege.
A communication from SUV - Soldados Unidos Vencerão, a soldiers organisation linked to the Guevaraist Partido Revolucionário do Proletariado, calls for workers' resistance against yesterday's military coup.

Overnight at the Montijo base returns to the command of the 1st Air Region.

1976 - 'Anarchy In The UK' released by the Sex Pistols.

1983 - Brinks Mat robbery at Heathrow Airport nets £28m.

1992 - Néstor Osvaldo Perlongher (b. 1949), Argentinian sociologist, anthropologist, poet, writer, gay rights activist and anarchist, dies in São Paulo of an AIDS-related illness. [see: Dec. 24]

2009 - Vicky Starr aka Stella Nowicki (b. 1916), US maid, cook, feminist, working class activist and labour union organiser, dies. She was one of the 'union maids' whose testimonies were included in the oral history 'Rank and File: Personal Histories by Working-Class Organizers' (1973) by Staughton and Alice Lynd.
1841 - Jean Celestin 'Cointot' Renaud (d. 1904), French anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. Member of the Fédération Révolutionnaire Lyonnaise.

1852 - Ada Lovelace aka Augusta Ada King-Noel, Countess of Lovelace (Augusta Ada Byron; b. 1815), English mathematician and writer, dies from uterine cancer probably exacerbated by bloodletting by her physicians. The only legitimate child of the poet George Lord Byron, chiefly known for her work on Charles Babbage's early mechanical general-purpose computer, the Analytical Engine. [see: Dec. 10]

[A] 1884 - The first appearance of the black flag in America as an explicitly anarchist symbol, at a demonstration in Chicago. [see: March 9, 1883]

[EE] 1898 - Maria Vetulani de Nisau, aka 'Maryna', (d. 1944), Polish socialist participant of the Warsaw Uprising, who was murdered by the Germans during the liquidation of an insurgent hospital, born. As a medical student, she was a member of the Polska Organizacja Wojskowa and participant in the defence of Lwów (Nov. 1, 1918 - May 22, 1919; aka Battle of Lemberg), dressed in a man's uniform as women were banned from the military. She served as a radiotelegraphist and was promotted to corporal. She returned to her studies at the end of the Polish-Ukrainian War and joined the Polska Partia Socjalistyczna. In 1923 she married communist activist Bohdan de Nisau and, in 1924, their son Witold was born. Having moved to Warsaw in 1925, they came under surveillance by the Polish police and Bohdan fled to the Soviet Union in 1927. Maria and Witold managed to join him using forged documents but in 1934 Bohdan was arrested by the Soviets so she fled the USSR, believing her husband had been killed (he in fact survived in the Soviet prison system until 1943). During the occupation she was liaison soldier of the Armia Krajowa, using her Warsaw apartment as a contact point and a hiding place for Jewish people. In August 1944 she took part in the Warsaw Uprising, fighting in the 'Leśnik' unit and was wounded in the defence of the Polskiej Wytwórni Papierów Wartościowych (Polish Security Printing Works) building on August 23 or 26. She was treated in the Centralnym Szpitalu Chirurgicznym Nr. 1 (Central Surgical Hospital) on Długa Street but she was, along with other patients and hospital staff, murdered by the Germans on September 2, 1944.]

1903 - E. L. T. Mesens (Edouard Léon Théodore Mesens; d. 1971), Belgian Surrealist artist, collagist, writer, poet, curator, publisher and editor, who was more of a Dadaist Joker in the Surrealist pack, born. Started out as an aspiring Satie-influenced pianist and composer, and became a close friend and collaborator of René Magritte. He also organised the first surrealist exhibition in Belgium in 1934 and was co-organiser of the 1936 London International Surrealist Exhibition, which led to him setting up in city and starting the London Surrealist Group. He was also editor of the 'London Bulletin' (1938-1940), the most important of the English-language Surrealist periodicals. Mesens had an extensive contact list within the European artistic avant-garde and is better known for befriended a young George Melly and helping Kurt Schwitters after his release from his WWII internement camp. He translated Herbert Read's poetry and writings on anarchism into French as 'Poésie et Anarchisme' (1938).
Poet and historian Franklin Rosemont claimed that Mesens committed "suicide by absinthe", drinking himself to death by willfully disregarding doctors' orders to abstain completely from alcohol.

1905 - [O.S. Nov. 14] Sevastopol Uprising [Севастопольское Восстание]: Having been invited to take command of the rebel ships, Lieutenant Pyotr Petrovich Schmidt (Пётр Петрович Шмидт) boards the Ochakov (Очаков) that afternoon and takes command of the naval uprising. Famed for the 'Schmidt Oath' (клятва Шмидта) ["We swear that we will never cede to anybody an inch of the human rights that we have won"], which he gave at the funeral of the eight victims of the October 31 (O.S. Oct. 18) shootings outside the prison in Sevastopo, he had been dismissed from the navy ealier that year for this "anti-government propaganda". Once on board, he had the signal "Fleet Commander Schmidt" (Командую флотом Шмидт) as well as the red flag raised on the Ochakov. Schmidt also had a telegram sent to the Tsar, Nicholas II of Russia: "The glorious Black Sea Fleet, sacredly devoted to the people, demands Your Majesty to immediately call a meeting of the Constituent Assembly (Учредительное собрание), and no longer obeys orders of Your ministers. Commander of the Fleet P. Schmidt."
That night rebel commandos seized a number of ships, including the minelayer Griden (Гридень), the destroyers Svirepiy (Свирепый), № 265, № 268, № 270, and a number of smaller ships, and seized weapons in the port. These joined the other rebels ships, the gunboat Usuriets (Уралец), destroyers Zavetniy (Заветный ) , Zorkiy (Зоркий), training ship Dnestr (Днестр) and mine carrier Bug (Буг). The rebellion squadron was also joined by the battleship Panteleimon (Пантелеймона), formerly the Potemkin (Потёмкин), which had been stripped of most of its armaments when decommissioned in the wake of the June mutiny.

[D] 1911 - Revolución Mexicana: Emiliano Zapata disavows support for Francisco Madero for not giving land to peasants.

[C] 1917 - Juan Fernández Ayala aka Juanín (b. 1917), Spanish miliciano and anti-Francoist guerrillero, born. Juan fought with republican Ochandía Battalion in the Civil War, and after the fall of the northern front, he was arrested and sentenced to death, later commuted to 12 years in prison following the intervention of his Phlangist brothers. He was interned in the prison of Tabacalera (Santander), then in 1941 was transferred to Portacceli (Valencia) where following an amnesty he was released on bail early 1943. Refusing to report weekly to the barracks of the Guardia Civil, he escaped to the mountains and joined the anti-Francoist maquis in the group of anarchist Ceferino Campo Roiz aka Machado fighting in the Santander area. The Brigada Machado, which had up to 37 men, which changed its mane to the Brigada de los Picos de Europa some time in 1943, saw action in the area located on the border of Leon, Asturias, Palencia and Santander. Following the denunciation and arrest of Machado on April 22, 1945, Juanín who took command of the group. He was shot dead on April 24, 1957 in an ambush near the Vega de Liebana (Santander) by Guardia Civil corporal Leopoldo Rollan Arenales and guard Angel Agüeros Rodríguez de Cabarceno. His comrade Francisco Gutierrez Bedoya aka Paco was also injured, but managed to escape back into the mountains and ended up taking his own life rather than be captured that December.

1920 - Andrés Nin and Josep (or José) Canela attacked by pistoleros (death squads directed by Barcelona Governor Martinez Anido as part of the campaign to establish pro-capital syndicat libre, 'free' unions', against the power of the CNT) in Plaza Buensuceso, Barcelona. Nin is unscathed but Canela dies.

1920 - Following yesterday's arrest and execution of Makhno's anarchist commanders whilst under a flag of truce, Trotsky orders an attack on Makhno's headquarters itself. The Cheka simultaneously arrests members of the Nabat Confederation in Kharkov and raids anarchist clubs and organisations throughout Russia.

1922 - Criminal Syndicalism: Arthur Berg, a thirty-eight-year-old itinerant oil field and harvest worker, is arrested by railroad police in Haileyville, Oklahoma and booked on vagrancy charges. However, when a police search of his person turned up IWW literature, a membership book, and other documents, he was also charged with criminal syndicalism*. Early the following year, Berg was formally charged with advocating criminal syndicalism and with criminal syndicalism by membership in the IWW. While he did admit to membership in the IWW, Berg denied being an organiser. The ensuing prosecution featured the usual claims about the IWW's radicalism, including the introduction of IWW literature and the ubiquitous preamble, combined with testimony designed to prove that Berg was in fact an organiser and not simply a member. Berg, who was indeed an organiser, was convicted and sentenced to ten years in prison and fined $5000.
[* A series of law introduced at state level across the United States to criminalise the activities of the IWW primarily. Idaho was the first to introduce a criminal syndicalism bill on February 17, 1917, which described criminal syndicalism as the "doctrine which advocates crime, sabotage, violence or unlawful methods of terrorism as a means of accomplishing industrial or political reform." It made the "advocacy of such doctrine" a felony and then went on to criminalise not only advocating criminal syndicalism, but also publicising criminal syndicalism; "[o]penly, wilfully and deliberately justif[ying], by word of mouth or writing, the commission or the attempt to commit crime, sabotage, violent methods of terrorism;" establishing or holding membership in any organisation committed to teaching or advocating criminal syndicalism; assembling to teach or advocate criminal syndicalism; and providing a physical forum for the advocacy of criminal syndicalism.]

1931 - Tampa Cigar Makers' Strike: The lector's stands* in the factories are dismantled on the orders of the factory owners, because "all the trouble has been originating from anarchistic publications poured into the workers... We had agreed to allow ... the reading of informative articles or educational books ... but the abuse of this privilege has obliged the manufacturers to retire it immediately." A walkout followed. Next day a seventy-two-hour strike was called involving 10,000 workers, both to demand the return of the lectors and the release of the thirteen prisoners sentenced after the November 7 incident at the city's Labor Hall. The 3-day strike turned into a two-week lock-out, during which time there were some rioting, many arrests, and a raid on the union headquarters, police confiscating its files, membership books, and two cigar boxes containing $750 which had been collected for the defence of the prisoners.
*One of the unique features of the cigar-making floors in Florida's Ybor City factories was The Lector (La lectura), a practice that had originated in Cuba and had followed the migrant tobacco workers to Tampa. The lector was paid by the factory's workers to read to them from local Spanish-language newspapers, such as 'La Traducción', or translate on the fly English-language papers such as 'The Tampa Tribune' or the 'Tampa Daily Times'. They even read novels, including 'Don Quixote', 'The Count of Monte Cristo' and 'Les Miserables'. The works of Kropotkin and radical newspapers such as 'The Daily Worker', the 'Socialist Call', 'El Internacional' and 'La Voce Dello Shiavo' (The Voice of the Slave) were also read. The lector read while seated on la tribuna , a raised platform, so all of the workers could see and hear him or her. La lectura (the reading) provided an education for the workers, but it also caused friction between the workers and the factory owners. Beginning with the first time a lector took his seat in an Ybor City factory in 1886, owners saw them as a negative influence on their workers. Lectors were blamed for the workers' growing socialist views, slowdowns and strikes. Yet the workers revered the lector. Generally, the factory workforce elected a committee of workers to audition, select and pay the lector for their factory. The committee usually consisted of three members: a secretary, a treasurer and a presidente de la lectura. During the audition, the prospective lector would have to have both an excellent reading voice – in proper Castilian Spanish – and the ability to almost act out the roles in the novels he read. Each worker contributed to the lector's pay, which approached $75 a week during the heyday of the cigar industry. Factory workers earned approximately $20 a week.

1937 - Frida Davydovna Glagolovskaya (Фрида Давыдовна Глаголовская (1894-1937), Russian anarchist-communist, who had been an active participant in the anarcho-syndicalist movement in Moscow and other Russian cities since the Revolution of 1917, and has suffered repeated arrests, is shot in Yaroslavl (Ярославле).

1941 - José Lavín Cobo aka Pepín or Pin el Cariñoso (Pin the Affectionate) (b. unknown), Spanish anarchist, renowned Cantabrian anti-Francoist guerrillero and member of the Brigada Malumbres, is killed by security forces. Julio Llamazares' book, 'Luna de Lobos' (Wolf's Moon; 1985), is based on Pin el Cariñoso's story and it was made into a film directed by Julio Sánchez Valdés in 1987.

[B] 1953 - Eugene Gladstone O'Neill (b. 1888), Irish American playwright, Wobbly, socialist and philosophical anarchist, dies. [see: Oct. 16]

[E] 1962 - Edith Lagos Saez (d. 1982), Peruvian guerrilla fighter and commander in the Ejército Guerrillero Popular (Sendero Luminoso), and a member of the Partido Comunista del Perú, born. A popular commander in the EGP, she was amongst the 70 imprisoned guerrillas freed during the March 2, 1982, attack on Huamanga prison in Peruana de Ayacucho and was just 19-years-old when she was bayoneted to death by members of the Guardia Republicana del Perú on September 3, 1982, on the outskirts of Umacca, Andahuaylas. The guerrilla group that she commanded had attacked had attacked a GRP patrol who, during the fierce fire-fight that followed, called up Army support, which arrived by helicopter. Towards dusk the fighting had died down but Edith Lagos was amongst those found dead, having been captured and killed whilst trying to steal a lorry and make her escape.
The government declared her funeral an illegal gathering but 30,000 people came to attend her funeral in Ayacucho on September 10, 1982 – a town with a population of only 70,000 people.

1975 - Golpe de 25 de Novembro: At dawn, a couple of dozen military officers arrested for their involvement in the coup arrive at Custóias prison in Porto. Besides the three Policia Militar (PM) majors (Campos Andrada, Cuco Rosa and Mário Tomé) and Diniz de Almeida, these include Captain Faria Paulino, Lieutenant Commander Marques Pinto and sergeants of the Comissão Coordenadora de Sargentos (Coordinating Committee of Sergeants) of the Air Force.

At the last meeting in COPCON with Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho, Colonel Artur Batista, Captain Lourenço Marques, Major Arlindo Ferreira, Captain Tasso de Figueiredo, Captain Ferreira Rodrigues, Lieutenant Colonel Arnão Metelo, Commander Gouveia and Major Barão da Cunha discuss the situation and acknowledge that it has been a setback. Meanwhile COPCON is to be dissolved and its units integrated into EMGFA (Estado-Maior-General das Forças Armadas / State General Staff of the Armed Forces).
Lieutenant Colonel Ramalho Eanes is named interim Chefe do Estado-Maior do Exército (CEME; Chief of Staff of the Army).
COPCON is surrounded by elements of the Regimento de Comandos and a number of unnamed officers arrested. The operation is led by Ramalho Eanes. Otelo is not among those arrested.
A delegation from the Parachute Troops school at Tancos discuss in Lisbon, with President of the Republic, General Francisco da Costa Gomes, and Chief of Staff of the Air Force, General José Morais da Silva, the terms of the negotiations for the normalisation of the situation at that unit.
Generals Carlos Fabião and Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho are removed from their posts as CEME and as COPCON Commander respectively, and asked for their resignation from the Conselho da Revolução (CR; Council of the Revolution).
The CR dismiss "all current members of the administration" of the nationalised newspaper companies, suspending the publication of newspapers and magazines published by these companies until the appointment by the Government of new directors, accused of having collaborated with the coup. Only the boards of companies in Porto are renewed.
Costa Gomes decrees a partial lifting of the state of siege imposed 2 days before in the RML (Região Militar de Lisboa).

2007 - South Africa Miners' Strike: The National Union of Mineworkers announce that South African mineworkers plan to hold a one-day strike to protest unsafe working conditions in the country's mining industry. Held on December 4, 2007, the strike affected over 240,000 workers in 60 of the nation's mines. It was the first ever industry-wide miners' strike in South African history.

[F] 2010 - Scottish Football Referee Strike: The Scottish Senior Football Referees' Association hold a two day strike over the weekend of November 27-28 in the face of what they consider the Scottish Football Association lack of action over what the referees thought of as being unfair crticism and questions over their integrity from football clubs, leading to increasing fears for their personal safety as controversial decisions were debated by the media and fans.
1757 - William Blake (d. 1872), English Romantic poet, visionary radical, mystic, printer, engraver, subversive, proto-anarchist, born.
[ texts/PDF-versions/Blake, William - Songs of innocence and experience.pdf]

1785 - The Marquis de Sade completes 'Les 120 Journées de Sodome or l'École du Libertinage' (The 120 Days of Sodom, or the School of Libertinism; 1904) in the Bastille.

1800 - William Cowper (b. 1731), poet who provided us with the title of this diary: "...'prisoned in a parlour snug and small, Like bottled wasps upon a southern wall", a line from his poem 'Retirement' (1782), dies. [see: Nov. 26]

1852 - The probable date for the birth of Silvia Pisacane (d. 1888), daughter of the famous Italian revolutionary Carlo Pisacane, she was involved with the Matese anarchist insurrection in 1877. [see: Sep. 16]

[B] 1862 - Théo van Rysselberghe erroneosuly listed on]

1863 - Gregoria 'Gloria' Montoya y Patricio, aka 'Henerala Gregoria' (d. 1896), Filipina revolutionary and military leader, born. She was dubbed the 'Joan of Arc of Cavite' for leading a thirty-man unit of fighters from the Katipunan's Magdalo faction, "with one hand holding a Katipunan flag and another hand clasping firmly the handle of a long, sharp-bladed bolo", against Spanish troops on Dalahican Beach, Cavite City during the Battle of Binakayan-Dalahican [Nov. 9-11]. Gloria had been tasked by Emilio Aguinaldo, the leader of the council defending Binakayan, with delaying the Spanish advance by dismantling the wooden bridge across Imus River in Mabolo, Bacoor, which connects the town of Bacoor to Cavite Viejo. In the ensuing battle, she was hit right in her midsection by a cannonball fired from a Spanish navy boat off Dalahican beach, killing her. The Spanish were forced to retreat and reinforcements arrived soon afterwards and they were decisively defeated the following day, thereby preventing most of Cavite province from being recaptured by the Spaniards and allowing Filipino revolutionaries to liberate nearby provinces from Spanish control. Popular tradition has it that she was posthumously promoted to Generala (or Henerala).

[1864 - Adelmo Smorti (d. 1921) [expand]

1880 - Alexander Alexandrovich Blok (Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Бло́к; d. 1921), Russian Symbolist poet and important figure in the so-called Silver Age of Russian Poetry, born. Early supporter of Georgy Chulkov's Mystical Anarchism, he welcomed the October Revolution as the final resolution of these apocalyptic yearnings. However, he later became disillusioned with the Russian Revolution and tried repeated to leave, only being granted permission 3 days after his death.

1888 - Nikolay Nikolayevich Punin (Russian: Никола́й Никола́евич Пу́нин; d. 1953), Russian art scholar and writer, born. Lifelong friend and a later partner of poet Anna Akhmatova, he was also associated with the 'Anarkhiia' and Futurist circles but later became the People's Commissar of the Russian Museum and the Hermitage Museum and head of the Petrograd Committee for Education (Narkompros). In a civil union with poet Anna Akhmatova during the 1920s and 1930s, who was influential in getting Punin released following his first arrest in the '30s. In 1949 Punin was arrested on accusations of "anti-Soviet" activity and sent to the gulags, where he died in 1953, just months after Stalin's own death.

[1889 - Antonio Rosado López (d. 1978) [expand]

1895 - Maria Girolimetti aka 'Sdazarina' (d. 1981), Italian maid/houseworker, peddler and anarchist, born. Three of her four children (Carlo, Mario and Ferrucio) were also militant anarchists.

1895 - Louisa Sarah Bevington (b. 1845), English poet, journalist, essayist, Darwinist and anarchist communist, dies. [see: May 14]

[F] 1900 - Catastrophe des Mines d'Aniche: An illegal store of 258kg of dynamite 500m below ground at the Fosse Fénelon pit owned by the Compagnie des mines d'Aniche in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais mining region detonates, killing 21 workers and seriously injuring 11 others. At the trial, the mine company directors and engineers, were fined 200-400 francs each. NB: see Jean Graves' comments.

[D] 1905 - [O.S. Nov. 15] Sevastopol Uprising [Севастопольское Восстание]: At 09:00 the red flag is raised on all 12 ships (with around 2,000 men) in Schmidt's rebel fleet. The rebel ships were presented with an ultimatum to surrender, which they ignored. Heavily outnumbered and outgunned, the naval battle began at 15:00. By 16:45, it was over and the rebel fleet had been defeated and those remaining alive, including Schmidt, were arrested.
Sebastapol's revolutionary forces had numbered around 8,200 and they were faced with 10,000 on the government side, so it was inevitable that the insurgents would be defeated. So, the following day, the government forces supported by artillery took the rebellion barracks, crushing the rebellion.
Pyotr Schmidt and other leaders of the uprising were sentenced to death. He was executed on March 19, 1906 alongside the leaders of the Ochakov mutiny, S. P. Chastnik (С. П. Частник), N. G. Antonenko (Н. Г. Антоненко) and A. I. Gladkov (А. И. Гладков). Of the 6000 insurgents arrested following the defeat, only 37 sailors were sentenced to hard labour, a surprisingly low number, all things considered.

1908 - The success of James Larkin in revivifying the moribund Irish branches of the Liverpool-based National Union of Dock Labourers, his opening up of new ones and use of the union's funds to support an unofficial strike of dock workers in Cork that year, had brought him into conflict with the union executive and, in particular, its general secretary, James Sexton. On November 28, 1908, Sexton won executive authority to suspend Larkin at any time, implementing this by circular to all branches on December 7. This set in process the founding of the setting up of the Irish Transport and General Workers Union, as well as signalling the beginning of the end of the NUDL. [see: Dec. 28]

1908 - Claude Levi-Strauss (d. 2009), French social anthropologist, ethnologist and leading exponent of structuralism, born.

1911 - Plan de Ayala: In Ayoxuxtla, Puebla, Mexican revolutionary leader Emiliano Zapata, issues his political proclamation, the 'Plan de Ayala'. In it he accuses the government of President Francisco I. Madero of betraying the peasant cause.

[E] 1912 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: Suffragettes carry out simultaneous attacks on post boxes across the entire country.

1917 - Mikelis Avlichos (Μικέλης Άβλιχος; b. 1844) Greek scholar, humorist and satirical poet, atheist, anarchist and radical, dies. [see: Mar. 18]

1919 - Criminal Syndicalism: Charlotte Anita Whitney is arrested and charged with "criminal syndicalism" in violation of the California Criminal Syndicalism Act following a speech at the Hotel Oakland to the Oakland Civic Club on behalf of the Communist Labor Party of America. A pre-trial hearing was held in the case on January 6, 1920, less than a week after the 'Palmer Raids', the US Department of Justice's mass crackdown on alien radicals, and the case went to trial in Oakland on January 27, in the Alameda County Superior Court. Anita Whitney was charged with five counts of having violated the state's Criminal Syndicalism law by her membership in the Communist Labor Party. Since Whitney freely admitted her status as a charter member of the CLP, the burden of the prosecution was in attempting to demonstrate the association of the organisation with the syndicalist IWW and the Communist International, organisations held to be illegal under California law. Both Whitney's defence attorney, Thomas H. O'Connor, and a female jury member were taken ill and died of the Spanish flu during the trial. Whitney was found guilty on Feb. 20 on the first count, of having organised and joined an organisation formed for the purpose of advocating criminal syndicalism, but failed to convict her on the other four. Four days later, with the jury still deadlocked over the other four charges, they were dismissed and Whitney was sentenced to an indeterminate sentence of from 1 to 14 years in prison at San Quentin Penitentiary.
After 11 days imprisonment, Whitney was permitted to post $10,000 bail pending appeal but only after three physicians had given testimony that her continued incarceration would present a danger to her health. After various unsuccessful appeals, the case finally made its way to the US Supreme Court on July 13, 1922, but it would be more than three years before the case was actually heard. On May 16, 1927, Whitney's conviction was unanimously upheld by the Supreme Court in Whitney v. California, 274 U.S. 357 (1927). A little over a month later on June 20, 1927, California Governor C. C. Young granted Whitney an unconditional pardon.

1921 - Marie Laffranque (d. 2006), French linguist, philological scholar, anti-militarist and libertarian, who was an expert on the life and works of Federico García Lorca, born.

1930 - Buñuel and Dali's second film 'L'Age d'Or' premières at Studio 28 in Paris. [NB: There is much confusion about the sequence of events surrounding this film and the listings we have used are the best 'guesses' based on all the various versions extant.]

1931 - Tampa Cigar Makers' Strike: Following the previous day's walk-out and call for a seventy-two-hour, 10,000 cigar workers begin their three-day strike, both to demand the return of the lectors and the release of the thirteen prisons sentenced after the November 7 incident at the city's Labor Hall. The strike turned into a two-week lock-out, during which time there were some rioting, many arrests, and a raid on the union headquarters, police confiscating its files, membership books, and two cigar boxes containing $750 which had been collected for the defence of the prisoners. [see: Nov. 27]

[1940 - Miguel Abós Serena (b. 1889) [see: Sep. 29]

1942 - Emmett Grogan (d. 1978), co-founder, with Peter Coyote and Peter Berg, of the Haight-Ashbury anarchist improv group the Diggers, born. 'Ringolevio: A Life Played for Keeps' (1972) is his account of his time in the San Francisco counter culture and with the Diggers, and it is especially critical of such counterculture luminaries Timothy Leary, Jerry Rubin and, especially, Abbie Hoffman.
"So many people showed up at the Avenue B loft that night that the Anarchists' Ball had to be relocated across the street to Tompkin's Square Park with everyone telling everyone else they had been invited by "Emmett Grogan" whom nobody could find because he wasn't there. He went to the movies to see 'The Thief', a modern quasi-silent film starring Ray Milland, which has only a bit of dialogue and is seldom revived in theaters since it was made over twenty years ago. The estimated crowd of three to four thousand at the Anarchists' Ball had the cops freaked and thinking that there was about to be a riot or that some sort of gang war was going to happen. The Anarchists were delighted that their Anarchists' Ball had really turned into something chaotic and a true expression of their love for Kropotkin, Proudhon, and nihilist Dadaism, and they all agreed that Emmett Grogan was an anarchist extraordinaire. Since so many people who didn't know what he looked like were looking for him, one of the head Anarchists, Paulsky, assumed the name "Grogan" and went around through the gathering, passing as Emmett and shaking hands and making cracks about how the cops, who encircled the streets bordering the park with lines of bluecoated reinforcements from neighbouring precincts, were all scared shitless by the mob." - from 'Ringolevio: A Life Played for Keeps' (1972).

1943 - Mass demonstration by 35,000 workers in war industries marches in the pouring rain to Trafalgar Square in condemnation of Herbert Morrison's decision to release Oswald Mosley from internment.

1956 - Sanshiro Ishikawa (石川三四郎; d. 1956), Japanese anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist theorist, historian, translator and novelist, dies. [see: May 23]

1970 - 300 National Front suuporters march through Wolverhampton. They are 'opposed' by a largely ineffectual counter-demonstration of 200 anti-fascists. [PR]

[C] 1971 - Fourteen members of the anti-fascist 62 Group break up a meeting of the secretive Northern League organisation at the Royal Pavilion Hotel, Brighton. Several fascists, including former German SS men and National Front members, were ambushed in the restaurant and hospitalised. 62 Group members let off smoke bombs to cover their escape. [PR]

1972 - Claudia López Benaiges (d. 1998), Chilean anarchist militant and dance student at the Universidad Academia de Humanismo Cristiano in Santiago, who was notoriously shot dead by Carabineros during protests on the 25th anniversary of the Pinochet coup, born. She became a symbol for the young of the Chilean anarchist movement,for the student and youth movements and social organisations in Chile, and proof that the Chilean regime remained very much under the control of those who ran the dictatorship.

1975 - Golpe de 25 de Novembro: Arrest warrants are issued against the officers Clemente Duran, Varela Gomes and several leaders of the radical left movements.
The government resumes activities and the Council of Ministers promises the right of owners to recoup expropriated land. It also announces the beginning of an inquiry into the events of November 25 led by Marques Júnior.
] de Novembro]

[C] 1977 - Benedetto Petrone, an 18-year-old Italian communist and trade unionist, stabbed to death in an organised ambush by fascists of the MSI in Bari.

1993 - La Société Octave Mirbeau is founded to contribute to the knowledge of the life, the battles and the works of the great French novelist, journalist and anarchist.

2000 - Carol Bolt (b. 1941), Canadian playwright, author of the Emma Goldmann play 'Red Emma, Queen of the Anarchists' (1974), dies. [see: Aug. 25]

[A] 2010 - WikiLeaks begins releasing some 12,000 US diplomatic cables from the 251,287 it has got its hands on.

2014 - A British squadie, 20-year-old Ryan McGee, who wrote of murdering immigrants, praised Adolf Hitler, supported the EDL, KKK and BNP, and who was caught with a viable home-made nail bomb - made from a pickle jar packed with 181 pieces of shrapnel [metal screws and glass fragments] - as well as an arsenal of guns and knives, is given a 2 year prison sentence. Despite the weapons cache and having claimed: "I vow to drag every last immigrant into the fires of hell with me", the prosecution accepted that he was not a terrorist but "an immature teenager". The CPS said it had decided not to prosecute McGee as a terrorist because "it was never McGee’s intention to use the device for any terrorist or violent purpose, and that he had no firm intention to activate the device. That’s why he was prosecuted under the Explosive Substance Act."
The previous week [Nov. 26], 2 brothers, Mohommod Nawaz, 30, and Hamza Nawaz, 24, both from Stratford, east London, had been sentenced to four-and-a-half years and three years respectively for terrorism offences that again posed "no risk to public safety". They had been in Syria for three weeks and were not part of the Islamic State (IS) group. Their crime was to bring back five trophy bullets and pictures of places they had visited. A week after the McGee sentencing [Dec. 5], 2 young Muslims, Mohammed Ahmed and Yusuf Sarwar, both 22, who had travelled to Syria to fight the Assad regime but had returned due to their disagreement with rebel infighting, were both sentenced to 12 years and eight months each, this despite Yusuf having largely been an ambulance driver in Syria, picking up dead bodies.
As Imran Khan, solicitor for Mohommod Nawaz said after the McGee trial: "It seems that if you are a Muslim, justice is not blind." But we all knew that anyway.
1847 - At a banquet in Paris commemorating the Polish insurrection of 1830, Mikhail Bakunin delivers a speech denouncing the Russian government and is subsequently expelled from France.

1851 - Andrea Costa (d. 1910), Italian anarchist participant in the national conference under the direction of Bakunin, before giving up on anarchism and becoming a socialist deputy in the Italian parliament, born.

1865 - Teresa Mañé i Miravet aka Soledad Gustavo (d. 1939), Catalan anarchist militant, freethinker, educator, translator, journalist, born. One of the first lay teachers in Spain, she and her future partner Joan Montseny i Carret aka Federico Urales founded a school in Reus but it was forced to close following Montseny's arrest during the June 1896 anti-anarchist repression [he spent a year in prison and was expelled from Spain, living in London]. Following Joan's clandestine return in 1898 (using the pseudonym Federico Urales), the pair started the celebrated 'La Revista Blanca'. Teresa also contributed to Virginia Bolten's Argentine based anarcha-feminist publication 'La Voz de la Mujer', with its famous motto "Ni dios, ni patrón, ni marido" (No god, no boss, no husband), under her pseudonym Soledad Gustavo. On February 12, 1905, she gave birth to a daughter, Federica, who would become famed as an anarchist poet, novelist, essayist, children's writer, promoter of anarcha-feminism and anarcho-naturism, and Minister of Health in the Republican government.

1886 - Nadezhda Andreeva Udaltsova (Наде́жда Андре́евна Удальцо́ва; d. 1961), Russian Cubo-Futurist and Suprematist artist and painter associated with the anarchist movement during the 1917 Revolution, born. Member of the pre-Revolution Soyuz Molodyozhi (Union of the Youth) and later of Malevich's Supremus. Associated with the 'Tvorchestvo' (Creativity or Creative Work) section specialising in art and literature in 'Anarkhiia'. Partner of Latvian artist Aleksandr Drevin.

1893 - Arrest of the French anarchist Edmond Aubin Marpaux, a member of the Ligue des Antipatriotes, charged with the killing of a flic. He receives life in prison despite his denials of the crime, and is killed (October 23) following a prison revolt on Devil's Island on October 21-22 1894.

1896 - Raoul Chenard (d. 1960), French militant anarcho-syndicalist, born.

[E] 1897 - Germaine Luise Krull (d. 1985), German-Dutch photographer, political activist, and hotel owner, born. In 1918, she joined the Independent Socialist Party of Bavaria, switching a year later to the Communist Party of Germany, and was later arrested and imprisoned for assisting a Bolshevik emissary's attempted escape to Austria. During the Bavarian Soviet Republic she came to know many leading communist revolutionaries, photographing the likes of Kurt Eisner. She was expelled from Bavaria in 1920 for her Communist activities, and traveled to Russia with lover Samuel Levit. After Levit abandoned her in 1921, Krull was arrested and imprisoned on two separate occasions by the secret police, accused of being an "anti-Bolshevik" enemy of Leninism, and, at one point, subjected to a fake execution that left her traumatised for the rest of her life. She was expelled from Russia in 1922, by which point she was so ill that her hair had fallen out. [expand]

1899 - Hanns-Erich Kaminsk (d. 1963), German journalist and writer who also wrote in French, anti-Fascist, Social Democrat and then an anarchist, born. Journalist career with the German left-wing press, particularly with Carl von Ossietzky and Kurt Tucholsky's newspaper, 'Die Weltbühne' and wrote 'Fascismus in Italien' (1925). In February 1933, Kaminski left Germany for Paris after the Nazi victory. Disappointed by the bankruptcy of the Social Democrats in Germany, he moved closer to anarchist circles and especially the AIT, taking part in the struggle in Spain. He wrote about the Revolution in 'Ceux de Barcelone' (1937), a Bakunin biograph 'Bakounine , la Vie d'un Révolutionnaire' (1938) and 'El Problema como Nazismo Sexual, Ensayo of Psicopatologia' (1940)

1900 - Sabatino 'Nello' Rosselli (d. 1937), Italian historian, journalist and anti-fascist, who participated in the founding of the first clandestine Italian anti-fascist newspaper 'Non Mollare' (Not Giving Up) in 1925, born.

1901 - Francesc Pi i Margall (b. 1824), Catalan liberal statesman, historian, journalist, art critic, philosopher, economist and romanticist writer, who was influenced by Proudhon, dies. [see: Apr. 27]

1902 - Carlo Levi (d. 1975), Italian-Jewish painter, writer, activist, anti-fascist and doctor, born. He is best known for his book 'Cristo si è Fermato a Eboli' (Christ Stopped at Eboli; 1945), a memoir of his time spent in exile in Lucania, Italy, after being arrested in connection with activities in the Giustizia e Libertà anti-fascist movement, which he co-founded with Carlo and Nello Rosselli in 1929.

1905 - [O.S. Nov. 16] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The Moscow branch of the Peasants Union is arrested by the government.

1905 - [O.S. Nov. 16] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The leading liberal Sergei Trubetskoy (Серге́й Трубецко́й) warns that a successful armed revolt will lead to civil war and mass destruction; he urges liberals to use pressure to extract reform from the government.

[F] 1905 - [O.S. Nov. 16] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Following the sacking of three organisers in the Union of Postal-Telegraph Employees in Moscow, telephone and telegraph workers go out on strike. Despite presenting employers with demands for improved wages and working conditions, the main thrust of the strike is political as the union also demand the release of members of the Peasants Union arrested in St Petersburg, the removal of the minister of internal affairs and the national director of the postal-telegraph service, and the right to form a union. The postal strike quickly spread but the resulting disruption of the communications network also makes it impossible for revolutionary groups to coordinate armed revolts and, as the postal strike itself began to fail, Nicholas II authorises local officials on December 12 [O.S. Nov. 29] to impose martial law as part of the government's tough response to the industrial action. [Charters Wynn - 'Workers, Strikes, and Pogroms: The Donbass-Dnepr Bend in Late Imperial Russia, 1870-1905', 2014]

1905 - [O.S. Nov. 16] Chita Republic [Читинская республика] / Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Serious unrest among soldiers and workers in Chita in south-eastern Siberia in the Chita main railway workshops held a meeting soldiers and Cossacks. Active promotion of the regional committee of the RSDLP in fact led the rebels five thousand garrison of Chita.the area is soon fully controlled by the RSDRP

1916 - Volga Marcos Calvo (d. 2004), Castillian writer, poet, playwright and anarchist, born.

1922 - Renzo Novatore, pseudonym of Abele Ricieri Ferrari (b. 1890), Italian individualist anarchist, illegalist and anti-fascist poet, philosopher and militant, dies. [see: May 12]

[B] 1926 - Jean Senac (d. 1973), gay Algerian poet, Christian infidel, socialist, libertarian and friend of Albert Camus, who was known as the "poet who signed with a sun", born.

[C] 1941 - Zoya Anatolyevna Kosmodemyanskaya (Зо́я Анато́льевна Космодемья́нская; b. 1923), Russian student and partisan fighter, born. She was captured whilst setting fire to the village of Petrischevo, where a German cavalry regiment was stationed, and brutally tortured through the night (including having her right breast cut off) but she refused to give up any information. The following day she was marched through town with a board around her neck bearing the inscription 'Arsonist of buildings' and hanged. Her fianl words were purported to be "Comrades! Why are you so gloomy? I am not afraid to die! I am happy to die for my people!" and to the Germans, "You'll hang me now, but I am not alone. There are two hundred million of us. You can't hang us all."

1946 - The Central All-Indonesian Workers Organisation (Sentral Organisasi Buruh Seluruh Indonesia) is founded in Jakarta. Closely linked to the Communist Party of Indonesia, it was the first trade union federation to emerge after the Second World War, and was the largest trade union federation in the country until suppressed along with the PKI after the 1965 coup that installed the New Order regime.

1965 - Edmundo Bianchi (b. 1880), Uruguayan playwright, screenwriter, poet, writer, translator, composer of tango lyrics and diplomat, dies. [see: Nov. 22]

1974 - Ulrike Meinhof is sentenced to eight years imprisonment for her part in the 1970 freeing of Andreas Baader. Horst Mahler is given an additional 4 years (for a total of 12 years), and Hans- Jürgen Bäcker is found not guilty.

1975 - Golpe de 25 de Novembro: President Costa Gomes invests the new Chief of Staff of the Navy, Admiral Souto Cruz, saying at the time: " Several times I have stated that I can not allow ideological conflicts between Portuguese to be resolved by violent military confrontations."
The non-state-owned press is allowed to resume publication.
Francisco de Sá Carneiro, leader of the Partido Popular Democrático, accuses the Partido Comunista Português of being responsible for the military insubordination verified. The Partido Socialista is of the same opinion.
[ de Novembro]

1980 - Dorothy Day (d. 1897), American journalist, social activist, pacifist anarchist and Catholic Worker founder, dies. [see: Nov. 8]

1997 - Manuel Chiapuso Hualde (b. 1912), Basque anarcho-syndicalist writer, teacher, historian and activist, dies. [see: Apr. 14]

1999 - Seattle WTO protests begin.

2007 - 15-year-old Liam McManus is found hanged in his cell in Lancaster Farms Young Offenders’ Institution. Sentenced to one month and 14 days for breaching a supervision order, the prison had not identified him as being at risk of self-harm.

[A/D] 2010 - Prisoners in 26 of the 33 prisons in Greece commence a co-ordinated collective refusal to eat prison food in protest against the appalling conditions in Greek prisons-hellholes.
[D] 1830 - Agricultural labourers riot in Shaftesbury, Dorset, to secure the release of five imprisoned comrades. Simultaneously, in Banwell, Somerset, paupers riot at the poorhouse, then follow up with an attack on the lock-up and release its prisoners.

[B] 1867 - Henri Gabriel Ibels (d. 1936), French illustrator, poster artist, printmaker, painter, author and anarchist, born. Founding member of Les Nabis alongside Gauguin, Utrillo, Félix Vallotton and Émile Bernard. From 1890, he worked for the newspaper 'Le Père Peinard', the 'Revue Anarchiste' with his brother André, a special edition of 'La Plume' dedicated to anarchism, along with 'Mirliton', 'L'Escarmouche', 'la Revue Blanche', 'Le Cri de Paris', 'le Courrier Français', 'l'Echo de Paris', and the Dreyfus defending 'Le Sifflet'.

1870 - Henri Roorda van Eysinga (d. 1925), Swiss libertarian educator, writer, journalist, polemicist and a great humourist, born. Dutch by birth, Roorda grew up and remained in the Suisse romande, where his early exposure to the revolutionary intellectual idealism of the post-Commune exiles such as Kropotkin and (notably) Elisée Reclus, which had lasting consequences. A professor of mathematics, he was a passionate anti-authoritarian teacher and defender of libertarian pedagogy. An important influence on libertarian education theory, he wrote many articles for Francisco Ferrer's 'Bulletin of the Modern School' and was the Swiss representative of the International League for the Rational Education of Children. He commited suicide leaving behind a manuscript he wanted published under the title 'Le Pessimisme Joyeux' (Cheerful Pessimism), but it was changed to 'Mon Suicide' (1925).

1870 - Henri Beylie (psuedonym of Felix Beaulieu; d. 19??), French anarchist naturalist and anti-war activist, born.

1871 - Gaston Crémieux (Isaac Louis Gaston; b. 1836), French radical Républican, Proudhonian socialist and member of the Commune de Marseille, is executed at 07:00 by firing squad following his June 28 court-martial. [see: Jun. 22]

1889 - Ezequiel Endériz Olaverri (d. 1951), Spanish libertarian journalist, poet, novelist, playwright, libreticist, etc., born. Wrote and broadcast under various pseudonyms including Goro Farolas and Tirso de Tudela.

1900 - Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (b. 1854), Irish writer, poet and anarchist, dies. [see: Oct. 16]

1914 - Anselmo Lorenzo Asperillo (b. 1841), 'The Grandfather of Spanish anarchism', printer and prolific author of early anarchist theory in Spain, dies. [see: Apr. 21]

1915 - Fellow Worker Elizabeth Gurley Flynn is found "not guilty" of inciting to riot in Paterson, New Jersey on February 24, 1913. [see: Feb. 24]

1917 - Louise Olivereau, a Seattle anarchist working as the stenographer for the Seattle Lumber Workers branch of the IWW, is found guilty on six counts of "attempting to cause insubordination, disloyalty, mutiny and refusal of duty in the military" and three for unlawfully using the mails to distribute treasonable literature in Seattle, Washington. Earlier in August Olivereau had sent out a circular to drafted men in Seattle that urged them "obedience to your own conscience...we do not ask you to resist the draft IF YOU BELIEVE THE DRAFT IS RIGHT." [see: Dec. 3]

1920 - The CNT's labour lawyer Francesc Layret is assassinated and 36 more union leaders imprisoned (including Narcís Vidal, Miguel Abós Serena and Salvador Caracersa). Part of the government's bloody campaign to destroy the CNT. [see Nov 27]

1920 - Revolución Mexicana: Alvaro Obregon elected president.

1923 - Rebelión Delahuertista [De la Huerta Uprising] / Revolución Mexicana: Adolfo de la Huerta accuses Alvaro Obregon of corruption and calls for overthrow of Obregon. A large part of the federal army follows Huerta.

1928 - Ruhreisenstreit [Ruhr Iron Dispute]: Following talks with both sides in the ongoing pay dispute, the Reichsregierung (government) announces a new conciliation procedure to be conducted by the Social Democratic Minister of the Interior, Carl Severing. By November 2, the employers and unions, reluctantly on the part of the Deutsche Metallarbeiter-Verband, had agreed to abide by the process and the following morning the lock-out is over and the workers return to work. [see: Nov. 1]

[F] 1930 - Mary Harris 'Mother' Jones (b. 1837), Irish-American schoolteacher, dressmaker, founder member of the Industrial Workers of the World and a militant leader of miners and other union workers, dies at the age of 93. Born in the city of Cork in Ireland, her Roman Catholic tenant farming family emigrated to North America during the Gorta Mór or Great Famine, settling in Toronto, Canada. At the age of 23, Mary Harris moved to the United States to take up a post as a teacher in a convent in Monroe, Michigan. Having tired of teaching, she moved to Chicago to try her hand at dressmaking but eventually returned to teaching, this time in Memphis, Tennessee. There she met and in 1861 married George E. Jones, an iron worker and organiser for the National Union of Iron Moulders. Mary once again quit her teaching job and opened a dress shop. However, in 1867 disaster struck George and their four young children died during a yellow fever epidemic that swept through Memphis, killing off the workers whilst, in Mary's words, "the rich and the well-to-do fled the city". Mary returned to Chicago and began another dressmaking business, and it was whilst she sewed clothes for some of the wealthy residents of the city that she received a further education into the class nature of society: "I would look out of the plate glass windows and see the poor, shivering wretches, jobless and hungry, walking alongside the frozen lake front... The tropical contrast of their condition with that of the tropical comfort of the people for whom I sewed was painful to me. My employers seemed neither to notice nor to care."
In October 1871, a second disaster struck Mary, loosing her home, shop, and possessions in the Great Chicago Fire. One evening soon after she came across an old workmate of her husband who was stewarding a meeting of the Knights of Labor. He invited her in and at the end of the meeting she joined the union. The union would quickly become her new life, especially after she discovered a talent for public speaking. The union recognised this too and would regularly dispatch her off to strike hot spots to 'inspire the troops'. With her short (five foot tall) stature, her now-white hair, all black dress and confrontational style, she quickly became 'Mother' Jones, radical organiser. From the late 1870s through the early 1920s, Jones helped organise and otherwise participated in hundreds of strikes across the country, supporting workers in the rail, steel, copper, brewing, textile, and mining industries. Jones also organised amongst the unemployed, campaigned against child labour and supported many an imprisoned worker and fellow radical, whilst she herself faced arrest and ended up in jail or was run out of town on numerous occasions. She also featured as one of the founders of the Social Democratic Party in 1898 and of the Industrial Workers of the World in 1905. Despite her obvious feminism, Jones was opposed to female suffrage, fearing that focus on the vote would divert working class women from tackling the economic issues that they faced, viewing the suffrage movement as an upper class women’s distraction, claiming that: "the plutocrats have organised their women. They keep them busy with suffrage and prohibition and charity." One of the Jones’ other key contributions to the workers' movement in the US was in helping build workers’ commitment to unionism that bridged racial and ethnic divisions, frequently condemned white supremacists in the union movement.
In her 60s, she became an organiser for United Mine Workers in West Virginia and attracted public attention when on September 30, 1899, she organised the wives of striking miners in Arnot, Pennsylvania, to descend on the mine with brooms and mops and clanging pots and pans to frightened away the mules and their scab drivers. "I told the men to stay home with the children for a change and let the women attend to the scabs." The women returned daily to keep watch and the miners eventually won their strike. In 1902, she was called "the most dangerous woman in America" by a West Virginian district attorney, Reese Blizzard, at her trial for ignoring an injunction banning meetings by striking miners. "There sits the most dangerous woman in America", announced Blizzard. "She comes into a state where peace and prosperity reign ... crooks her finger [and] twenty thousand contented men lay down their tools and walk out." The following year, Jones organised children who were working in mills and mines to participate in the famed 'Children's Crusade', a march from Kensington, Philadelphia to Oyster Bay, New York, the hometown of President Theodore Roosevelt with banners demanding "We want to go to school and not the mines!" During the Paint Creek–Cabin Creek strike of 1912 in West Virginia where Jones was speaking and organising, the strike turned violent as gun battles broke out between the mine owners' hired goons and striking UMW members and martial law was twice declared. On the second occasion, Jones was arrested in February 1913 and faced a court-martial accused of the capital offence of conspiring to commit murder, among other charges. She refused to recognise the court and was sentenced to twenty years in the state penitentiary. Initially held under house arrest, she developed a serious case of pneumonia and her sentence was finally commuted after 85 days and weeks of popular and country-wide outrage. Released, she continued her activities supporting striking miners that August in Michigan's Copper Country. In her 90s, she returned to Chicago to work organising dressmakers.
In 1924, she made her last strike appearance in Chicago in support of striking dressmakers, hundreds of whom were arrested and black-listed during their ill-fated four month-long struggle. The following year, her account of a life in the labour movement, 'The Autobiography of Mother Jones', was published. On her self-proclaimed 100th birthday, May 1, 1930, she featured in a newsreel recording at the Maryland farm of friends where she had finally and reluctantly retired.
Mary Harris Jones died on November 30, 1930, in Silver Spring, Maryland aged 93. She is buried in the Union Miners Cemetery in Mount Olive, Illinois, alongside miners who died in the 1898 Battle of Virden.

1935 - Fernando Pessoa, born Fernando António Nogueira de Seabra Pessoa (b. 1888), Portuguese Modernist poet, writer, literary critic translator, publisher, philosopher and individualist, who dabbled in automatic writing and occultism, dies. [see: Jun. 13]

1935 - The first issue of the Catalan anarchist fortnightly 'Terra Lliure' (Free Land) is published in Barcelona.

1936 - Abbot 'Abbie' Hoffman (d. 1989), Yippie founder and author of every bookshop owner's favourite tome 'Steal This Book' (1971), born.

1938 - Pierre Quiroule (pseudonym of Joaquin Alejo Falconnet; b. 1867), French-born Argentinian militant anarchist, writer, playwright, journalist and novelist, dies. Born in Lyon, his family moved to Argentina when he was a child, possibly because of the post-Commune repression. There he joined a number of Kropotkin-inspired anarchist groups. With the arrival of Malatesta in Buenos Aires, where he organised guilds of shoemakers and bakers, many groups changed to a more pro-propaganda by deed line. This was reflected in the pages of 'El Perseguido' (The Hunted), on which Quirole worked between 1890 and 1897, and the French language 'La Liberté', which he co-founded in 1893 with Jules Alexandre Sadier and Émile Piette, and which he edited for a year. He also worked on 'La Revista Blanca', 'Sembrando Ideas: revista quincenal de divulgación sociológica' (Planting Ideas: biweekly journal of sociological outreach) and other libertarian and anarchist journals.
His anarchist ideals are reflected in the 3 utopian novels that he wrote: 'La Ruta de la Anarquía' (The Path of Anarchy; 1909), 'La Ciudad Anarquista Americana' (The American Anarchist City; 1914) and 'En la Soñada Tierra del Ideal' (In the Fabled Land of the Ideal; 1920); and, to an extent, the numerous plays, essays and works of philosophical and scientific, as well as environmentalism (of which he can be considered a precursor), stories and detective novels that he wrote later in life, after he had ceased to be an active militant.

[C] 1943 - Todor Angelov Dzekov (Тодор Ангелов Дзеков / Théodore Angheloff; d. 1943), Bulgarian anarcho-communist revolutionary and anti-fascist, who was active for a long time in Western Europe and headed a Brussels-based group of the Belgian Resistance against Nazi Germany, is executed by the Nazis. [see: Jan. 12]

1943 - Italian Minister of the Interior G. Buffarini Guidi issues Police Order No. 5 proclaiming that all Jews in Italy be put into concentration camps and their property seized.

1953 - Francis Picabia (Francis-Marie Martinez de Picabia; b. 1879), French painter, illustrator, designer, poet, writer, editor and "congenial anarchist", dies. [see: Jan. 22]

1967 - Raoul Vaneigem's 'Traité de Savoir-Vivre à l’Usage des Jeunes Générations' aka 'The Revolution of Everyday Life' is published in Paris.

1968 - Carlos Latuff, Brazilian freelance political cartoonist whose works deal with an array of themes, including anti-globalisation, anti-capitalism and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, born.

1983 - Anastasia Eduardovna Baburova (Анастасия Эдуардовна Бабурова; d. 2009), Russian journalist, anarchist and ecological activist, who was shot dead, together with Russian lawyer and human rights activist Stanislav Markelov, by a neo-Nazi militant outside press conference in Moscow, born. [see: Jan. 19]

1984 - U.K. Miners' Strike: On the A465 at the Rhymney Bridge roundabout in South Wales, two striking miners drop a concrete block from a footbridge onto David Wilkie's taxi he is driving David Williams, a strike-breaking miner from his home in Rhymney to the Merthyr Vale mine, killing Wilkie instantly. Wilkie, accompanied by two police cars and a motorcycle outrider, was driving the same route as he had done for the previous ten days. Dean Hancock and Russell Shankland were arrested and on May 16, 1985 were found guilty of murder by a majority verdict and sentenced to life imprisonment.

1994 - Guy Debord (b. 1931), member of the Situationist International, film-maker and writer, best know for his book 'The Society of the Spectacle', dies, a suicide. His ashes are scattered on the point of Ile de la Cite, Paris. [see: Dec. 28]

1997 - Kathy Acker (Karen Lehmann; b. 1947), American novelist, punk poet, playwright, essayist, postmodernist and feminist writer, dies. [see: Apr. 18]

1998 - Acácio Tomás de Aquino (b. 1899), militant Portuguese anarcho-syndicalist who was active in the Confederação Geral do Trabalho and the Organização Libertária Prisional, dies. [see: Nov 9 & Dec 11]

[A] 1999 - WTO in Seattle Day 1: The second Battle of Seattle shuts down the World Trade Organisation ministerial meeting. Solidarity actions happen across the world.

2003 - Renée Losq (Renée Baudic; b. 1910), French communist and anti-fascist member of the Résistance, dies. [see: Jul. 4]
Daily pick: 2013 [A] 2014 [B] 2015 [C] 2016 [D] 2017 [E] 2018 [F]
Weekly highlight: 2013 [AA] 2014 [BB] 2015 [CC] 2016 [DD] 2017 [EE] 2018 [FF]
Monthly features: 2013 [AAA] 2014 [BBB] 2015 [CCC] 2016 [DDD] 2017 [EEE] 2018 [FFF]
PR: 'Physical Resistance. A Hundred Years of Anti-Fascism' - Dave Hann (2012)