Labour Day [New Zealand]: Celebrated on the fourth Monday of October.
The origins of Labour Day go back to the eight-hour day movement in that country that began in 1840 when carpenter Samuel Parnell (Feb. 19, 1810 - Dec. 17, 1890) refused to work a longer day. “We have twenty-four hours per day given us; eight of these should be for work, eight for sleeping, and the remaining eight for recreation and in which men do what little things they want for themselves”, Parnell said. Fifty years later, the anniversary of the eight-hour day was commemorated with a parade and then celebrated annually thereafter.
1838 - Trail of Tears: 4000 Cherokees die when 17,000 of them are forced west by US President Jackson's Indian Removal bill, the culmination of his efforts to exterminate them. Jackson was also a notorious land speculator, slave trader and bribe-artist.

1842 - Charles Cros (d. 1888), French poet, humorous writer and inventor in the fields of photography, the telegraph and the Paléophone (a forerunner of the gramophone), born.

1849 - The first issue of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon's newspaper 'La Voix du Peuple', run from the prison of Sainte-Pelagie, where he is serving a sentence of three years imprisonment (since June 7, 1849) for articles in which he attacked the Prince-President Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte. It replaces his previous paper, 'Le Peuple'.

[A] 1851 - Syracuse crowd busts up a police station to free a recaptured escaped slave. William 'Jerry' Henry, a runaway slave and craftsman in Syracuse, NY is arrested by a US Marshall and scheduled to be returned to slavery. Ten thousand citizens of the city storm the sheriff's office, free Henry and aid his escape to Canada via the underground railroad.

1867 - Fernand Pelloutier (d. 1901), French anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist activist, journalist, poet and founder of the Federation of Bourses du Travail, born. A revolutionary syndicalist, he rejected propaganda by deed in favour of genuinely revolutionary unions participating in direct action, sabotage and the general strike, all independent of political parties.
Pelloutier's poems, published under the pseudonym Jean Reflec, were frequently to be found amongst the pages of 'L’Ouvrier des Deux Mondes' and were reprinted in book form with the melancholic title 'De la Colere, de l’Amour, de la Haine' (Anger, Love, Hatred; 1898).
"Partisans de la suppression de la propriété individuelle, nous sommes en outre ce que ne sont pas les politiciens, des révoltés de toutes les heures, hommes vraiment sans dieu, sans maître et sans patrie, les ennemis irréconciliables de tout despotisme, moral ou collectif, c'est-à-dire des lois et des dictatures (y compris celle du prolétariat), et les amants passionnés de la culture de soi-même" (Supporters of the elimination of private property, we are moreover not what the politicians are, rebels of every hour, really godless men, homeless and without a master, the irreconcilable enemy of all despotism, moral or collective, that is to say the laws and dictatorships (including the proletariat), and passionate lovers of the culture itself.)

1879 - Hasegawa Shigure (長谷川 時雨) (Hasegawa Yasu [長谷川 ヤス]; d. 1941), Japanese writer, novelist, feminist, and the founder and editor of a literary journal 'Nyonin Geijutsu' (Women's Arts), she was Japan's first woman playwright and acted as a mentor to those who came after her, born.

1907 - Maurice Bardèche (d. 1998), French essayist, literary and art critic, journalist, neo-fascist and Holocaust denier, born. His brother-in-law and regular collaborator Robert Brasillach, was executed after the liberation for collaborationism.

1909 - The first notice of an Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) free speech fight appears in the 'Industrial Worker', appealing to all members to join the struggle in Missoula, Montana.

1910 - 'Los Angeles Times' Bombing: At 01:07, 16 sticks of dynamite in a suitcase bomb explodes prematurely in an alley outside the three-story 'Los Angeles Times' building located at First Street and Broadway in Los Angeles. The bomb was supposed to go off at 4:00 a.m. when the building would have been empty, but the cheap alarm clock timing mechanism was faulty. Not large enough to destroy the whole building, the bomb collapsed the side of the building and ignited barrels of flammable printers’ ink, as well as a natural gas main. The ensuing fire destroyed the 'Times' building and a second structure next door that housed the paper's printing press. The bombers were unaware that a number of 'Times' employees were working overnight to produce an extra edition the next afternoon which would carry the results of the Vanderbilt Cup car race, and of the 115 people still in the building, 21 died (most of them in the fire). The 'Times' called the bombing the "crime of the century", and publisher Otis excoriated unions as "anarchic scum", "cowardly murderers", "leeches upon honest labor", and "midnight assassins".
Forewarned to some extent no doubt by the National Erectors' Association own paid spy on the Iron Workers' executive board, Herbert S. Hockin, Harrison Otis and his son-in-law Harry Chandler, the paper’s general manager, activated a secret, second newsroom and printed a one-page edition of the paper whose headline screamed "Unionist Bombs Wreck the Times".
Later that morning, unexploded bombs were discovered at the homes of Harrison Otis and of Felix J. Zeehandelaar, secretary of the M&M; the Hotel Alexandria; and the Los Angeles County Hall of Records (then under construction by the non-union Llewellyn Iron Works).
libcom.org.libcom.org/files/Foner PS - A Martyr to His Cause - The Scenario of the First Labor Film in the United States_0.pdf]

1910 - Antonio Moreno Ronchas (d. 2006), Spanish railway worker, militant anarcho-syndicalist and anti-Franco combatant, born. The third of 13 children, his family emigrated to Paris when he was 4 years old. His father, Antonio Moreno Fernández, libertarian and anti-militarist, joined the Confederació General del Treball Sindicalista Revolucionària (CGTSR). In 1925 he met both Buenaventura Durruti and Nestor Makhno during their Parisian exile. In 1930 he returned to Valladolid, intending to perform military service, but his father dissuaded him. Upon his return, he worked in the Basque Country and Castellón but his rebellious nature lost him many jobs.
At the outbreak of civil war in 1936, while his brothers Isidore and Lazarus fought in the Durruti Column and a communist unit, respectively, Antonio Moreno volunteered in the milicias confederales de Guipúzcoa (Guipúzcoa confederal militias), fighting firstly in San Sebastián in Guipúzcoa confederal militias, first in San Sebastián and later in Oyarzun, slowing the fascist advance. After the fall of Irun, he managed to cross into France via Hendaye and then onto Barcelona, where he enlisted in Column Rojo y Negra. After its militarisation, to which he was opposed, he remained a member of the 3rd Battalion of the 127th Brigada Mixta, and later became a driver with the 4th Battalion of the 4th Compañía de Transportes (Transport Company).
With the loss of the war, he made it to France where his knowledge of the language, the country and its geography helped him and a number of other refugees to escape the concentration camps as soon as the first opportunity arose. He remained in the Barcarès and Bram area until the Nazi invasion, when he enlisted in the 3rd Battalion of Foreig Legion and was sent to the Middle East (Syria and Lebanon). After the armistice, he was demobilised and returned to France, where he went to work in the construction of the submarine base in Brest, helping many Spanish forced labour prisoners to escape. This led to his arrest by the Gestapo, but a sympathetic judge freed him.
After the liberation of France, Antonio was mainly devoted to propaganda in the local federation of the MLE/CNT in exile in Saint-Denis, Paris. In the 1960s, he participated in the French CNT and was very active during the events of May 1968. Speaking French with the accent of Parisian street urchin, he actively participated in the formation of the Organisation Révolutionnaire Anarchiste (ORA) and took part in numerous editorial meetings of the 'Front Libertaire'. After Franco's death, he tried in vain to open a local CNT in Medina de Rioseco where his father Antonio Moreno Fernandez was the main leader of the anarcho-syndicalism before being assassinated by Franco in July 1936. He died on August 24, 2006 in a retirement home in Morcenx, leaving all his property in his will to the Valladolid CNT to be sold to raise funds for it.

1910 - Émile Aubin delivers a speech in Lagny for which he is arrested for "antimilitarisme et outrages à Chef d'Etat", and sent to prison for 18 months. Just out of the military a few months (where he was serving punishment in a disciplinary battalion), Aubin was a member of the anti-militarist Groupe des Libérés des Bagnes Militaires which published the poster 'Galonnés assassins' (Braided assassins).

1910 - The Partido Liberal Mexicano changes its motto to "Tierra y Libertad". In an editorial in 'Regeneración', Ricardo Flores Magón writes: "The Land! shouted Bakunin, the Land! shouted Ferrer, the Land! shouts the Mexican Revolution."

[B] 1911 - Aguigui Mouna (aka André Dupont; d. 1999), French anarcho-prankster, agitator, pacifist propagandist, philosopher and anarchist individualist, born. Master of the slogan and aphorism, he repeatedly stood as a 'non-candidate' in the presidential elections. Bernard Baissat made a documentary, 'Mouna', about him in 1989 and he recorded the track 'Proclamation D'Aguigui Mouna' on the French punk band Gogol Premier Et La Horde's album 'Ennemi Public N°1' (1989). The subject of a biography 'Aguigui Mouna, Gueule ou Crève' (2004) by Cabu Cavanna and Anne Galois.

1915 - [N.S. Oct. 14] Market day in the city of Bogorodsk (Богородск), the location of the important Morozovskaya (Морозовских) textile factories, which employed more than 15 thousand workers, is witness to one of the many food riots that broke out across eastern Europe during WWI. Thirty women workers had come to the market to buy sugar and, finding that it had sold out, they were furious, accusing the merchants in dishonesty and speculation. The police quickly arrived and removed the women from the shop by force, however they returned to the city square and there continued to express their indignation and to pour accusations against traffickers. The number of protesters steadily increased, reaching several thousand, mostly women and young people, and not only workers but also peasants who come to the market from surrounding villages. Soon, the crowd moved toward the stalls and gave vent to his anger. Some threw stones at the windows of shops, someone breaking into them and throwing goods out into the streets whilst other snapped them up. Not wanting to use weapons against women and adolescents, the local police were helpless and could not stop them.
Over the following days the food riots spread, with their targets now not only groceries but also clothes shops and other suppliers of manufactured goods. On October 4, Cossacks who had arrived in the city, opened fire on the insurgents, killing two and injuring several others. [expand]

1917 - Ivan Aguéli (John Gustaf Agelii; b. 1869), Swedish anarchist, animal rights activist, painter and Sufi, is killed on a village railway crossing at L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, near Barcelona. [see: May 24]

1920 - Inés Ajuria de la Torre (d. 2007), Basque militant anarcho-syndicalist, born in Guernica where her mother and a brother were killed in the infamous fascist bombing. She enter the libertarian movement shortly after the crushing of the revolution, when she met Francisco Martinez de Lahidalga, a member of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT) y de la Federación Ibèrica de las Juventudess Libertarias (FIJL) and her future partner, moved to Guernica. Fed up with the persistent arrests and persecution, at the end of 1946 they fled to France on foot through the Pyrenees. They lived in Paris until 1951; in Chile, between 1951 and 1957; in Uruguay, between 1957 and 1964; and again in Paris. In 1975, shortly before Franco's death, they returned to the mainland, settling in Vitoria, where they played an important role in the reconstruction of the CNT between 1976 and 1977, as members of the initial group, with Macario Illera, Vicente Cuesta, Atanasio Gainzarain, Miguel Iniguez, Manuel Gutierrez, José María Izquierdo, among others. During the decade of the 80s, after the death of her partner, she participated in the Asociación Isaac Puente. Always affiliated to the CNT, Inés Ajuria de la Torre died on August 4, 2007 in Vitoria (Alava, Basque Country) and two days later she was buried in the city's El Salvador cemetery with her CNT membership card in the coffin and the red and black flag on top.

1925 - The first issue of the newspaper 'L'Éveil des Jeunes Libertaires', "Organe de la Fédération des Jeunesses Anarchistes", is published in Paris. The editors of the publications are Louis Louvet and Simone Larcher. A dispute breaks out between the Fédération des Jeunesses Anarchiste and the Union Anarchiste and the publication ceases after seven issues, to be replaced with 'L'Anarchie'.

[C] 1925 - Adolfo Kaminsky (Adolphe Kaminsky), Argentinian photographer and member of the French Résistance, who specialised in the forgery of identity documents, born. He later used his skill to assist Jewish emigration to the British Mandate for Palestine and to forge identity documents for the National Liberation Front and French draft dodgers during the Algerian War (1954-62).

1926 - Plácida Aranda Yus, Spanish anarchist who was a member of the FIJL in the 1950s and a member of the arts collective Iberia in Toulouse, which specialised in perfoming plays, born. Partner of the anarcho-syndicalist militant José Luis Sos Yagüe and the couple's apartment served refuge and arms depot for the Moviment Popular de Resistència – Comitè d'Ajuda a la Resistència Espanyola (MPR-CARE) and the Defensa Interior (DI). On September 11, 1963, she and José Luis were arrested and charged with having raised money in support of Jordi Conill Valls, then facing death for causing explosions outside three official buildings in the Catalan capital and in the Valle de los Caídos (Valley of the Fallen). In 1965 she helped organise the Congreso Intercontinental de Federaciones Locales of the CNT in exile held in Montpelier. On April 6, 1968, the French government opened expulsion proceedings against her and other anarchists including José Luis Sos, Josep Peirats and Makno Cuevas, but the case was eventually dropped.

1927 - The first issue of the fortnightly Italian language anarchist newspaper 'La Lotta Umnana' (The Human Struggle) is published in Paris by the Italian anarchist refugees Ugo Fedeli , Luigi Fabbri and Torquato Gobbi.

1927 - At the Rawson Hospital in Buenos Aires, anarchists expropriators Miguel Arcangel Roscigna and the brothers Andres Vazquez Paredes and Vicente Antonio Moretti, attack a payroll delivery. The police escort is mortally wounded before he can draw his weapon and the anarchists seize the briefcase containing 141,000 pesos.

[F] 1929 - Nepreryvka (непрерывка) [or nepreryvnaya rabochaya nedelya (непрерывная рабочая неделя), the continuous work week], the five-day week, officially begins in the Soviet Union, with all workers divided into five groups named by colours (yellow, pink, red, purple, green), and each group had its own day off (non-working) day in the week (the so-called 'nepreryvka').

1932 - Oswald Mosley forms the British Union of Fascists (BUF) following the electoral disasters of the New party the previous year and his January 1932 visit to Mussolini's Italy and meetings with high-ranking Nazi officials.

1934 - Revolución de 1934: The 1933 elections in Spain had seen a massive victory delivered to the right, represented by the Confederación Española de Derechas Autónomas (CEDA), a coalition of largely Catholic conservative groups and Monarchists. Led by José María Gil-Robles, the CEDA soon allied itself with the close runner up of the elections, the Radical Republican Party, led by Alejandro Lerroux.
Pushing Lerroux into the position of prime minister so as not to offend liberal sensibilities in the Constiuent Cortes (many liberals were wary of the often ultra-reactionary platitudes of Robles), the CEDA and the Radical Party soon found themselves embroiled in internal strife. Finding itself the focus of these disputes, the Lerroux cabinet soon collapsed on itself, only to be replaced by another Radical, Ricardo Samper.
Continuing until the next year, the conflict within the coalition soon came to a head with the opening of the Cortes on October 1, 1934. After having denied cabinet positions to the CEDA for nearly a year, the Radical Party saw the Samper government collapse after a campaign of intense pressure from the right. Asked to form a new cabinet by the president, Lerroux had no choice but to give three ministries to the CEDA. [see: Oct. 4 & 5]

1934 - The Ricardo Samper PRR (Partido Republicano Radical) cabinet, the second since the November 19, 1933, election, collapses and the President, Niceto Alcalá-Zamora, agrees to include three CEDA members in the new cabinet, a decision that ultimately led to the October general strike, an attempt at Catalonian cession and the Asturian Revolution. [see: Nov. 19 & Oct. 4]

1936 - The first issue of the newspaper 'Frente Libertario', "Organo de las milicias confederales", is published in Madrid by the Defence Committee of the Central Region. Initially printed 3 times a week, it goes daily from Dec. 6, 1936. The anarcho-syndicalist newspaper is published by José García Pradas in collaboration with Mauro Bajatierra, and 40,000 copies are distributed free of charge to the fighters at the front.

1943 - Leo Herman Frijda (b. 1923), Dutch resistance fighter with the CS-6 group and poet, is executed along with 18 other members of CS-6. Prohibited as a Jew from studying medicine at university and therefore became an apprentice medical analyst in the CIZ laboratory in Amsterdam. In the autumn of 1941 he, along with former school mate Theo Hondius, explored the possibility of escaping to England via sailboat but abandoned the plan. He joined the CS-6 sabotage group in 1942 and was involved, among other things, in the successful attack (along with Jan Verleun) on Lieutenant-General Seyffardt, the commander of the Volunteers' Legion in the Netherlands (February 5, 1943), in the attack on the railway in Rietlanden (March 1943) and the assassination of 2 Sipo informants Daan Blom and B. Hoff. On August 20, 1943, Herman Frijda was caught in Amsterdam and, following interrogation and a trial involving the majority of the members of the CS-6 group, 19 members of the group were condemned to death on 30 September. The following day they were shot in the dunes near Overveen, where most anti-Nazi resistance fighters were executed (unless sent to concetration camps in the East). His grave is at the Eerebegraafplaats in Bloemendaal.

1951 - Karel Teige (b. 1900), Czech graphic artist, photographer, typographer and "poet-anarchist", dies. [see: Dec. 13]

1962 - Kidnap of Spanish Vice-Consul Isu Elias: The anarchists amongst the kidnappers send a press statement to the ANSA agency:
"Young people of the free world can not ignore the crimes committed by the Franco government against the freedom and lives of the poor Spanish. The kidnapping was organized to draw the attention of world public about the sad fate of the three young anarchists sentenced to Barcelona. Our goal is to arouse the honest and democratic people of the world, a movement of moral and material solidarity against the Spanish people. We issue, as promised, the Vice-Consul, to show that our methods are not as those using Franco and his Falangist police. Milan, 1st of October."
[original Italian: Comunicato della Fijl (Feceración Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias):
"I giovani del mondo libero non possono ignorare i crimini che commette il governo franchista contro la libertà e la vita dei poveri spagnoli. Il sequestro è stato organizzato per richiamare l'attenzione dell'opinione pubblica mondiale riguardo alla triste sorte dei tre giovani anarchici condannati a Barcellona. Nostro obbiettivo è quello di suscitare alle persone oneste e democratiche del mondo intero, un moto di solidarietà morale e materiale nei confronti del popolo spagnolo. Rilasciamo, come promesso, il viceconsole, per dimostrare che i nostri metodi non sono come quelli che utilizzano Franco e la sua polizia falangista. Milano, 1º di ottobre."]

1976 - Peace squadron resists arrival of US nuclear warship, in Auckland, New Zealand.

[D] [1984 - Egyptians in the industrial town of Kafr el-Dawar outside of Alexandria riot and fight with police for eight hours.

1984 - Five US activists, known as the Trident II Plowshares, hammer and pour blood on six missile tubes and unfurl a banner which read: "Harvest of Hope – Swords into Plowshares" at shipbuilder Electric Boat’s Quonset Point facility in North Kingston, Rhode Island.

1997 - A half-day blockade temporarily shuts down a COPEX 'Covert Operations' trade fair at a base in Farnborough.

[E] 2011 - At a Voina lecture, members Nadezhda Tolokonnikova and Yekaterina Samutsevich play a recording of the song 'Ubey seksista' [Убей сексиста](Kill the Sexist) by "a new Russian punk band called Pussy Riot".

2011 - Joey Pedersen and Holly Grigsby shot and kill 19-year-old Cody Myers and steal his car. They later claim that they shot Cody Myers, who was Christian, because his name sounded Jewish. [see: Sep. 26]
1461 - Poet François Villon is freed from prison. His crime is not known, but is supposed to have been church-robbing. Villon owed his release to a general amnesty at the accession of King Louis XI. He had also killed a priest 6-years previously during a brawl.

[D] 1766 - Nottingham Great Cheese Riot: A riot broke out during Nottingham’s Goose Fair. Stalls were attacked and ransacked, and cheeses distributed to the crowd. Being barrel-shaped they could easily be rolled, and soon they were being propelled down Wheeler Gate and Peck Lane. The mayor, trying desperately to intervene, stood in the middle of Peck Lane, only to be knocked over by an accelerating cheese.
One of a number of Food Riots which took place across Britain that autumn.

1866 - [N.S. Oct. 14] Louise Louis (d. unknown), Russian anarchist militant and maid, born in Oriol. In the early 1890s she and her companion, the Russian anarchist Nikolai Nikitin, lived in Levallois-Perret, Ile de France. On September 23, 1893 both were expelled from France and took refuge in London. The following year they appeared on the anarchist watch-lists of the French border railway police.

1883 - Louis Laurent (d. 1972), French libertarian militant and revolutionary trade unionist, member of the Revolutionary Anarchist Union and the Anarchist Federation of Languedoc in the 30s, born. Helped publish various libertarian journals, worked with league of conscientious objectors and the CGT-SR (revolutionary trade union). Helped found 'Le Libertaire' in 1968.

1890 - Julius Henry 'Groucho' Marx (d. 1977), the only true Marxist, along with brothers Harpo and Chico, born.

1898 - [O.S. Sep. 20] Maria Nikolaevna Olovennikova [Мария Николаевна Оловенникова] aka Madam Jacobson [Мадам Якобсон] (May [15] 27 1852), prominent Russian revolutionary, who was the sister of fellow Narodnistas Natalia [Наталья] and Elizaveta [Наталья] and the mother of Elena Nikolayevna Oshanina [Елена Николаевна Ошанина], dies of acute pneumonia in Paris. [see: May 27]

[F] 1905 - [O.S. Sep. 19] October All-Russian Political Strike [Октябрьская всероссийская политическая стачка]: Having refused to accept management's response to their August 24th [O.S. Aug. 11] demands, presented to them on on September 26th [O.S. Sep. 13], and having waited till the next pay day, the Sytin printers in Moscow collect their pay cheques and go out on strike. They are immediately joined by most other workers in the plant.

[1906 - [O.S. Sep. 19] The St. Petersburg Soviet is put on trial (Oct. 2-Nov. 15) - despite strong public support for the accused and a brilliant defence by Trotsky, the main defendants are sentenced to life deportation to Siberia

[E] 1907 - Ria Deeg (d. 2000), German socialist, communist, anti-fascist and resistance fighter against Nazism, who was imprisoned in 1935 for "preparing high treason", born. An unskilled worker, domestic servant and volunteer in bookstores, in 1923 she joined the Sozialistische Arbeiterjugend, and in 1925 the Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands. Hwever, with the rise of the Nazism, she quit the SPD for the KPD as she deemed the former were not concerned enough with the NSADP. After the Nazis' seizure of power, she began to work clandestinely, distributing leaflets (hiding the illegal typewriter she used to produce them in the drawer of a SA man who was lodging with her mother) and newspapers, raising money for Rote Hilfe and collecting food in support of the families of detainees. In November 1934, Ria Deeg was arrested and in July 1935, she was sentenced to 38 months' imprisonment for preparing to commit high treason. After periods in Giessen, Darmstadt, Mainz and Aichach / Oberbayern detention centres, she was released under police supervision, having to report three times a week, surrender her house key, was not allowed to leave the city and was under a 22:00 to 06:00 curfew.
In 1940 she married Walter Deeg but the couple were forbidden "to make no contact with like-minded or politically convicted persons", banned from meeting or writing to each other under the threat of being immediately sent to a concentration camp. In the spring of 1943, her husband was conscripted to the 999 Detention Division and she was left to care for three young children, her son Werner and Walter's children, Edith and Walter, and survive through the Allied bombing campaign and remainder of the war, until the liberation in 1945.
After the war, she took part in illegal meetings with members of the KPD and SPD, with the aim of eradicating Fascism and a failed attempt at reconciling the two parties. In December 1945 she became head of the Betreuungstelle für politisch, rassisch und religiös Verfolgte (Child Care Centre for Politically, Racially and Religiously Persecuted Persons) in Giessen and continued her fight to ensure that those persecuted under Nazi barbarism were given reparation, co-founding the Vereinigung der Verfolgten des Naziregimes (Association of the Persecutees of the Nazi Regime) in 1947 in Hesse. She also continued her activities in the KPD, avoiding being charged in 1958 for her part in a leafleting campaign by the then banned party against military service and against land the acquisition of land for military purposes – her husband Walter was sentenced to nine months imprisonment for his participation – and later in the small Deutsche Kommunistische Partei after its founding in 1968. She remained an active anti-fascist, campaigning against both old and new Nazis in Germany, Chile (taking in Chilean refugees in 1973), Spain, Portugal and Greece, and well as participating in the Kampf dem Atomtod (Fight Against Nuclear Death) and the Ostermarsch (Easter March) anti-nuclear and peace campaigns.
Ria Deeg died on 13 August 2000 in Giessen.

1913 - End of the First International Syndicalist Congress in London.

1915 - José Pérez Montes (d. 1947), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist who fought in the Civil War and helped organising the clandestine resistance, born.

1919 - Shirley Clarke (d. 1997), American independent filmmaker who studied under Hans Richter, born. Her best known films include 'Skyscraper' (1960); 'The Connection' (1961), based on Jack Gelber's play by about heroin-addicted jazz musicians; 'Robert Frost: A Lover's Quarrel With the World' (1963) and her last film, 'Ornette: Made in America' (1985).
"I was once a member of the Communist Party when I was very young. I was always that kind of person: always involved. I did the early marches against the atom bomb. We'd take petitions to ban the bomb to the factories after the World War II. Basically, I am against the establishment, the state. I'm an anarchist, I've finally decided. But an anarchist in a somewhat gentle way. I'll go on a march, but I'm not going to bomb something. To me, a kind of society that would work has to be anarchistic. We have to survive: I help you and you help me."

1936 - The Central Anti-Fascist Militias Committee (CAMC), originally founded on July 21, 1936 in Catalonia, is wound up.

1937 - Anti-fascists and fascists fight on the streets of Bermondsey as BU paper-sellers turn up in advance of tomorrow planned demonstration. In one incident, 2 fascists were in St. George's Sq. that evening, selling papers (with the headline 'No Jew red mob has the power to daunt us') and shouting provocative slogans, when word reached a nearby dance organised by Bermondsey Youth that the fascists are outside. They stream out and send the fascists packing. [PR]

[B] 1941 - John Sinclair, American poet, one-time manager of the band MC5, anarchist and co-founder of the White Panther Party, born. Involved with the Detroit underground newspaper, 'Fifth Estate', in the late '60s and as a jazz writer for Down Beat (1964-65). Managed the proto-punk band MC5 (1966-69), the only band who managed to perform at the free concert outside the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago before riot police broke up the anti-Vietnam war rally. In 1969 he was sentenced to 10 years in prison for selling two Joints to an undercover cop. His imprisonment became a cause célèbre, sparking protests which culminated in the landmark John Sinclair Freedom Rally at Ann Arbor's Crisler Arena in December 1971.
A poet, he has performed and recorded his spoken word pieces with his band The Blues Scholars alongside the MC5's Wayne Kramer, as well as recording his poems with various jazz ensembles.

1943 - Franklin Rosemont (d. 2009), American anarchist, poet, artist, street speaker, co-founder of the Chicago Surrealist Group and historian of anarchist movement, born.
"I am a revolutionary mammal, an alchemical atheist, and an aquatic-aerial anarchist as well as a poet."

1944 - Benjamin Fondane or Benjamin Fundoianu (born Benjamin Wechsler, Wexler or Vecsler; b. 1898), Romanian-born French poet, critic and existentialist philosopher, also noted for his work in film and theatre, dies. [see: Nov. 14]

1944 - Warsaw Uprising: Polish forces capitulate to the Wehrmacht and begin to surrender. The AK is left in disarray and the entire civilian population of Warsaw is expelled from the city and sent to the Durchgangslager 121 transit camp.
www.polishresistance-ak.org/4 Article.htm

1947 - Ward LeRoy Churchill, American author and political activist, born.

1962 - Kidnap of Spanish Vice-Consul Isu Elias: Following the commuting of Jorge Conill Valls’ death sentence to 30 years in prison, the kinappers release Isu Elias. [see: Sep. 29]

1966 - Eight people arrested for heckling British Prime Minister Harold Wilson in a Brighton church regarding Vietnam War.

1968 - Marcel Duchamp (b. 1887), French-American artist, painter, sculptor, writer, chess player and individualist anarchist, dies. [see: Jul. 28]

[C] 1968 - Tlatelolco Massacre: The Mexican army ambushes a demonstration by 15,000 students attempting to protest against the army’s occupation of the city's University, killing around 300 (the exact number is unknown) and arresting several thousand.
[Eyewitness accounts: [obrag.org/?p=1650
photojournalist Enrique Metinides' eyewitness account: [numerof.org/la-guardia-testimonio-de-enrique-metinides-en-la-noche-de-tlatelolco/
Photo archive of those arrested: [webcronic.com/ximenalabra/tlatelolco/?page_id=357

1974 - Andreas Baader, Ulrike Meinhof, Gudrun Ensslin, Jan-Carl Raspe, and Holger Meins, are indicted officially of dozens of crimes, including murder.

1978 - Demetrio Urruchúa (b. 1902), Argentinian painter, printmaker, muralist, libertarian and anti-fascist, dies. [see: Apr. 19]

1991 - Henry Le Fèvre (b. 1894), French vegetarian, pacifist, anarchist and publisher of 'Le Néo Naturien', "revue des idées philosophiques et naturiennes", dies. [see: Feb. 22]

[A] 1992 - Riot breaks out in Carandirú Prison in Sao Paolo, Latin America's largest prison. The Brazilian government claimed 111 prisoners are left dead after 300 riot troops storm the building but the toll is believed to be much higher.

2003 - Paul Day, a 31-year-old serving a seven-and-a-half-year prison sentence is found hanged in his cell in the segregation unit of the notoriously brutal Frankland maximum-security prison in Durham. Labelled a 'grass', he had endured verbal abuse and had urine thrown at him, staff did little to protect this vulnerable prisoner.

2010 - The One Nation Working Together rally is held in Washington, D.C. to demand good jobs, equal justice, and quality education for all. Organisers of the rally estimated the size of assembly to have been between 175,000 and 200,000 people.

2014 - Ferguson, Missouri: St. Louis County Police and Missouri State Highway Patrol arrest more than a dozen people, including Mary Moore, a freelance journalist who has worked for CNN. Protesters are charged with offences including failure to comply with police, noise ordinance violations and resisting arrest. In court they have to wear Guantanamo-style orange jumpsuits.
1849 - During electioneering in Baltimore, Edgar Allan Poe is kept drunk by a gang of political hacks who have him vote repeatedly at the polls; in four days he is dead. [see: Oct. 7]

[B] 1867 - Pierre Bonnard (d. 1947), French Post-Impressionist painter and printmaker, and a founding member of Les Nabis, born. Despite a youthful flirtation with anarchism as a student, having a number of active anarchist friends and colleagues such as Félix Fénéon and Félix Vallotton, and his works appearing in a number of anarchist and anarchist associated publications, Bonnard was never active within the movement in France.

1873 - [N.S. Oct. 15] Elena Dmitrievna Stasova (Елена Дмитриевна Стасова; d. 1966), Russian Bolshevik and communist functionary working for the Comintern, born. [see: Oct. 15]

1881 - Louis Bara (or Barra; d. unknown), French anarchist, anti-militarist and trades union activist, born.

1896 - William Morris (b. 1834), English utopian socialist, poet, artist, designer, printer and founder of the Arts and Crafts Movement, dies. Best known for 'News From Nowhere' (1890).

1897 - Louis Aragon (d. 1982), French poet, novelist, editor, Dadaist then Surrealist, and a long-time member of the Communist Party, born. Fought with the Résistance. [expand]

[D / FF] 1905 - [O.S. Sep. 20] October All-Russian Political Strike [Октябрьская всероссийская политическая стачка]: In Moscow, the underground printers' union are annoyed that the Sytin workers have gone out on strike, proclaiming in a leaflet, "without waiting for the Union to declare a general printers' strike when fully certain of success". The unionists tried nonetheless to influence events that had started without them, and organise a meeting in the yard of the Sytin plant, at which workers elected shop deputies and adopted most of the union's twenty-four demands, with a couple of significant exceptions: they replaced the symbolic demand for an eight-hour day with the more realistic demand for nine hours, and they added the demand that men and women doing the same work be paid equally (presumably reflecting the involvement of female bindery workers). Over the next few days, workers at other presses joined the strike, often presenting the union's list of demands. By the end of the week, almost all of the large printing firms in Moscow and many smaller firms had been closed down.
The strike at Sytin Publishers now sets off a great wave of strikes in Moscow, and through out the middle of October there is renewed unrest and street clashes.

1905 - Hirabayashi Taiko (平林 たい子; d. 1972), pen-name of Hirabayashi Tai (平林タイ), Japanese fiction writer, feminist and one-time anarchist, born.

1909 - Lois Waisbrooker (b. 1826), American anarchist and feminist author, novelist, editor, publisher, spiritualist and campaigner on birth control, women's rights and free speech, dies. [see: Feb. 21]

1920 The dissident 'minorité révolutionnaire' within the Confédération Générale du Travail, which included members of the Section Française de l'Internationale Communiste (soon to reconstitute itself as the PCF), anarcho-syndicalists and others wishing to join the Profintern, the Red International of Labour Unions (Красный интернационал профсоюзов), form the Comités Syndicalistes Révolutionnaires, the forerunner of the Confédération Générale du Travail Unitaire.

1923 - Simón Gracia Fleringán aka 'Miguel Montllor' & 'Aniceto Borrel' (d. 1950), Zaragozan anarchist member of the 'Los Maños' guerilla group in the resistance to Franco following the fascist victory in the Civil War, born. [expand]

[C] 1925 - Simone Segouin, nom de guerre Nicole Minet, French Résistance fighter, in the Francs-Tireurs et Partisans group, born. Daughter of an active Résistance member, her father claimed that she was a seamstress in order to avoid her working for the German occupiers, only to have them try to employ her to mend their uniforms. Hoisted on their own petard, Simone was forced to leave the family farm at Thivars, nar Chartres, to work in Paris. Upon her return home, she was encouraged in mid 1944 to join up with the local FTP (Francs Tireurs et Partisans) résistance group under the nom de guerre Nicole Minet.
Her first jobs were the clandestine transport of arms on her trusty bicycle, but she quickly progressed onto armed actions, participating in the liberation of Chartres and, on August 23, 1944, the liberation of Paris. On March 24, 1946, she was promoted to lieutenant, and awarded the Croix de Guerre.

[F] 1932 - Illinois Mine War: State troopers march into Kincaid, Illinois, to guard against a sympathy strike by more than 160 of the town’s 180 high school students, protesting the use by their school of scab-produced coal from the Peabody Coal Company while their fathers are on strike over wages.

1936 - The first issue of the weekly newspaper of the C.N.T.-F.A.I. 'Via Libre' is published in Badalona, near Barcelona. Sixty-nine issues of the anarcho-syndicalist periodical appear up til 10 February 1938.

1936 - Nancy Joyce Peters, American poet, writer, Surrealist, publisher and co-founder with Lawrence Ferlinghetti of City Lights Books and Publishers in San Francisco, born. Partner of the Surrealist-Beat Generation poet Philip Lamantia. She also helped found (with Ferlinghetti) the Bay Area arts magazine 'Circle' (1944-48), made with "anti-war, anarchist, or anti-authoritarian, civil libertarian attitudes, coupled with a new experimentation in the arts". Contributors included Kenneth Patchen, Henry Miller, Anais Nin, E.E. Cummings, Kenneth Rexroth, Robert Duncan, Ferlinghetti, etc.
Author of 'Literary San Francisco: A Pictorial History from its Beginnings to the Present Day' (1981) with Lawrence Ferlinghetti; 'Unamerican Activities: The Campaign Against the Underground Press' (1981), co-authored with Geoffrey Rips and Anne Janowitz; 'The Literary World of San Francisco & its Environs' (1985), co-authored with Don Herron; and 'City Lights Enters the Modern Age: 1975-2003 : Literary Mecca' (2003), with Ferlinghetti.
She also edited 'Free Spirits: Annals of Insurgent Imagination' (1982); 'The Terrible Girls' (1991), a collection of short stories by the lesbian author Rebecca Brown (with Lawrence Ferlinghetti); 'Reclaiming San Francisco: History, Politics, Culture (A City Lights Anthology)' (2001), with James Brook and Chris Carlsson; 'Howl on Trial: The Battle for Free Expression' (2006), with Bill Morgan; 'The Beats: A Graphic History' (2009), with Paul Buhle and Harvey Pekar; and a series of 'City Lights Reviews', including 'War After War' ('City Lights Review', No. 5; 1992).
Her own poetry has been published in 'It’s In the Wind' (1977), 'Surrealist Women, An International Anthology' (1998) and 'Anthologie des Poètes Surréalistes Américains' (2002). Peters also translated 'Dreams of Dreams and the Last Three Days of Fernando Pessoa' (1999) by Antonio Tabucchi.

[CCC] 1937 - Battle Of Bermondsey: A march called to celebrate the 5th anniversary of the foundation of the British Union of Fascists (BU) is routed by the people of Bermondsey. To cries of "Heil Mosley", the British fascists set off from Millbank accompanied by 28 horse-mounted police and hundreds of police along the route in addition to those following in vans and cars. The BUF marchers were greeted in Long Lane by shouts of "Mosley shall not pass" and by barricades made of costermongers' barrows, fencing and barbed wire, which the police demolished repeatedly, only for a new one to be thrown up. Red flags waved, a water tank was borrowed from a nearby factory, and missiles of stones, eggs, bricks, bottles and fireworks were hurled. The arrival of a busload of police, heralded a charge by them with truncheons drawn. They were pelted by missiles from a nearby building, and police went up and cleared the building.
The march was repeatedly delayed, rerouted, and renegotiated. Workers blocked streets off with barricades and the power of numbers. Police corralled crowds down side streets to allow the march through. A crowd, which had been waiting for four hours at one point, learned that the procession had been diverted, and rushed to the new route. There they created further trouble, and Mosley was pelted. A number of arrests followed the arrival of further police reinforcements. The bulk of the procession halted before it reached West Lane Square, where Mosley gave an address. Despite loud speakers, his remarks were almost inaudible owing to hoots, jeers, and the explosion of fireworks, but he was heard to say: "Once again we have marched. We have passed." The march was then accompanied by hordes of anti-fascists throwing bottles and firecrackers until the march dispered at Southward Bridge.
Earlier in the day crowds had occupied the square on West Lane where Mosley had originally planned to address the conclusion of the march. "Some of the streets were so crowded that it would have been impossible to clear them, and the police shepherding the procession diverted it time after time as they found solid masses of people determined to obstruct the march", the Times of London reported. The police and justice system protected Mosley and his fascists. 111 people were arrested, mostly workers and 30 anti-fascists were injured, many by blows from police batons. Tower Bridge Police Court Judge Bernard Campion sentenced Solly Stein, a 24-year-old who allegedly led a crowd of 400 workers against Mosley, to one month in jail. Among Stein’s crimes was his possession of a Marxist pamphlet, which Judge Campion declared a "pernicious document". [PR]

1944 - Operación Reconquista de España [Operation Reconquest of Spain] / Invasión del Valle de Arán [Invasion of the Aran Valley]: In advance of an ill-advised and ultimately disasterous 10-day invasion of Francoist Spain involving approximately 6,000 Spanish republican guerrillas mainly from the PCE-dominated Unión Nacional Española (but including many anarquistas) via the Arán and Ronçal valleys in the Pyrenees, a number of diversionary and probing actions had taken place on the Franco-Spanish border. On October 3, 1944, the 102nd Division launched the campaign with 250 UNE guerrillas of the 45th Brigade entering Spain via Roncesvalles in Navarra (western Pyrennes) and found itself facing a Policía Armada (Cuerpo de Policía Armada y de Tráfico) force in Portillo de Lazar, between the Sierra de Abodi and the Sierra de Uztarroz. Two policemen and a Guàrdia Civil were killed. On October 5, 400 men of the 153rd Brigade entered the Roncal Valley. This was the beginning of a series of raids in the Spanish Pyrenees in Navarra, and the provinces of Huesca and Lleida which ended with several brigades being forced to return to France after just a couple of days fighting across the border. On October 8, Franco's Legazpi XXIII battalion arrived in the Navarran Pyrenees from San Sebastian to counter the offensive by the maquisards.
Yet despite the clear failure of the raids in Navarra, the second planned series of actions still went ahead on October 19th, even though the core plan plainly disregarded the obvious fact that a conventional military incursion would play directly into the hands of Franco’s vastly superior land forces.[ see: Oct. 19]

1947 - John Perry Barlow, American poet, essayist, former lyricist for the Grateful Dead, cyber-libertarian and founding member of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, born. Has on many occasions declared his adherence to anarchism.

1962 - Kidnap of Spanish Vice-Consul Isu Elias: Following a tip-off from a Communist journalist, kidnappers Gianfranco Pedron, Alberto Tomiolo, Luigi Gerli and Vittorio De Tassis are arrested, together with 3 journalists. Amedeo Bertolo escapes and takes refuge in Paris. [see: Sep. 29]

1967 - Woody Guthrie (b. 1912), radical American singer-songwriter and folk musician, dies. [see: Jul. 14]

1968 - In Peru the military seized power in a coup. President Fernando Belaúnde Terry was overthrown by leftist General Juan Francisco Velasco Alvarado following a dispute with the International Petroleum Company over licenses to the La Brea y Pariñas oil fields in northern Peru. Juan Velasco ruled Peru from 1968 to 1975 under the title of President of the Revolutionary Government.

1974 - An IRA bombing at a pub in Guilford, near London, kills 5 people. The so-called Guildford Four are 'fitted-up' by poilce and sentenced to life in prison for the bombing.

1978 - Second trial opens. [ABC Trial]

1981 - Walter Mehring (b. 1896), German-Jewish Expressionist poet and prose writer, anti-militarist and anarchist, who was one of the most prominent satirical authors in the Weimar Republic, dies. [expand] [see: Apr. 29]

[A] 1981 - The end of the seven-month IRA prisoners' hunger strike that has claimed 10 lives.

1987 - SAS snatch squad of 4 enter HMP Peterhead's D-wing through a hole in the roof during its 5 day siege and free the prisoners' hostage 56 year old prison officer, Jackie Stuart.

1987 - Jean Marie Lucien Pierre Anouilh (b. 1910), French dramatist, film director, screenplay writer and a so-called (oxymoronic) "anarchiste de droite", dies. [see: Jun. 23]

[E] 1992 - Victoria Lidiard (Victoria Simmons; b. 1889), British optician, suffragette, vegetarian and animal rights campaigner, and the last known living British suffragette, dies in Hove, at the age of 102. [see: Dec. 23]

1993 - October Coup [Октябрьский путч]: Against the backdrop of years of resistance by the former Communist nomenklatura in the Congress and the Supreme Soviet against the reforms started by Mikhail Gorbachev, and continued by his successor Boris Yeltsin, and which included the August Putsch, the attempted military coup of 1991, the constitutional crisis of September–October 1993 comes to a head as the 'old guard' attempt to overthrow the president, Boris Yeltsin.
Despite the people’s deputies having elected Boris Yeltsin as their speaker (with a majority of just four votes) as they joined the popular pro-democracy movement wave sweeping the country, even opposing the attempted hardline coup d’état in August 1991, and granting Yeltsin the authority to conduct economic reforms, by early 1992 the majority in the Congress had turned against him and the Supreme Soviet had become the headquarters of hardline pro-communist forces. In addition, their numbers had been swollen by other reactionary elements, including Stalinists from the Working Russia movement, fascists from the Russian National Unity group, militants from Transnistria and Abkhazia, and former operatives of the Soviet Riga OMON. A constant presence outside the White House (House of the Soviets of Russia [Дом Сове́тов России], which housed the Committee of People's Control and the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR) were the demonstrators – the self-styled 'defenders of the White House' – who chanted slogans against "traitors, Yids, and foreigners", displaying monarchist symbols alongside communist ones, whilst the Soviet red flag and the black, yellow, and white flag of imperial Russia flew above the White House. These are the forces that today back Vladimir Putin.
In March 1993, the extraordinary 9th Congress of People’s Deputies had attempted to impeach the president (failing by just 72 votes – 689 to 617), they then rejected a referendum proposed new constitution in April 1993, turning it instead into a referendum on Yeltsin as president [the questions were: "Do you have confidence in the President of the Russian Federation, B. N. Yeltsin?"; "Do you support the economic and social policy that has been conducted since 1992 by the President and Government of the Russian Federation?"; "Should there be early elections for the President of the Russian Federation?" and "Should there be early elections for the People’s Deputies of the Russian Federation?"]. The plebiscite voted for Yeltsin and against the Deputies but, rather than dissolving the Congress and the Supreme Soviet, Yeltsin sought to negotiate a compromise, something that continued even after he had signed the decree (Decree #1400) on September 21.
So, sensing weakness that 'old guard' went on the attack, Shortly before 16:00 on October 3 (around the time that the latest round of talks at St. Daniel Monastery were supposed to restart), Vice President Alexander Rutskoi and Supreme Soviet Speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov addressed the mass of 'defenders of the White House' from the White House balcony. "Young people, battle-ready men! Form ranks here, in the left section; today we must storm and take over the [Moscow] City Hall and Ostankino [television centre]," commanded the vice president. "I call on our valiant warriors to bring troops and tanks here in order to storm the Kremlin with the usurper, former criminal Yeltsin!" declared the speaker. "Yeltsin must be locked up in Matrosskaya Tishina [prison] today; his corrupt clique must be locked up in a dungeon!"
Armed brigades began forming near the twentieth entrance of the White House. Within an hour, armed brigades under the command of their 'deputy defence minister', General Albert Makashov, had stormed the Moscow City Hall building adjacent to the Parliament. Faced with an armed offensive, police officers who were guarding City Hall did not put up any resistance. The doors of the building were smashed by seized police vehicles. The Soviet red flag was raised over the captured City Hall. An hour later, supporters of Rutskoi and Khasbulatov – including some 3,000 militants under Makashov’s command, armed with small weapons and grenade launchers – drove in buses and seized military vehicles to the Ostankino television centre. There, around a thousand supporters of the Working Russia movement had already gathered, armed with construction equipment and truncheons seized from the police in an incident earlier that day, when a crowd of Supreme Soviet supporters broke through police lines near the Krymsky Bridge; three armored vehicles that had been seized after the storming of City Hall were also at the site, red flags flying over them. The attempted storming of Ostankino began with a truck breaking through the glass doors of the building. All television channels broadcasting from Ostankino went dark. The only channel still on the air was RTR, whose studios were situated at the reserve Shabolovka television centre.
At 16:00 Yeltsin signed a decree introducing state of emergency in Moscow and Interior Ministry units and special forces who took positions in and around the TV complex, where a pitch battle broke out. 62 people were killed but before midnight, the Interior Ministry troops had managed to turn back the parliament loyalists.

1993 - Katerina Gogou (Κατερίνα Γώγου; b. 1940), Greek anarchist poet, author and actress, dies. [see: Jun. 1]

2011 - On the eve of the 75th anniversary of the Battle of Cable Street, the jury in the second Welling trial [see: Sep. 12] return not guilty verdicts on the nine anti-fascists after less than an hour's deliberation after the prosecution's case fell apart during the trial, singularly failing to provide any evidence of 'conspiracy'.

2011 - Having continued on to Callifornia, Joey Pedersen and Holly Grigsby ask several people for a ride at a Eureka grocery store. Reginald Clark, a 53-year-old disabled African-American, agrees to help them, but they shoot him in the head because they claim he was a "Negro degenerate". [see: Sep. 26/Oct. 1]

2012 - Thomas Orchard is arrested by Devon and Cornwall Police in Exeter city centre on suspicion of a public order offence. He is later taken to the Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital, when officers became concerned that the 32-year-old was not responding to them while in his cell, where he dies.

2012 - French FEMEN activists Éloïse Bouton, Elvire Duvelle-Charles, Miyabi K., Julia Javel, Jenny Bah, Nathalie Vignes and Inna Shevchenko protested against rape by standing topless in front of the Venus de Milo statue in the Louvre Museum.
1816 - Eugène Edine Pottier (d. 1887), French poet, revolutionist, participant in the Revolution of 1848 and the Paris Commune of 1881, author of 'L'Internationale', born.

"Arise ye starvelings from your slumbers,
Arise ye prisoners of want,
For reason in revolt know thunders,
And at last ends the age of cant.
So away with all your superstitions
Servile masses, arise, arise,
We'll change henceforth the old tradition
And spurn the dust to win the prize."

1837 - Jean-François Varlet (b. 1764), French revolutionary considered by many an anarchist precursor, involved with Les Enragés faction in the French Revolution, dies. [see: Jul. 14]

[C] 1864 - Emidio Recchioni (d. 1934), Italian railway worker anarchist, anti-fascist and father of Vero Recchioni (Vernon Richards), born. He was originally a republican and follower of Giuseppe Mazzini, but moved towards anarchism under the influence of Cesare Agostinelli, the Ancona anarchist. He was active in anarchist activity in Ancona alongside Agostinelli, Romeo Tombolesi, Ariovisto Pezzotti and Polimanti. The group soon established contact with important anarchists like Malatesta, Pietro Gori and Amilcare Cipriani. He was active in organising railway workers and contributed satirical and polemical articles articles to the Livorno anarchist paper 'Siempre Avanti' (Forever Forwards) under the pen names of Rastignac and Savarin between 1890 and 1894. In 1894 he founded and was one of the editors of the Ancona weekly 'Articolo 248'. The police regarded him as the "most active and influential propagandist" and believed that he was involved in three bomb explosions in Ancona in January 1894.
In June 1894, he was arrested in connection with the shooting of the Italian Prime Minister Crispi but was acquitted on 30th November 1895. However, two days later he was put under house arrest and then transferred to the prison colony on the Tremiti islands. He organised a protest against the restrictions imposed on the anarchist prisoners by the prison governor and then suffered two months solitary confinement. He was then transferred to another prison in Ancona and then to Ustica. Released on bail at the end of November 1896, he was not allowed to return to his job as a railway worker. In November 1897 he, Errico Malatesta and other comrades launched another Ancona-based newspaper 'L’Agitazione' which led to his rearrest and deportation to the prison island of Ustica (one of Italy’s many island prison colonies) in the Tyrrhenian Sea.
Escaping in 1898, he fled to London where he opened a popular delicatessen in Soho’s Old Compton Street named King Bomba, an ironic reference to the tyrant King Ferdinand II of the two Sicilies (1810-1859), which specialised in Italian wine, pasta and smoked hams. He also traded in Carrara marble, Carrara being a centre of Italian anarchist activism, and supported financially - and wrote for under his pen name 'Nemo' - the Italian anarchist press, especially La Protesta and the Galleanist paper 'L’Adunata dei Refrattari'. Recchioni’s shop was frequented by British writers, intellectuals and political and literary exiles of the day and, later, following Mussolini’s accession to power, Italian anti-fascists. Recchioni’s influence, his wealth and his key role as a facilitator and funder of the Italian anarchist and anti-fascist movement (including the clandestine ‘Arditi del Popolo’ movement) made him a high-priority target for Mussolini’s secret police, the OVRA (Organizzazione per la Vigilanza e la Repressione dell’Antifascismo - Organisation for Vigilance and Repression of Anti-Fascism).
In 1913 he helped finance the anarchist paper Volonta in Ancona and was one of the signatories of the international anarchist anti-war statement 'The Manifesto of 35' in 1915. With other anarchists like Pietro Gualducci, Calzitta and Enrico Defendi, he carried out a vigorous anti-militarist agitation, which nearly saw him expelled from Britain. At the end of the War, Recchioni moved from anti-militarist work to activity against the Fascist regime in Italy. Together with Silvio Corio, Gualducci, Decio Anzani, Francesco Galasso, and Vittorio Tabarelli, he produced the paper Il Comento which concentrated on anti-fascist agitation. This ran for six issues until 1924. He was also with Anzani and Alessandro Magri, he was most likely behind the founding of the London section of the Italian League for Human Rights. With the end of Il Comento, Recchioni and the others set up a secret grouping to inspire resistance against the Mussolini regime. Recchioni had always argued against socialists, communists and certain anarchists by asserting that fascist violence should be countered with a ferocious armed resistance. The Masonic lodge I Druidi was set up as a cover for this activity.
At the end of the 1920s and beginning of the 1930s he was heavily involved in several attempts on Mussolini’s life. In this period he acquired a British passport, partly to save himself from expulsion, but also to help him with travel abroad in connection with his activities. He obtained such a passport in 1930. However, his application had alerted the British secret state to his activities. Recchioni in this period had assumed great respectability, and this fooled many in Special Branch that he was now a reformed character. Except for one Superintendent O’Brien, who was convinced that he was still an anarchist and still involved in agitation against the Mussolini regime, but who was over ruled by his superiors. However, the OVRA began circulating stories in British and Italian political and newspaper circles that Recchioni was organising and funding plots to assassinate Mussolini, something that the Daily Telegraph and the Deputy Assistant Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police, former MI5 officer and right-wing fanatic Colonel John Carter, seized on. The latter was able to successfully stymie Recchioni's application for British citizenship (something that was later overruled when Ramsay MacDonald, a personal friend of Recchioni via his frequenting of King Bomba, became Prime Minister.
In 1931 Recchioni travelled to Brussels on his new British passport, shadowed closely by a Special Branch officer. According to Special Branch, Recchioni travelled to meet with members of the Brussels-based International Anarchist Defence Committee (CIDA), and supposedly a 28-year-old Italian anarchist coalminer by the name of Angelo Sbardellotto. Sbardellotto was arrested in June the following year with two handgrenades, a pistol and a forged Swiss passport. His mission, according to his confession — extracted by OVRA officers under torture — had been to assassinate Mussolini. Recchioni, he claimed, had provided him with the money, weapons and plan for the attempt. The Italian secret police sent Sbardellotto’s signed confession to London with a list of the dates on which they were alleged to have met, and a request for Recchioni’s extradition. Coinciding with this extradition attempt, was the publication of an article by the 'Daily Telegraph', quoting Italian sources, that identified Recchioni as one of those involved in the alleged, and unsuccessful, assassination plot. Recchioni immediately sued the 'Daily Telegraph' for damages to his reputation, as a 'virtuous man'. The 'Telegraph' asked for Special Branch assistance but Carter would have had to expalin the source of his information if he appeared as a witness, something SB would not allow and the 'Telegraph' lost the court case. Recchioni, who spent, apparently, a mere £35 in paying Sbardellotto’s costs to kill Mussolini, received £1,177 in damages.
Two years later he was dead, having succumbed whilst undergoing an operation on his diseased vocal cords.

1879 - The first edition of Johann Most's 'Freheit' is published in London.

1883 - The III Congreso de la FTRE convened in Valencia [Oct. 4-8], held in the shadow of the La Mano Negra trial in Jerez de la Frontera, give dramatic evidence of the knock-on effects that the illegalistas' campaign were having on the movement, with attendance down on the previous one held in Seville: 152 delegates representing 88 local Federations and 62 trade sections - out of a total of 14 regional federations, 218 local federations and 550 sections. The congress involve a confrontation between the supporters of maintaining the Federation within a legal framework and those who thought that 'legality' left them under the control of a government who imprisoned and tortured them. There remained a serious threat that they might have to dissolve the organisation if they could not continue to operate 'legally'.

1884 - The first issue of the anarchist newspaper 'The Alarm', paper of the International Working People's Association, is published in Chicago by Richard and Lucy Parsons.

[BB] 1884 - Jun Tsuji (辻 潤; d. 1944), Japanese individualist anarchist, avant garde writer, Dadaist poet, essayist, playwright, editor, translator, teacher, nihilist, epicurean, shakuhachi musician, actor, feminist and bohemian, born. Later known as Ryūkitsu Mizushima. Initially a Tolstoyan Humanist influenced by Shūsui Kōtoku's socialist anarchism became a fervent proponent of Stirnerite egoist anarchism and translated 'The Ego and Its Own' into Japanese. He married Noe Itō, who he had taught English. She was to leave him for his close friend Sakae Ōsugi.
Following what populalry became known as the 'Tengu Incident', Jun was institutionalised in 1932 in a psychiatric hospital and eventually became a Buddhist monk. He was later depicted a film biography, 'Erosu Purasu Gyakusatsu' (Eros + Massacre; 1969), directed by Yoshishige Yoshida. Amongst his works are 'Dada no Hanashi' (Dada Talk; 1922), his own introduction to Dada, and his Dadaist play 'Death of an Epicurean' (「享楽主義者の死」 / Kyōraku-shugi-sha no Shi). He also wrote one of the prologues for famed feminist poet Hayashi Fumiko's 'I Saw a Pale Horse' (『蒼馬を見たり』 / Ao Uma wo Mitari; 1929).

[B] 1891 - Henri Gaudier-Brzeska (d. 1915), French anarchist, sculptor, painter and draughtsman associated with the Vorticists, born.

1893 - Emma Goldman appears in court [Oct. 4-9] on charges stemming from her Aug. 21 speech to about three thousand people in Union Square, NY, where, speaking in German and English, she repeated her belief that workers have a right to take bread if they are hungry, and to demonstrate their needs "before the palaces of the rich". Defended by ex-mayor of New York A. Oakey Hall, she denies speaking the words attributed to her by police detectives who monitored her speech. The jury finds Goldman guilty of aiding and abetting an unlawful assemblage. On October 16 she is sentenced to Blackwell's Island penitentiary for one year.

1893 - Francesco Ghezzi (d. 1942), Italian individualist anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, who died in a Soviet gulag, born. [expand]

1900 - Václav Krška (d. 1969), Czech writer, director and writer, born. The básník českého filmu (Czech poet of film) was famous for his film adaptations of anarchist Fráňa Šrámek's poetry. 'Měsíc Nad Řekou' (Moon Over the River; 1953) and 'Stříbrný Vítr' (Silver Wind; 1954). His homosexuality stymied him in career and led to this arrest in 1952.

1901 - Renée Lamberet (Jeanne Renée Yvonne Lamberet; d. 1980), French professor of history and geography, activist and anarchist historian, born. Lamberet collaborated with Max Nettlau. Went to Spain during the Revolution of 1936, helping to produce libertarian propaganda for the CNT and was involved in helping organise various collectivisations. At this time she met her companion Bernardo Pou-Riera. After the fascist victory, Lamberet supported clandestine anarchist activity in France and Spain during the occupation. Wrote 'Mouvements Ouvriers et Socialistes' (1953) and 'La Première Internationale en Espagne 1868-1888' (1969). Died in 1980 before completing an anarchist biographical dictionary. [expand]

1902 - Lucien Tronchet (d. 1982), Swiss anarchist and trade unionist whose anti-fascist activities landed him in prison, born. As a youngster, he joined FOBB (Federation of Wood and Building Workers) with Clovis Abel Pignat. Tronchet went to Spain in 1936 with Luigi Bertoni to fight with the anarchists against Franco. Following WWII, he was an active militant trade unionist, and fought for abortion rights, anti-militarism and the creation of co-operatives. Supported the squatters movement in Geneva. Tronchet wrote the biography of his friend, Clovis Pignat, 'Une Vocation Syndicale Internationale' (1971).

[E] 1923 - Janina Trojanowska-Zborowska, aka 'Jasia', 'Nina' (d. 1944), Polish fighter in the Armia Krajowa (Home Army), who took part in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, born. A member of PET, the clandestine Związek Młodzieży Polskiej 'Przyszłość' (Polish Youth Association 'Future'), beginning wth the German occupation, and later in the Szare Szeregi (Grey Ranks), the codename of the underground Związku Harcerstwa Polskiego (Polish Scouting Association) during the Nazi and Soviet occupations of WWII. On August 1, 1943, she transferred to the AK's Agat (Anti-Gestapo) group (later renamed the Batalion 'Parasol'), a 'diversions' and scoting group attached to the Kedywu AK Headquarters (Komendy Głównej Armii Krajowej). One of her tasks was organising education classes, as well as serving as liaison with Jerzego Zborowskiego aka 'Jeremi', deputy commander of Batalion 'Parasol'. On August 8, 1944 she was injured in the fighting during the defence of the Wolski cemetried in Warsaw's Old Town (Starego Miasta). On August 17, she married Jerzy Zborowski and, after the fall of the Old Town, they joined the fighting in defence of the Czerniaków district. On the night of September 22-23, she, Jerzy and two other 'Parasol' fighters were taken prisoner and it is believed that she was executed close to the Gestapo headquarters later on the 23rd.

1928 - Jacques Gross (b. 1855), French anarchist, freethinker, freemason and member of the Jura Federation, dies.

[DD / F] 1934 - Revolución d'Octubre de 1934: Following the massive victory of the right in the November 19, 1933 elections in Spain, the close runners-up the Partido Republicano Radical (Radical Republican Party), led by Alejandro Lerroux y García, formed a loose alliance with the winners, the recently formed Confederación Española de Derechas Autónomas (CEDA; Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Right-wing Groups), a coalition of largely Catholic conservative groups and Monarchists led by José María Gil-Robles y Quiñones, and which would progressively begin to ape the NSDAP. Lerroux was appointed Prime Minister and the PRR filled all the government posts as the liberals in the Cortes clearly would not accept Robles and his grouping, with its expressed aim of defending Spain and "Christian civilization" from Marxism. However, the CEDA-PRR alliance soon found itself embroiled in internal strife and the Lerroux cabinet soon collapsed. It was replaced by another one drawn from the PRR and led by Ricardo Samper. When the Cortes opened on October 1, 1934, it too fell under right-wing pressure and CEDA ended up with 3 ministries. The new cabinet then proceeded to suspended most of the reforms of the previous Manuel Azaña government.
The immediate response of the left was for the socialists of the Partido Socialista Obrero Español (PSOE), and its industrial wing, the Unión General de Trabajadores (UGT), to propose a Popular Front-style alliance of leftist parties and workers organisations of Spain under the guise of the Alianza Obrera (Workers Alliance). The Confederación Nacional del Trabajo demurred, unlike in Asturias where such an alliance, the Uníos Hermanos Proletarios (UHP; Union of Proletarian Brothers or Unite! Proletarian Brothers) aka Uníos Hijos del Proletariado (Unite! Children of the Proletariat) had been formed in February 1934. The UGT called a general strike, to begin on the evening of October 4, in the name of the Alianza Obrera and, despite the CNT's declared non-involvement, numerous CNT workers centres across Catalonia were raided on the 3rd, with hundreds of anarchist militants being taken away by the police. Efforts to reopen union buildings by force in Barcelona were repelled by armed groups of escamots, the paramilitary youths of the Esquerra, Catalonia's leading nationalist party. Disenchanted with the strike and suffering repeated attacks from the police, the CNT ordered its members back to work, forcing the collapse of the strike in Catalonia.
The strike was not faring much better in other parts of the country. Owing to poor coordination and swift police action, the entire socialist leadership had been arrested in Madrid before the strike could take off. Following this, the poorly armed CNT workers in the capital were left largely to their own devices. Repeated attacks from the police and the unwillingness of the socialist committees to coordinate effectively forced them back to work. A suspicious interception by government troops of much needed arms heading towards Madrid only added to CNT mistrust towards the socialists.
While the strike was falling apart across Spain, in the mining towns of Asturias things were very different. Having negotiated the Pacto CNT-UGT de Asturias and formed the UHP, the high levels of cooperation between miners of both organisations led to a much more successful outcome. By nightfall on the 4th, miners had occupied towns along the Aller and Nalón rivers, attacking and seizing local Civil and Assault Guard barracks. The following day saw columns of the miners advancing along the road to Oviedo, the provincial capital. With the exception of two barracks where fighting with government troops continued, the city was taken by October 6. The following days saw many outlying towns captured amidst heavy fighting, including the large industrial centre of La Felguera.
In these liberated areas it quickly became clear that practical cooperation between the CNT and UGT would be difficult, with the UGT leadership wanting to retain full control over its strongholds, freezing out CNT involvement despite the willingness of UGT rank-and-file workers to cooperate with their counterparts in the CNT. As a result, on October 7 delegates from the anarchist controlled seaport towns of Gijón and Avilés arrived in Oviedo requesting urgently needed weapons to defend against a landing of government troops sent by Generals Manuel Goded and Francisco Franco. The socialists in Oviedo ignored their pleas and they returned empty handed. Gijón and Avilés fell the next day. Constant attacks out of the two ports over the coming week sealed the fate of Asturias, and the uprising was savagely crushed by the Spanish Navy and the Spanish Republican Army, the latter using mainly Moorish troops from Spanish Morocco. 3,000 miners had been killed in the fighting, and another 35,000 taken prisoner during the wave of repression that followed.

1935 - Francisco Granado Gata (d. 1936), Spanish metalworker, anarcho-syndicalist member of the FIJL and CNT, born. During his military service he was diagnosed with leukemia and hospitalised. In 1960 he left for France and settled in Alès, where he worked as a blacksmith. Knowing that he had little time left to live because of his leukemia, he decided to participate in the anti-Franco action groups. In the summer of 1963 he went to Spain with the intention of preparing an attack against Franco in San Sebastien. Arrested in Madrid with Joaquin Delgado Martinez on 31 July, they were accused of having participated in an attack against the headquarters of the Police (DGS), an action which was actually carried out by two other militants, Antonio Martin and Sergio Bellido Hernandez. Despite an international campaign of protest, Francisco Granado Gata and Joaquin Delgado were both sentenced to death and garrotéd on August 16, 1963.

[A] 1936 - Battle of Cable Street: In late September 1936, Mosley and the BUF announced its intention to mount a show of strength on the afternoon of Sunday October 4 to celebrate the fourth birthday of the fascist party with a countrywide call-out of fascists. The plan was to march in 4 columns from the Royal Mint via Aldgate through the ten miles of East London, ending up with four mass rallies in what the fascists considered their strongholds of Shoreditch, Limehouse, Bow and Bethnal Green. Following the announcement and in the run up to the march, hundreds of meetings were held by Jewish organisations, political groups and trades union branches, especially amongst the dockers and garment workers in the East End, to organise opposition to the Blackshirts. The Board of Deputies opposed any active opposition and the CPGB was forced to call off their planned counter protest in Trafalgar Square against Mosley's support for the fascists in Spain.
At the same time, the fascists were also holding numerous meetings, recruiting new members and agitating on the streets. In response, fascist posters were either torn down or obliterated with chalk or anti-fascist posters. Equipment to resist the fascists was also stockpiled close to the march's planned route. Boxes and bags of missiles, half-filled lemonade bottles (shaken and thrown, they would explode loudly upsetting the police horses and scattering glass fragments under hoof) and marbles. A builders yard on the corner of Christian Street and cable Street was one such store where dockers laid in material for the building of barricades. Plans for 15 first aid posts on Back Church Lane were also drawn up, something that was of great need on the day considering the vast number of injuries inflicted on the anti-fascists by a brutal police force determined to drive the fascist march through at any cost.
In the run up to October 4, "[t]he East End became engulfed in a frenzy of political activity, with meetings every night – for and against the fascists. The Home Office recorded police attendance at 536 meetings in August, 603 in September and 647 in October. Nearly 300 extra police a day were drafted into the area." [Daphne Liddle - 'The Battle of Cable Street and the failure of fascism in Britain' (2006)]
On the day, 3,000 Blackshirts had assembled at Royal Mint Street near Tower Bridge, many wearing the so-called 'Action Press' uniform of cap, armband and high boots. Mosley himself arrived in such a uniform. Opposing them were between 150,000-300,000 anti-fascists, with 50,000 alone pressed around Gardner’s Corner, the hub of any route from the City into East London. Gardner’s Corner was completely blocked and a number of the trams that turned around there at the end of the route which the drivers had abandoned were used as barricades. Some of the 10,000 police [according to the Daily Herald’s estimate, but probably closer to 7,000, including the whole of London’s mounted police regiment] tried to force a route through the crowd for the BUF march, brutally wielding truncheons and trampling people under horses' hooves. But, with Mosley's original route up Whitechapel Road blocked, the police had to find a new route - via Cable Street. New barricades were hastily thrown up and the mounted police made a concerted attempt to break though, coming under volleys of missiles, rubbish, the contents of pisspots, etc. Eventually they gave up and ordered the BUF march to turn around and head for Hyde Park.
Over 150 anti-fascists had been arrested and at least 175 people were injured, including 73 police officers, but the fascists had been stopped and, following a short rally in Osborn Street, the anti-fascist forces marched to Victoria Park in the stead of the fascists. Hundreds joined in. Thousands stood on the pavements and in the roads, clapping and cheering as we marched on singing traditional working class marching songs and anthems.
"On the morning of 4th October, the East End was transformed into an expectant Madrid. Red flags were draped from windows, and variations of the slogan ‘They shall not pass’ adorned walls throughout the district. Gangs of youths marched through the streets chanting ‘Mosley shall not pass’ and ‘Bar the road to fascism’.
“Members of the Jewish People’s Council distributed a handbill which ended, ‘This march must not take place’. Leaflets were distributed by the Communists calling for a demonstration at Aldgate. The Ex-Servicemen’s Movement Against Fascism distributed handbills calling on its supporters to parade. The national Unemployed Workers’ Movement boasted of a human barricade. The loudspeaker vans of the Communist Party and the Jewish ex-Servicemen’s Association echoed throughout the boroughs. Anti-fascist rallies were announced for 2pm at Cable Street and at 8pm at Shoreditch." [Robert Benewick - 'The Fascist Movement in Britain' (1972)]
libcom.org/files/1936 Fascists and Police Routed - the Battle of Cable Street.pdf

1939 - Under provisions of Canada's War Measures Act, three Italian immigrant anarchists, Arthur Bortolotti (aka Attilio Bortolotti, Arthur Bartell), Ruggero Benvenuti, Ernest Gava, and a Cuban, Marco Joachim, are arrested for possession of antifascist "subversive literature", including anarchist classics.

1941 - René Bianco (d. 2005), French anarchist activist and historian, free-thinker and Freemason, born.

1943 - The Alianza Obrera (Workers Alliance) de Cataluña calls for a general strike, which quickly spreads across the country lasting in Madrid, for example, for 9 days. CNT members support the strike in various places despite their non-membership of the Alliance. At the same time the separatist movement was flexing its muscles. The Catalan government armed its supporters and they chased many CNT workers out of their offices and places of work by force of arms. The same day the Catalan minister of the interior ordered the arrest of a large number of well-known anarchists, hoping to prevent the CNT from 'interfering' in the strike and to intimidate it into supporting the separatist movement's cause. as the Alianza Obrera was already doing. The CNT released a statement saying that they supported the struggle against fascism but would not support party political aims or the separatists.

1961 - Max Weber (b. 1881), Jewish-American Cubist painter, poet, and anarchist, dies. [see: Apr. 18]

[D] 1993 - October Coup [Октябрьский путч]: Following yesterday's attempted coup by the 'old guard' former Communist nomenklatura and other reactionary elements such as Stalinists from the Working Russia (Трудовая Россия) movement, fascists from the Russian National Unity (Русское Национальное Единство) group, militants from Transnistria and Abkhazia and various monarchist and Russian Orthadox groups, the army and a number of political groups, such as the Civic Union (Гражданский союз) bloc, and commentators side with Yeltsin.
During an emergency RTR broadcast in the early hours of the morning, the economist and politician Grigory Yavlinsky said: "The people who call themselves defenders of the White House have used force, provoked bloody disturbances, massacres – and thus forfeited any right to call themselves defenders of the law, of democracy, and of the Constitution. Today, Boris Nikolaevich Yeltsin must use all the means at his disposal . . . to stop the use of force by fascist, extremist criminal groups, who have assembled under the auspices of the White House. . . . For the sake of the future, we must remove the violators from our streets, from our squares, from Ostankino, and throw them out of our cities."
By sunrise on October 4, the Russian army had encircled the parliament building, and at 06:50 the first gunshots were exchanged as combat vehicles began destroying the defenders' barricades. At 08:00, infantry fighting vehicles and armoured personnel carriers directly targeted fire at the upper windows of the White House. At 09:20, six T-80 tanks launched a total of 12 rounds at the upper floors of the parliament building from the Kalininsky (Novoarbatsky) Bridge. 11:00: A cease-fire is announced in order to allow women and children to leave the White House. 12:00: The Public Opinion Foundation says 72 per cent of Muscovites support Yeltsin in the crisis, 9 per cent are on parliament’s side, with 19 per cent refusing to answer. 17:00: A mass surrender of 700 people takes place. 18:00: Vice president Aleksandr Rutskoy, Parliament leader Ruslan Khasbulatov and nationalist leader Albert Makashov are arrested.
On October 8, official police figures claimed that 187 had died in the conflict and 437 had been wounded. Communist sources named much higher numbers: up to 2,000 dead.

2009 - Alfredo Bonanno is arrested for bank robbery in Greece. [expand]

2012 - Residents of Totonicapán, a Guatemalan highland municipality with a majority Maya-K'iche' population, the Inter-American Highway to protest against a hike in electricity rates, a series of constitutional reforms that indigenous peoples were not consulted about and the threat of restrictions on access to education in rural areas through a proposed change to the teaching curriculum. Government soldiers open fire on them, killing 6 and injuring more than 40. The troops' commander, Col Juan Chiroy Sal, and 8 soldiers are eventually arrested and charged with extra-judicial killing.
1713 - Denis Diderot (d. 1784), French essayist, philosopher and playwright, claimed to be a forebearer of anarchism, born.

[AA / D] 1789 - Marche des Memmes vers Versailles: Having ransacked and looted the Hôtel de Ville, an angry mob of some 7,000 working women – armed with pitchforks, pikes and muskets – marches in the rain from Paris to Versailles chanting “Bread! Bread!” Despite being met by 20,000 French National Guardsmen who were protecting the royal family, the mob still manages to break into the palace to search for the Queen – who only narrowly escapes by fleeing to the King’s secure apartments through a secret passageway. Two of her bodyguards are not so lucky; their severed heads are impaled on pikes, serving as a clear statement of the mob’s intent.
Eventually forced to face the crowd, a humiliated Antoinette shame-faced stands before the crowd, who hurl insults at her rather than stringing her up. The crowd then demands that King Louis XVI distribute bread that the palace had been hoarding, sanction the August Decrees and the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen and accompany them back to Paris to see for himself the plight of the city and its citizens. The King has no choice but to agree to their terms.

1836 - Lowell Mill Girls Strike:
"Dear Diary,
Hello, my name is Sarah Brown, and this is the first time that I am able to write in a diary, my mother has never had enough money to even buy me food. I live in Lowell, Massachusetts, and my mother is a mill girl. What my mother told me was that it started when New England men were farmers and they couldn't work the machines that turned out the textiles. They didn't what to pay people to stop being farmers because then they would have to pay them more and it would cost the Lowell mill owners too much money. So, they hired originally the England women to work. Now, my mother spends there most of the day and she tells me that I will have to soon help her too, when I turn 10."

1838 - Pauline Léon (b. 1768), French militant feminist and revolutionary, who co-founded the Société des Républicaines Révolutionnaires (Society of Revolutionary Republican Women) with Claire Lacombe, dies. [see: Sep. 28]

1839 - Eugène Varlin (d. 1871, French bookbinder, labour activist, internationalist communard and libertarian, born. [expand]

1858 - Whilst exiled in Tomsk, Siberia, for his part in the Dresden uprising in 1849, Mikhail Bakunin marries Antonia Ksaverievna Kwiatkowska, the daughter of a Polish merchant.

1903 - Germinal Esgleas (Josep Esgleas i Jaume; d. 1981), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. Companion of Federica Montseny.

1905 - [O.S. Sep. 22] October All-Russian Political Strike [Октябрьская всероссийская политическая стачка]: The University of Moscow is closed to prevent political agitation.

1909 - The first issue of Pierre Monatte's 'La Vie Ouvrière' is published in Paris. Initially a fortnightly, it goes on to become the official weekly paper of the revolutionary CGT. Initially an anarchist and syndicalist journal in the period up til July 20 1914, anarchist continue to collaborate on it after WWI up til the early '20s. From then on it becomes a French Communist Party organ.

[E] 1917 - The 'Mother Earth Bulletin' is published for the first time by a collective including Emma Goldman, her niece Stella Ballantine and M. Eleanor Fitzgerald.

1919 - Giliana Berneri (d. 1998), Franco-Italian anarchist activist, born. Daughter of Camillo Berneri and Giovannina Caleffi and sister of Marie-Louise Berneri.

1923 - Stig Dagerman (d. 1954), Swedish playwright, novelist, poet and anarcho-syndicalist, born.

1934 - Jean Vigo (b. 1934), Surrealist/anarchist film-maker, dies. [see: Apr. 24]

1934 - Revolución de 1934 / Asturian Miners' Strike: The strike and the insurrection due to begin at midnight (Oct. 4-5) has been in preparation for months but, owing to poor coordination and swift police action, the entire socialist leadership is arrested in Madrid before the strike could take off. Following this, the poorly armed CNT workers in the capital are left largely to their own devices. Repeated attacks from the police and the unwillingness of the socialist committees to coordinate effectively force the workers back to work. A suspicious interception by government troops of much needed arms heading towards Madrid only adds to CNT mistrust towards the socialists. The Basque Country also took part with a week-long insurrection strike (Oct. 5-12), during which there were forty deaths (most of them insurgents). In Catalonia, with the labour sector of the alliance not having the CNT-FAI in its ranks, the uprising is barely noticed except in industrial towns like Sabadell. The strike, however, does take place even with the mass arrest of anarchists and CNT members.
While the strike is falling apart in Madrid and elsewhere across Spain, workers of the mining towns of Asturias are taking up what little arms they have, intent on carrying the strike through. The province had long been a UGT stronghold, although the CNT also exercised a considerable influence of its own. Widely seen as being on the moderate wing of the union, the Asturian CNT has for many years been at the forefront of calls for CNT-UGT collaboration. The lack of antagonism (in comparison to relations between the unions in other parts of the country), and history of common action in Asturias results in high levels of cooperation between miners of both organisations during the insurrection.
Before dawn in Asturias, all the Guardia Civil barracks throughout the villages of the province are called upon to surrender, and then attacked. Despite fierce resistance, 40 of the 90 these fall to the insurgents. Once overcome, revolutionary groups are set up in Sama, La Felguera and Mieres and columns of miners (around 1,000) advance along the road to attack Oviedo, the provincial capital, where there had only been uprisings in one or two barrios, and where the government forces had seized strategic positions.
Attempts by the authorities through the advance of a company of police from the south runs into trouble in the vicinity of Campomanes and half their numbers are killed in a clash with workers. Resistance in this area around Vega del Rey also holds up a large military force for days.

1934 - In an attempt to shore up support in the West Country, Oswald Mosley flew into Plymouth Airport in October to give a speech in the Millbank Drill Hall in Plymouth. His speech was continuously interrupted by sections of the 3,500 audience singing the 'Red Flag'. Towards the end of the meeting fighting broke out and a journalist and photographer for the local 'Western Morning News' were beaten up by some of the 50 Blackshirt stewards [most were bussed in as the Plymouth BUF branch could now hardly muster a handful of local ones due to a plummeting membership caused by anti-fascist opposition to its activities] when they tried to photograph the fighting. His camera was also smashed. It descended into further farce when 20 anti-fascists stormed the stage followed by the electricity blowing and the lights going out. Nine Blackshirts were charged variously with assault, damage, and inciting the committing of a breach of the peace, to add to the three imprisoned at Exeter on assault charges following a visit to Plymouth looking for the lodgings of Nathan Birch, Director of Propaganda, and Maurice Isaacs, General Secretary, of the anti-fascist organisation the New World Fellowship, whose speaker loudspeaker vans had been in town prior to the BUF meeting, and had ended up attacking the elder owner of their lodgings.
The press turned on BUF and financial difficulties led to Moseley winding up the Plymouth Fascist headquarters and leaving the city the following year. [PR]

[F] 1936 - The Jarrow March begins. [expand]

[B] 1939 - A. R. Penck (aka Ralf Winkler), German painter, draughtsman, printmaker, sculptor, film maker, writer and musician, one-time East German dissident and "anarchist par excellence", born. He was the drummer in the Free Jazz/Improv band 'TTT' which he co-founded with Frank and Heinz Wollny and during the 1980s palyed with some of the foremost jazz and improvising musicians including Butch Morris, Frank Wright, Billy Bang, Louis Moholo, Alan Silva and Frank Lowe.
www.bb10k.com/PENCK.html [discog]

1939 - On September 28, Warsaw was forced to capitualte to the German Army and from October 1 troops began to occupy the city. Hitler planned to receive a massive victory parade of Gen. Blaskowitz's 8th Army to coincide with the completion of the Nazi-Soviet annexation of the country. In the last days of September, Polish General Michał Karaszewicz-Tokarzewski created the beginnings of a future underground organization, the Służby Zwycięstwu Polski (SZP; Polish Victory Service) and began a plan to assassinate Hitler on his visit to the Polish capital. Sappers laid two large caches of explosives (250 kg of TNT in each plus artillery shells) in ditches dug in the days of the siege of Warsaw. The boxes were covered with earth and made ​​to resemble the normal state of the road. One charge was placed near the National Economy Bank building, on the west corner of Nowy Swiat and Jerusalem Avenue; the second - in the building of the Directorate of Railways on the east corner, both on the route of his planned motorcade, and he command wires led to the basement of one of the ruined houses nearby. However, the charges, which would have devastated the surrounding area and killed many of the Poles that were silently witnessing the scene of the Nazi triumphalism trapped in the buildings lining the street, were never detonated and the definitive reason has never been stated. Franciszek Niepokólczycki aka 'Teodor', the sapper in charge of the action was unable to reach the basement due to the Germans closing off the street before he could get there and it is believed that the officer present hesitated and ultimately missed the opportunity. Having flown in on the day and received a rapturous greeting from the assembled troops, he returned by plane to Berlin later that day.

1945 - Hollywood Black Friday: During a six-month strike by set decorators, represented by the Conference of Studio Unions (CSU), boils over at the main gate of Warner Brothers’ studios in Burbank as scabs attempt to drive through a blockade by 300 strikers. By the end of the day, some 300 police and deputy sheriffs had been called to the scene and over 40 injuries were reported. Media coverage of the violence pressured the studios to negotiate and the strike ended about a month later.

1947 - Giuseppe Emanuele Modigliani (b. 1872), Italian anarchist, socialist, trades union organiser, pacifist and anti-fascist, dies. [see: Oct. 28]

1949 - Madeleine Vernet (Madeleine Cavelier; b. 1878), French libertarian educator, novelist, feminist, peace activist and propagandist, dies. [see: Sep. 3]

[C] 1963 - Colin Jordan marries John Tyndall's ex-fiancee Françoise Dior, a French neo-Nazi and niece of Christian Dior, in a civil ceremony at Caxton Hall. They are pelted with eggs and fruit whilst giving the Nazi salute outside.

1968 - Seattle police kill Black Panther member Welton 'Butch' Armstead during an arrest for suspicion of car theft.

1974 - An IRA bombing at a pub in Guilford, near London, killing 5 people. The so-called Guildford Four are 'fitted-up' by poilce and sentenced to life in prison for the bombing.

[A] 1985 - Cynthia Jarrett dies as police raid her home in Broadwater Farm, London, triggering extensive riots the following day.

1993 - October Coup [Октябрьский путч]: Under the headline "Writers demand decisive actions of the government", the newspaper 'Izvestiya' published the Letter of Forty-Two (Письмо́ сорока́ двух), an open letter to the government and President signed by 42 well-known Russian literati, listing seven demands which included the banning of various organisations, paramilitary groups, newspapers and even the television program '600 Seconds' (600 секунд), as well as the prosecution of those involved in the siege of the White House and various new laws. Later in the day Yeltsin complied, banning the National Salvation Front, the Russian Communist Party, the United Front of Workers and the Union of Officers, while 'Pravda', the former organ of the Soviet Communist Party, 'Den'', 'Sovetskaya Rossiya' and a number of other papers were told to cease publication.
On October 6, Yeltsin also called on those regional Soviets that had opposed him (by far the majority) to disband. Valery Zorkin, chairman of the Constitutional Court, was forced to resign. The chairman of the Federation of Independent Trade Unions was also sacked. The anti-Yeltsin TV broadcast '600 Seconds' of Alexander Nevzorov was ultimately closed down.
On December 12, 1993, Russia held its first multiparty parliamentary elections since November 1917. That vote was won by the opposition. The elections in December 1995 resulted in an even more anti-Yeltsin Parliament, which, in the spring of 1999, fell only 17 votes short of impeaching the president. The fate of those who were defeated in October 1993 is telling. A number of former people’s deputies, including those actively involved in the confrontation (such as Sergei Baburin, Yuri Voronin, Nikolai Pavlov, Nikolai Kharitonov, and others), became members of the new State Duma. Also elected to the Duma was General Albert Makashov, whose work in Parliament will be remembered mostly for his promise to "take ten Yids to the underworld". The leaders of the rebellion, who had called for forming armed squadrons and storming the Kremlin, were released from prison under a parliamentary amnesty in February 1994. In 1996, Alexander Rutskoi was elected governor of the Kursk region; in 1999, he was among the co-founders of the pro-Putin Unity Bloc, now known as United Russia.

1996 - A day of cultural activities to mark the 120th anniversary of the death of Michael Bakunin is held in Locarno, Switzerland. The day is organised by the city's Department of Museums and Culture, in collaboration with the Monte Verita Foundation and the Ministry of Education and Culture.

1996 - A bomb explodes in the mayoral offices of French Prime Minister Alain Juppe. There are no casualties. A Corsican separatist group later claima responsibility.

2008 - Six anti-fascists are arrested in a street fight against BNP activists in Bethnal Green, East London. ['Docklands & East London Advertiser']

2010 - Bernard Clavel (b. 1923), French novelist, poet, essayist, anarchist and pacifist, dies. [see: May 29]

2011 - White suprematist killers Joey Pedersen and Holly Grigsby are arrested outside Yuba City, California, telling police that they were on their way to Sacramento to "kill more Jews". [see: Sep. 26/Oct. 1 & 3]
1848 - Today and tomorrow, the citizens of Vienna demonstrate against the Emperor's [Ferdinand I of Austria and King Ferdinand V of Hungary] decision to send Austrian and Croatian troops to Hungary to crush a democratic rebellion there. On September 29th the Austrian troops were defeated by the Hungarian revolutionary forces.

1885* - Joseph James 'Smiling Joe' Ettor (d. 1948), Italian-American trade union organiser who, in the middle-1910s, was one of the leading public faces of the Industrial Workers of the World, born. Ettor is best remembered as a defendant in a controversial trial related to a killing in the seminal Lawrence Textile Strike of 1912, in which he was acquitted of charges of having been an accessory. [expand]
[*some sources give the year as 1886]

1889 - The first issue of the Italian language weekly newspaper 'L'Associazione' is published by Errico Malatesta in Nice. From issue 4 (Nov. 30, 1889) it is published in London but ceases publication on Jan. 23, 1890 after 7 issues.

1893 - Paulino Pallas (b. 1862), Catalonian militant anarchist, is executed by firing squad at Fort Montjuic for the attempted assassination of Commander General (military governor) of Catalonia, General Arsenio Martínez Campos, during a military parade in the Gran Via in Barcelona on September 24, 1893.

1894 - A new initiative to have the prison sentence of Alexander Berkman commuted is launched by Emma Goldman.

[E] 1894 - Salud Algabre, Filipina seamstress, agricultural worker and revolutionary, born. She was only female member of the Sakdalista movement, a grassroots group in the 1930s that pushed for full independence, the end of American rule as well as the equal distribution of land owned by the hacienderos. As the only female member of the movement, she rose from the ranks to become the leader, earning her the moniker of 'Generala'. She actively participated during the group’s two-day uprising that started on May 2, 1935, leading a group of men in capturing municipal buildings and blockading roads. However, the Spanish authorities crushed the rebellion and arrested Algabre for her role. She was later released and stated that she never regretted joining the movement with her husband and described it as "the high point of our lives".

1897 - The first issue of Zo Axa's newspaper 'La Feuille' makes it début in Paris. It will be illustrated front and back by a number of talented artists including René Hermann-Paul, Maximilien Luce, Théophile Steinlen, Adolphe Willette, etc.

[B] 1900 - Ethel Edith Mannin (d. 1984), Irish novelist, journalist, travel writer anti-imperialist, 'Tolstoyan anarchist', anti-fascist activist, anti-Stalinist, feminist, and anti-militarist, born. Her writing career began in copy-writing and journalism but she later became a prolific author and novelist (100 plus books published in her lifetime), encompassing many aspects of anarchism and feminism as well as her travel writing. A member of the Solidaridad Internacional Antifascista, taking over Emma Goldman's as the London SIA representative, she listed Bart de Ligt and A. S. Neill as thinkers who influenced her ideas. Amongst her works were her biography of Emma Goldman, 'Red Rose: A Novel based on the Life of Emma Goldman' (1941); her first (of 6) autobiographical volumes 'Confessions and Impressions' (1930), one of the first Penguin paperbacks; 'Song of the Bomber' (1936), a book of poetry whose title poem was written in response to the fascist bombing raids during the Spanish Revolution; 'Spain and Us' (with J.B. Priestley, Rebecca West, Stephen Spender, Francis Meynell, Louis Golding, T. F. Powys, J. Langdon-Davies, Catherine Carswell; 1936); 'Against Race-Hatred and for a Socialist Peace' (with Richard Acland, Vera Brittain, G. D. H. Cole, Victor Gollancz, Augustus John, James Maxton and J. B Priestley; 1940); 'Bread and Roses: An Utopian Survey and Blue-Print' (1944); 'Rebels' Ride. A Consideration of the Revolt of the Individual' (1964); 'Jungle Journey: 7000 Miles through India and Pakistan' (1950); etc..
Ethel Mannin died on December 5, 1984 in Teignmouth, Devon.

1901 - Les Travailleurs de la Nuit robbery at Bourdin's jewelers in an apartment on the 4th floor of the building located at 76 rue Quincampoix in Paris. They enter through a hole in the ceiling, break into the safe and completely empty it. Six days later, the rogatory commission launched by Judge Joseph Leydet claims that the booty carried away by thieves amounted to 121,486 francs.

1905 - [O.S. Sep. 23] October All-Russian Political Strike [Октябрьская всероссийская политическая стачка]: A printers strike begins in Moscow, the start of what will become Russia's first General Strike. Over the next few days (Oct. 6-8 [O.S. Sep. 23-25]) clashes between the population and tsarist troops and Cossacks result in numerous deaths and injuries amongst the strikers and their supporters. By the 10th [O.S. Sep. 27] the printers' strike in Moscow had effectively escalated into a fully-fledged city-wide General Strike.

[F] 1913 - New Zealand Great Strike: Allison's Taupiri Coal Company sacked sixteen miners at Huntly, three of whom had recently been elected to the arbitration unions executive. The company refused another ballot and the directors declared that the was nothing to discuss with the union. Three days later the workers voted almost unanimously to strike until the sixteen men, and other miners not re-employed after a strike the previous year, were reinstated.

1934 - Revolución de 1934 / Asturian Miners' Strike: Oviedo is taken by the insurgents, with the exception of sites such as two barracks and an arms factory, where fighting with government troops continues. The Repubblica Socialista Asturiana is proclaimed in the city.
The following days see the capture of many outlying towns amidst heavy fighting, including the large industrial centre of La Felguera. Many of these also see the formation of town assemblies or 'revolutionary committees', and it is in these bodies that practical differences between the socialists and anarchists become apparent. In areas under CNT control, popular assemblies of industrial workers (or peasants in rural areas) are formed, organising such things as food distribution. In contrast, areas under socialist control are characterised by highly centralised committees which keep any decision making largely in the hands of the local UGT bureaucracy. Often excluding CNT delegates to their committees, the determination of the socialist leadership to keep the strike strictly under their control significantly contributes to the defeat of the revolt in Asturias. Despite this, the willingness of UGT rank-and-file workers to cooperate with their counterparts in the CNT is demonstrated continuously throughout the uprising.
In the south of the province, a significant contingent of army troops arrived, forcing groups of insurgents to fall back towards Vega del Rey, after destroying the railway line. Campomanes saw the arrival of a battalion Infantry Regiment No. 36, based on Leon; a section of rifles of the No. 12 Lugo Infantry Regiment and a Palencia cyclist battalion consisting of 400 men. By sundown, revolutionary forces had seized key positions on the higher areas around Vega del Rey overlooking the railway and highway, and government forces led by General Bosch had fallen into a trap from which they would not be able to extracate themselves for days. [see: Oct. 4 & 5]

1934 - Revolución de 1934: In Barcelona, ​​the president of the Generalitat, Lluís Companys i Jover, proclaims the formation of the Estat Català (Catalan State) within the Spanish Federal Republic. Companys and the members of his government were arrested sentenced on June 6, 1935 to thirty years' imprisonment. The Estatut d'autonomia de Catalunya de 1932 was suspended on January 2, 1933, and a governor-general imposed in place of the Generalitat.

1934 - Revolución de 1934: Following the mass arrest of anarchists and anarcho-syndicalists on the 3rd in advance of the general strike called by the UGT for the evening of October 4, in various parts of Barcelona, the CNT takes matters into their own hands and start to reopen union branch offices and halls that the police had closed 10 months previously. Armed groups of escamots, the paramilitary youths of the Esquerra, Catalonia's leading nationalist party, and the police then attacked the barnches, forcing the syndicalists to withdraw. [see: Oct. 4]

1934 - Revolución de 1934: During the evening and night, rebels take control of the town of Alguazas in Mucia, seizing the central Teléfonos y Telégrafos building and arresting at gunpoint the civil and ecclesiastical authorities of the municipality. The revolutionaries then proclaimed a Socialist Republic and raised the red flag on the balcony of the town hall. [expand]

1945 - The founding congress of the Fédération Anarchiste (FA) begins in Paris.

1957 - Alphonse Tricheux (b. 1880), French militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and pacifist, dies. [see: Jan. 22]

[A] 1969 - Weathermen dynamite a statue of a policeman in Haymarket Square, Chicago in the run up to the Days Of Rage.

[A] 1970 - The rebuilt Haymarket police statue is blown up yet again by the Weather Underground.

[C] 1977 - Miquel Grau i Gómez, 20-year-old Catalan leftist and anti-Fascist, active in the Communist Movement of Valencia (MCPV), is killed by fascist Miguel Sandoval, a member of Fuerza Nueva. Sandoval, who was one of a group of fascists who attacked a group of MCPV militants putting up posters in the Plaza de Los Luceros in Alicante, threw a brick at Miquel, striking him on the head, killing him.

1977 - The once monthly newspaper 'Le Monde Libertaire' goes weekly.

1979 - Over 1400 people are arrested at Seabrook, New Hampshire, the construction site of two new nuclear power plant during an occupation organised by the Clamshell Alliance.

[D] 1985 - Broadwater Farm Riot: Four police officers search the home of Mrs Cynthia Jarrett, near the Broadwater Farm housing estate in Tottenham. Mrs Jarrett’s son Floyd is currently in custody at Tottenham police station, having given a false name when found in a car with an inaccurately made out tax disc. The visit causes panic among some of the occupants, and in the furore Jarrett’s mother, Mrs Cynthia Jarrett, collapses. She is pronounced dead on arrival at hospital. With tensions already high in London following the shooting by police of Cherry Groce, a black woman from Brixton, during another raid a week earlier, which left her paralysed below the waist, two home Beat officers are attacked and seriously injured by a brick-throwing crowd, one of them having his spleen ruptured by a paving stone thrown onto his back when he had fallen.
All day tension escalated with an increasing number of clashes between rioters and the police involving bricks and molotovs. Two police officers were shot and wounded and a number of news reporters also claimed to have been shot. Later that night, a serial of officers who were protect firefighters were attacked and one, PC Keith Blakelock, was killed. By midnight 58 policemen and 24 other people had been taken to hospital. Bernie Grant, leader of the Labour-controlled Haringey Council said in the aftermath that: "The youths around here believe the police were to blame for what happened on Sunday and what they got was a bloody good hiding."
Over the following days (October 10-14th), an "amazing" [according to the Broadwater Farm Inquiry] 9,165 officers were operating on the estate or held in reserve and 359 people arrested in connection with the Blacklock killing, with just 94 being interviewed in the presence of a lawyer. Other incidents of "racist and oppressive policing" [Broadwater Farm Inquiry quote] included the smashing down of 18 front doors to homes with sledgehammers. The Inquiry was left asking if the police were "acting in this way simply to intimidate not just the occupants of the particular flats, but the estate as a whole?"
On January 14 1987, 3 adults - Winston Silcott, Engin Raghip and Mark Braithwaite - and 3 juveniles - Mark Pennant (15-year old), Mark Lambie (14-year old) and Jason Hill (13-year-old) - were put on trial at the Old Bailey for Blakelock's murder. The judge later dismissed the charges against the youths because they had been detained without access to parents or a lawyer, but the 3 adults were found guilty on unanimous verdicts on March 9th. All three were cleared on November 25, 1991 by the Court of Appeal when an ESDA test demonstrated police notes of interrogations (the only evidence) had been tampered with.
Out of the total of 359 people arrested, 159 were charged but only 49 men and youths were convicted of any offence arising from the riots (excluding Winston Silcott, Engin Raghip and Mark Braithwaite)
In July 2013 Nicholas Jacobs was charged with the murder of Keith Blakelock (four other men arrested at the same time were not charged) but he was cleared on April 9, 2014 of all charges.
[E] 1793 - Claire Lacombe, president of the Société des Citoyennes Républicaines Révolutionnaires, shows up at the bar of the Convention and denounces the way the government is oppressing women, adding "Nos droits sont ceux du peuple, et si l'on nous opprime, nous saurons opposer la résistance à l'oppression" (Our rights are those of the people, and if one oppresses us, we know how to resist that oppresion).

[D] 1848 - Oktoberaufstand: The citizens of Vienna demonstrate for the second day running against the Emperor's [Ferdinand I of Austria and King Ferdinand V of Hungary] decision to send Austrian and Croatian troops to Hungary to crush a democratic rebellion there, following the defeat of Austrian troops there by the Hungarian revolutionary forces on September 29th.
Following two days of protest against Austria's intervention in Hungary, Emperor Ferdinand flees Vienna taking up residence in the fortress town of Olomouc in Moravia, in the east of the empire. On December 2, 1848, Ferdinand abdicated in favour of his nephew Franz Joseph. [see: Oct. 6]

1849 - Edgar Allan Poe (b. 1809), US author, poet, editor and literary critic, dies. [see: Jan. 19]

[B] 1864 - Victor Barrucand (d. 1934), French anarchist poet, musician, writer and journalist, born. A musician, he played the flute and oboe in Parisian cafés and frequent bohemian Paris. His meeting and subsequent friendship with Felix Fénéon is critical for his new commitment to art (especially his interest in the theatre) but also his anarchism, working on Zo Axa's newspaper 'L'Endehors' at the time. In 1893, he participated in the conference group l'Idée Nouvelle and is involved in the trial of Émile Henry. He also wrote Jean Grave's newspaper 'Les Temps Nouveaux' and launched in 1895, a national campaign for free bread for all measures deemed by some anarchists to be reformist (the idea was taken up in 1906 by Charles Dhooghe) . In 1897, he moved towards a socialist federalist position and in 1899 was one of the delegates of the Socialist Congress in Paris, as well as working at 'La Revue Blanche'. An ardent supporter of Dreyfus, he was sent to Algeria by the League of Human Rights to counter anti-Semitism. In 1902 he became editor of 'L'Akhbar' (The News) and a columnist for literary and artistic newspaper 'La Depeche Algerian'.
His poetry works include: 'Rythmes et Rimes à Mettre en Musique' (Rhythms and Rhymes Set to Music; 1886); 'Amour Idéal, Poème en Vingt-Quatre Sonnets' (Ideal Love, Poem in Twenty-Four Sonnets; 1889)
'Une Partie d'Échecs, Poème Scénique' (A chess game, scenic poem; 1889); a novel - 'Avec le Feu' (With Fire; 1900, reissued in 2005); plays - 'Pour le Roi' (1897); 'Le Chariot de Terre Cuite, 5 Actes d'Après la Pièce du Théâtre Indien Attribuée au Roi Soudraka' (The Chariot of terracotta; 1895) - an adaptation of Sanskrit Theatre; and journalism, etc.: 'D'un Pays Plus Beau : Afrique, Espagne, Italie, heures de France, Variations sur des Thèmes Étrangers...' (In a country more beautiful...; 1910) and 'L'Algérie et les Peintres Orientalistes' (Algeria and Orientalist Painters; 1930).

1879 - Joel Emmanuel Hägglund, better known as Joe Hill (d. 1915), Swedish-American labour organiser, folk-poet, songwriter and member of the Industrial Workers of the World, born. [expand]

1881 - The Comisión Federal of the Federación de Trabajadores de la Región Española is formed around the internationalist group from Barcelona that had taken the initiative to end FRE - Josep Llunas i Pujals , Rafael Farga Pellicer and Antoni Pellicer i Paraire - plus Francisco Tomás Oliver.

[F] 1899 - Syndicats 'Jaunes': Following the September-October 1899 general strike of Le Creusot, an arbitration award in favour of the striking workers is signed by the liberal President of the French Council of Ministers, Pierre Waldeck-Rousseau. He had recently been appointed to the post, replacing Charles Dupuy (a victim of the ongoing repercussions of the Affaire Dreyfus), and his arbitration award also had a sting it its tail, authorising the creation of syndicats 'jaunes' (yellow unions), workers' unions set up on the initiative of their employer. On October 29, 1899, Eugène II Schneider, head of Schneider et Cie and the Le Creusot steel works, who was prominently involved in the strike-breaking efforts during the ongoing industrial unrest in the city, set up the first 'syndicat jaune', the syndicat des corporations ouvrières du Creusot et de ses dépendances (union of workers' guilds of Le Creusot and its dependencies).

[1906 - [O.S. Sep. 24] Helsingfors (Helsinki) Conference (Oct. 7-11): the liberal Kadet Party officially abandons its radical 'Vyborg Manifesto' fourth session of the Cadet Party (Sept. 24-28 [Oct. 7-11], 1906) adopted a resolution rejecting implementation of the Vyborg Appeal

1911 - Zapatista revolutionaries take Axochiapan, Morelos, from government forces during the Mexican Revolution.

1919 - Nicolas Thomassin (b. 1849), French weaver, socialist and anarchist, dies. [see: Feb. 24]

[C] 1923 - The inaugural meeting of the British Fascisti (BF), founded in May 1923 by Rotha Lintorn-Orman, is disrupted by communists. The meeting ends in pandemonium. [PR]

1931 - André Colomer (b. 1886), Catalonian poet and individualist anarchist, dies. [see: Dec. 4]

1933 - Charles Joseph Antoine 'Jo' Labadie (b. 1850), US labour activist, writer, poet, printer, non-violent individualist anarchist, dies. [see: Apr. 18]

1934 - Revolución de 1934 / Asturian Miners' Strike: Delegates from the anarchist controlled seaport towns of Gijón (outside of which legionnaires and regular Army Africa troops commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Yagüe had landed) and Avilés arrive in Oviedo requesting urgently needed weapons to defend against a landing of government troops. Ignored by the socialist committee, the delegates returned to their town empty handed. Lacking even the basic arms needed to defend against the attacking troops, Gijón and Avilés fell the next day. Constant attacks out of the two ports over the coming week sealed the fate of Asturias, and the uprising was savagely crushed. 3,000 miners had been killed in the fighting, and another 35,000 taken prisoner during the wave of repression that followed. In Oviedo, the Northern Railways Police Headquarters, the Carabinieri barracks and the railway station fall to the insurgents. In the port of Avilés, the Agadir, a three thousand ton Basque merchant ship is sunk in the entrance to the Ria de Avilés to prevent the rumoured arrival of troops ships to launch an attack on Oviedo.
In the south, the military launch artillery attack on the rebel positions around Vega del Rey. [see: Oct. 4 & 5]

[CC] 1944 - Birkenau Sonderkommando Revolt: The Sonderkommando were Jewish prisoners who worked the death camps in return for special treatment and privileges. Every few months, the current sonderkommando was liquidated and the first task of their successors was to dispose of the bodies of the previous group. Since a Sonderkommando usually comprised men from incoming transports, their second task often consisted of disposing of the bodies of their own families. The Sonderkommando did not participate in the actual killing, that was carried out by the Nazis, they just did all the dirty work - guiding 'selections' to the gas chambers, removing bodies afterwards and collecting all the useful items (e.g. teeth, hair, etc.), cremating the bodies, etc..
At the end of June 1944, the 12th Sonderkommando started forming plans for a revolt, partially incited by a number of Soviet Prisoners of War. They began collecting weapons (knives and small axes) and female prisoner working in a nearby munitions factory smuggled in gunpowder. The idea had been to stage the uprising as the advancing Soviet army neared but, following an announcement that some of them would be selected to be "transferred to another camp" - a common Nazi euphemism for the murder of prisoners - the Jewish Sonderkommando of Birkenau Kommando III attacked the SS guards with stones, axes, and makeshift hand grenades (made from the smuggled in gunpowder over the preceding months from a munitions factory). An especially sadistic Nazi guard in Crematorium I is disarmed and stuffed into an oven to be burned alive. Two other SS guards are killed and 10 more wounded. However, the revolt is quickly put down but not before the Sonderkommando in Crematorium IV use their demolition charges to blow the oven rooms in a defiant suicide. Crematorium IV was damaged beyond repair and never used again. All 250 Jews were killed, most shot in the back of the head whilst lying face down outside the crematoria. Some are tortured and give up the names of the four Jewish women who had supplied the stolen explosive materials. The women - Ala Gartner, Roza Robota, Regina Safirsztajn and Estera Wajcblum - were captured and hanged in front of other prisoners on January 4, 1945 – as an act of revenge, but also to stop others resisting. One, Róża Robota (b. 1921), shouts "Be strong and be brave" as the trapdoor drops.

1945 - Gregor Gog (b. 1891), German anarchist, anti-militarist and founder of the FAUD-aligned international movement Bruderschaft der Vagabunden (Brotherhood of Vagrants), dies. [see: Nov. 7]

1967 - The recently formed National Front hold their first annual general meeting in Conway Hall (again). A significant anti-fascist presence outside the meeting fails to halt it despite a sabotage attempt on the internal power that put out most of the lights for the duration of the event. Amongst those present was John Tyndall, who was instrumental in the push towards fascist unification within this new nationalist organisation - he had not attending previous meetings as he had been in prison on firearms charges, but had disbaned the Greater Britain Movement in August and ordered the rump of the organisation to join the ranks of the NF and many were now present in Caxton Hall. Anti-fascists protest outside the meeting.

1968 - Ülo Voitka, Estonian anti-Soviet guerilla legend and proto-anarchist member of Metsavendlus Eestis (Forest Brothers), born. His brother is Aivar Voitka. The documentary 'Voitka - Metsän Veljet' (Warriors of Independence; 2004) directed by Pekka Lehto, was made about their exploits.

1995 - Gabriele 'Gabi' Kröcher-Tiedemann aka 'Nada' (1951–1995), German urban guerrilla, who was a member of the Bewegung 2. Juni (June 2 Movement) and the second generation Rote Armee Fraktion, dies of cancer, having undergone a series of operations in the previous three years following her diagnosis shortly after her release from prison. [see: May 18]

2001 - USA and Britain start air attacks on Afghanistan.

2003 - Andrew Jordan, a 28 years old married man with a four year old daughter, dies under police restraint. Although he had a history of mental illness, he had “no history of violence or criminal activity”. 4 hours after up to 10 police officers burst into his house, he is carried out, apparently unconscious, dressed only in his underwear and with two black eyes, cuts to both his eyes and a damaged nose. Laid on the concrete path, he receives no medical treatment for his injuries and dies shortly after reaching hospital.

2006 - Anna Politkovskaya (B. 1958), Russian investigative journalist, assassinated in Moscow. [expand]

[A] 2009 - Libyan prison guards kill at least 6 and wound 50 Somali prisoners in Ganfuda (Benghazi) detention centre/prison during a mass escape attempt, but more than 100 detainees manage to escape.
[E] 1789 - Rachel Wall (Rachel Schmidt; b. ca. 1760), American female pirate, is hanged for robbery, the last woman to be executed by that method in Massachusetts.

[1812 - Luddite Timeline: Mass attack on Corn Mill at Ilkeston, Derbyshire?? [expand]

1836 - Lowell Mill Girls Strike:
"Dear Diary,
My mother told me that in her job they are starting a strike because the the Board of Directors of Lowell's textile mills wanted to increase the textile worker's rent because of the economic depression. My mother said that she did a speech today, and that she is in the Factory Girls' Association. She says that so many people take part in the protest that Lowell textile mills are running far below capacity. I am happy that she stands up for herself because being a mill girl isn't easy, especially if you're being taken advantage of. I really hope that it ends good because I don't know if my mother can afford to pay more for the rent. Soon I will have to help my mother in the mills too, I don't want her to be working so much on her own."

1863 - Adolphe Tabarant (d. 1950), French libertarian socialist, journalist, writer and art critic, who wrote numerous studies on Impressionist painters and helped organise their exhibitions, born.

1866 - Hereford Street Outrage / Sheffield Outrages: A can of gunpowder explodes in the house of Thomas Fearnehough, a saw-grinder who had fallen out with his union.

[B] 1872 - John Cowper Powys (d. 1963), Welsh novelist, essayist, poet and individualist anarchist, born. He was a long-term friend and correspondent of Emma Goldmann.

1872 - Elisa Acuña y Rossetti (María Elisa Brígida Lucía Acuña Rosete; d. 1946), Mexican professor, journalist, revolutionary and anarcha-feminist, born.
With Juana Belén Gutiérrez de Mendoza, she launch the newspaper 'Fiat Lux'. Elisa Acuña was a member of the ‘Ponciano Arriaga’ Co-ordinating Centre of the Confederation of Liberal Clubs. Their paper becomes the official mouthpiece of the Women’s Mutual Society.

1886 - Pierre Besnard (d. 1947), French railway worker and anarcho-syndicalist, who was co-founder and Secretary of the Confédération Générale du Travail-Syndicaliste Révolutionnaire (CGT-SR), prominent in the setting up in August 1936 of the Comité anarcho-syndicaliste pour la défense du prolétariat espagnol (which provided financial and material support to the CNT-FAI), became secretary of the Conference of these committees in October 1936 and later Secretary of the Association Internationale des Travailleurs, and co-founder of the Confédération Nationale du Travail in December 1946, born.

[EE] 1892 - [O.S. Sep. 26] Marina Ivanovna Tsvetaeva (Мари́на Ива́новна Цвета́ева; d. 1941) Russian and Soviet symbolist poet, who lived through and wrote of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the Moscow famine that followed it, born. In an attempt to save her daughter Irina from starvation, she placed her in a state orphanage in 1919, where she died of hunger. Tsvetaeva left Russia in 1922 and lived with her family – husband Sergei Efron (Серге́й Эфро́н), also a poet and former White Army officer and two daughters, Ariadna (Alya) and Irina, and a son, Georgy – in increasing poverty in Berlin, Prague and Paris (where Marina contracted tuberculosis) before returning to Moscow in 1939. Alya, who had developing Soviet sympathies and was homesick for Russia, and Sergei, who had been recruited by the NKVD whilst living in Paris, had both returned to Russia [in 1937 and 1938 respectively] were arrested on espionage charges in 1941. Under torture, Efron was pressed to give evidence against Tsvetaeva, but he refused to testify against her or anyone else. Alya, however, confessed under beatings that her father was a Trotskyite spy, which led to his execution in 1941. Alya served eight years in prison. Both were exonerated after Stalin's death. In 1941, Tsvetaeva and Georgy were evacuated to Yelabuga (Elabuga), where on August 31, 1941, Marina hanged herself, probably in the wake of the NKVD having tried to recruit her.

1893 - The first issue of the anarchist fortnightly 'L'Avenir', "Organe Ouvrier indépendant de la Suisse romande", is published in Geneva.

1897 - Antonio 'El Gallego' Soto Canalejo (d. 1963), Spanish militant anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. He is the subject of Xan Leira's documentary film 'Patagonia Utopía Liberataria' (1998). [expand]

1901 - The opening of the Escuela Moderna (Modern School) in Barcelona by libertarian educator Francisco Ferrer. Strongly influenced by Paul Robin, Francisco Ferrer overcame many obstacles to open today a mixed primary with thirty students a school directly inspired by the integral education conducted at Cempuis. Three months later there were 86 students. This bold experiment in coeducation was considered a revolutionary heresy and, under the pretext of the bomb attack on the King by Mateo Morral, Ferrer was imprisoned and the school shut down in 1906. However, Ferrer's experiment would have a lasting worldwide influence on education.

1910 - Grève de la Thune* [Thunder Strike]: A wildcat strike by French railway workers begins when workers at Tergnier in the Aisne and at the Parisian workshops in La Chapelle are disciplined for a series of small delays. Faced with the refusal of the Compagnie du Nord to reinstate the suspended men, the workers in the workshops and then at the La Chapelle - Plaine Saint Denis depot ceased work. The strike quickly spread, as first the Réseau du Nord (Northern Region) and then the Ouest-État (Western) Region went out on strike in solidarity. With the swift spread of the strike, and fearing repression, the central strike committee sought refuge in the offices of 'L'Humanité' and on October 11, seized the opportunity and called for a general strike by railway workers in support of the disciplined workers and in pursuit of their outstand wage demands.
[* the nickname of the five-franc piece]

1917 - Andre Senez (d. 1998), French shoemaker and militant in the Jeunesse Anarchiste Communiste (Anarchist Communist Youth), born.

[F] 1919 - General Strike called to demand the release of San Francisco labour militant Tom Mooney and an amnesty for all political prisoners. Falsely convicted of a fatal bombing, Mooney is not released until 1939.

1934 - Revolución de 1934 / Asturian Miners' Strike: The troops holed up the La Vega arms factory quit their positions and retreat to the Pelayo barracks. The city's Guardia Civil barracks falls.
General López Ochoa (who would henceforth be known as 'el verdugo de Asturias' [the butcher of Asturias] and end up decapitated when captured during the Civil War in 1936) and his troops leave from Aviles en route to Oviedo, protected by 21 aircraft and with human shields, manacled prisoners in the front of the column (many of whom died, including the Socialist leader Bonifacio Martín).
In the south the military, at a distinct disadvantage with their inferior positions, are driven back in fierce fighting around Vega del Rey. [see: Oct. 4 & 5]

1936 - Suzanne Hans aka Suzanne Girbe (d. 1914), French anarchist and miliciana, dies alongside her partner Louis Recoule and a number of other comrades in the Centúria Sébastian Faure of the Columna Durruti, such as Émile Cottin and Pietro Ranieri, during the fascist offensive at Farlete [though it is possible that both she and Louis in fact died at Perdiguera eight days later]. [see: Apr. 3 & Oct. 16]

1936 - Émile Cottin (b. 1896), French carpenter-cabinet maker and militant anarchist who tried to assassinate Clémenceau in 1919, dies whilst fighting with the international group of the anarchist Durruti Column during the Spanish Revolution. [see: Mar. 14]

1939 - Nicolas Faucier is arrested, having been sentenced in absentia to two years in prison for "inciting soldiers to disobedience" (for the publication of anti-militarist articles in the journal 'SIA'). Still at large at the outbreak of war, he organised with Louis Lecoin the production of the first manifesto against war, the leaflet 'Paix Immédiate' (Immediate Peace). Following his arrest, he is also sentenced to three years in prison for insubordination after he had written on September 3 to the governor of Paris to inform him of his refusal to obey this mobilisation orders.

1957 - Bataille d'Alger [Battle of Algiers]: The 1e Régiment Étranger de Parachutistes (1st Foreign Parachute Regiment) surround the hideout of Ali la Pointe, Yacef Saâdi's deputy, at 5 Rue des Abderames. The paratroops lay charges to blow away the false partition behind which Ali and his comrades are hiding, unfortunately the explosion detonate a store of bombs destroying the house and several neighbouring buildings, killing Ali, his 2 comrades and 17 other Muslims in neighbouring houses.
The capture of Yacef Saâdi and the death of Ali la Pointe mark the defeat of the FLN in the city and the end of the Battle of Algiers.
www.histoire-en-questions.fr/guerre algerie/alger-deuxieme-ali la pointe.html]

1963 - Remedios Varo (María de los Remedios Alicia Rodriga Varo y Uranga; b. 1908), Catalan-Mexican anarchist, anti-fascist and Surrealist painter, dies. [see: Dec. 16]

1966 - Célestin Freinet (b. 1896), French anarchist pacifist educator and Ferrer School activist, dies. [see: Oct. 15]

[A] 1969 - Days of Rage: The Weatherman-inspired Days Of Rage begin in Chicago. "Bring the war home".

[D] 1970 - Second explosion at the London home of Attorney General, Sir Peter Rawlinson. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1970 - Acting on a tip, police stake out a Berlin apartment where they have been told that Baader, Ensslin, and Mahler will be meeting. Baader and Ensslin never show, but Mahler, Monika Berberich, Brigitte Asdonk and Irene Goergens are all captured.

1970 - Jean Giono (b. 1895), French author (novels, poetry, essays, journalism, plays) and, like his Italian-born shoemaker-father, Jean-Antoine, he was a self-taught libertarian, dies. [see: Mar. 30]

[C] 1977 - NF 'One Man March': Following a NF announcement that they would hold a march through Hyde in Greater Manchester and hold a rally in the Town Hall, there are widespread calls to ban the march. Deputy Chief Constable James Anderton, also known as 'God's copper', then announced a ban on all marches in the Manchester area, which most people took to mean that he was invoking the Public Order Act. The move that was approved by much of the left. However, the GMP also concluded a secret deal to allow the NF to hold a march in another area with the full protection of the police. At the same time, Martin Webster announced that he would hold a 'one man march' through Hyde, which he did on the day, surrounded by an estimated 2,500 police, and carrying a Union Jack and a sign reading 'Defend British Free Speech from Red Terrorism'. He was surrounded and heckled on his whole route by a group of anti-fascists including Ramula Patel of the Asian Youth Movement, who walked in front of him the whole way with a placard, saying 'This man is a Nazi'. A second group of anti-fascists gathered at Hyde Town Hall just in case the cops weren't telling the whole truth. Which of course, they weren't.
Meanwhile, several hundred members of the NF were bussed to Crowcroft Park in Levenshulme, from where they marched through Longsight to Belle Vue, largely unopposed that is except for a third group of anti-fascists - 40 members of AFA Squad members, who had had spotters out on the motorways and main roads and had tracked the NF coaches to their destination - and several dozen Asian youths who joined them to harass the NF along their route, with the contents of a liberated milk float amongst other missiles. Rumours that the NF would be allowed to march in Stockport whilst Webster did his 'one man march' also draw large numbers of anti-fascists to the town.
All told, 6,000 police officers were involved in smoothing the way for the NF to hold their day out in Manchester, costing £0.25m, who made just 28 arrests on the day but had detained many more anti-fascists without charging them. The efforts of Anderton and his men received a great deal of criticism - the 'New Manchester Review' wrote: "Now that it is all over, the point has been well made that the events in Hyde and Levenshulme were organised not so much by the National Front, but by the police." - but Labour Home Secretary Merlyn Rees declared his support for the police action. [PR]

1978 - Manchester NF's Sunday League football team, the Lillywhites, are turned over, literally, as the Luton box van that they are using as a makeshift changing room is attacked and rolled over by members of the Manchester Squad. ['No Retareat']

1980 - Arvo Albin Turtiainen (b. 1904), Finnish left-wing poet, translator and anti-fascist fighter, dies. [see: Sep. 16]
[F] 1779 - Luddite Timeline: The first 'Luddite' protesters [though it is arguable that the movement did not truly begin until 1811], named after one of their alleged members - Ned Ludd, smash stocking frames in Anstey, Leicestershire.

1870 - The Jura Federation, the anti-authoritarian and anarchist section of the First International is founded at a meeting in Saint-Imier, Switzerland, of local sections of the IWA.

1880 - At its final meeting (9-10 October), in La Chaux-de-Fonds, the Jura Federation adopts an anarchist communist possition, as a "necessary consequence of the inevitability of the social revolution".

1892 - Johannes Theodor Baargeld aka Zentrodada (Alfred Emanuel Ferdinand Grünwald; d. 1927), German Dadaist painter and poet, born. He cofounded the Cologne Dada group with Max Ernst and Hans Arp. In 1918 Baargeld joined the short-lived Independent Socialist Party of Germany (USPD). Died in August 1927 (dates vary between 16th - 18th) whilst climbing Mont Blanc.

1896 - Celso Persici (d. 1988), Italian anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist, born.

[C] 1900 - Oscar Ihlebæk (d. 1945), Norwegian newspaper editor and resistance member, who died in Bergen-Belsen, born. Fired by the Nazis as editor-in-chief of the 'Bergens Arbeiderblad' newspaper, he was arrested in January 1943, he spent time in Espeland concentration camp before being moved to Grini concentration camp in May 1943. In the winter of 1943, he was sent to Germany moving from Sachsenhausen to Gross-Rosen concentration camp in December 1944. He was later transferred to Bergen-Belsen, where he died.

1905 - [O.S. Sep. 26] October All-Russian Political Strike [Октябрьская всероссийская политическая стачка]: Cossack soldiers open fire on protestors in Moscow; ten people die. All Moscow publishers have been shut down by strikes

[B] 1908 - Harry Hooton (d. 1961), Australian poet, philosopher, anarchist, Wobbly and pacifist, who participated in the Sydney Push scene in Syndey, is born in Doncaster, England. He arrived in Australia aged 16 in October 1924, with 59 other boys, as part of the Dreadnought Trust child migration scheme, part of the restrictive immigration policy known as the 'White Australia' policy. The boys worked on farms in the Outback from 7.30am to 5 pm, clearing land, milking, ploughing, etc. Hooton's first poetry began to be published in 1936, with his first self-financed book of poetry, 'These Poets', published in 1941 in a run of around 400 copies. 'Things You See When You Haven't Got A Gun' was also self-published two years later. His other verse was published as 'It is Great To Be Alive' (1961) and in 'Poet of the 21st Century - Collected Poems - Harry Hooton' (1990), in addition to appearing regularly in literary journals like 'Forward: A Australian Review', 'Bohemia', 'Pertinent', 'A Comment' and 'Meanjin Papers', as well as more mainstream publications like the Workers' Education Association's 'The Australian Highway' and the Australian Institute of Political Science's 'The Australian Quarterly'.
Hooton was at home in the post-war atmosphere of Sydney's intellectual circles, the 'Sydney Push', "Mecca of the Australian arts", where he formed a focus of opposition to the Libertarian Society and it's pro-Modernist poetics and, according to fellow poet Richard Appleton, "Hooton held that polemic was an art form and that all poetry should be didactic." Very much a bohemian, he corresponded with literary people and counter-culture figures across the world, including fellow anarchist Tuli Kupferberg of The Fugs.
Philosophically, he came up with the theory of Anarcho-technocracy, basically arguing that man must have have power over things, including machines, but never over other men, and which was expounded in a series of essays and pamphlets: 'Anarcho - Technocracy. The Politics of Things' (four-page pamphlet; 1953), 'The Politics of Things' (1955 essay) and the U.S. collection 'Power Over Things' (1955). His philosophical treatise 'Militant Materialism', was never finished, though he did complete five of its eight chapters.
Sadly, during his lifetime his work was largely been dismissed by the critics, in terms such as: "an anarchist whose writings were without talent or coherent ideas"; "when we had read half-way through 'Things You See . . .' we had a crude impulse to put our hands to our ears and scream for God's sake, Harry, stop that noise" and "'Power Over Things' contains a few pages of alleged verse and a good deal of exclamatory prose in the interests of a new world theory Anarcho-Technocracy ... Anarchism with a Science Fiction face-lift", and even today he is seen by many as just another bohemian guru.
guides.naa.gov.au/good-british-stock/chapter3/dreadnought .aspx

1909 - Inside the Modelo prison in Barcelona, Francisco Ferrer appears before a court martial for his alleged responsibility in the Semaine Tragique. The one day show trial sentences him to death, which is carried out when he is shot in the moat of the Montjuic on October 13.

1909 - The first issue of the Spanish anarchist weekly 'Tierra y Libertad' is published (by José Estivalis aka Armand Guerra) in Nice following the banning of anarchist newspapers in the wake of the Semaine Tragique. Many are printed in France and smuggled into Spain instead.

1909 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: Making a week-end visit to Newcastle-Upon-Tyne to deliver an important budget speech, the Chancellor of the Ex-chequer David Lloyd George is the target for a suffragette protest. Despite the heavy police presence, a dozen women including Christabel Pankhurst, Lady Constance Lytton and Emily Wilding Davison were present outside the Palace Theatre on St Thomas Street as stones were thrown at Sir Walter Runciman in whose car Lloyd George was riding. Amongst those throwing the stones were Mary Leigh, Emily Davison (hers was wrapped in paper containing the works: "Rebellion against tyrants is obedience to God") and Constance Lytton (whose stone bore the message "To Lloyd George – Rebellion against tyranny is obedience to God – Deeds, not words"). Dorothy Pethick and Miss Kitty Marion entered the nearby General Post Office and, carefully selecting windows who when broken would cause no injury to those nearby, broke them with thrown stones. Jane Brailsford's symbolic act was to take an axe, which she had carried disguised in a bouquet of chrysanthemums, a strike a single blow to a wooden barrier right in front of the police line. She and seven other WSPU women were arrested and, on the direct orders of the Home Office, remanded over the weekend in the police court cells.
On Monday they were found guilty and given sentences varying from fourteen days to one month's hard labour, except for Constance Lytton and Jane Brailsford who were both were ordered to be bound over to be of good behaviour and, on refusing - both felt that their social positions (Brailsford's husband was a prominent Liberal Party official) had led to their getting lesser sentences than their less socially connected and working class comrades, they were sent to prison in the second division for one month. They immediately went on hunger strike and were released after two and a half days - the reason given for Constance Lytton's release was that she had a weak heart. Chesterfield suffragette Winifred Jones on the other hand, who had broken a plate-glass window in the Palace Theatre and been charged with doing £1 damage to a window, had pleaded guilty and, despite being her first offence, was sentenced to 14 days hard labour.
The eight other women also went on hunger strike and the prison authorities decided to force-feed them. In most cases the nasal tube was used; it always caused headache and sickness. The nostrils soon became terribly inflamed and every one of the women lost weight and suffered from great and growing weakness. All but two were held in prison till the end of their sentence.

1909 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: Four women are sent to jail for breaking three plate glass windows in Newcastle Liberal Club, an action prompted by Lloyd George’s visit to Newcastle upon Tyne on the same day.

1910 - The first issue of 'Le Révolté', "Organe hebdomadaire d'union, d'action et d'éducation révolutionnaire", is published in Lens.

[FF] 1912 - Little Falls Textile Strike: Following the death of 146 women in the Triangle Factory Fire in New York City on March 25, 1911, and the campaigning for improved workplace safety that followed, the ensuing new legislation reducing the working week for women from 60 to 54 hours has some unforeseen results. In Little Falls, New York, the owners of the Gilbert and Phoenix knitting mills reduced the pay of women to match the shorter hours. Since the workers were already living at a near-starvation level, as documented in a recent visit by the state’s Factory Investigating Committee, the women were outraged. On October 9, 1912, eighty of them spontaneously walked out of the Phoenix Mill in protest. At this point there was no organised strike, but the brutality toward the strikers by the owners and by the local police ignited a much larger walk-out, eventually all the more than 1300 workers employed in Phoenix and Gilbert’s. During this bitterly fought dispute, these employees lost a total of 68,379 days of work, ending on January 3, 1913, with an arbitarion decision awarding tha strikers almost all they had asked for, including all those working 54 hours to receive pay formerly paid for 60 hours, reinstatement of all workers, and no discrimination against strikers.

1914 - María Martínez Sorroche (d. 2010), Adalusian textile worker, baker, maid, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. [expand]

1922 - Grève du Havre: The striking Le Harve steelworkers reluctantly return to ork, not having been able to gain any concessions from an intransigent Comité des Forges. [see: Jun. 19]

1922 - The International Anarchist Congress is held (9-10 October) in Paris, France.

1922 - Karl Capek's play 'R.U.R.' opens in NYC.

1924 - Anthony Earnshaw (d. 2001), English Surrealist artist, author, illustrator and self-styled "armchair anarchist", born.

1934 - Revolución de 1934 / Asturian Miners' Strike: In Oviedo the La Vega arms factory is occupied and large numbers of arms are seized but little ammunition is found. The Cárcel Modelo is also stormed and it too is found to contain a huge quantity of rifles and machine guns but no ammunition. However, the government troops are forced to retreat. The city has been taken against the superior forces of the army and Civil Guard: 1,500 soldiers, 400 assault guards and 100 civilians and police guards, however the miners failed to take the barracks of Pelayo and Santa Clara despite them being surrounded by the insurgents. All the city garrison can do now is try and resist the attacks of the workers, in the hope that a relief arrives. Meanwhile, Gijon, where the insurrectionary movement is restricted by its lack of weapons and ammunition, comes under bombardment by the Regular Army and Navy. Other towns suffer the same fate.
In the south, army reinforcements from Zamora arrive via the Puerto de Pajares, allow General Bosch and his besieged troops, who were in serious condition without food and unable to care for the wounded, to withdraw to Campomanes on the 11th. [see: Oct. 4 & 5]

1934 - In the run up to an announce BUF meeting in Worthing, West Sussex, opposition gradually built, with numerous anti-fascist meeting held along the seafront. "'No More War. Damn Mosley. Fight Fascism' was written in tar on Worthing Town Hall and tar was also spread on the walls of the local fascist headquarters at 27 Marine Parade. On the night, just sixteen members of the Defence Force accompanied Mosley to the Pier Pavilion. He considerably underestimated the depth of local hostility towards him and his movement. As the meeting got underway, a crowd gathered outside that numbered several thousand by the time Blackshirts marched out in military formation. Fireworks were thrown as choruses of "Poor old Mosley's got the wind up" were sung to the tune of John Brown's Body. Mosley was struck, he retaliated and fights started that spread along the Esplanade. Blackshirts were forced to retreat to Barnes Cafe in the Arcade, a well-known BUF meeting place. The cafe was stormed, windows were broken, missiles thrown. As midnight neared, the Blackshirts tried to break out of the cafe but were spotted and attacked. A 'seething, struggling mass of howling people' poured into the road and fought each other in what has become known as the Battle of South Street." ['Physical Resistance: A Hundred Years of Anti-Fascism' - Dave Hann (2013)]
Oswald Mosley, William Joyce, BUF's director of propaganda, Captain Charles H. B. Budd, the West Sussex district officer, and Bernard Mullans from the BUF national HQ were arrested on charges of riotous assembly. Mosley also had an assault charge for punching one "Jack Pritchard, a bystander". The assault charge was quickly dropped, despite witnesses. During the trial, the prosecution claimed that after the meeting, Mosley and the other defendants had marched around Worthing, threatening and assaulting civilians. The defence argued that the defendants had been deliberately provoked by a crowd of civilians, and several witnesses testified that the crowd had been throwing tomatoes and threatening Mosley. The judge eventually directed the jury on December 18 to return a verdict of "not guilty".

1935 - Ana Maria Villarreal aka 'Sayo' (d. 1972), Argentine artist and member of the Partido Revolucionario de los Trabajadores (Revolutionary Workers Party), who later became an Ejército Revolucionario del Pueblo (People 's Revolutionary Army) guerrilla, born.

1936 - The first issue of the Italian anarcho-syndicalist weekly 'Guerra di Classe', newspaper of the AIT-affiliated Sindacale Unione Italiana, and founded by Camillo Berneri, is published in Barcelona.

1940 - Working Class Hero and defacto libertarian John Winston Ono Lennon (d. 1980), born.

1944 - Kitty Marion (Katherina Maria Schafer; b. 1871), Anglo-American actress, militant suffragette and birth control advocate, who is estimated to have endured 232 force-feedings in prison while on hunger strike in English prisons and spent time in American prisons for imparting birth control information too, dies in the Sanger Nursing Home in New York City. [see: Mar. 12]

1946 - Eugene O'Neill's play 'The Iceman Cometh' (1940), amongst his most obviously political, with its numerous anarchist characters and debates on racism, the Boer War and police informers, premières at the Martin Beck Theatre in New York City.

[D] 1967 - A wounded and captured Ernesto Che Guevara is summarily executed in Bolivia, whilst trying to "export the revolution". The Argentine doctor and Marxist revolutionary had arrived in the country in November the previous year and during the following 11 months of guerrilla activity, he and his force of 50 Ejército de Liberación Nacional de Bolivia (National Liberation Army of Bolivia) guerrillas had achieved little during their time in southeastern Bolivia. Largely shunned by the local population and, under constant attack from the Bolivian army, their numbers being regularly deplete through deaths and injuries, on October 7, 1967, the last 17 guerrillas left alive were holed up in a ravine in Quebrada del Yuro when the location of their encampment was revealed to the two battalions of Bolivian Special Forces hunting them down.
The following morning 1,800 troops surrounded the ravine. Guevara divided his men into two, sending the sick on ahead whilst he and ten others stayed behind to confront the government troops. After three hours of fighting three guerrillas (Rene Martínez Tamayo, Orlando Pantoja and Aniceto Reinaga) are left dead and Guevara, wounded in the leg and arm (his rifle having been rendered useless, he is said to have thrown up his arms in surrender and shouted: "Do not shoot! I am Che Guevara and I am worth more to you alive than dead"), is capture along with his fellow guerrilla Simeón Cuba Sarabia. Four government soldiers also died in the confrontation, with another four being wounded. A fourth guerrilla, Alberto Fernández Montes de Oca, died of his wounds the following day and a fifth, Juan Pablo Chang Navarro-Lévano, was captured. Four days later Octavio de la Concepción de la Pedraja, Francisco Huanca, Lucio Garvan and Jaime Arana, who had escaped following the battle, were also killed by government forces. Of the six wounded guerrillas whose escape Guevara and the others had covered, five (Harry Villegas, Dariel Alarcón, Leonardo Tamayo, Inti Peredo and David Adriazola) managed to safely cross into Chile. The sixth, Julio Méndez Korne, died of his wounds and was buired clandestinely by his comrades.
Tied up, Guevara and Simeón Cuba were taken the 2km to the schoolhouse in the nearby village of La Higuera, where Guevera refused to be interrogated, instead the dishevelled revolutionary chatted to the Bolivian soldiers who guarded him.
The following day, October 9, the Bolivian government officially announced that the death in combat of Ernesto Che Guevara had occurred the day before. Meanwhile colonel Joaquín Zenteno Anaya and a CIA agent Félix Rodríguez had arrived in La Higuera where, having recieved the order to execute Che Guevara, issued shortly after noon that day by the country's military dictator and president General Rene Barrientos, Sergeant Mario Terán Salazar shot and killed Guevara in the schoolhouse, having been told to make it look as if he had been killed in battle. Shortly before Guevara's execution, Simeón Cuba and Juan Pablo Chang had also both been shot dead.
On the afternoon of October 9, 1967, the body of Che Guevara was taken by helicopter to Vallegrande and was placed in the laundry room of the Nuestro Señor de Malta hospital where, having had his shirt removed and been cleaned up, he remained on public display for the remainder of the day and all day the following day. Hundreds of people flocked to see his body, some ironically taking locks of his hair as talismans (the hospital nuns were said to have claimed that he supposedly resembled a dead Jesus). During the night of October 10, his hands were cut off to keep them as proof of death and his body disposed of in a pit with that of the six other dead guerrillas.

[E] 1969 - Days Of Rage: The 'Women's Militia' of around seventy female Weatherman members met at Grant Park, Chicago but are all arrested as they try to leave the park to raid a draft office.

1970 - Italian Trade Centre, Exhibition Building, Cork Street, London, bombed. Attacks simultaneously in Manchester, Birmingham and Paris against Italian State buildings. The attacks were claimed on behalf of Giuseppe Pinelli the Italian anarchist murdered by the police in 1969. [Angry Brigade chronology]

[A] 1975 - Irish Anarchist Black Cross members Noel and Marie Murray are arrested for murder following a bank appropriation in which a Garda died.

1991 - The Serbian feminist and anti-nationalist organisation Žene u crnom (Women In Black) is founded in Belgrade.

1997 - The Italian playwright and actor Dario Fo, author of 'Accidental Death of an Anarchist', is awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in Stockholm.

1999 - Peter Miller (b. 1943), English anarchist, secularist and trade unionist, dies. [see: Apr. 5]
1609 - Gerrard Winstanley (d. 1676), English religious reformer and political thinker, a precursor of libertarian communism and Christian anarchism, born.

[A] 1758 - Townsfolk storm a meeting at Dunchurch and seize the list of people to be called up for military service. Three are arrested, two of whom are de-arrested on their way to Warwick jail.

1837 - François Marie Charles Fourier (b. 1772), French utopia theorist, dies. [see: Apr. 7]

1889 - The anarchist periodical 'L'Associazione' is first issued in Nice by Errico Malatesta, who had returned from South America in September.

1893 - Fasci Siciliani Uprising: In Syracuse, a protest (for the lack of implementation of the reduction of taxes, that the administration had promised to citizenship) degenerated into turmoil and was sacked the town hall (the tumult calmed the council approved the measures promised).

[C] 1900 - Umberto Marzocchi (d. 1986), Italian shipyard worker, anarchist and anti-fascist fighter in the Arditi del Popolo, who fought on the Aragon front during the Spanish Civil War and, following the Retirada, joined the Foreign Legion (to gain French papers) and fought with the Maquis during WWII, born. Marzocchi became an anarchist at a very early age and by 1917 was secretary of the metalworkers’ union affiliated to the Unione Sindacale Italiana (Italian Syndicalist Union), thanks to his youth which precluded his being mobilised for front-line service as a reprisal. During the 'Biennio Rosso' (Red Biennium of 1919-20) he took part in the struggles alongside the renowned La Spezia anarchist, Pasquale Binazzi, the director of 'Il Libertario' newspaper. In 1920 he was part of a gang of anarchists that attacked the La Spezia arsenal, overpowering the security guards and carrying off two machine guns and several rifles, in the, alas disappointed, hope of triggering a revolutionary uprising in the city. In 1921, visiting Rome to reach an agreement with Argo Secondari, he took over as organiser of the Arditi del Popolo (People’s Commandos) in the region; this organisation was to give good account of itself during the 'fatti di Sarzana' (events in Sarzana), the armed resistance of the civilian population and the Arditi del Popolo in and around Sarzana against fascist squadre d'azione groups backed up by the local Regio Esercito carabinieri. Moving to Savona, he organised the meeting between Malatesta and the pro-Bolshevik Russian anarchist Sandomirsky who arrived in Rapallo in the wake of the Chicherin delegation as its Press Officer. By 1922, wanted by the fascists, he left the country, playing an active part in the activities of the anarchist exiles in France and Belgium.
In 1936 he was in Spain with the Italian Column and there took part in the battle of Almudevar. After Camillo Berneri was murdered, he returned to France where he handled aid to Spanish refugees. After the Nazi occupation, he joined the Maquis in the Pyrenees, part of a mixed unit made up of anarchists, socialists and French and Spanish communists (Group 31, Area 5). In 1945 after the Liberation he returned to Italy where he became one of the most active publicists, speakers and lecturers of the newly formed Federazione Anarchica Italiana (Italian Anarchist Federation), which at that time was an umbrella for the whole of the Italian anarchist movement. In 1971 he was appointed secretary of the International of Anarchist Federations’ Liaison Committee, a post he filled for 12 years. In 1977, by then almost eighty, he was arrested in Spain during an international anarchist gathering. He died in Savona on 4 June 1986.

1900 - Emmy Eckstein (Emilia Eckstein; d. 1939), Alexander Berkman's longtime companion, born in Berlin. [EXPAND]

1901 - Anarchist polemicist Laurent Tailhade (1854–1919) is jailed for a year for inciting murder in the pages of 'Le Libertaire' on the occassion of a visit ot the Tsar to France.

1902 - [N.S. Oct. 23] Sam Dolgoff (Sholem Dolgopolsky; d. 1990), US anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist author, editor and militant, born in Byelorussia. [expand]

1903 - The Women's Social and Political Union is founded in London.

[DD] 1905 - [O.S. Sep. 27] October All-Russian Political Strike [Октябрьская всероссийская политическая стачка]: The printers strike in Moscow has effectively escalated into a fully-fledged city-wide General Strike.

1907 - The first issue of the Russian language anarcho-communist newspaper 'Anarchist' (Анархuст) is published in Geneva.

[BB] 1916 - David Gascoyne (d. 2001), English poet, novelist, Surrealist, one-time communist and later an anarchist, born. He helped prepare the 'First English Surrealist Manifesto' (1935), which spoke in favour of "the proletarian revolution" and "the historic materialism of Marx, Engels, and Lenin", and came out against "humanism, liberalism, idealism, anarchist individualism." It was therefore inevitable that, like many surrealist of the period, he joined the Communist Party of Great Britain in 1936 and broadcast radio talks for the Barcelona-based propaganda ministry during the Spanish Revolution. However, he soon discovered "that the Communists hated the Anarchists and the POUM much more than they hated the Fascists", and left the party. On his return to England, he became involved in the Mass Observation movement and joined the Artists' International Association. He also moved closer to anarchism following contact with Henry Miller, Lawrence Durrell and those based around them at the Villa Seurat in Paris.

1917 - Thelonious Sphere Monk (d. 1982) born.

1922 - Date wrongly attributed for the death of Luisa Capetillo Perón (b. 1879), Puerto Rican writer, novelist, journalist, trade unionist, libertarian propagandist, women's rights activist and anarcha-femnist. [see: Oct. 28 & Apr. 10]

1933 - Victor Meric (aka Flax; b. 1876), French journalist, anarchist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: May 10]

1933 - San Joaquin Valley Cotton Strikes: During a strike over wages, working conditions, and union recognition by 20,000 cotton pickers in southern California’s San Joaquin Valley, striking workers assembled at their union’s office in Pixley to hear an organiser speak are shot at by growers who drove up in their pickup trucks. Within minutes, two workers were dead and eight injured. Eight growers were indicted, but all were acquitted of murder.

1934 - Revolución de 1934 / Asturian Miners' Strike: In Oviedo, rebel ammuniton supplies are running very low but the insurgents still remain in control of the city. [see: Oct. 4 & 5]

1937 - Due to speak on some vacant land by Queens Drive in Liverpool, Mosley is greeted by a crowd of more than 800, most of whom are anti-fascists. "When an electrician started to erect a microphone on the van roof, cries of 'Down with Mosley' and 'We don't want fascism here' changed to volleys of bricks and stones - smashing the van's windscreen. G.C. Balfour, the district BUF treasurer, got up to speak and was hospitalised after being hit by a stone. Mosley arrived soon after by car and climbed onto the van. After giving the fascist salute, and before he'd spoken, he was also dropped by a stone hitting his left temple. Lying on the van roof he was hit again, on the back of the head, and knocked unconscious." ['Fighting Talk', Issue 13]
He was only on top of the van for less than two minutes when an object thrown by a member of the crowd knocked him unconscious. Anti-fascists rushed towards the van and tried to turn it over. Mosley's minions ran for cover in the yard of a nearby warehouse and mounted police were us to restore order. Mosley was whisked off to Walton Hospital and discharged after a week recovering from concussion and a minor head wound. Balfour was also sent to hospital with head injuries and more than 20 others were injured by flying stones. The 250 cops present were largely powerless, though 12 male and 2 female anti-fascists were arrested.

[E] 1939 - Marianne Herzog, German co-founder of the Aktionsrats zur Befreiung der Frauen (Action Council for the Liberation of Women) and a former member of the Rote Armee Fraktion, who joined along with her then partner Jan-Carl Raspe, born. On December 3, 1971, she was arrested in the investigation, later released early for health reasons.

[B] 1941 - Peter Coyote (born Rachmil Pinchus Ben Mosha Cohon), American actor, author, director, screenwriter, narrator and Buddhist anarchist, born. After a period in the San Francisco Actors' Workshop, he joined the San Francisco Mime Troupe, a radical political guerilla street theatre and later became one of the co-founders of the Haight-Ashbury anarchist improv group the Diggers. His radical politics led to him becoming a friend of Leonard Peltier in the 1960s as well as Gary Snyder. Through the latter he discovered the San Francisco Libertarian Circle and Zen Buddhism.

1942 - Battle of Bowmanville: German prisoners of war in the Bowmanville prisoner of war camp, Ontario, Canada, most of whom were higher-ranking German officers rebel having objected to the intended shackling of 100 prisoners. After hand-to-hand fighting with the Veteran's Guard of Canada gaurding them, 400 prisoners then barricaded themselves in a hall. The stand-off lasted for three days (Oct. 10-12) until the barricaded prisoners were subdued with fire hoses and tear gas.

[F] 1947 - French West African Rail Workers' Strike: In 1947, the railway workers went on a five and a half month long strike to obtain the same rights as the French railwaymen. During during the strike, 20,000 workers and their families shut down most rail traffic throughout all of French West Africa and, following a series of concession in February 1948, the workers returned to work on March 19. The strike's success was celebrated as a turning point in the anti-colonial struggle by Senegalese writer Ousmane Sembène in his 1960 novel 'Les bouts de bois de Dieu'.[til Mar. 19, 1948]

[D] 1956 - Pro-Nationalist and pro-Communist factions riot in Hong Kong resulting in 59 deaths and approximately 500 injuries. Property damage was estimated at US$ $1,000,000. In the subsequent trials four people were convicted of murder and given death penalties.

1957 - A massive nuclear disaster is narrowly averted when a fire breaks out in the Unit No. 1 nuclear reactor at Windscale in Cumbria. This is due to the 'Cockcroft's Folly' filters fitted to the chimneys, last minute additions to the structure as a safety feature that nobody except their designer, John Cockcroft, thought were necessary safety additions. Even then a massive amount of radioactive iodine-131 and other radionucleotides were released in to the atmosphere and milk from about 500 km2 of nearby countryside had to be destroyed (diluted a thousandfold and dumped in the Irish Sea) for about a month.

1958 - Opening of La Méthode, a cabaret operated by Michèle Bernstein and Guy Debord on the Rue Descartes, Paris.

1961 - Jean-Marc Leclercq aka JoMo, French musician, Esperantists and libertarian, born. Has played in numerous bands including Les Diam's, Les Gringos, Les Évadés d'Alcatraz, Dougherty, Les Vicomtes, Les Rosemary's Babies, Leclerq et les Mammouths, Black & Wesson and his current band Libertarios (originally Leclercq y los Libertarios), and in numerous styles from ska and reggae via punk to country and rockabilly. In 1999 he gave a concert with 22 songs in 22 languages ​​and ended up as the Guinness Book of World Records in 2000

1965 - Six men and two women members of the British Ku Klux Klan are found guilty in a London court of charges growing out of a meeting at which they were reportedly told that the goal of the group was to "rid Britain of Jewish control".
Seven are found guilty of wearing a uniform at a public meeting signifying association with a political organization, in violation of the 1936 Public Order Act, and all eight found guilty of aiding and abetting two of the other defendants. Patrick Webb, 36, and William Duncan, 45, each were sentenced to three months imprisonment for wearing uniforms. Robert Relf, 42, received a three-months jail term for aiding and abetting. Others received fines of between £20-25 pounds. All eight had pleaded innocent.
During the trial, the prosecutor also told the court about a list of Jewish leaders, including Labour leader and Minister Mrs. Barbara Castle and the Jewish wife of Labour leader George Brown, of whom the movement planned "to get rid". The prosecutor said that the eight defendants met on June 19 in Rugby, all wearing long white robes with a black cross over the heart, and cloth head covers with slits for the eyes and mouth.

1987 - 30,000 demonstrate against the Wackersdorf nuclear power plant in West Germany.

1989 - Eliane Vincileone (b. 1930), Italian model, craftswoman, antiques dealer and anarchist, dies.

1996 - Ono Tozaburo (小野十三郎; b. 1903), Japanese poet and anarchist, dies. [see: Jul. 27]

2008 - Fyodor 'Fedor' Filatov (b. 1981), Russian anti-fascist and one of the founders and most active members of Moscow Trojan Skinheads, is murdered by neo-Nazis in the city. He was attacked by unidentified neo-Nazis armed with knives as he left his home on his way to work and later died in hospital from multiple stab wounds.

2009 - In Manchester at the EDL's second 'national gathering', Police impose a lockdown around Piccadilly Gardens as EDL demonstrators face off against Unite Against Fascism (UAF) who had jumped their pitch, forcing the EDL to the edge of the gardens. 500 EDL followers are opposed by more than 1,000 on the UAF-organised protest (though some sources gave the figures as much closer, 6-700 each, and even gave the EDL at as few as 150). At the end of the day, ten people had been injured, one seriously, and 44 people arrested. The EDL number signalled the emergence of a significant new nationalist challenge. [PR]

2012 - Yekaterina Samutsevich [Екатери́на Самуце́вич], the third member of Pussy Riot, along with Maria Alyokhina and Nadezhda Tolokonnikova, to be arrested in the wake of February 21, 2012, performance of 'Punk Prayer: Mother of God, Chase Putin Away!' [Панк-молебен: Богородица, Путина прогони!] in the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow and later convicted and sentenced on August 17, 2012, to two years in a penal colony, is released on appeal, her sentence having been replaced with one of two years' probation. [see: Aug. 17]

2014 - The St. Petersburg Investigative Committee withdraws its motion on a mental examination of conceptual artist and political activist Pyotr Pavlensky following a number of his controversial performance pieces, including this February 23, 2014 “small-scale reconstruction of Maidan" 'Liberty'.
[D] 1865 - Morant Bay Rebellion. Although slavery has been abolished in Jamaica, most blacks are desperately poor, landless, and denied the vote. When a black man is arrested and imprisoned for ‘trespassing’ on a long-abandoned plantation, protesters march to the courthouse in Morant Bay. Militia fire on them, killing seven. The protesters led by Baptist preacher Paul Bogle retaliated by killing 18 militia and officials and taking control of the town. The Governor of Jamaica, Edward Eyre, a wealthy English land owner, then dispatched troops who engaged in brutal reprisals. Hundreds of blacks were killed in the following days, many of them people who had had nothing to do with the events, shot down in cold blood as troops marauded through the countryside. Later attempts to try Eyre (then back in Britain) for the murder of Gordon and those killed by troops under Eyre's command failed as the British establishment closed ranks against a campaign by the John Stuart Mill-organised Jamaica Committee, whose supporters included Charles Darwin, Thomas Huxley, Herbert Spencer and others. Instead, Eyre's legal expenses were covered by the British government and he was later granted the pension of a retired colonial governor.

1877 - Henrik Ibsen's anarchist-influenced play 'Samfundets Støtter' (The Pillars of Society) is first published in Copenhagen.

1878 - Eugène Soullier (d. unknown), French typographer, militant anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born.

1885 - Alicia Moreau de Justo (Alicia Moreau; d. 1986), Argentine physician, writer, editor, socialist, feminist, pacifist and human rights activist, born in London. Her father, Armand Moreau, was a French anarchist who had participated in the Paris Commune in 1871 but fled following the post-Commune repression. In 1890, Alicia and her mother, María Denanpont, emigrated to Argentina, where she beacme involved in the socialist and feminist struggles whilst still at school. In 1906, then still only 21, Alicia Moreau founded the Movimiento Feminista and began lecturing on the women's struggle, education, health, science, etc. in workers' and socialist centres and village halls, as well as supporting the Huelga de los inquilinos (tenant strikes) in tenaments and La marcha de las escobas (March of the brooms) by slum women.
In 1910, together Berta W. de Gerchunoff and her father Armand Moreau, she founded the magazine 'Ateneo Popular' to promoted secondary and higher education and was involved in international socialist publication 'Humanidad Nueva', for which she wrote on women's rights and issues.

[E] 1908 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: Suffragettes hold a mass meeting in Trafalgar Square, London, inviting public to future demonstrations, a preluded to the WSPU-organised 'Rush on the House of Commons' organised for two days later.

1909 - Concha Estrig (Concepció Estrig; d. 1987), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist, born. [expand]

1910 - Grève de la Thune* [Thunder Strike]: The Syndicat National des Chemins de Fer (National Union of Railwayworkers) and the Fédération des Mécaniciens et Chauffeurs (Federation of Mechanics and Drivers) unleash the first major railway strike in French history in support of their demand that the government introduce a daily minimum wage of five francs and a pension scheme for all railway workers. The strike had begun four days earlier, when workers at Tergnier in the Aisne and at the Parisian workshops in La Chapelle had been disciplined for a number of small delays. Faced with the refusal of the Compagnie du Nord to reinstate the suspended men, the workers in the workshops and then at the La Chapelle - Plaine Saint Denis depot ceased work. The strike quickly spread, as first the Réseau du Nord (Northern Region) and then the Ouest-État (Western) Region went out on strike in solidarity. The central strike committee, having sought refuge in the offices of 'L'Humanité', then seized the opportunity and called for a general strike by railway workers in support of the disciplined workers and in pursuit of their outstand wage demands.
For a week, the strike revealed just how dependant on the railways that the country had become. The strike also witnessed confrontations between strikers and non-strikers that became increasingly violent, and in one incident a non-striking brakeman was killed by his pickets in Cormeilles-en-Parisis. Eventually, the Aristide Briand government sent in the military to run the railways, had the members of the strike committee arrested and envoked the Loi du 3 Juillet 1877: Lois et réglements militaires (Law of July 3, 1877: Military laws and regulations), mobilising (i.e. drafting) the striking workforce under military law. On October 18, 1910, with many workers having already reluctantly returned to work, the strike was called off and traffic resumed on all the networks. In the end the strike proved successful when, on January 1, 1911, the government announced that "les grévistes de la thune" would receive an increase in their wages and the regulation of their pensions would be introduced. However, the down side was that the strikers faced heavy repression, with 3,300 loosing their jobs. There was also consequences for the Syndicat National itself, as it suffered a series of splits and confrontations between its reformist and revolutionary camps.
[* the nickname of the five-franc piece]

1910 - Revolución Méxicana: Francisco Madero, head of anti-reelection party escapes from imprisonment in San Luis Potosi and flees to Texas. He issues his Plan of San Luis Potosi, declares the election to be illegal and urges a rebellion against Porfirio Diaz.

1914 - The first issue of 'A Revolta', the fortnightly anarcho-communist paper is published in Coimbra, Portugal.

1915 - Abigail Scott Duniway (b. 1834), US women's rights advocate, newspaper editor and writer, who was an early western author and Pacific Northwest suffrage leader, (1871-1915), who succeeded in winning woman suffrage in Oregon (1912), dies. [see: Oct. 22]

1916 - Marie-Christine Mikhaïlo (Marie-Christine Söderhjelm; d. 2004), Finish-Swiss polyglot librarian and archivist with CIRA, born. An important figure in contemporary Swiss and international anarchism, she helped found Centre International de Recherches sur l'Anarchisme (CIRA) in 1957 and was one of the driving forces behind it.

1917 - Hipólito Marivela Torres aka Germán Marivela (d. 1980), Castillian carpenter, anarcho-syndicalist and fighter with the Durruti Column, born. He was still very young when he joined the CNT and was one of the organisers of the Sindicato de Oficios Varios (SOD). In 1936 , following the fascist uprising, left the first on the front enlisted as a volunteer in the Durruti Column, fighting in Madrid, Aragon and, later, in Catalonia. With Franco's victory in February 1939, he crossed the Pyrenees for Puigcerdà and was interned in the concentration camps Mont-Louis and Vernet, later joining the Compagnies de Travailleurs Étrangers (CTE). With the German occupation, he fought in the Résistance but was arrested by the Nazis and sent on March 3, 1941, with the registration number 3525 to Mauthausen concentration camp, where he remained until the liberation of the Lager on May 5 1945. After World War II, he worked in the mines of the Grand Comba, becoming active in the CNT in Champclausson and Trescolí, where he actively campaigned in the CNT and occupied various official positions.

1917 - The trial, begun on October 4th in Paris, of a group of anarchists involved in publishing a clandestine issue of the newspaper 'Le Libertaire' ends, and the defendants are heavily sentenced for such audacity, receiving 1 to 3 years in prison.

1924 - Founding of the Bureau of Surrealist Research.

1934 - Revolución de 1934 / Asturian Miners' Strike: General Lopez Ochoa and his troops, who had been laid up outside of Oviedo due to the strong resistance they faced, and now reinforced by the legionnaires and regular Army Africa troops commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Yagüe, enter Oviedo and, late in the day, the Comité Revolucionario Provincial orders the withdrawal from the capital and dissolves itself. However, the fighting in the city centre continues and a new Comité, composed mostly of young socialists and communists, is formed within hours, ready to continue the fight, when the troops of Lopez Ochoa and Yagüe began their first acts of violence and looting. Fighting continued for the next two days, in which the workers' militia attacked the enemy from higher ground and from working-class neighborhoods. [see: Oct. 4 & 5]

1934 - Following the debacle six days previosuly [see: Oct. 5] a riot breaks out in Plymouth Market Square as about 1,000 anti-fascists confront some of the Blackshirts that had remained in town following their being bussed in as stewards for the Mosley rally as they try to hols an open air meeting. Amongst those injured by the Blackshirts, some of whom were wearing body armour and had their knuckles bound with tape, were "on octogenarian and a cripple" according to the press.

1935 - Founding congress in La Plata of the Federación Anarco-Comunista Argentina (FACA). Those involved include Antonio Casanova. The organisation changed its name in 1955, to the Federación Libertaria Argentina.

[C] 1936 - Red 'Victory' March: The Sunday after Cable Street the Communist Party tried to hold another 'Victory' march in East London. The 'Morning Post' reported (13/10/1936): "The Victory March organised by the Socialists and Communists had a stormy progress through the East End".
"As we marched along Whitechapel Road the shouting grew louder. We got to Green Street, everyone braced themselves because we were about to enter the enemy’s strong-hold…the pavements were lined with Blackshirts and their supporters. They pelted us with rotten fruit and flour." [Joe Jacobs, Secretary of Stepney Communist Party - 'Out of the Ghetto' (1978)]

[C] 1936 - Mile End Pogrom: Whilst the CPGB were holding thie so-called 'Victory' march and tying up hundreds of cops, a gang of around 150 youths, some armed with iron bars and hatchets, shouting their support for Mosley, descended upon Mile End smashing Jewish shops windows and looting their contents, a car was torched, Jews were beaten in the street, and bystanders were assaulted including a pre-school-aged girl and an old man, who were thrown through a plate glass window.

1936 - Oswald Mosley, fresh from his wedding in Germany at Goebbels' ministerial home to Diana Guinness, had flown into Liverpool for a planned march and rally in the city. Before the start of the procession there was a demonstration fronted by the Liverpool Anti-Fascist Committee (AFC) in front of the Adelphi Hotel, near Lime Street Station. A section of the crowd believed that Oswald Mosley was inside and a fight between the two parties occurred. According to 'The Manchester Guardian', a crowd of more than 50,000 anti-fascists lined the streets of the proposed fascist march. Due to the volume and ferocity of the anti–fascist protesters, who repelled a charge by mounted police, Mosley was forced to travel to the Stadium by car to avoid an ugly confrontation. However, the 300-strong Blackshirt continent were subjected to a constamnt barrage of bricks as they marched to the stadium, with concerted attempts to break up the march at St. John's Lane, Whitechapel and Exchange Street East. The march was also rerouted to avoid more anti-fascists gathered at Liverpool's cenotaph. In the stadium Mosley spoke to around 2,500 BU sympathisers whils anti-fascists fought the police outside. All told, 12 anti-fascists were arrested - 2 were jailed for 2 months, the others fined.
After the meeting, Mosley claimed the response of the people of Liverpool was: "an experience with which lately we are familiar of a very highly organised attack.... The Liverpool police did extremely well... We shall carry on in exactly the same way." ['The Manchester Guardian', 12/10/1936]

1937 - Aniela Franciszka Wolberg (b. 1907), Polish Jewish chemist, anarchist activist and propagandist, dies. [see: Oct. 14]

[F] 1941 - 1700 news dealers in New York go on strike against the 'World Telegram' over the price of newspapers, delivery charges, and the return of unsold newspapers. The strike spread as other publishers refused to make deliveries to dealers who joined the strike. A judge issued an injunction against the strike, ruling that the news dealers were not employees.

1953 - Yael Langella (Yael Sylvie Langella-Klépov; d. 2007), French-Catalan polyglot teacher writer, poet, translator, photographer and libertarian activist, born.

1958 - Maurice de Vlaminck (b. 1876), French landscape and still-life painter, lithographer, wood-engraver, etcher, writer, poet, violinist and anarchist, dies. [see: Apr. 4]

1959 - Adya van Rees (Adrienne Catherine Dutilh; b. 1876), Dutch artist (needle art, broderies and wall hangings) who was involved with Dadaism and the Ascona colony, dies. [see: Jun. 7]

[B] 1963 - Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau (b. 1889), French poet, novelist, dramatist, designer, playwright, artist and filmmaker, dies. His fiche policière labelled Cocteau a "poète anarchiste homosexuel à Paris". [see: Jul. 5]

1965 - Dorothea Lange (b. 1895), influential US documentary photographer and photojournalist, best known for her photographs documenting the effects of the Depression and poverty on displaced farm families, sharecroppers, and migrant labourers, and whose photos of the forced evacuation and internment of Japanese Americans were considered so dangerous that the Army seized them to prevent them from being published. dies of oesophageal cancer. [see: May 26]

1966 - Paweł Grossman (b. 1899), Polish Jewish libertarian socialist and anarchist militant, dies. [see: Aug. 26]

1969 - Days Of Rage: The protests peter-out following a mass arrest of protesters.

1972 - 50 prisoners at the Washington D.C. jail seize control of a cellblock, taking 12 prison officials hostage in protest over conditions. The siege is lifted after nearly 24 hours when a District Judge agrees to hear and act on their complaints and none of the inmates would face charges for their actions. 12 were eventually charged with conspiring to escape, attempted escape and rioting and ten convicted, despite arguments by their criminal defence attorneys that the jail director and a federal judge had granted them immunity from prosecution.

1978 - Ruthven Campbell Todd (b. 1914), Scottish poet, artist, novelist and writer of children's books, who also wrote detective fiction under the pseudonym R. T. Campbell, dies. [see: Jun. 14]

1982 - Elías Castelnuovo (b. 1893), Uruguayan journalist, storyteller, playwright, poet, essayist and anarchist, later joining the communists and becoming a Peronist, dies. [see: Aug. 6]

2005 - Sergio Citti (b. 1933), Italian actor, film director, screenwriter and libertarian, who was closely linked artistically to Pier Paolo Pasolini, dies. [see: May 30]

2006 - Jacques Sternberg (b. 1923), Belgian novelist, writer of science fiction and fantastique, pamphleteer , essayist, journalist, columnist, anti-competitive yatchsman and anarchist, dies. [see: Apr. 17]

[A] 2008 - Harold H. Thompson (b. 1942), Irish-American anarchist activist and jailhouse lawyer, dies of a heart attack in West Tennessee State Penitentiary having served 29 years of a life plus 50 years sentence.

2010 - Alexis Grigoropoulos Murder & Protests: The Mixed Jury Court of Amfissa delivers their verdicts on the two special guards involved in the killing of Alexis Grigoropoulos. Epaminondas Korkoneas is found guilty of "homicide with direct intention to cause harm" and sentenced to life plus an additional 15 months of imprisonment. Vasilis Saraliotis is found guilty as an accompliceand sentenced to ten years of imprisonment. The killing of 15-year-old Alexandros Grigoropoulos sparked the 2008 Greek riots and demonstrations and riots in over 70 cities around the world.
[F] October 12 - Coal Miners' Day in Illinois... or it used to be, a day of commemoration when thousands of miners took a day off from work, joining their families to celebrate the heritage of mine community unionism on the anniversary of the Battle of Virden in 1898.

1808 - Victor Considerant (d. 1893), French socialist thinker who sought to develop and implement the theses of Fourier, in particular on the idea of the phalanstery, born.

1826 - Élodie Richoux (Élodie Duvert; d. unknown), French resturant owner and Pétroleuse, who had known Louise Michel in prison and fought alongside her on the barricades at Place Saint Sulpice during the Commune, born.

1859 - Maurice Donnay (d. 1945), French playwright, born. A frequenter of Le Chat Noir (he composed songs with Alphonse Allias there) and of Fortuné Henry's libertarian community at Aiglemont, about which he based a theatrical comedy called 'La Clairière' (The Clearing), which he co-authored with Lucien Descaves in 1900.

1860 - Émile Pouget (d. 1931), French anarcho-communist militant and propagandist, born. A key figure of French and international anarchism and revolutionary syndicalism between 1880 and 1914, one of the most vocal militants and cunning strategists, a prolific journalist and pamphlet-writer whose career spans three decades. In the late 1870s formed a shopkeepers' union in Paris, although he did not become a wholehearted advocate of revolutionary trade unionism until the early 1890s. In 1883 he was imprisoned for leading a demonstration of unemployed workers with Louise Michel at Les Invalides, which ended in a bout of rioting and looting. It was on this occasion that the anarchist black flag is believed to have appeared for the first time. In 1888 he founded 'Le Père Peinard', a fiercely anti-bourgeois, pro-strikes, and anti-colonial paper addressed to the worker, famous for its biting slang and artistic contributions. He was one of those indicted in the 1894 anti-anarchist Procès des Trente . He sought refuge in Britain and was condemned in absentia. Also author and signatory to the 'Charte d’Amiens' (Charter of Amiens; 1906), adopted by the CGT.
[Portrait by Aristide Delannoy]

1873 - In Switzerland the famed Russian revolutionary, Mikhail Bakunin retires from the struggle and resigns from the anarchist Jura Federation.

1873 - Beatriz González Ortega (d. 1965) Mexican teacher, who during the Toma de Zacatecas turned her school, the Escuela Normal de Zacatecas, into a temporary hospital treating more than 500 wounded federal and revolutionary soldiers, without distinguishing between sides, born. She later refused to turn over the wounded federales to the victorious revolutionaries, having burnt their uniformss to prevent their identification, for which she was beaten and came close to being executed.

1879 - British troops occupied Kabul, Afghanistan. Not their first, or last, imperialist mistake.

[F] 1898 - Battle of Virden: When the Chicago-Virden Coal Company tries to bring in scab workers during a strike at their mine in Virden, Illinois, the UMWA miners arm themselves with hunting rifles, pistols and shotguns and attack the train carrying them. Both miners and guards suffer numerous casualties in the ensuing Battle of Virden. [expand]

[EEE] 1904 - Ding Ling (丁玲), the pen name of Jiang Wei (蒋伟); d. 1986), once popular Chinese writer, who wrote against filial piety and for women's social and sexual freedom in 'The Diary of Miss Sophie' (莎菲女士的日記; 1927) during the New Culture Movement (新文化運動), born. In March 1932 she joined the Chinese Communist Party, and was active in the League of Left-Wing Writers. She was persecuted by both the Guomingdang [who murdered her husband, the poet and playwight Hu Yepin (胡也频)] and the CPC (the later of whom she criticised in 1942 for using slogans of national resistance to undermine the rights recently won by women). In 1957 she was denounced as a "rightist", purged from the party, and her fiction and essays were banned. She spent five years in jail during the Cultural Revolution and was sentenced to do manual labour on a farm for twelve years. After the death of Chairman Mao, Ding was freed and in 1978 she was "rehabilitated", having her Party membership restored. During her last years she enjoyed renewed attention.
Ding Ling died in Beijing on March 4, 1986.

1905 - The 'Regeneración' offices at 107 North Channing Ave. are raided by Pinkerton detectives. Ricardo and Enrique Flores Magón and Juan Sarabia are imprisoned and all the newspaper's equipment (presses, typewriters, furniture, etc.) are seized by the US authorities and sold.

1915 - Robert Rizal Ballester (d. 1936), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist, born. Active in the CNT in Badalona, he was arrested and jailed on May 8, 1934, along with Fernando Lozano Vicente, accused of coercion, insulting behaviour and use of armed force during a strike. He was also accused, based on French evidence, of being a member of an international band of thieves. On February 11, 1935, he tried to escape the dungeons of the Direcció Superior de Policia in Barcelona by simulating a suicide. On 23 November 1935, he was court martialed for the 1934 events and was sentenced to five years in correctional prison. His comrade Lozano was sentenced to four years. During the Fascist uprising in July 1936, he was a member of the Comitè de Milícies Antifeixistes (Committee of Antifascist Militias). Also, as a member of the Iberian Anarchist Federation (FAI), he led the Badalona magazine 'Vía Libre', organ of the CNT and FAI, during the civil war, collaborating on illustrations, collages and writings. With Franco's victory, he went to France, where he was eventually arrested by the Nazis, and sent to the death camps. Robert Rizal Ballester died on August 22, 1941 at Gusen concentration camp in Austria.

1920 - Possible date of the death of Ludovico Giardino Nabruzzi (b. 1846), Italian anarchist lawyer, known as 'Rubicone Nabruzzi' or 'Rubicone'. [see: Sep. 23 & Jun. 27]

1923 - Léandre Valéro (d. 2011), Algerian anarchist and anarchist, who fought in the Spanish Civil War and was active in the Algerian independence movement, born. [expand]

1925 - American forces intervene (Oct. 12-25) in Panama to 'protect American interests'. Now where have we heard that one before?

1934 - Revolución de 1934 / Asturian Miners' Strike: With most of Oviedo in the hands of the military and lacking ammunition, the Provincial Committee is forced to surrender. General Lopez Ochoa, commanding, demanded surrender of the weapons of the captive Guardia Civil and Guardia de Asalto, restoration of all arms, the lives of prisoners taken to be spared, and the committees to give themselves up. No shots were to be fired on the advancing troops. The committees’ conditions for workers to lay down their arms were for the Tercio and Regulares to be kept out of the mining towns and withdrawn from the front on account of their bloody reputation.
Ochoa agreed to these terms, and the Committee surrendered on condition that none of the committee were handed over. The agreement was read out to the population in Sama, who greeted it with cries of "treachery". They refused to surrender, knowing how vicious the repression would be. They said they would sooner take to the hills. In the end it was accepted as inevitable and when the troops entered the town there came the harshest repression yet known in Asturias. The wounded in the hospitals were rounded up and shot. They did not even enquire which side they were on. The prisoners were questioned and shot. A hundred would continue to hold out on Monte Naranco. In flushing them out, a young girl, 16 year old Aida de la Fuente was killed. Her friend was wounded and raped before being murdered. [see: Oct. 4 & 5]

[E] 1934 - During a notorious French court case, Germaine Violette Nozière (1915-1966) is found guilty of parricide of the father who had raped her throughout her teenage years. Sentenced to death, an appeal was dismissed on December 6, 1934 but an appeal for clemency to President Albert Lebrun resulted in the death sentence being commuted on December 24 to one of hard labour for life.

1936 - In Spain a Generalidad decree dissolves the (revolutionary) Local Committees. These are shortly to be replaced by new, Popular Front-style town councils.

1940 - (The Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur) The creation of the Warsaw ghetto.

[C] 1942 - The creation of the Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa (ŻOB; Jewish Fighting Organisation).

1957 - Steven T. Byington (b. 1869), American individualist anarchist, translator of 'The Ego and its Own' and populariser of the philosophy of Max Stirner, dies. [see: Dec. 10]

[B] 1964 - Resignation of novelist Alexander Trocchi from the Situationist International.

1966 - Arthur-Vincent Lourié born Naum Izrailevich Luria (Наум Израилевич Лурья), later changed his name to Artur Sergeyevich Luriye (Артур Сергеевич Лурье; b. 1892), Russian experimentalist composer associated with Russian Futurism, dies. [see: May 14]

1969 - Louise Gavan Duffy (Luíse Ghabhánach Ní Dhufaigh; b. 1884), suffragist and Irish nationalist, who was present in the General Post Office, the main headquarters during the 1916 Easter Rising, dies aged 85. [see: Jul. 17]

[A] 1984 - The Grand Hotel in Brighton bombed during the Tory party conference. Thatcher survives, five people are killed, Norman Tebbit's wife is permanently disabled.

1995 - Pura Arcos (Purificació Pérez Benavent; 1995), Spanish nurse, author and anarcha-feminist militant, who worked as a teacher and tram driver during the Civil War as well as being active within Mujeres Libres, dies in Canada where she had lived since 1959. [see: Jun. 26]

1996 - Georgi Grigorov, a.k.a. Georges Balkanski, G. Grigoiev and G. Hadjiev (b. 1906), Bulgarian anarchist theorist and historian, dies. [see: Apr. 16]

1999 - Björn Söderberg (b. 1958), Swedish anarcho-syndicalist militant of the Sveriges Arbetares Centralorganisation (SAC) and anti-fascist activist, is assassinated by neo-Nazis (three bullets in the head) as he leaves his home in Sätra, Stockholm. He was targeted because of his anti-fascist activities in his union, specifically in exposing a fascist in his workplace. [see: Apr. 1]

2001 - An ETA car bomb explodes in Madrid, injuring 12 people. The bomb, which exploded at night, was supposed to go off during a military parade that morning.

2003 Two ETA bombs explode in Irun, Gipuzkoa causing great damage but no injuries.

[D] 2003 - In Bolivia violence erupted at El Alto when the military tried to break a blockade against petrol lorries bound for Chile. The death toll grew to 59 after 4 days of clashes at El Alto.

2004 - 37-year-old Mandy Pearson is found hanging in a dormitory cell in the Health Care Centre at HMP New Hall. Mandy had a long history of serious self harm and mental health difficulties but despite persistent and regular threats of suicide and self harm, Mandy was never placed on the suicide and self harm monitoring procedure in the weeks before her death.

2008 - An angry crowd in central Mexico attacked police and helped nearly three dozen illegal Central American immigrants escape from custody after hearing that officers had allegedly sold the migrants to human smugglers in the farming town of Rafael Lara Grajales, Puebla state. Federal police managed to round up 21 migrants.

[AA] 2010 - Jimmy Mubenga killed by three G4S guards as he is put on a plane at London Heathrow to be deported to Angola.
1766 - A mob of over a thousand rise in Great Colton, Warwickshire, against bread price rises. They split into flying squads 300 strong and traverse the country, enforcing prices and fighting the soldiery in Kidderminster, Birmingham, Alcester and Stratford.

1827 - Giuseppe Fanelli (d. 1877), Italian revolutionary Bakuninite anarchist involved in the establishing of the First International, born. A one-time nationalist and mason, he allegedly originated the 'circle A' symbol. [expand]

1868 - Teresa Magbanua, aka the 'Visayan Joan of Arc' (d. 1947), Filipina schoolteacher and military leader, born. During the 1896 Philippine Revolution against the Spanish Empire she became one of only a few women to join the Katipunan secret revolutionary society and fighting in several key battles during the revolution. During the Battle of Barrio Yoting, her first battle, she leading troops into combat on horseback, earning the 'Visayan Joan of Arc' nickname. During the Philippine-American War, Magbanua also participated in several battles against American forces.

1883 - Mario Buda (d. 1963), Italian-born American anarchist and Galleanist associate of Sacco and Vanzetti, born. Considered by some as the inventor of the car bomb when a car he owned was used in the September 16, 1920 Wall Street bombing.

1892 - Homestead Steel Strike: The strike has collapsed to such an extent that the state militia pull out ending, the 95-day occupation.

1893 - Fioravante Meniconi (d. 1945), Italian militant anarchist individualist and anti-militarist propagandist, born.

1897 - A well-attended event to raise money for the imprisoned editors of the anarchist newspaper 'Firebrand' is held in Chicago. Speakers include Max Baginski, Moses Harmon and Emma Goldman, who is on a speaking tour. Goldman speaks to the Lucifer Circle on the theme of 'Prostitution: Its Causes and Cure' and on 'Free Love'.

[C / F] 1902 - A Carabinieri crackdown on a demonstration organised by the local farmer in the Lega dei Lavoratori (Workers League) at Giarratana, near Ragusa, Sicily, leaves three dead, including a military policeman, and fifty wounded. This was just one in a series of 'proletarian massacres' stemming from the repression of a wave of agrarian strikes affecting the whole of Italy that had begun the previous year.
"A strike had been called in Giarratana. But not all workers were in agreement, many were dissidents. To avoid an outbreak of violence, as tempers very excited, the Carabinieri intervened, and faced with flying stones, and threatened by a series of scuffles, the Carabinieri, who were only armed with revolvers, fired into the air. That was the signal for the massacre. The Carabinieri were surrounded by the crowd, which, as if taken over by a madness for destruction, attacked them with stones and clubs. The soldiers, wilting under the vehement impact, tried to defend themselves. But, outnumbered, fired further revolver shots. Then we saw the red plumes of the soldiers being overwhelmed by the waves of the crowd, above which furiously waved sticks. The scrum became fearful, between cries of ferocity and terror, the Police were tight everywhere. The carabiniere Antonino Giancastro who was isolated by the crowd from his comrades, tried to defend himself with his gun, but he had to seek refuge in a nearby house. The crowd, enraged, chased him into the shelter, drunk with fury and blood. Seeing a big stir at the house where he had taken refuge, the Carabinieri came running. But too late: he had already been done in by his assailants." ['Corriere Illustrato della Domenica' Oct. 26, 1920]

1906 - The first issue of the anarchist weekly newspaper 'La Protesta Umana' is published by Ettore Molinari and Nella Giacomelli in Milan.

1908 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: WSPU-organised 'Rush on the House of Commons' when 60,000 people gathered in Parliament Square and attempts were made by suffragettes to break through the 5000 strong police cordon to rush the House, but none succeeded. Thirty-seven arrests were made, ten people were taken to hospital and seven police officers were placed on the sick list as a result of their injuries.

[A] 1909 - Francisco Ferrer (b. 1859), Catalan anarchist founder of the Modern School movement, is murdered in Spain by Catholic Monarchists. Framed for being the leader of the insurrection that led to La Semena Tragica [see: July 26 1909] despite not being in Barcelona at the time, he is sentenced to death and shot by firing squad in Montjuich Fortress.
[Costantini pic]

1910 - A memorial meeting is held for Francisco Ferrer y Guardia at the Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art in Lower Manhattan, NY., organised by the American Ferrer Association to commemorate the first anniversary of the execution of anarchist educator. Thaddeus Burr Wakeman, president of the Thomas Paine Historical Association; Jaume Vidal, a personal friend of Ferrer and Spanish member of the Revolutionary Committee in New York; Jonas Alexander, founder and editor of the socialist newspaper the 'New Yorker Volkszeitung' and a member of the executive committee of the Free Speech League; Leonard Dalton Abbott, president of the AFA, and prominent anarcha-feminst Emma Goldman all spoke at the meeting.

1911 - Emma Goldman is amongst the speakers at a New York City commemoration of the second anniversary of the death of Francisco Ferrer. Other speakers include Leonard Abbott, James P. Morton, and Harry Kelly. Bayard Boyesen, professor at Columbia University and a teacher at the Ferrer School, is later fired by university administrators for having shared the platform with Goldman at this event.

[D] 1914 - On the fifth anniversary of the execution of Francisco Ferrer, two bombs planted in St. Patrick's Cathedral and St. Alphonsus church in New York City's Bowery district explode during the afternoon. The bomb in the cathedral shatters a stained glass window and blows a hole in the floor. A boy is slightly injured, grazed by shrapnel. The second bomb in the St. Alphonsus church, where the IWW leader Frank Tannenbaum had been arrested in March that year and charged with inciting to riot following a march of unemployed workers as part of a campaign that demanded relief from New York City churches (Tannenbaum was jailed for a year and fined $500), caused little damage and no injuries. The police immediately blamed the explosions on an Industrial Workers of the World plot that "menaced many". The 'New York Tribune' the following day reported that the 'Reds' were rejoicing over this and other recent church bombings.
No one was arrested at the time but the following year an undercover New York City police officer, Amedeo Polignani, took part in the entrapment of two Italian anarchists, members of the Gruppo Gaetano Bresci aka the 'Bresci Circle', the group being another ongoing major target of police harassment and arrest. On March 2, 1915, Frank Abarno and Polignani placed two bombs in the cathedral and, as Arbano was about to light one of the fuses, he was grabbed and arrested by one of the 50 NYPD detectives secreted amongst the cathedral's congregation, some according the 'The Evening World' "disguised as women worshippers, two as scrubwomen, others as ushers". Fellow 'conspirator' Carmine Carbone was arrested the same day and on April 13, 1915, they were both convicted of conspiracy to cause explosions. Six days later on April 19, Frank Abarno and Carmine Carbone were sentenced to six-to-twelve years at Sing Sing Prison.

1925 - Lenny Bruce (d. 1966), US standup comedian, social rebel, satirist and clergy impersonator, who was hounded to death by 'the man' for using such words as fuck and cocksucker on stage and barred from entering England by Home Office as an “undesirable alien", born.
"When you can't say 'fuck,' you can't say 'fuck the government'."

1928 - Ruhreisenstreit [Ruhr Iron Dispute]: Having rejected any further conciliation in the current pay negotiation process, the Arbeit-Nordwest announce that they will terminate all employment contracts and lock-out their employees on November 1. [see: Nov. 1]

1932 - Dušan Makavejev (Душан Макавејев), Serbian radical film director and screenwriter, renown for his ground-breaking films in the late 1960s and early 1970s as part of the so-called Black Wave alongside Zivojin Pavlovic, Aleksandar Petrovic and Zelimir Zilnik, born. His best known film is the 1971 political satire 'WR: Mysteries of the Organism', which was banned in Yugoslavia (as it was around the world, and if not it was heavily censored) for its sexual-political content, plus it's follow-up 'Sweet Movie' (1974). The banning of 'WR: Mysteries of the Organism' led to Makavejev's exile from the country for over a decade. Of his 11 full length films, probably the most mainstream is 'Manifesto' aka 'A Night of Love' (1988), which is set in a Central European country a provincial town prepares for the king’s visit, and the chief of the secret police arrives to uncover a suspected anarchist plot.

1934 - Revolución de 1934 / Asturian Miners' Strike: Oviedo is now fully under military control and following its fall, many of the workers retreated to the coalfields, where the third and last Provincial Revolutionary Committee chaired by trained socialist Belarmino Tomás, based itself in Sama de Langreo, the capital of the Nalón basin. [see: Oct. 4 & 5]

1934 - The first issue of 'La Conquête du Pain' (Conquest of Bread) appears, as a libertarian review open to all the tendencies of anarchism. It was managed by Émile Bidault (1869-1938), a French anarchist and organiser of La Ligue des Antipatriotes, who had previously edited the 'Brochure Mensuelle'.

1945 - The first issue of the weekly 'Il Libertario', paper of the Libertarian Communist Federation of Lombard, which succeeded 'Il Comunista Libertario', is published in Milan.

[E] 1949 - Susana Graciela Lesgart (d. 1972), Argentine Montoneros guerrilla, who died in the 1972 Masacre de Trelew at the Base Aeronaval Almirante Zar, born. A one-time member of the Trotskyist a Partido Revolucionario de los Trabajadores, she joined the Montoneros guerrilla organisation an was involved in the planned mass escape from the Penal de Rawson and the abortive airliner hijacking attempt at the nearby Trelew airport on August 15, 1972, and was amongst those summarily executed on August 22, 1972 during the socalled Masacre de Trelew.

[B] 1952 - The second showing (and the first full projection following the June 30th riot) of Debord's of 'Hurlements en faveur de Sade' (Howls for de Sade), at the Ciné-club du Quartier Latin, Paris.

1968 - Andreas Baader, Gudrun Ensslin, Horst Söhnlein, and Thorwald Proll are convicted of arson in connection with the April 2, 1968 Frankfurt am Main department store fires and sentenced to three years in prison.

1970 - Angela Davis, 26, a former faculty member at the University of California, Los Angeles, black militant and "self-proclaimed Communist" (sic), is arrested in N.Y. City in connection with a shoot-out in a San Raphael, California, courtroom six days before.

1977 - Four Palestinian terrorists hijack a Lufthansa jetliner, Palma de Majorca. They demand the release of "our comrades in German prisons", which would include the Baader-Meinhof gang: "We are fighting against the imperialist organizations of the world."

2007 - At around 4am, a young woman who is sleeping in the Piazza Verdi, Bologna, is noticed by cops, who decide that the girl’s behaviour must be 'corrected' by compulsory sanitary treatment (TSO). They forcibly keep the girl under their custody and call an ambulance to commit her to a mental hospital against her will. Juan Sorroche Fernandez, Cristian Facchinetti (Fako), Federico Razzoli, Sirio Manfrini and Maddalena Calore, five comrades of the anarchist space Fuoriluogo, witness the incident and try to block the ambulance staff in an attempt to free the girl. The reaction of the police is immediate and brutal. Shortly afterwards, the anarchists are handcuffed, having been severely beaten by cops. The invented accusations against them are quite heavy, including robbery charges (according to the prosecution, the comrades took a pair of handcuffs and a walkie-talkie, and attempted to steal a gun from one of the cops during the scuffle).
On July 15, 2014, the investigation of the proceeding for the facts in the Piazza Verdi ended.

2012 - A failed escape attempt at the Senador Leite Neto Regional Prison in NE Brazil during visiting hours results in prisoners taking guards hostage and seizing control of the prison. They then stage a protest against conditions - built to house 180, the prison holds 500 inmates. Negotiations between the prisoners and prison authorities reach an agreement and inmates surrender the following day. One prisoner is wounded during the failed escape attempt.

2014 - Ferguson, Missouri: Protesters attempt to cross police lines to meet with officers at the Ferguson Police Department. More than 50 protesters are arrested, during a staged and peaceful act of disobedience.
1824 - Plotino Constantino Rhodakanaty (d. 18??), Greek Mexican anarchist and socialist philosopher and mystic, born. A pioneer of Mexican anarchism and in the labour and campesino movements in the mid-nineteenth century. Arriving in Veracruz, Mexico in 1861, drawn by the possibilities for social experimentation afforded by colonisation, Rhodakanaty became a journalist, contributing to labor periodicals such as 'El Socialista', 'La Comuna Internacional', 'l Hijo del Trabajo' and 'La Internacional', as well as a schoolteacher, organising a series of institutions that would foster the first generation of the Mexican anarchist movement, notably, in 1865, the Escuela del Rayo y el Socialismo (School of Light and Socialism), students of his were instrumental in the Chalco peasant revolt of 1868, a precursor of later Magónista and Zapatista movements. He later became a mormon and returned to Europe in 1886, there after disappearing.

1859 - Ravachol (François Claudius Koenigstein) (d. 1892), French anarchist bandit and advocate of propaganda of the deed, who was the subject of popular myth and song ('La Ravachole, Sur l'Air de la Carmagnole'), born. [expand]

1866 - [O.S. Oct. 2] Louise Louis (d. unknown), Russian anarchist militant and maid, born in Oriol. In the early 1890s she and her companion, the Russian anarchist Nikolai Nikitin, lived in Levallois-Perret, Ile de France. On September 23, 1893 both were expelled from France and took refuge in London. The following year they appeared on the anarchist watch-lists of the French border railway police.

1876 - Jules Bonnot (d. 1912), French auto mechanic, vegetarian, tea-totaller, anarchist 'illegalist', of the Bonnot Gang – the most famous of the 'bandits tragiques', born. [expand]

1883 - In a show of solidarity between the trade unionists and the 'partisans de l'action directe', a meeting of the chambres demands that the Montceau and Blanzy syndicales each appoint a delegation of three members with mission to go to the management of the mines at Blanzy and request that the latter reinstates all the citizens who had been dismissed from their positions as a result of the insurrectional movement of August 1882.

1883 - Two-day founding congress (Oct. 12-14) of the International Working People's Association (IWPA) in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Marks the beginning of the anarchist-trade union movement in the US. Endorses propaganda by the deed.

1889 - Max Hoelz or Hölz aka 'Der Roter Robin Hood' (d. 1933), German communist, born. "Max Hoelz was considered by the social democrats as a dangerous adventurer, by the official communists as an irresponsible and a traitor, by the communist left as an anarchist and by the anarchists as a Leninist" - Paco Ignacio Taibo II in 'Archangels' (1998)

1894 - Sail Mohamed (Sail Mohamed Ameriane ben Amerzaine; d. 1953), Algerian anarchist, Spanish Civil War fighter and mechanic, a prominent anti-colonial militant, born.

1905 - [O.S. Oct. 1] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The 'October Manifesto' (Октябрьский манифест, Манифест 17 октября), officially 'The Manifesto on the Improvement of the State Order' (Манифест об усовершенствовании государственного порядка), written by Count Sergei Witte (Серге́й Ви́тте), Chairman of the Committee of Ministers, and a member of the Council of State, Prince Alexis Obolensky (Алексе́й Оболе́нский), is presented to the Tsar. It closely follows the demands of the Zemstvo Congress in September, granting basic civil rights, allowing the formation of political parties, extending the franchise towards universal suffrage, and establishing the Duma as the central legislative body.

1905 - [O.S. Oct. 1] October All-Russian Political Strike [Октябрьская всероссийская политическая стачка]: The Moscow Okhrana reports that the strike movement is under control despite all the evidence to the contrary.

1906 - Hannah (Johanna) Arendt (d. 1975), German American political theorist on the nature of power, politics, authority and totalitarianism, born. Best known works include: 'The Origins of Totalitarianism' (1951); 'The Human Condition' (1958); 'On Revolution' (1963); 'Men In Dark Times' (1968); 'On Violence' (1970) and 'Crises of the Republic: Lying in Politics; Civil Disobedience; On Violence; Thoughts on Politics and Revolution' (1972). [expand]

[C] 1907 - Adrién Porchet (d. 2008), Swiss filmmaker, cinematographer and libertarian, who made propaganda films for the CNT during the Spanish Civil War, born. Son of the Swiss film pioneer Arturo-Adrien Porchet and brother of cinematographer Robert, who also worked on a number of his films for the CNT, including those made by Adrién. Amongst Porchet's Spanish films were 'Aguiluchos de la FAI por Tierras de Aragón. Estampas de la Revolución Antifascista' (1936), a trio of documentary shorts; 'La Toma de Sietamo' (1936) [both CNT - AIT, Sindicato Único de Espectáculos Públicos]; plus 'División Heroica (En El Frente de Huesca CNT)' (1937), 'Aurora de Esperanza' (Dawn of Hope; 1937) and 'Un Pueblo en Armas' (A People Armed; 1937 - English release title 'Fury over Spain'), a documentary on the activities of the Durruti Column that was later re-edited by Louis Frank as 'Amanecer sobre España' (Dawn Over Spain; 1938 - English release title 'The Will of a People'), all for the Sindicato de la Industria del Espectáculo (Entertainment Industry Union). He was also cinematographer on the prisoners of war documentary 'Le Drapeau de l'Humanité' (1942), made for the ICRC.
www.christiebooks.com/Film Database/anarquismo/details/10108.html]

1907 - Aniela Franciszka Wolberg (d. 1937), Polish Jewish chemist, anarchist activist and propagandist, born. Aniela Wolberg became anarchist during her studies at the university of his native city where she came into contact with the Bulgarian student group whose the facilitator was Tazco Petrov who later died in prison. By 1925, she founded the underground anarchist monthly paper 'Proletarien' (Proletariat)' in Krakow and the following year became an active member of the Anarchistyczna Federacja Polski (AFP; Anarchist Federation of Poland). Later that year she moved to Paris to continue her studies, becoming the companion of Polish anarchist Benjamin Goldberg (Maxime Ranko). There she joined the Polish anarchist group based at the Librairie sociale internationale, 72 rue des Prairies, contributing articles and money to the Polish anarchist paper 'Walka' (Struggle), which was edited by Isaak Gurfinkiel (who, under the pseudonym of Valevsky, was one of the signatories of the Organisational Platform of the Libertarian Communists). Aniela also attended the international conference at Hay-les-Roses near Paris on April 20, 1927, in the cinema Les Roses, that established the Organisational Platform of the Libertarian Communists. She then studied at Montpellier University, where she gained an MSc in Chemistry. In France she established links with French anarchist groups, including with the CGT-SR and with Spanish anarchist groups. Returning to Paris, she worked as an engineer in a car factory. She was deported from France to Poland because of her anarchist activity in 1932. She became secretary of the AFP in the same year and edited the underground anarchist paper 'Walka Klas' (Class Struggle). She was arrested in 1934, but released for lack of evidence. However, with increasing repression against the anarchist movement, she was obliged to halt her activism. In 1936 she moved to Spain to aid the revolution there. She died in Warsaw from post-operative complications on October 11, 1937.

1911 - Socialists Benito Mussolini and Pietro Nenni, and the anarchist Aurelio Lolli, are arrested in connection with the September 27th general strike, are convicted on all charges and transferred to prison to await the appeal in Bologna. [see: Nov. 23]

1913 - Revolución Méxicana: Pancho Villa fails to defeat federal garrison in Chihuahua City.

[B] 1914 - Tony Gibson (d. 2001), British psychologist, BBC producer, writer and anarchist, born. His best known book was 'People Power: Community and Work Groups in Action' (1979). Active as an artist's model and posed for an advertisement of Brylcreem 1939 - in 1940 this advertisement was added a RAF cap plus the caption "For active service" but Gibson himself was at that time a conscientious objector working as an ambulance man and a farm labourer.

[EE] 1915 - [O.S. Oct. 1] Market day in the city of Bogorodsk (Богородск), the location of the important Morozovskaya (Морозовских) textile factories, which employed more than 15 thousand workers, is witness to one of the many food riots that broke out across eastern Europe during WWI. Thirty women workers had come to the market to buy sugar and, finding that it had sold out, they were furious, accusing the merchants in dishonesty and speculation. The police quickly arrived and removed the women from the shop by force, however they returned to the city square and there continued to express their indignation and to pour accusations against traffickers. The number of protesters steadily increased, reaching several thousand, mostly women and young people, and not only workers but also peasants who come to the market from surrounding villages. Soon, the crowd moved toward the stalls and gave vent to his anger. Some threw stones at the windows of shops, someone breaking into them and throwing goods out into the streets whilst other snapped them up. Not wanting to use weapons against women and adolescents, the local police were helpless and could not stop them.
Over the following days the food riots spread, with their targets now not only groceries but also clothes shops and other suppliers of manufactured goods. On October 4, Cossacks who had arrived in the city, opened fire on the insurgents, killing two and injuring several others. [expand]

1918 - Jacob Schwartz (b. 18??), Russian-born anarchist member of a small group of Russian Jewish immigrant anarchists in New York associated with Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman, dies in his New York prison cell a month an a half after his arrest and brutal beating from which he never recovered.

[D] 1920 - Demonstrations are held across Italy in support of the Russian Revolution and against the American and European invasions. Protesters also demand the release of political prisoners in Italy. In Bologna, where Errico Malatesta appears, police open fire on demonstrators, killing several.

1936 - In the weeks following BUF undaunted continue to hold rallys at Stepney, Shoreditch, Bethnal Green, Stoke Newington and Limehouse. On October 11 Mosley returned to the East End unopposed, addressing a meeting of 12,000 at Victoria Park Square, where he was enthusiastically received. Later he marched at the head of the procession to Salmon Lane in Limehouse, without opposition or disorder. BUF considered it "the most successful series of meetings since the beginning of the movement".
During this period, the Stepney Communist Party's membership as around 300 [Joe Jacobs] whilst Special Branch files state that the Blackshirt membership for Limehouse, just one part of Stepney, stood at 1,700.

1940 - Takis Fotopoulos (Τάκης Φωτόπουλος), Greek political philosopher, economist and libertarian, born.

1941 - Arthur Holitscher (b. 1869), Hungarian playwright, novelist, essayist, travel writer and anarchist, dies. [see: Aug. 22]

[A] 1943 - Sobibor Uprising: Fearing that the camp may be due to be liquidated at any moment following rumours about similar fates for other camps such as Bełżec, in mid-August 1943 an underground organisation was formed, led by the head of the Judenrat in the Galician town of Zolkiew, Leon Feldhendler. The group, whose members were mostly the heads of the labour workshops, planned to organise a mass escape from the camp. Later, a Russian Jew, Officer Alexandr Pechersky, was chosen as commander. Several plans were drawn up. The aim of the one that was finally decided on was to kill the German staff, seize weapons and escape from the camp (there are, however, several versions of the course of the uprising). The rebels were joined by two Ukrainian kapos. The uprising broke out on October 14, 1943, at four o' clock in the afternoon, and in its course 12 Germans, including camp commander Franz Reichsleitner, and several Ukrainians were killed. Three hundred prisoners escaped, breaking through the barbed wire and risking their lives in the minefield surrounding the camp but most were killed. Those who did not or could not join the escape attempt were also killed. Over 100 escapees were recaptured Many were later hunted down and shot by Ukrainian guards sent on search parties. Around 50 prisoners survived the war, many of whom joined the Russian partisans operating in the area.

1947 - Rita 'Bo' Brown aka 'The Gentleman Bank Robber', radical queer revolutionary, ex-prisoner and member of the George Jackson brigade, and prison abolitionist, born.

1970 - The Weather Underground's Women's Brigade bomb the Center for International Affairs at Harvard University in solidarity with Angela Davis, who had recently been arrested. Harvard was chosen for its symbolic connection to the Vietnam War, in order to contest the current notion among some feminists that Vietnam was not a women's issue.

[F] 1980 - Marcia dei Quarantamila [March of Forty Thousand] aka 'Dei Quarantamila Quadri FIAT' [The Forty Thousand FIAT Cadres]: Thousands of employees and executives of FIAT paraded through the streets of Turin in protest against the picketing that for the past 35 days had prevented them from entering the factory. The event had the direct effect of pushing the union to close the dispute with an agreement favourable to FIAT. It is conventionally referred to as the beginning of a radical change from the big company and union relations system in the country.

1981 - Charles-Auguste Bontemps (b. 1893), French 'Social Individualist' anarchist, pacifist, freethinker and naturist activist, prolific writer and poet, dies. Member of 'Solidarité Internationale Antifasciste' during the Spanish civil war.

1982 - Canadian urban guerrilla group Direct Action, whose members included anarchist Ann Hansen and Juliet Caroline Belmas, target a Litton Industries plant making guidance components for American cruise missiles in a symbolic action, bomb Litton Industries plant, which made guidance components for American cruise missiles. A stolen pick-up truck, which was packed with 550 kg of dynamite and that had an elaborate "warning box" duct taped to the bonnet, displaying a message, a digital clock counting down, and a single stick of dynamite to draw attention to the danger, was parked in full view of corporate security. The security desk was then rung and warned of the bomb, giving instructions on exactly what to do and where the danger area was. However, they thought it was a hoax and were slow in organising an evacuation, so that when the bomb went off minutes early, eight people were injured. The only damage was to a storage area and offices, not the production plant itself.

1984 - U.K. Miners' Strike: Sunday October 14, 1984, day 210 of the strike, police officers swoop on the village of Grimethorpe and arrested 22 women and children for ‘stealing’ coal – traditionally picking up the loose coal around the slag heaps and workings had been ignored, even though it was technicall NCB property and for the previous seven months striking miners had picked coal from the tip with no interference from the police. Now, with real poverty added to the problems of the pit communities, 'picking' had been transformed into theft. Rumours that a child had been injured by the police led to retributive attacks on the officers and an ensuing 'riot'.

2003 - François Béranger (b. 1937), French libertarian singer, born. [see Aug. 28]

2007 - Derek Stanley Savage (pen name D.S. Savage; b. 1917), English poet, critic and Christian anarcho-pacifist, who became General Secretary of the Anglican Pacifist Fellowship, dies. [see: Mar. 6]

2010 - Robert Brayton Nichols (b. 1919), US political radical and anti-war activist, Beat poet, playwright, anarchist-themed sci-fi novelist and architect, who was married to the "cooperative anarchist" and writer Grace Paley, dies. [see: Jul. 15]
1844 - Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (d. 1900), German philosopher, poet, composer, cultural critic and classical philologist, born.

1873 - [O.S. Oct. 3] Elena Dmitrievna Stasova (Елена Дмитриевна Стасова; d. 1966), Russian Bolshevik and communist functionary working for the Comintern, born. After finishing secondary school, she became a teacher and, after meeting Nadezhda Krupskaya, began working wih the Political Red Cross (политическом Красном Кресте). In 1898, she joined Lenin's St. Petersburg group, the League of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class (Союза борьбы за освобождение рабочего класса).

1884 - La Bande Noire: A young worker named Gueslaff carries out an unsuccessful attack on the house of the publican Etienney in Ciry-le-Noble, a prosecution witness in the Montceau trial, who is much disliked by the workers.

1884 - Stephen Mac Say (d. 1972), French anarchist, professor, bee-keeper and partner of Marie-Adele Anciaux aka Mary Smiles [see: 8 March], born. Teacher at Sébastien Faure's libertarian school La Ruche until 1910, after which he becomes an itinerant and beekeeper. In 1909 he also founded the newspaper 'Le Fouet' (The Whip) "Organe du Groupe d'Action des Régions d'Avesnes, de Verviers et de Valenciennes", a monthly paper of education and class struggle. He also wrote for numerous libertarian publications: 'l'Anarchie', 'Le Combat', 'Le Combat Social', 'Le Cri Populaire', 'Le Cubillot', 'L'Ecole Rénovée', 'Hors du Troupeau', 'l'Idée Libre: Revue d'Éducation Sociale Fondée', 'L'Insurgé', 'Le Libertaire', 'Les Réfractaires', 'Les Temps Nouveaux', etc.
During WWI, as anti-militarists listed in 'Carnet B', he and Mary Smiles were forced to seek refuge in la Creuse. After the war he continued to make his living as a beekeeper, selling his honey in rural markets, and the couple returned to their activism, writing for numerous papers including 'L'Anarchie', 'Le Combat', 'Controverse', 'L'Emancipateur', 'l'En-Dehors', Émile Armand's individualist newspaper, 'Germinal', 'Le Réfractaire', newspaper of the Ligue des Réfractaires à Toutes Guerres, 'Le Semeur', 'La Vie Universelle', 'La Voix Libertaire', paper of l'Association des Fédéralistes Anarchistes (AFA), and collaborated on Sebastien Faure's 'L'Encyclopédie Anarchiste'.
During WWII he was denounced as a Jew and forced into hiding with Mary. Amongst his other writings, books and pamphlets were a number on vivisection, children's education and health ['Pour les Petits: Recueil de Chansons, Chœurs et Petites Comédies' (For Children: Songbook, Choruses and Small Comedies; 1907)], religion including 'The Buffoons of Faith. The Teaching of Christ' (1952) and poetry: 'Révoltes et Sanglots' (Revolts and Sobbings; 1913) and 'Emois et Révoltes' (Agitations and Revolts; 1950).

1896 - Célestin Freinet (d. 1966), French anarchist pacifist educator and Ferrer School activist, born. Célestin and Elise Freinet are depicted in René Frégni's 1994 autobiographical novel 'Le Maître qui Laissait les Enfants Rêver' (A Stolen Childhood (Denol, 1994) as 'Dad Freinet' and 'Mom Freinet' in his depiction of a troubled small boy named René-Jean who spends two school years at the school in Vence. [expand]

1902 - André Prudhommeaux (d. 1968), French communist, then an anarchist, agronomist, editor of 'Le Libertaire' and 'Le Monde Libertaire', writer, poet and publicist. is born in the Guise familistère. He founded a Paris bookshop specialising in social history, and the scene of many lively debates. Introduced Camus into the Cercle des Etudiants Anarchistes in 1948.

1902 - Amparo Poch y Gascón (d. 1968), Spanish teacher, doctor, anarchist feminist, anti-fascist, propagandist for sexual freedom and co-founder of the Mujeres Libres, born. The oldest of five children and the only girl, her parents were an army sergeant and a house maid. A good student, she had wanted to study medicine at university but her father claimed that "No es carrera propia de mujer" (Its not a proper careers for a woman). So she ended up enrolling to study as a science teacher (1917-22) and, having graduated, went on to follow her true vocation, going on in 1929 to become only the second ever woman to graduate from the Faculty of Medicine at the Universitat de Zaragoza, earning a first class degree in medicine with honours in all 28 of her courses. During this period she wrote and had published in December 1923 a partly autobiographical short novella entitled 'Amour', in which she first set out some of her anarchist and feminist ideas.
On October 3, 1929, she enrolled in the Colegio de Médicos de Zaragoza and set to putting her learning to the service of women. Specialised in childcare, she ran a clinic for women and children, as well as teaching courses on sex education and responsible maternity at the university and in the ateneos. After she moved to Madrid in mid 1934, she went on to open her Clínica Médica para mujeres y niños (Medical Clinic for women and children) in October of the following year. In 1934, she also co-founded, along with Mercedes Comaposada and Lucía Sánchez Saornil among others, the 'Mujeres Libres' magazine and its linked organisation - to be written and published by and for women. In the same period she wrote a number of works including 'La cartilla de consejos a las madres' (Primer of Advice for Mothers; 1931), 'La vida sexual de la mujer. Pubertad, noviazgo, matrimonio' (The Sexual Life of Women. Puberty, engagement, marriage; 1932) and 'Elogio del amor libre' (Praise of Free Love; 1936), in addition to writing for several libertarian magazines such as 'Revista Blanca', 'Tiempos Nuevos', 'Tierra y Libertad', 'Generación Consciente' and 'Estudios', as well as 'Mujeres Libres' following its first issue in May 1936. Amparo founded and directed the 'neo-Malthusian-lite' Grup Ogino, which provided free contraceptive advice, promoting the rhythm method (aka 'ogino') of birth control, and promote a responsible motherhood. In 1936 she was also involved with fellow pacifist José Brocca Ramón in the creation of the Lliga Hispànica contra la Guerra (Spanish League against the War), Spanish section of War Resisters International and the Orden del Olivo (Order of the Olive Branch).
During the Revolution Amparo was appointed director of Asistencia Social in Valencia, with responsibility for the care of refugee children in the granjas-escuelas (farm schools) in France, personally leading one transport of children there in March 1937, and regularly paying inspection visits to them. She also organised the evacuation of children to Mexico and, on March 17, 1937 on borad the ship Ciudad de Cádiz, to Russia. In her post, she worked closely with Frederica Montseny in the Ministeri de Sanitat (Ministry of Health) –– the position of Minister of Health had been earmarked for her, but she was finally rejected due to her membership in the Federación Anarquista Ibérica.
Through her working in the Sindicato Único de Sanidad de la CNT, Amparo Poch participated in the organisation of sanitation in the disused buildings that the Republican government had requisitioned for the setting up, for example, of the Hospital de Sangre de la CNT in Madrid. Amparo also used her government position to promote the establishment of liberatorios de prostitución, liberation homes for prostitutes, where they could receive health care, psychotherapy and professional training to enable them to acquire economic independence through means other than prostitution. On July 25, 1936, Amparo Poch joined the ninth Batallón del Regimiento Ángel Pestaña as a doctora miliciana'. In November 1937, she moved to Barcelona and became director of the Casal de la Dona Treballadora, a meeting place that ran cultural, professional and social programs and lectures for the education of women. In Barcelona Amparo also participated in the organisation of field hospitals and directed the training program for the rescue squads, in which brigadistas were taught about 'CPR', trauma, haemorrhages and blood transfusions, whilst continuing her work for the care of children and refugees.
At the beginning of February of 1939, she crossed the border into France and was granted a 'laissez passer' by the French authorities that granted her residence but prevented her from working. With her then partner, she worked painting cards and handkerchiefs, embroidering and making raffia bags that were sold on the black market, as well as collaborating in a clandestine hat shop. Through this period, she was also active as clandestine medical worker, help thousands of refugees confined to the concentration camps through the offices of the Creu Roja República Espanyola (Spanish Republican Red Cross).
Having set up home in Toulouse at the end of the war, she worked at a Red Cross clinic in the city and in the Dispensary of the Warsaw Hospital, Amparo Poch continued to be active in the Spanish section of the Solidaridad Internacional Antifascista, providing medical assistance to the numerous Spanish guerrillas who passed through the city. Diagnosed with brain cancer in 1965, she wanted to return to Zaragoza and her family but her brothers had repudiated her (one had even tried to get her university records expunged) and he remained in Toulouse and went into a gradual physical and mental decline.
Amparo Poch y Gascón died on April 15, 1968 in Toulouse (Languedoc, Occitania). On April 18, 1968 over 200 Spanish exiles attended her burial in Cornebarrieu cemetery in Blagnac. Her will stipulated that her possessions be distributed amongst the poor. She died with just 16 francs 29 centimes to her name.

1904 - Oreste Lucchesi, in prison since 1894 for assassinating the editor of 'Il Telegrafo', whose articles resulted in the repression and arrest of numerous anarchists, dies.

1907 - Oscar Lawler files federal charges against Antonio I. Villarreal, Ricardo Flores Magón, and Librado Rivera for violation of Arizona's neutrality laws.

1910 - Norman Iversen (d. 1964), Norwegian sailor, anti-fascist resistance member and Communist politician, born. He volunteered in the Spanish Civil War from 1937 to 1938, as saboteur. Back in Norway, he was recruited to the Bergen branch of the Wollweber League (a communist sabotage organisation that would sabotage fascist shipping in Scandinavia and Northern Europe) and reorganised and led the Bergen branch of the sabotage group Saborg (aka Osvald-gruppen or Sabotasjeorganisasjonen or Organisasjonen mot krig og fascisme), regarded as by far the most active and effective Norwegian resistance group, from 1943 to 1944. He was arrested in November 1944, and imprisoned at Veiten in Bergen until the end of the war. He chaired the Bergen chapter of Norwegian Communist Party from 1947 to 1952.

1912 - Paint Creek-Cabin Creek Miners' Strike: Martial law, which was introduced on September 2 following the arrival of over 5,000 miners at the strikers' tent city, is lifted.

[B] 1913 - In his diary entry for today, Franz Kafka writes, "Don't forget Kropotkin!". Kropotkin's 'Memoirs of a Revolutionist' were amongst Kafka's favourite books, as were the memoirs of Alexander Herzen.

1915 - Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) free speech fight in Fresno.

1915 - Paul Karl Wilhelm Scheerbart (b. 1863), German author of fantastic literature and drawings and an individualist anarchist, who was chosen as on of the 'saints' of Mynona and Anselm Ruest's 'Der Einzige' (he also contibuted an article to the first issue), dies. [see: Jan. 8]

1919 - The reappearence of the fortnightly 'L'Action d'Art', "organe de l'individualisme héroïque", published by André Colomer and Marcel Say.

1920 - Police raid the premises of the anarchist newspaper 'Nova Umanità', arresting the editors Alfredo Porcelli and Corrado Quaglino and the manager Dante Pagliai.

1920 - Possible date (Oct. 10-15) for the signing of an agreement between Bolshevik and Makhnovist forces to co-operate against the White Army general Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel during the Russian Civil War.

[F] 1922 - In Guayaquil, twelve workers' organisations (later it would total thirty six) come together to form the basis of the Federación de Trabajadores Regional Ecuatoriana (Ecuadorian Regional Federation Of Workers), an initiative of the cacao workers' Sociedad Cosmopolita de Cacahueros 'Tomás Briones' (Cosmopolitan Society Of Cacao Workers 'Tomás Briones') following its April 26 disaffiliation from the reformist Confederación Obrera del Guayas.

[C] 1923 - Italo Calvino (d. 1985), Italian journalist and writer of short stories and novels, anti-fascist partisan and member of the PCI, born in Cuba. Brought up in a secular family - his father, Mario, was a tropical agronomist and botanist, who "had been in his youth an anarchist, a follower of Kropotkin and then a Socialist Reformist" ['Political Autobiography of a Young Man', 'Hermit in Paris' (Eremita a Parigi. Pagine autobiografiche), 1994] and his mother, Eva, a botanist and university professor, was a pacifist educated in the "religion of civic duty and science" [ibid], and both were anti-Fascist freethinkers - refused to give their sons any religious education. His mother used various ruses to delay Calvino's compulsory enrolment into the Balilla Moschettieri, the Fascist armed scouts, and win him exemption from attending church services as an atheist.
In the first half of WWII, he continued with his studies but, following the setting up Benito Mussolini's puppet Republic of Salò in northern Italy by the Nazis, now twenty years old, Calvino refused military service and went into hiding. Using the nomme de guerre of 'Santiago', Calvino joined the Garibaldi Brigades, a clandestine Communist group and, for twenty months, endured the fighting in the Maritime Alps until 1945 and the Liberation. As a result of his refusal to be a conscript, his parents were held hostage by the Nazis for an extended period. Calvino wrote of his mother's ordeal that "she was an example of tenacity and courage… behaving with dignity and firmness before the SS and the Fascist militia, and in her long detention as a hostage, not least when the Blackshirts three times pretended to shoot my father in front of her eyes. The historical events which mothers take part in acquire the greatness and invincibility of natural phenomena." [ibid]
Despite his obvious libertarian and anarchist sympathies, he went on to join the PCI and remained a committed and active communist writer and intellectual until 1956, quitting following the Russian suppression of the Hungarian uprising.
During the late forties and early fifties, Calvino began writing and publishing stories dealing with his wartime experiences as a partisan and as an anti-Fascist, and his first novel, 'Il Sentiero dei Nidi di Ragno' (The Path to the Nest of Spiders; 1947), which tells the story of a cobbler's apprentice in a town on the Ligurian coast, who steals a pistol from a Nazi sailor, and becomes involved in the Italian Resistance, is an obvious novelisation of his experience as a partisan during the anti-fascist resistance.

1925 - Daijiro Furuta (b. 1900), Japanese anarchist and member of the Guillotine Society (Girochin Sha), an anarchist terrorist group, is hanged after he refuses to appeal his death sentence. [see: Jan. 1]

1925 - Dolores Jiménez y Muro (b. 1848), Mexican schoolteacher, writer, poet, socialist activist, and Colonel in the Mexican Revolutionary Army, who was a supporter and associate of General Emiliano Zapata, dies aged 75. [see: Jun. 7]

1926 - Nakahama Tetsu (中浜 哲), born Tomioka Makoto (富岡 誠; b. 1897), Japanese anarchist militant and author, is executed for acts of propaganda of the deed, including a plan to assassinate Prince Hirohito. Member of the Girochin Sha. [see: Jan. 1]

1926 - Agustín García Calvo (d. 2012), Spanish philologist, translator, linguist, playwright, poet, philosopher and anarchist, born. Formed the student anarchist protest movement Acratas, also known as the 'anti-crats', at Complutense University of Madrid in 1967. His philosophical and linguistic works include: 'Del Lenguaje' (On Language; 1991), 'Contra la Paz. Contra la Democracia' (Against Peace. Against Democracy; 1993), 'Contra el Tiempo' (Against Time; 1993), 'Contra la Pareja' (Against the Couple; 1994), 'De Dios' (On God; 1996) and 'Contra la Realidad, Estudios de Lenguas y Cosas' (Against Reality, Studies of Language and Stuff; 2002).
A published poet, his collections include: 'Sermón de Ser y No Ser' (Sermon on Being and Not Being; 1972), 'Libro de Conjuros' (Book of Spells; 1979), 'Relato de Amor' (Story of love; 1980), 'Del Tren (83 Notas o Canciones)' (Of the Train (83 Notes or Songs); 1981), 'Canciones y Soliloquios' (Songs and Soliloquies; 1982), 'Más Canciones y Soliloquios' (More Songs and Soliloquies; 1988) and 'Ramo de Romances y Baladas' (Branch of Romances and Ballads; 1991). He is also the author of several dramatic pieces, such as the tragi-comedic musical 'Ismena' (1980), 'Rey de una Hora' (King of an Hour; 1984) and 'Baraja del Rey Don Pedro' (Deck of the King Don Pedro; 1998), which won the Premio Nacional de Literatura Dramática 1999.

1926 - Michel Foucault (d. 1984), French philosopher, social theorist and historian of ideas, author of 'Surveiller et Punir: Naissance de la Prison' (Discipline and Punishment: The Birth of the Prison') (1975), born.

1934 - Revolución de 1934 / Asturian Miners' Strike: The troops of General Balmes on the southern front manage to overcome the last resistance that prevented their way to Mieres, in the Caudal basin. The Provincial Revolutionary Committee decide to negotiate the surrender and send a Guardia Civil Lieutenant, Gabriel Torrens Llompart, who had been taken prisoner by the insurgents, to meet with General Lopez Ochoa, commander of the 25,000 troops who had deployed the government to crush the uprising. At a second meeting, this time between General Lopez Ochoa and Belarmino Tomás himself, the terms of surrender of the insurgents were set. [see: Oct. 4 & 5]

1935 - Antonia María Teresa Mirabal Reyes (d. 1960), one of the three 'Las Mariposas', the Hermanas Mirabal (Mirabal Sisters), assassinated members of the clandestine opposition to the Dominican dictatorship of Rafael Trujillo, who would become symbols of both popular and feminist resistance worldwide, born. In 1999, the date of their deaths, November 25 1960, was designated by the United Nations General Assembly as the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women.

1940 - Charlie Chaplin's satire on fascism, and also his first talkie, 'The Great Dictator', receives its première in New York.

1943 - At the Tule Lake Segregation Center internment camp – which held over 18,000 Japanese Americans during World War II – a truck carrying agricultural workers tips over, resulting in the death of an internee. Ten days later, the agricultural workers went on strike; the internment camp director fired all of the workers and brought in strikebreakers from other internment camps. After several outbreaks of violence, martial law was declared and 250 internees were arrested and incarcerated in a newly constructed prison within the prison.

[E] 1946 - Dylcia Noemi Pagan, a Puerto Rican member of the clandestine paramilitary Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación Nacional, who was sentenced on February 18, 1981 to 55 years for seditious conspiracy and other charges linked to more than 100 bombings or attempted bombings against property in which no one was hurt or killed, born. Dylcia Noemi was finally released from prison on September 10, 1999, after being granted clemency by President Bill Clinton.

1949 - The first issue of the fortnightly newspaper 'Les Nouvelles Pacifistes', is published in Paris by the Confédération Générale Pacifiste. The editors of the newspaper will be Pierre Bergé and Louis Louvet.

1957 - Guy Debord's 'Remarques sur le Concept d'Art Expérimental' (Remarks on the Concept of Experimental Art), a critique of the text 'Pour un Concept d'Expérimentation Musicale' (Toward a Concept of Musical Experimentation) by Walter Olmo of the Situationist International's Italian Section, is published in Paris.

1962 - Colin Jordan, leader of the British National Socialist Movement, and three of his aides were found guilty today in the Old Bailey on two counts out of the four that they were each charged with under the Public Order Act. The judge had indicated doubt that the prosecution had established that 'Spearhead' had been organised and trained for the display of force. and the jury failed to convict on the two counts involving this charge. However, all four were found guilty on two other counts, involving organising and training to "cause apprehension". Jordan was sentenced to 9 months imprisonment, Tyndall to six and the other two to three months each.

[A] 1966 - Bobby Seale and Huey P Newton launch the Black Panther Party for Self-Defence in Oakland, California.

[D] 1969 - Imperial War Museum gutted by incendiary device. The attack is widely linked to other First of May Group/Angry Brigade actions.

1969 - 'Erosu Purasu Gyakusatsu' (Eros + Massacre), a film biography of anarchist Sakae Ōsugi directed by Yoshishige Yoshida is released (in France; 14 March 1970 in Japan).

1969 - 'Operations Within the French Section after October 1969', an internal document, is unanimously adopted at a meeting of the French section of the Situationist International.

1971 - Maryhill Barracks Army HQ, Glasgow, firebombed. [Angry Brigade/First of May Group chronology]

1984 - U.K. Miners' Strike: Monday October 15, 1984, day 211 of the strike. Miners and their wives gather outside Grimethorpe's police station to protest the previous day's 'coal picking' arrests. Most of its windows are smashed and it ends up boarded up and abandoned. Later in the day, 120 riot-clad police swooped on the village in revenge for the earliers incident outside the village's police house, attacking against sixty or seventy people, mainly middle-aged men – most of them with bad chests and unable to run – and women and kids. There were twenty-eight arrests on this occasion.

1990 - Sam Dolgoff (Sholem Dolgopolsky; d. 1990), US anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist author, editor and militant, dies. [see: Oct 10 / 23]

1991 - Lucile Pelletier (Lucile Louise Simone Pelletier; b. 1906), French public service worker, anarchist and revolutionary syndicalist, dies. [see: Nov. 20]

1997 - Lakhvinder 'Ricky' Reel, a 20-year-old student, disappears after a night out with three Asian friends, when they were confronted by two white youths who shouted racial abuse, forcing them to flee in separate directions. His is found floating face-down in the Thames 6 days later. A coroner's jury returns an open verdict.

2003 - The Return of the Black Panther Party is founded by ex-BPP members K-Loyal (Kima Rashan Downey) and his mother Renee 'Peaches' Moore [Sister Somayah Kambui] in Riverside, California.

2005 - Attempts by the US neo-Nazi National Socialist Movement to stage a protest picket and march against African-American gang activity in the North End of Toledo, Ohio, an economically depressed predominately black area policed by a mainly white police force, sparks a 4 hour riot by the community and the gathered anti-fascist protesters. The heavily outnumbered police, some armed with semi-automatic rifles, and who had tried to protect the nazis, was forced to retreat as they were charged and pelted with stones and bottles. The police were overwhelmed as the crowd surged forward and forced the nazis to retreat to their cars and leave the city. What followed was large-scale rioting against the police, with participants targeting police cars, media vehicles, and a military recruiter's vehicle. Over 100 people were arrested, and at least 12 police officers were injured. Eventually the city declared a state of emergency and an 8pm curfew, enforced on selected neighborhoods in the "problem" area. Twenty people were also arrested on curfew violations that night as over 100 officers patrolled the small neighborhood in North Toledo.

2007 - In Aotearoa (New Zealand) 300+ police raid houses, arresting 17 members of the Tino Rangatiratanga, peace and environmental movement.

2012 - Eight FEMEN activists protest in front of the French Ministry of Justice at the Place Vendôme in Paris in response to the verdict in the trial of fourteen men for the gang rape of teenage girls.
[A] 1834 - In London the House of Parliament is burnt down, unfortunately by accident and not as a deliberate act of revolutionary zeal.

[B] 1854 - Jean Grave (d. 1939), a leading activist, writer and publisher in the French anarchist and avant-garde movements, born. Initially a socialist, he became an anarchist after 1880 and a populariser in France of Peter Kropotkin's ideas. Involved with Élisée Reclus' 'Le Révolté' and wrote 'Mouvement Libertaire Sous la IIIe République' (1930). Also wrote 'Les Aventures de Nono' (1901), a libertarian utopia for children, which was used by the Spanish écoles modernes in a translation by the militant anarchist and syndicalist Anselmo Lorenzo; novels, including 'Terre Libre: les Pionniers' (1908), a novel for young people featuring a group of prisoners shipwrecked on a desert island during their voyage to the New Caladionia prison colony; and even a play.

1854 - Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (d. 1900), Irish writer, poet and anarchist, born. His 1891 essay, 'The Soul of Man under Socialism', expounds his anarchist world-view. Wilde was the sole literary signatory of George Bernard Shaw's petition for a pardon of the anarchists arrested (and later executed) after the Haymarket massacre in Chicago in 1886.
"I was formerly a poet and a tyrant; now I'm an artist and an anarchist!" [in 'L'Ermitage'; July 1893]
"Progress in thought is the assertion of individualism against authority." [in his 'Commonplace Book']
"Art is individualism, and individualism is a disturbing and disintegrating force. There lies its immense value. For what it seeks is to disturb monotony of type, slavery of custom, tyranny of habit, and the reduction of man to the level of a machine." ['The Soul of Man under Socialism'; (1891)]

1888 - Eugene Gladstone O'Neill (d. 1953), Irish American playwright, Wobbly, socialist and philosophical anarchist, born. He was eighteen-year-old when he discovered Benjamin Tucker's anarchist bookstore in New York in 1906, and associated with anarchist and socialist during his early life: "Time was when I was an active socialist, and, after that, a philosophical anarchist." Many of his early plays and poems are expressly political in content and one of his most famous, 'The Iceman Cometh' (1940), set in Greenwich Village in 1912, contains numerous anarchist characters and highlights issues such as racism, the Boer War and the thought processes of police informers. Eugene O'Neill's expressionist play 'The Hairy Ape' (1922), which was first produced by the Provincetown Players in the same year, is expressly pro-IWW with its depiction of the oppressed industrial working class and capitalism.
Member of the Hollywood Anti-Fascist League alongside Humphrey Bogart, John Garfield, Dashiell Hammett, Lillian Hellman, Langston Hughes, Pablo Picasso, Paul Robeson, Donald Ogden Stewart and Orson Welles.

1893 - Emma Goldman is sentenced to Blackwell's Island penitentiary for one year. Begins her term on Oct. 18. In prison, Emma is initially put in charge of the sewing shop, but soon trained to serve as a nurse in the prison hospital.

1902 - Ida C. Craddock (August 1 1857 - October 16 1902), US free speech and women's rights advocate, and student of 'religious eroticism', commits suicide by slashing her wrists and inhaling natural gas from the oven in her apartment the day before having to report to Federal prison to serve a five-year prison term for distributing her own instructional tracts on human sexuality through the US Mail and thereby falling foul of the federal Comstock law for the "Trade in, and Circulation of, Obscene Literature and Articles of Immoral Use", in this case a tract titled 'The Wedding Night', which the judge held to be so "obscene, lewd, lascivious, dirty" that the jury was not allowed to see it during the trial. Before the act, she wrote a lengthy public suicide note condemning Anthony Comstock, the US Postal Inspector and notorious reactionary for his "unctuous ... hypocrisy". [see: Aug. 1]

1905 - [O.S. Oct. 3] October All-Russian Political Strike [Октябрьская всероссийская политическая стачка]: For most of the past week the printers strike in Moscow has escalated into what is effectively a fully-fledged city-wide General Strike. Against this backdrop, thousands march in a mass protest during the Moscow funeral of the liberal leader, philosopher and co-founder of the Moscow Conservatory, Prince Sergei Nikolaevich Troubetzkoy (Серге́й Никола́евич Трубецко́й). Students in the march are attacked by Cossacks.
From the relative safety of London, Lenin urges the Bolsheviks in Russia to make bombs and "form fighting squads at once everywhere".

[D] 1905 - [O.S. Oct. 3] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: From the relative safety of London, Lenin urges the Bolsheviks in Russia to make bombs and "form fighting squads at once everywhere".

1907 - Roger Vailland (d. 1965), French novelist, essayist, screenwriter, youthful anarchist and, having fought alongside Communists in the Résistance, a Communist Party member, born. Fellow-traveller of the Paris Surrealist group who fell out with Breton and Aragon and helped form 'Le Grand Jou' in 1928.

1912 - Revolución Méxicana: Nephew of Porfiro Diaz, Brig. Gen Felix Diaz, raises conservative revolt against Francisco Madero in Veracruz, is arrested.

[E] 1916 - Margaret Sanger, her sister Ethel Higgins Byrne (1883-1955) and Fania Mindell (1894-1969) open a contraceptive instruction clinic in Brownsville, Brooklyn. The information and literature they gave to women on how to use different birth control devices was in violation of Section 1142 of New York's Penal Code, which attempted to prevent the dissemination of information on birth control. Subsequently, the clinic was raided by police ten days after opening; Byrne and Sanger, along with their assistant Fania Mindell, were arrested and tried.

1918 - The United States Immigration Act (also known as the Dillingham-Hardwick Act) is enacted. It is specifically designed to tighten-up on the provisions of the 1903 Act, also known as the Anarchist Exclusion Act, which was seen to be not working, and to help rid the States of foreign-born anarchists and IWW members.

1927 - Günter Wilhelm Grass, German novelist, poet, playwright, illustrator, graphic artist, sculptor and anti-fascist who hid that he had enrolled into the Waffen-SS aged 17 at the end of the Second World War, born.

1933 - A march of 400 Fascists in Manchester, led by Oswald Mosley, is attacked at by 60 anti-fascists throwing stones, which injured three of his bodyguards. The Fascists broke their ranks and charged the anti-fascist, injuring a number who were tended to by women from nearby houses. The march ended up at King's Hall, Belle Vue, where 2,500 fascists from all over England held a meeting and during which hand-to-hand fighting at the back of the hall broke out on a number of occasions. YCL member Benny Rothman, who intervened when Evelyn Taylor (later the wife of trades union leader Jack Jones) was physically attacked by BUF stewards as she heckled Mosley. Rothman also threw out some anti-Mosley leaflets but then was thrown bodily over the balcony, luckily having his fall broken by a blackshirt below.
After the Belle Vue meeting, Mosley led a march of 400 Blackshirts to Longsight station to catch their special train back to London, they were ambushed by 60 young men hurling stones and bricks. A drummer was knocked unconscious and another fascist needed medical treatment. Two anti-fascists were injured in the fighting. [PR]

1936 - At Perdiguera, near Zaragoza in Aragon, the 250 fighters of the Grupo Internacional of the Columna Durruti support heavy fighting against the Moorish colonial troops of Franco. Dozens of foreign volunteers including a number of French militants are killed. Louis Berthomieu, a former artillery captain in the French army living in Barcelona, who was co-founder of the Grupo Internacional, along with Charles Ridel (Louis Mercier Vega) and François-Charles Carpentier, and general delegate of the Group on the Column's war committee, blows himself up with dynamite rather than fall into the hands of the fascists. Amongst the thirty six other international volunteers captured and/or killed behind enemy lines during the action were a number of female medical or canteen support workers, including Georgette Kokoczinski aka 'La Mimosa', the French anarchists Juliette Baudart (or Baubard) and Suzanne Girbe, and German socialists and POUM members Augusta Marx aka 'Trude' and Madeleine Gierth. There is much doubt about La Mimosa's death, with some sources claiming that she was in fact captured on the 16th and shot by firing squad alongside her male comrades the following day, with her body being burned in a barn. Another version has her and Augusta Marx, naked and disemboweled but still alive, thrown by the fascists into the front lines where a comrade put them out of their misery.

1936 - Georgette Léontine Roberte Augustine Kokoczinski aka 'La Mimosa' (Georgette Léontine Brivadis-Ango; b. 1907), French anarchist, actress and nurse, disappears during the Battle of Perdiguera, nera Zaragoza in Aragon, and dies in circumstances that are not entirely clear. It is possible that she was shot by firing squad alongside her comrades the following day and her body burned in a barn. Another version of her death see's her and the German socialist Augusta Marx aka 'Trude', both naked and still alive despite having been disemboweled, being thrown by the fascists into the front lines where a comrade put them out of their misery.
[see: Aug. 16]

1936 - Alternate date for the death of Suzanne Hans aka Suzanne Girbe [a Suzanne Girbe is recoded as having died that, Girbe being her maternal grandfather's surname was Girbe, a named that she often use] (d. 1914), French anarchist and miliciana, possibly killed alongside her partner Louis Recoule and a number of other comrades in the Grupo Internacional of the Columna Durruti in the Battle of Perdiguera. [see: Apr. 3 & Oct. 8]

1939 - Malvina Tavares (Júlia Malvina Hailliot Tavares; b. 1866), one of the most active of Brazil's anarchist militants, as well as being a poet and pioneer of modern education in southern Brazil, dies. [see: Nov. 24]

1963 - Guy Aldred (b. 1886), British anarchist-communist, anti-militarist and key member of the Anti-Parliamentary Communist Federation, dies. Founded the Bakunin Press and edited five Glasgow-based anarchist periodicals - 'The Herald of Revolt', 'The Spur', 'The Commune', 'The Council', and 'The Word'. [see: Nov. 5]

1968 - American Olympic track medallists Tommie Smith and John Carlos, gold and bronze respectively, give 'black power' salutes on the podium at the México City Olympics.

[F] 1984 - U.K. Miners' Strike: Tuesday October 16, 1984, day 212 of the strike. Following the previous day's police riot, large numbers of police remain in Grimethorpe, acting like an army of occupation, absuing the villagers, mainly women and children. A confrontation between miners and police takes place on the tip earlier in the day. At 15:00 the top end of the village is sealed off by 300 riot police. By 23:00, pub closing time, nearly 600 riot police are running amok in the village, clubbing anyone within arm’s reach during the second police riot in two days.

1984 - Anna Vasylivna Hutsol (Гуцол Ганна Василівна), Ukrainian economist and founder member of the international feminist protest group FEMEN, along with Oksana Shachko (Оксана Шачко) and Alexandra Shevchenko (Олександра Шевченко), born in Russia.

1985 - Margaret Michaelis (Michaelis-Sachs) (born Margarethe Gross; b. 1902), Austrian, and then Australian, photographer and anarchist, dies. [see: Apr. 6]

1987 - The Earl William, a converted passenger ferry moored off Harwich and being used to house Tamil immigration detainees, breaks her 22 mooring ropes and runs aground in the Great Storm.

1988 - Emidio Santana (b. 1906), leading Portuguese anarcho-syndicalist militant, writer and essayist, dies. [see: Jul. 4]

[C] 1993 - Welling 'Close Down The BNP' Protest: Following an upswing in electoral support in the east End, the BNP hoved their HQ cum bookshop to Welling in 1989 and this was followed up by the election in Tower Hamlets of Derek Beackon, the BNP's chief steward, to the party's first council seat in September 1993. The ANL's response was to organise a 'Close down the BNP' march, on the same day as an Anti-Racist Alliance held a rally in Trafalgar Square. In Welling a near-riot ensued when the police forced the 15,000 anti-BNP protesters in the march, which was led by an Auschwitz survivor, to change their route away from outside the party HQ building. A stand-off ensued with the police and handful of fascists who had assembled to 'protect' their HQ coming under a hail of missile. Attempts to break through the cordon were repelled by the police with liberal use of batons and horses were charged repeatedly into the crowd who had nowhere to go. A nearby cemetery wall collapsed under the weight of people and the fighting spilled over into the cemetery.
2,600 police officers were deployed, together with 84 police horses, with a further 3,000 police officers held in reserve. 31 people were arrested on the day (with more later following the cops' trawl of photos taken by mainstream media photographers, which which resulted in several dawn raids and arrests). Twenty-one police officers and 41 demonstrators were injured.
As a footnote, on the day Red Action "found the BNP hiding in a pub a few miles away that day, and had a "free and fair exchange of views with them"!" ['Bash the Fash: Anti-fascist recollections, 1984-1993']

2005 - The inauguration in Mel, Belluno, Italy, of a monument in memory of the anarchist Angelo Sbardellotto shot by the fascists on June 17, 1932 in Rome.
1813 - Karl Georg Büchner (d. 1837), German dramatist, poet, prose writer and radical, born. His plays 'Dantons Tod' (Danton's Death; 1835), about the French Revolution, and 'Woyzeck', unfinished at his death, were greatly influential upon many artists in German anarchist and Expressionist circles, including Ernst Toller, Oskar Maria Graf, Erich Mühsam, Berthold Brecht and, in the case of 'Woyzeck', Jaroslav Hašek's 'The Good Soldier Švejk' (1923).

[A] 1814 - London Beer Flood: The metal hoops snap on one of the huge porter fermenting vats at the Meux and Company Brewery in London, causing a chain reaction that results in 1,224,000 liters of beer under pressure to smash through the wall of the brewery and out on to the streets. The brewery was located in a slum where many families were living in basements and eight people drowned in the flood or died from injuries.

1840 - André Gill (born Louis-Alexandre Gosset de Guînes; d. 1885), French republican and anti-clerical caricaturist, born. Took his pseudonym André Gill in homage to his hero, James Gillray. Part of the Parisian bohemian/anarchist milieu, frequenting Le Chat Noir, designed the sign for the anarchist cabaret haunt Le Lapin Agile and collaborated on a number of projects with anarchists including providing illustrations for Jules Vallès' socialist paper, 'La Rue', during the 1871 Commune. Member of the Fédération des Artistes alongside Gustave Courbet, Eugène Pottier, Honoré Daumier, Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot, Jules Dalou, and Édouard Manet.

1866 - Edouard Aubin Marpeaux (d. 1894), French anarchist expropriator, and member of the Ligue des Antipatriotes, born. Convicted to life in prison for killing a policeman despite his denials of doing it. Marpaux was killed during a prison uprising on l'île du Salut. [see: Oct. 23]

1873 - Alfred Polgar (originally: Alfred Polak; d. 1955), Austrian-born journalist, short story writer, screenwriter, satirist, translator, essayist, who also wrote under the pseudonyms Archibald Douglas and L. A. Terne, born. One of the most renowned intellectuals of the Vienna literary cafés, he contributed to number of anarchist journals, particularly 'Die Zukunft'. Polgar fled to Prague in 1933 after the Nazis proscribed and burned his books, later going to Switzerland and France. At the invasion of France he moved with Heinrich Mann, Franz Werfel and Leonhard Frank across the Spanish frontier and finally reached New York in October 1940. He worked briefly in Hollywood for Metro Goldwyn Mayer, returning to Europe after the War.

1883 - A.S. (Alexander Sutherland) Neill (d. 1973), Scottish anti-authoritarian educator, author and founder of Summerhill school, born. [expand]

[BB] 1888 - Maurice Eugène Marie Hallé (d. 1954), French anarchist activist, poet, songwriter and cabaret singer, born. At the age of 13 he began working in his father's blacksmiths. After a failed attempt to live in Paris, he returned to work in his father's workshop, and joins the local young poets group Gàs d'Cheu Nous. In 1910 he published a set of poems, 'Au Pays où qu'on Parl' Ben: Recueil de Monologues Beaucerons' and began singing in cabarets in the region, but his satirical verses were not much appreciated by the farmers of the region, who considered him arrogant. After the death of his parents, he returned to Paris, where he befriended other singers, especially Paul Besnard, and he began to sing the Parisian cabaret. He also frequented libertarian circles, for which he was persecuted and imprisoned by the police on several occasions. In 1913 he began to work with La Muse Rouge, a group of singers revolutionary poets and singers whose songs were published in proletarian newspapers such as 'La Guerre Sociale', 'La Bataille Syndicaliste', 'La Chanson du Peuple', 'La Vache Enragée', 'La Muse Rouge', etc..
During WWI his poor health helped him avoid conscription and he continued performing in cabarets (Théâtre de Montmartre, Caveau de la République, Lapin Agile, La Bolée, Quat'z-Arts, Noctambules, etc.), performing songs against war and injustice of all kinds. On 18 May, 1917, with Roger Toziny, he launched the satirical weekly 'La Vache Enragée' [using the title previously used by Adolphe Willette (1896-97)] and two years later founded the cabaret La Goguette de la Vache Enragée, which was especially frequented by artists and writers. This cabaret also became (after using a room in the Lapin Agile) the headquarters of the council of the Commune Libre de Montmartre (the artists' bohemian neighbourhood was declared to secede from the municipality of Paris and form a town of its own), which Hallé created with his fellow 'La Vache Enragée' editors: the painter, caricaturist, poet, and humorist Jules Depaquit, who was appointed mayor, and the poet and chansonnier Roger Toziny.
In 1921, the Commune created the Foire aux Croûtes, initially an outdoor art exhibition that went on to become a rauchous fair. That same year, Hallé published a collection of poems and songs, 'Par Grand'route et les Chemins Creux'. In 1928, after falling out with the owner of the premises, the cabaret was expelled and he ended up working as a proofreader at the 'Journal Officiel'. In 1935 he published 'Les Laveuses, Poésie Beauceronne' and in 1942 'Les Oeuvres de Maurice Hallé: Darrièr'la ch'vaille, poésie beauceronne créée par l'auteur à la Vache enragée, au Coucou, et par Lucie Touchais dans les cabarets'. His other works are 'Poésies Beauceronnes' (1934), 'J'veux pas qu'tu t'Marises, récit Beauceron' (1937), and 'Prière d'un p'tit alo au p'tit Jésus' (1942), amongst others.

1889 - Nikolai Chernyshevsky (b. 1828), Russian radical critic, dies. He helped lay the basis for revolutionary populism. Wrote 'What is to be Done?' (Что делать?), a political novel that influenced two generations of Russian intelligentsia, including many anarchists such as Emma Goldman. It served as the manifesto of the 19th Century Russian Nihilists.

1892 - David Edelstadt (b. 1866), American Yiddish anarchist and poet, dies. [see: May 9]

1901 - Pano Vassilev (d. 1933), Bulgarian anarcho-syndicalist militant, born. [expand]

1905 - [O.S. Oct. 4] October All-Russian Political Strike [Октябрьская всероссийская политическая стачка]: False rumours circulate that the government has arrested the rail workers' pension delegates at a St. Petersburg conference. The rail union calls a general strike.
The Sytin management agree to the 9-hour day demand in order to try and end the strike, a raise in pay of between seven to ten percent, and half-pay for time spent on strike.

1909 - A new demonstration in Paris against the execution of Francisco Ferrer brings 60,000 demonstrators out onto the streets, marching from Place Clichy to la Concorde singing the Internationale and uttering cries of vengeance against the Spanish monarchy.

[F] 1912 - Little Falls Textile Strike: The Socialist Mayor of Schenectady George R. Lunn is one of four people arrested on charges of "inciting to riot" when, having denied permission to speak in support of a strike by city officials in a public park, attempts to read Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg address. The charges were later dropped after he had spent more than four months in jail in Little Falls. [see: Oct. 9]

1913 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: Suffragettes attempt to burn down Heaton Railway Station.

1915 - Conxa (Concha) Pérez (Concepció Pérez Collado; d. 2014), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, miliciana in the Columna Ortiz and anti-Franco resister, who took part in the assaults of the Pedralbes barracks and the Model Prison during the fascist uprising in July 1936 and fought on the Aragon front in the Columna Ortiz, born. The daughter of Joan Pérez Güell, an illiterate militant anarcho-syndicalist, who spent time in the Model (Presó Model / Cárcel Modelo) prison in Barcelona during the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, her mother died of tuberculosis when she was just two years old. Unable to attend school, she began working at the age of 13 in a textile factory and later in a printing company. Following the proclamation of the Republic, she quit the graphic arts workshop where she worked became a full-time militant in the libertarian movement, attending the Ateneu Llibertari 'Agrupació Cultural Faros' in Barcelona and joining the Joventuts Llibertàries (Libertarian Youth), the CNT's Sindicat d'Arts Gràfiques and the Federació Anarquista Ibèrica (and later, in succession, the groups 'Sacco i Vanzetti' and 'Siempre Adelante'). Conxa took part in the anarchist insurrection of 1933, joined Joan García Oliver's 'Moviment 8 de Gener', and was detained and jailed for five months in the Amàlia women's prison for bringing a gun that she had hidden for a comrade to him whilst he was on a factory picket line. Whilst in prison she spent much of her time reading - Spanish prisons at that time were effectively anarchist universities , with clandestine libertarian books and tracts freely available. Towards the end of 1935 she became a member of the Ateneu Humanitat de les Corts and the self-management school 'Élisée Reclus', which had been set up by Félix Carrasquer, whilst working in a carpentry workshop..
A few days before the fascist uprising broke out in July 1936, she joined the Comitè Revolucionari in the Corts barrio, going on to ​​participate in the assaults of the barracks of Pedralbes and the Model prison. Immediately afterwards she went to the Aragon front (Zaida, Belchite, Fifth) as a militiana (one of only seven women in unit of 100) in the Els Aguilons de les Corts, part of the Columna Ortiz, where she remained for six months. Back in Barcelona, ​​she worked at the Maternitat's popular dining rooms and then returned to the front at Almudévar, incorporated into the Carlo Rosselli Italian anti-fascist column. Again in Barcelona, ​​she worked at an arms factory in Sants and participated in its Factory Council. During the Fets de Maig in 1937, she was wounded in an ambush by Stalinist forces on May 3, 1937, after having volunteered to reconnoitre the area around the ​​Plaça de Catalunya. She would carry around a bullet fragment embedded in her for many years.
In December of 1938, shortly before the Republic fell, she left Barcelona and crossed over into France via Girona and Portbou, ending up interred in the Argelès refugee camp. Later, she worked as a volunteer nurse in a refugee camp in Argelès, where she met Madrilenian doctor Isidoro Alonso, a socialist who for a time was her partner, and with whom she had her only child, a boy who was born in Marseille. In September 1942, Conxa and her then three-month-old son crossed the Spanish border into Spain. However, once in Barcelona she found that she could not afford to keep her son, so she left him temporarily in the care of a hospital orphanage and it was only with the assistance of the Jewish family who she worked for as a domestic worker, who helped persuade the institutions that she earned enough to feed her child on, that she was able to recover custody of her child.
In Barcelona, Conxa met a former Ateneu Faros comrade, Maurici Palau, with whom she had a relationship lasting 30 years. Together they set up stall in the Sant Antoni market, where they sold costume jewellery and underwear, and where they helped CNT members fresh out of prison. Conxa also actively participated in the clandestine cenetista group that met at Los Pajaritos bar on the Ronda de Sant Pau. She collaborated in the Associació de Veïns del Raval de Barcelona (Raval Neighbourhood Association) during the seventies and during the 'Transition' took part in the organisation of the Sindicat de Comerç of the CNT, since she ran a jewellery boutique. As of 1999, she will be part of the group 'Dones del 36' (Women of the 36), conducting talks in educational institutes. In 2004 she participated in the 'La Ruta de l'Anarquisme' (The Route to Anarchism) event organised by Turisme Tàctic. She also took part in various documentaries, including 'De toda la vida', 'Vivir la Utopía' and 'Mujeres del 36', and in the collective books 'Nosaltres que perdimos la paz' (We who lost the Peace; 2005), by the journalist Llum Quiñonero, and 'Dones contra Franco' (Women against Franco; 2007) by the historian Jordi Creus.
Conxa Pérez died aged 95 on April 17, 2014 in Barcelona.

1920 - John Reed (John Silas Reed; d. 1920), U.S. radical journalist, poet-adventuer, communist and Wobbly, who chronicled the Mexican and Soviet revolutions, and wrote 'Ten Days That Shook the World' about the latter, dies of typhus in Moscow. [see: Oct. 22]

1920 - In Italy Errico Malatesta, anarchist militant and writer, is arrested (along with 80 others). He is held responsible, along with Armando Borghi (arrested on October 13, shortly after his return from Russia), Corrado Quaglino, the local editor of 'Umanita Nova' and Virgilia d'Andrea, for the worker occupations of the factories in Milan during this past summer and in September.

1921 - Yaa Asantewaa (b. ca. 1840), queen mother of Ejisu in the Ashanti Empire, who led the Ashanti rebellion during the Yaa Asantewaa war, aka the War of the Golden Stool, against British colonialism in 1900, dies in exile in the Seychelles.

[FF] 1922 - Durán Railworkers' Strike: The Asamblea de Trabajadores del Ferrocarril del Sur in Durán, resolves to present a list of demands, drawn up on behalf of the company's workers, to the manager of the U.S.-owned Guayaquil and Quito Railway Company, J.C. Dobbie; the main demands being:
That the law of 8-hour working day and that of work accidents is respected: the 8-hour day was decreed in 1916 and the Law On Accidents at Work in 1921;
Increases in wages: while the monthly remuneration of the workers was of about 30 sucres, the salary of the bosses was of at least 250 dollars, at a time when the dollar was worth 4 sucres;
Implementation of a 6-day working week: until then, the work week was 7 days;
Increased stability of employment: in order not to dismiss any worker without justified cause;
Other demands included the removal of salary deduction from workers for the running of the hospital, a new surgeon, medical kits in Durán, Bucay and Ambato, and the reinstatement of laid off workers.[www.anarkismo.net/article/14992

1929 - Australian Timber Workers' Strike: Five days after the Labor Party won a landslide victory, timber workers officially returned to work having been ordered to return by the new PM yesterday and votes at mass meetings on Wednesday 16. The strike was never settled however as many timber workers were not re-employed in the mills. Although strikers applied for reinstatement, few were re-employed in their mills and most were either never to return to the industry or to wait a number of years to find an employer who would take them back. [see: Jan. 3]

1930 - Thomas Mann gives his speech 'An Appeal to Reason'. The Nazis disrupt it.

1934 - Revolución de 1934 / Asturian Miners' Strike: Having begun negotiations on Oct. 15 with General Lopez Ochoa, commander of the 25,000 troops who had deployed the government to crush the uprising, a second meeting takes place between General Lopez Ochoa and the socialist Unión General de Trabajadores leader Belarmino Tomás Álvarez to set the terms of surrender of the insurgents on behalf of the Provincial Revolutionary Committee.

[B] 1934 - Christian Zeimert, French painter, illustrator and anarchist, born. Member in the '60s of the Mouvement Panique (Panic Movement), an anarchist avant-garde collective, with Fernando Arrabal, Alejandro Jodorowsky, Roland Topor, Jacques Sternberg and Olivier O. Olivier. In the '70s Zeimert founded, along with Henry Cueco, Lucien Fleury, Jean-Claude Latil, Michel Parré and Gérard Tisserand, the Front Révolutionnaire des Artistes Plasticiens (FRAP), which refused any involvement in mainstream cultural institution, preferring instead to attempt to subvert them. In the 1980’s, he also played an important part in the legendary French magazine 'Le Fou Parle', as well as 'Hara-Kiri', and for 3 years made a regular arts programme on Radio Libertaire alongside writer and 'Le Fou Parle' founder, Jacques Vallet. In his 70’s, he remained a major figure of the French art scene with his 'peinture calembourgeoise', paintings based on puns.

1936 - The first issue of the F.I.J.L. newspaper 'Ruta' is published in Barcelona. The newspaper goes on to oppose the reformist positions and compromises of the CNT-FAI during the Spanish Civil War. The last issue was on November 5, 1938, and was then smuggled into Barcelona under Franco between 1946 and 1947 (27 issues), sporadically in 1948 and between 1955 and 1958. It reappeared in Barcelona after Franco died between 1979-1982 and in 1988-1989.

1936 - The first issue of the anarcho-syndicalist journal 'Pueblo Libre', paper of the local CNT-AIT unions is published in Sueca, near Valencia.

[E] 1936 - Presumed date for the death, either by Fascist firing squad or following diembowelment, of Georgette Léontine Roberte Augustine Kokoczinski aka 'La Mimosa' (Georgette Léontine Brivadis-Ango; b. 1907), French anarchist, actress and nurse, who disappeared the previous day during the Battle of Perdiguera (Zaragoza). [see: Aug. 16]

1943 - André Respaut is arrested and tortured before being sent to Buchenwald, where he was known for his courage and generosity - saving several deportees from death. From 1939 to 1943, he was active in the resistance and the Combat group. A lifelong anarchist, he worked with an association of deportees, and wrote the books 'Buchenwald Terre Maudite' (1946) and 'Sociologie Fédéraliste Libertaire' (1961). André was released on April 11, 1945 by the Americans.

1949 - Josep (José) Sabaté i Llopart aka Pepe (b. 1909*), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, guerrilla fighter against Franco, and older brother of Francesc (Francisco) 'El Quico' Sabaté and Manuel aka Manolo, dies in a police ambush. Following a series ambushes of his comrades over the preceeding days during which Luciano Alpuente Hernández aka 'Madurga' was gunned down on the 14th and Eusebio Montes Brescos arrested two days later and brutally tortured. Earlier on October 17 Juan 'el Chofer' Serrano and Francisco Massip Valls aka 'Cisco de Lleida' were ambushed along the river Llobregat and el Chofer wounded, but both men had managed to escape. Meanwhile, thanks to an informer, an ambush had also been arranged for Pepe on the Calle del Bruch where he waited for a tram. However, having noticed the waiting police, he managed to open fire first and flee into the Calle Trafalgar, where he shot dead the Brigada Político-Social agent Luis García Dagas. Though wounded, Pepe continued his flight down the street he ran into two other BPS agaents and was arrested. He was transported to the nearby Dispensari Municipal on the Carrer Sepúlveda, where he died from his wounds. [see: Aug. 17]
[*NB: some sources give the year of birth as 1910]

1957 - French-Algerian author, and one-time anarchist, Albert Camus is awarded Nobel Prize for literature.

1960 - Thierry Maricourt, prolific French proletarian writer, poet, novelist, essayist, anarchist, anti-fascist and anti-militarist, with numerous reference works to his credit, born.

[C] 1961 - Police massacre over 200 (possibly 300) Algerians protesting against police oppression and the curfew imposed against their community in Paris. Police search Algerian ghettos for FLN members, indiscriminately killing innocent Algerians before turning their guns on a large group of protesters gathered near the Seine River. The next day police release an official death toll of three dead and 67 wounded, a figure disputed by witnesses who observe bodies littering the area and floating in the Seine.

1966 - The anarchist collective, The Diggers, holds its first free street food handout in San Francisco.

1970 - October Crisis [Canada]: During the so-called October Crisis (La Crise d'Octobre), which was sparked by the kidnap by the Front de libération du Québec (Quebec Liberation Front) of the British Trade Commissioner James Cross and Quebec's Minister of Labour and Vice-Premier Pierre Laporte, Cross' body is found a week after his kidnapping.


2005 - Ba Jin (aka Pa Chin, Li Fei-Kan, Li Pei-Kan, Pa Kin [pseud. of Li Yaotang]) (b. 1904), Chinese novelist who discovered anarchism with the reading of Peter Kropotkin and Emma Goldman and created his pseudonym Ba (from Bakunin ) and Jin (from Kropotkin), dies. [see: Nov. 25]

2007 - Robert Dziekanski, a 41-year-old Polish immigrant, dies moments after being tasered five times by RCMP police officers in a holding area at Vancouver International Airport.

2011 - Étienne O'Leary (b. 1944), Québécois actor, director and soundtrack composer of experimental short film, painter and libertarian, dies. [see: Oct. 24]
1831 - Première Révolte des Canuts: Against the backdrop of poor economic circumstances and a resultant drop in silk prices, which caused a drop in workers' wages, the canuts (master silk workers, often working on Jacquard looms) request that the préfet du Rhône, Louis Bouvier-Dumolart, help them negotiate with the manufacturers. The canuts wanted a fixed price to be established, which would stop the further decrease of the price of silk goods. The prefect organised a group of owners and workers, which was able to establish a fixed rate on October 26. A labour court, the Conseil de prud'hommes, was given the role of ensuring the rate was applied.
The intervention of the prefect was, however, poorly received by some manufacturers who considered his actions to be demagogic, and the concessions afforded by their representatives to be a sign of weakness. 104 of them refused to apply the rate, claiming it was against the principles of the French Revolution. Laws such as the Le Chapelier Law and the Allarde decree of 1791 established the principle of economic non-intervention by the state, in addition to explicitly banning guilds, and denying the right to strike. The manufacturers claimed the fixed rate was contrary to freedom of enterprise.

[E] 1843 - [O.S. Oct. 6] Anna or Anne Jaclard (Anna Vasilyevna Korvin-Krukovskaya [Анна Васильевна Корвин-Круковская]; d. 1887), Russian writer, journalist and translator, socialist and feminist revolutionary Pétroleuse, who participated in the Commune de Paris (1871) and the Association Internationale des Travailleurs, born. The daughter of Lieutenant-General Vasily Korvin-Krukovsky, one time head of the Moscow Artillery, and Yelizaveta Fedorovna Schubert, held progressive views and made sure Anna and her sister, the future famous mathematician Sophia Kovalevskaya, received a good education. Amongst their reading were the writings of so-called 'nihilist' and Narodnik social critics like Nikolai Chernyshevsky and Peter Lavrov, and both sisters became involved in radical Narodnik circles. In the 1860s, Anna was briefly engaged to the famous writer Fyodor Dostoyevsky, but the couple parted on good terms when they both realised that they were temperamentally unsuited, with the increasingly conservative and religious Dostoyevsky's youthful radicalism a thing of the past. In 1866, like many other young radical women, Anna left Russia for Switzerland to study medicine at Geneva University. In the radical circles there, Anna met a fellow medical student Victor Jaclard, a Blanquist who had been exiled from France, and in 1867 they married. Both were influenced by the revolutionary anarchism of Mikhail Bakunin and active in a number Bakunin-influenced political groups. They also joined the International Workingmen's Association (First International), Anna in the Russian section and Victor the French, and befriended Karl Marx, who would become important to the couple later after the suppression of the Paris Commune.
With the fall of Napoléon III in 1870, Jaclard returned to France, accompanied by Anna, and both became active participants in the Paris Commune the following year. Anna sat on the Comité de vigilance de Montmartre and a committee that oversaw the education of girls, as well as being active in organising the food supply for the besieged city; she also co-founded and wrote for the journal 'La Sociale'; acted as one of the representatives of the Russian section of the International and participated in a committee on women's rights. On the latter, she came into contact with many of thee leading feminist revolutionaries in the Commune, including Louise Michel, Nathalie Lemel, André Léo, Paule Mink and her fellow Russian, Elisaveta Dmitrieva. Together they founded the openly feminist and radical socialist Union des femmes pour la défense de Paris et les soins aux blessés, which fought for equal pay for women, female suffrage, the recognition of full civic status based on full civic and legal equality, measures against domestic violence and the closure of the legal brothels in Paris. Anna was also personally very much against the drunkenness (and the violence and brutality that often accompanied it) that was rife amongst certain sections of the Commune, arguing that "drunkards who have lost all self-respect should be arrested."
During the Semaine Sanglante, Anna fought on the barricades but after overthrow of the Paris Commune by the Versailles government of Adolphe Thiers, Anna and her husband were captured. He was sentenced to death, she, to hard labour in perpetuity in a penal colony in New Caledonia. However, in October 1871, the Jaclards managed to escape from prison with help from her sister Sophia and Sophia's husband, Vladimir Kovalevsky. They went to live in London and for a while stayed at the home of Karl Marx, Marx not holding their links to Bakunin against them. During this period, Anna began,but did not finish, translating the first volume of Marx's 'Das Capital' into Russian. Marx also helped organise Anna's trip to Heidelberg for study.
In 1874, Anna and Victor left for Russia, where Anna worked as a journalist and translator, translating some of the works of Fyodor Dostoyevsky into French, with whom she had renewed friendly relations. Victor found a job as a French teacher. Anna also renewed her contacts with revolutionary circles, including members of Khozhdeniye v narod (Хождение в народ) or Go to the people [a movement based loosely around Bakunin's statement "Go to the people, there is your field, your life, your science. Learn from the people how to serve them and how best to manage their affairs" that followed on from the 1860s students "drawing closer to the people" educational movement] and Narodnaya Volya (Народной Воли / People's Will). In 1881, Narodnaya Volya assassinated Alexander II but Anna and Victor were fortunate in having returned to France following the previous year's general amnesty of Communards and they avoided the mass repression that followed the Tsar's death. Anne and Victor Jaclard regularly visited Russia and in March 1887 Victor was given three days to leave Russia following an attempt on Tsar Alexander III . However, Anna was seriously ill at that time and Dostoevsky successfully intervened to gain an extension. Anna and her husband left for Paris in late May 1887, where Anna Korvin-Krukovskaya died on September 26 [O.S. Sep. 14], 1887 following a serious operation.
chipluvrio.free.fr/gdes femmes/gdes-femmes4.html

1844 - Amilcare Cipriani (d. 1918), Italian Garibaldian revolutionary, partisan internationalist, communard, anarchist and socialist, born.

1854 - Conflicte de les Selfactines: The strike formally ends with an agreement between manufacturers and workers sponsored by the new Civil Governor Pascual Madoz, according to which spinners would get half an hour extra for their lunch break, which meant a reduction of the working week from 75 to 72 hours.

1860 - British High Commissioner to China Lord Elgin (James Bruce) orders the destruction of the Yuanmingyuan (Old Summer Palace) in Beijing in retaliation to the torture and executions of 20 British, French and Indian prisoners. It takes 3,500 British troops to set the entire place ablaze, which continues to burn for the following three days.

1869 - Henrik Ibsen's play 'De Unges Forbund' (The League of Youth) premières in Christiania.

1872 - Edith Rigby (Edith Rayner; d. 1948), English suffragette, who founded St. Peter's School in Preston in order to help women and girls working in local mills continue their education beyond the age of eleven. In 1907 she formed the Preston branch of the Women's Social and Political Union and took part in the march on the Houses of Parliament, during which she was one of the fifty-seven women arrested and sentenced to a month in prison. There (as well as during her six subsequent sentences) Rigby took part in hunger strikes and was subjected to force-feeding. Her activism included planting a pipe bomb in the Liverpool Corn Exchange on July 5, 1913 and on July 7, 1913 setting fire to Lord Leverhulme's bungalow at Rivington Pike.

1875 - Marius Antoine Joseph Baudy (aka Oulié; d. 1912), French illegalist anarchist and jobbing sculptor, born. A member of Alexandre Jacob's Les Travailleurs de la Nuit burglar group. Famed for his 1905 texts 'Pourquoi J'ai Cambriolé' (Why I Rob) and 'Pourquoi je suis Anarchiste', both published in the newspaper 'Germinal'. Sentenced to 7 years imprisonment on October 1, 1905, he sailed to Guyana on December 23, 1909. Declared "fit to work all in all housing conditions", he died from physical exhaustion on January 2, 1912.

1881 - Amilcare Cipriani is arrested and imprisoned in Italy for the killing of an Italian in Alexandria in 1867. This incident was previously ruled self-defence but was invoked by Italian authorities to put the anarchist Cipriani out of commission during his revolutionary campaigning in 1881. Cipriani's imprisonment became a celebrated case across the left.

1882 - La Bande Noire: The first trial begins with the appearance of 23 defendants in the court in Chalon-sur-Saône. Amongst them are many members of the chambres syndicales such as Viennet, François Juillet and Antoine Bonnot, but also François Suchet, the former leader of La Marianne, the forerunner of the Bandes Noire. The trial began with the indictment: "This movement is manifestly connected with a series of revolutionary attempts, meditated and consolidated by the violent members of the "workers' party" and which, according to the likelihood, were took place at the same time in various places. They are closely linked to these mysterious assemblies, several times surprised or at least encountered, during the deliberations of so-called trade union chambers, centres of collectivist or anarchist propaganda."

1893 - In New York, Emma Goldman is sentenced to one year in prison for "inciting to riot".

1899 - [N.S. Oct. 30] Nadezhda Mandelstam [Наде́жда Мандельшта́м] (Nadezhda Yakovlevna Khazina [Наде́жда Я́ковлевна Ха́зина];d. 1980), Russian teacher, linguist, writer and memoirist, born. [see: Oct. 30]

1905 - [O.S. Oct. 5] October All-Russian Political Strike [Октябрьская всероссийская политическая стачка]: The Moscow Okhrana reports that he Moscow printers’ strike is clearly weakening, whereas exactly the opposite is true.

1907 - [N.S. Oct. 31] Evstolia Pavlovna Rogozinnikova aka 'Little Bear' (Евстолия Павловна Рогозинникова 'Медвежонок'; b. 1886), Russian revolutionary and member of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party (Партия социалистов-революционеров) and its Combat Organisation's (Боева́я организа́ция) 'Northern combat flying squad' (Северный боевой летучий отряд / ЛБО СО ПСР), is hung in the village of Lisy Nos (Лисий Нос) near St. Petersburg for the assassination of the Head of Prison Administration Alexander Mikhailovich Maximovsky (Александр Михайлович Максимовский) three days earlier. [see: Jan. 13]

1909 - Grete Hoell (Margarete Hoell; d. 1986), German communist resistance fighter & member of the VVN-BdA (Association of Victims of the Nazi Regime – The Anti-Fascist Alliance), born. She joined the KPD in 1929 and shortly afterwards met Kurt Willkomm, the editor of the communist newspaper 'Neue Arbeiter Zeitung'.
In November 5, 1933 Willkomm was arrested and died eleven days later in Hanover Gestapo Headquarters, a victim of the brutal interrogation methods of the Gestapo.
On March 27, 1934 Grete Hoell was arrested herself, leaving her two young childen in the care of her mother and her friends. After almost a year in custody, she was found guilty of the production and distribution of illegal publications on February 15, 1935 and with 23 other defendants sent to prison.

1910 - Grève de la Thune* [Thunder Strike]: With the Aristide Briand government having ordered the military in to run the railways, as well as the arrest of the members of the strike committee, and envoked the Loi du 3 Juillet 1877: Lois et réglements militaires (Law of July 3, 1877: Military laws and regulations), mobilising (i.e. drafting) the striking workforce under military law,h many workers had already reluctantly returned to work, the strike was now called off official. Traffic swiftly resumed on all the rail networks across France.
[* the nickname of the five-franc piece]

1911 - Zapatistas in Mexico attack government troops in Huitzililla and Xalostoc.

[C] 1912 - Henri Bouyé aka Henri or André Deval & André Vigne (d. 1999), French florist and anarchist, who was instrumental in rebuilding and restoring the French anarchist movement after the Nazi occupation, born. He joined the Federation Anarchiste when it was set up in 1933, co-founded the paper Terre Libre in 1934 and later the florists union section of the CGT.
At the outbreak of WWII, he was the treasurer of the Fédération Anarchiste de langue Française (FAF), a split from the Union Anarchiste, and when called up, he managed to be discharged on health grounds. Under the occupation he went underground under the alias of Henri Duval. In Paris on the Avenue de la Republique, he set up a florist shop run by his companion. It served as a cover for underground activities and, despite several visits from the Gestapo, the underground work remained undetected. In the cellar was equipment to manufacture false papers, and it served as a hideout for people about to be passed over the border, mostly to Spain. Scores of Jews had their lives saved by the Bouyé network. Henri also maintained the Paris anarchist movement's liaison and its contact with other liaisons in the rest of France. As the Liberation neared, he began work in resurrecting the anarchist movement in France, visiting the regions and printing the Manifeste de la Fédération Libertaire Unifiée. In late July 1944, during the fighting liberation in Paris, a Fédération Anarchiste leaflet and a poster titled 'Retour à la liberté' was released. As secretary of the Federation he prepared for the October 1945 Conference at Paris which put the organisation on a firm footing. He continued his involvement with the anarchist movement in France with the FA and the Union Federal Anarchiste.

1913 - The annual 'Mother Earth' reunion concert and ball takes place in New York to help support Emma Goldman's publication.

1914 - To decrease the financial burden, Emma Goldman relocates her residence and the 'Mother Earth' office from West 119th Street to smaller quarters located at 20 East 125th Street.

1915 - South American Anarchist Congress (Congresso Anarquista Sul-Americano) 18-20th in Rio de Janeiro, with delegates present from Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay.

1916 - Julián Ángel Aransáez Caicedo (d. 2001), Basque anarchist, anarcho-communist and anti-Francoist and anti-Nazi fighter, born.

[DDD / F] 1920 - Patagonia Rebelde / Patagonia Trágica: In the aftermath of WWI, the price of wool had dropped significantly, provoking an economic crisis in sheep-breeding Argentine Patagonia. In August and September 1920 there had been a number of strikes in the province of Santa Cruz, organised by the Sociedad Obrera de Río Gallegos, affiliated to the Federación Obrera Regional Argentina an led by Spanish anarchist Antonio Soto, against police repression and in support of better working conditions and increased wages. The bosses organisation, the Sociedad Rural, rejected the demands and the acting governor of Santa Cruz, Edelmiro Correa Falcón, ordered the raid and detention of all the workers gathered in Assembly in Rio Gallegos Workers' Society. Early on the morning of October 18 police surrounded the headquarters of the Federación Obrera and arrested 20 people including Antonio Soto, Antonio Fernández, Paulino Martínez and Fernando Ulacia. With their premises closed and their leaders imprisoned, the Federación Obrera immediately called a general strike throughout the Territory. From the Santa Cruz River in the south, columns of peons (shearers and rural workers) marched to Rio Gallegos. They demanded the immediate release of prisoners, improvements in wages and working conditions. The first strike Patagonia has begun.
The Sociedad Rural's immediate response was to organise a failed assassination attempt on Antonio Soto on November 3. Meanwhile, the strike spread to transport workers in a number of cities such as Puerto Deseado and Puerto San Julián, as anarchists carried out actions in solidarity with their comrades. The strike even spread across the border into the Chilean territory of Magallanes, prompting cooperation between the two governments to suppress the unrest. In Puerto Deseado the strike by railway and dock workers was brutally suppressed, with police shooting dead a striker, Domingo Olmedo, on December 17. However, in the rural areas the strike persisted into February the following year as strikers continued to take hostage police, ranchers and administrative staff of rural establishments, seizing weapons and food to feed the mobilised columns. On January 4, an anarchist group led by Alfredo Fonte aka 'El Toscano' (the Tuscan) attacked the El Campamento estancia in Patagonia. Two days later during the first armed confrontation of the general strike in rural Patagonia, four policemen and a worker were killed in an ambush by the strikers, and two policemen and a gendarme were taken hostage near El Cerrito. On January 21, striking workers seized the Estancia La Anita, making hostages of their owners and the Deputy Police Commissioner Pedro J. Micheri; they then seized the nearby Estancia La Primavera.
The appointment of a new governor, Captain Angel Ignacio Yza, on January 29 saw a change in policy as he sought to try and bring the two sides together. At the same time, Army troops commanded by the soon to be notorious Lieutenant Colonel Héctor Benigno Varela were dispatched, arriving in Puerto Santa Cruz on February 2 and moved immediately to Rio Gallegos. Yza prevailed upon Varela to avoid an immediate confrontation and the governor met with the strikers at the estancia El Tero on February 15. Having agreed to the conditions of laying down their arms and releasing the hostages, much of the demands of the workers were recognised with their acceptance of an agreement that employers had put forward on January 30. El Toscano and his men however refused to accept the compromise and went into hiding, taking much of their looted arms with them.
The following day the strike ended with the Sociedad Obrera believing that they had won an important victory. Having been accepted by the sides, the agreement was finally approved by the Department of Labour's Office on February 22, 1921. Varela and his troops returned to Buenos Aires in May 1921. Needless to say, the employers swiftly reneged on the agreement and began a campaign of reprisals against the strikers, setting up a vigilante police forces with reinforcements made up largely of members of the ultra-nationalist Liga Patriótica. The stage was set for the outbreak of a second strike later on in 1921.

[B] 1923 - Ado (Adonis) Kyrou (d. 1985), Greek-born French filmmaker, cinematographer, critic, author and anarchist, born. Active in the Greek resistance, he was wounded and left Greece for Paris. There he became involved with the Surrealists and worked on the magazine 'Le Surréalisme Même' and later collaborated on the Paris anarchist newspaper 'Libertaire', writing criticism and reviews under the pseudonym Jean Charlin. Kyrou wrote three major texts on the Surrealist cinema: 'Le Surréalisme au Cinéma' (1953), 'Amour - Érotisme et Cinéma' (1957) and 'L'Âge d'Or de la Carte Postale' (1966). His film work includes 10 shorts; a number of TV series and one-off programmes, includng the Swiss science fiction series 'Sial IV', and 2 full-length films: 'To Bloko' (The Roundup; 1965) about the Greek resistance and 'Le Moine' (The Monk; 1972) with a screenplay by Luis Buñuel based on Matthew Gregory Lewis' gothic novel, 'The Monk'.

1924 - The first issue of the weekly 'Solidaridad Proletaria', "Órgano de la Confederación Regional del Trabajo de Cataluña y portavoz de la Confederación Nacional", is published in Barcelona.

1924 - Jesús del Olmo Sáez (aka Malatesta; d. 1958), Spanish anarchist and anti-Francoist resistance fighter, born.

1927 - Industrial Workers of the World Colorado Mine strike; first time all the coal fields are out.

1927 - The trial of Sholom Schwartzbard began for killing Symon Petliura, who he blamed for the deaths of 15 members of his family in Pogroms in Ukraine.

1927 - Following the launch earlier on in the month of the Labour League of Ex-Servicemen (LLX), drawn mainkly from the ranks of the disbanded Workers' Defence Corps, the 'Sunday Worker' reprints a speech by ex-Lieutenant J. S. Snook DCM, the main organiser of the LLX, stating that: " Demands for the building of a strong Labour League of Ex-Servicemen have grown more imperative than ever snce the epidemic of police and fascist "frightfulness" [sic] during the sacco-Vanzetti agitation." [see: Jan. 16] The 'Sunday Worker' would hail the LLX as being the "Mailed Fist of the Workers!" on April 1, 1928.

1934 - Revolución de 1934 / Asturian Miners' Strike: With the terms for the surrender of the insurgents in Asturias having been set in a meeting with General Lopez Ochoa the previous day, the Unión General de Trabajadores leader Belarmino Tomás Álvarez attempts to persuade the workers and miners to end their fight. From the balcony of the city hall in Sama, Langreo he makes the following appeal:
"Comrades! Red soldiers! Before you, convinced that we have been faithful to the trust you have place in us, we come to tell you of the sad situation that our glorious insurrection movement has been reduced to. We must confess our peace talks with the commander of the enemy army. But we have been defeated only for a while. All we can say is that in the other provinces of Spain, workers have failed to fulfill their duty and have not helped us. Because of this, the government has been able to dominate the insurrection in Asturias. Moreover, although we have rifles, machine guns, and cannons, we lack ammunition. All we can do is make peace. But this does not mean abandoning the class struggle. Our surrender today will be nothing more than a halt along the way, which will help us to correct our mistakes and to prepare for the next battle, which will be completed in the final victory of the exploited."
The terms of the agreement, though not without some resistance, were accepted by the assemblies of the miners. Rather than give them up their weapons in line with the surrender agreement, many chose to hide them, others chose to flee through the mountains.
On October 18 , two weeks after starting the insurrection, the last stronghold surrendered and government troops occupied the coalfields. A few days later, the random uncontrolled repression previously practiced gave way to an official repression, with mass arrests and numerous summarrary executions. [see: Oct. 4 & 5]

1936 - The Amercian anarchist Emma Goldman together with Sébastien Faure, Augustin Souchy, Luigi Bertoni, Camillo Berneri, Fidel Miró, Félix Martí Ibáñez, Jacinto Toryho and Juan Francisco Asó, who presided over the event, speak at a rally of16,000 people organised by the CNT-FAI in the Teatre Olympia in Barcelona. The rally was broadcast by ECN1 - Radio CNT-FAI. During this month, Goldman also visited the Aragon front, where she met Buenaventura Durruti, and between October 20 and 26 in Valencia, with the Germans exiles Anita and Hanns-Erich Kaminski, Goldman made trips to villages and collective farms.

1940 - Paul-Pierre Roux aka Saint-Pol-Roux (b. 1861), French Symbolist poet, novelist, playwright and anarchist, dies. [see: Jan. 15]

1944 - Viktor Ullmann (b. 1898), Silesia-born Austrian, composer, conductor and pianist, dies. [see: Jan. 1]

1955 - Wilhelm Reich is arraigned. He pleads "Not Guilty" and is due to go on trial December 1st.

1966 - Miguel Chueca Cuartero (b. 1901), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist, dies in Paris. [see: Jan. 3]

[A] 1968 - American track medallists John Carlos and Tommie Smith suspended and stripped of awards for their 'black power' salute on the 16th at the México City Olympics.

[CC] 1976 - Laureano Cerrada Santos (b. 1902), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist and anarchist counterfeiter, facilitator and guerilla veteran of the plot to kill Franco and Hitler together, is murdered in Paris by a Spanish Nazi who was later given asylum in Canada. A student of José Alberola, he was a member of the CNT (railroad union) and anarchist organisations. Active under the republic, in 1936 he helped in the taking of the Atarazanas barracks and Captaincy-General building in Barcelona and, as the man in charge of the Central Railway Administration Fund, was a great help to the Aragon front. He really became popular, though, in exile in France after the civil war, becoming very active in the struggle against the Nazis. A key figure in the WWII anti-Nazi Resistance and escape and evasion networks, he organised extensive propaganda networks, clandestine arms dumps and safe houses and was also in contact with many underground guerillas and dabbled in arms-trafficking. Cerrada was also a master forger and an influential figure in France’s criminal demi-monde, especially the Parisian and Marseilles milieux, and was, undoubtedly, one of the most problematic, enigmatic and mysterious figures of the Spanish anarchist diaspora.
After the end of the Second World War, he enjoyed enormous prestige in CNT circles: he was secretary of the Paris regional committee (1945), but appears to have refused the position of CNT general secretary (declining to have his name included in the list of candidates) and some take the view that his refusal led to the success of Esgleas’s candidacy in 1945. He funded CNT propaganda and direct action activity against Franco and furnished forged papers to many victims of persecution. He also purchased a powerful US Navy Vedette speedboat used by the CNT’s defence committee to transport arms, propaganda and militants from France into Spain, and the high point in his war on Franco came in 1948 when, together with Ortiz, he prepared the aerial attack on Franco’s yacht in San Sebastian. He also tried to flood the country with counterfeit currency. His star began to wane in 1951: an informer brought him to the attention of the police who accused him of being a counterfeiter (of currency and official papers): many CNT personnel distanced themselves from him (and he was even expelled from the CNT for resorting to "unacceptable methods") and his life was lived on the blurred margins shared by criminality and anarchist idealism, torn between one and the other. Jailed again from 1970 to 1974, he was murdered in his old age. A very energetic man of tremendous daring, a born activist none too scrupulous in fighting the enemy, his style did not go down well with some people.

[AA/D] 1977 - 'Todesnacht von Stammheim' [Stammheim Death Night]: Andreas Baader, Gudrun Ensslin and Jan-Carl Raspe are 'suicided' - murdered by the German state in Stammheim Prison. Irmgard Moller survives assassination. The assassinations are timed to coincide with Operation 'Feuerzauber' (Magic Fire), the freeing of passenger and crew (and killing three of the four Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine hijackers) of Lufthansa flight 181 at Mogadishu airport. [expand]
[see: Aug. 15]

1977 - Operation 'Feuerzauber' [Magic Fire]: West German commandos storm the hijacked Lufthansa flight 181 jet that was on the ground at Mogadishu airport in Somalia, freeing all 86 hostages and killing three of the four hijackers, Palestinians of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (الجبهة الشعبية لتحرير فلسطين).

1979 - Prudencio Iguacel Piedrafita (b. 1913), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist resistance fighter, dies. [see: Apr. 28]

1983 - Diego Abad de Santillán (born Sinesio Vaudilio García Fernández; b 1897), Spanish author, economist, historian and leading figure in the Spanish and Argentine anarchist movements, dies. [see: May 20]

1997 - Natalia Yakovlevna Magnat (Наталья Яковлевна Магнат; b. 1954), Soviet and Russian translator of English, author of works on literary criticism and aesthetics, who founded the 'new left' underground radical organisations Left School (Ле́вая шко́ла) [December 1972 - January 1973] and the Neo-Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Неокоммунистическая партия Советского Союза) [September 1974 - January 1985], born

2000 - The Earth Liberation Front sabotages logging equipment in Martin County State Forest, Indiana.

2004 - Fermin Rocker (b. 1907), English artist, book illustrator and anarchist daughter of Rudolf Rocker and Milly Witkop Rocker, dies. Wrote 'East End: A London Childhood' (1992). [see: Dec. 22]

2009 - Nancy Spero (b. 1926), US artist and feminist whose tough, exquisite figurative art addressed the realities of political violence, sexism, racism, social and political injustice, and the abuse of power, dies of heart failure. [see: Aug. 24]

2016 - Jamal Mahmoud, a 21-year-old prisoner in HMP Pentonville, is stabbed to death and two others injured, in what was claimed to be a gang-related incident. Basana Kimbembi, 34, was later charges with murder in connection with the incident.
1866 - Albert Louis Aernoult (d. 1909), French syndicalist, union activist and libertarian roofer, born.

1878 - The German government, headed by Bismarck, passes the first in a series of Anti-Socialist Laws (Sozialistengesetze) following the two assassination attempts earlier that year on Kaiser Wilhelm I - Max Hödel in May on Karl Nobiling in June. While the legislation does not ban the socialist Social-Democratic Party (SPD) outright, it bans any meetings whose aim is to spread socialist ideas, it outlaws trade unions, and it closes down socialist newspapers - ironically both wouldbe assassins were anarchists. The SPD works to circumvent the legislation with some success by relocating publications outside of Germany and running candidates as ostensible independents; support for the party actually increases during the period of the Anti-Socialist Laws. The laws are allowed to lapse after Bismarck leaves office in 1890.

1890 - In Baltimore Emma Goldman gives a lecture to members of the International Working People's Association in the afternoon. Later that day she speaks in German to the Workers' Educational Society at Canmakers' Hall. Michael Cohn and William Harvey also speak. This is the first lecture by Goldman to be reported in the mainstream press.

1893 - Pilar Grangel (Maria del Pilar Grangel Arrufat [or Granjel i Arrufas]; d. 1987), Spanish rationalist educator and militant anarcho-syndicalist, born. [expand]

1897 - The St. Louis House of Delegates passes a resolution supporting the mayor's prohibition of Emma Goldman's open-air meetings. Goldman's lectures, including 'Revolution' and 'Why I Am an Anarchist and Communist', are held in private halls under police surveillance.

1899 - Michele Schirru (d. 1931), Italian-American anarchist and anti-fascist, born. Arrested in a hotel room in Rome on February 3, 1931, with two bombs intended for an assassination attempt on Mussolini's life, he attempts to kill himself before falling into police hands. On May 28, 1931 a Special Court rules that he has acknowledged having had the intention to kill Mussolini. Convicted, he is sentenced to death and is shot the following morning at Fort Braschi.

1905 - [O.S. Oct. 6] October All-Russian Political Strike [Октябрьская всероссийская политическая стачка]: Workers on the Moscow-Kazan railroad goes out on strike.

1906 - Juan Sarabia, vice-president of the PLM, Cesar B. Canales and Vincente de la Torre are arrested in Ciudad Juarez after being led into a trap by an old school friend of Sarabia, a trap instigated by the Governor of Chihuahua, Enrique C. Creel.
In El Paso, Antonio I. Villareal, Lauro Aguirre and a journalist José Cano are arrested by American police during a raid on the Junta, whilst Modesto Diaz and Ricardo Flores Magón, the latter by jumping through a window, manage to escape. These imprisonments seriously disrupted the insurrectional movement, forcing the PLM to go into a period of withdrawal before attempting new insurrections.

1907 - Consul Antonio Lozano, having initially brought libel charges against Ricardo Flores Magón and the others, filed an affidavit of complaint in the U.S. District Court at Los Angeles. Ricardo Flores Magón, Antonio I. Villarreal, and Librado Rivera were charged with murder and larceny for actions allegedly committed on September 15 1906 in Jiménez, Coahuila. Their detention was continued after mid-September by a temporary commitment based on a 'John Doe' murder charge.

1907 - The first issue of 'Solidaridad Obrera' (Workers' Solidarity),"Órgano de la Confederación Regional del Trabajo de Cataluña", the newspaper of the recently formed Solidaridad Obrera federation, is published in Barcelona
www.fideus.com/publicacions - solidaridad obrera.htm
www.cedall.org/Documentacio/Castella/cedall203503000_Solidaridad Obrera.htm]

1910 - Luigi Lucheni (b. 1873), is found hanging in his cell. Anarchist advocate of propaganda by the deed, he killed the impératrice Elisabeth of Austria, (Sept. 10, 1878) and at age 25, received a life sentence with hard labour. [see: Apr. 22]

[C] 1913 - Vasco Pratolini (d. 1991), Italian novelist, playwright, poet, screenwriter, communist, anti-Nazi partisan and a major figure in Italian Neorealismo, born. Born into a working class family in Florence, his mother died when he was just five years old and, estranged from his father, he lived with his maternal grandparents. Having to work from an early age - labourer in a workshop of printers, apprentice, street vendor, bartender, waiter, salesman, etc. - he rarely attended school but never neglected his great love for books and his 'apprenticeship' for the life of a writer. At eighteen, he left his job to devote himself fully to the literary life and the study of the habits of the community that he grew up in, something that would informal all his works.
Following a period hospitalised in a sanatorium with tuberculosis in 1935-36, he returned to Florence in 1937 and became involved in the political journal 'Il Bargello'. The same year his first literary works were published in the quarterly journal 'Letteratura'. During his university years he was aligned with the fascismo di sinistra (left-wing fascism) tendency and was involved with the Gruppi Universitari Fascisti and Littoriali della Cultura e dell'Arte, both Partito Nazionale Fascista organisations. However, as with many of those who identified with fascismo di sinistra, he quickly migrated to anti-fascism. A key influence in this move was his friendship with the poet Alfonso Gatto, with whom he founded the polemical literary magazine 'Campo di Marte' (Field of Mars).
Pratolini meanwhile moved to Rome where in 1941 he published his first book of short stories 'Il Tappeto Verde' (The Green Carpet) and actively participated in the anti-fascist partisan resistance. He would go on to write numerous novels, many of which were strongly autobiographical and often dealt with the rise of fascism, such as 'Cronache di Poveri Amanti' (1947), translated as 'A Tale of Two Poor Lovers', and his great anti-fascist novel 'Un Eroe del Nostro Tempo' (A Hero of Our Time) from the same year, which depicts how fascism survived the end of the war (and the supposed end of fascism). A later novel, 'La Costanza della Ragione' (1963), translated as 'Bruno Santini. A Novel', would detail his ideological struggles with his membership of the Communist party. He also wrote screenplays, including 'Paisà' for Roberto Rossellini, 'Rocco ei Suoi Fratelli' for Luchino Visconti , and Nanni Loy's 'Le Quattro Giornate di Napoli'.

[D] 1915 - US recognises Primer Jefe of the Constitutional Army General Venustiano Carranza, as opposed to Pancho Villa, as the president of México, and imposed an embargo on the shipment of arms to all Mexican territories except those controlled by Carranza.

[A/EEE] 1920 - Shortly after her return from a trip to Russia, Sylvia Pankhurst is arrested and charged under Regulation 42 of the Defence of the Realm Act with attempting to cause sedition ("unlawfully publish[ing] ideas likely to cause sedition and disaffection among H.M. Forces") in the navy by editing and publishing two articles in the October 16 issue of the newspaper 'The Workers Dreadnought' [which had become the official weekly organ of the then newly formed Communist Party (British Section of the Third International) in June that year] — 'Discontent on the Lower Deck', which was based on a letter from a young Navy rating called Springhill and published under the pseudonym S.000 (Gunner), and an article on racism entitled 'The Yellow Peril and the Dockers', written by Claude McKay under the pseudonym Leon Lopez. A leading light of the Hands Off Russia! campaign, the article 'The Yellow Peril and the Dockers' urged Dockers not to load ships supplying arms to anti-Communist forces, just a few months after the successful boycott of SS Jolly George.
Pankhurst was expelled from the CP (BSTI) following her release from prison in May 1921 and continued the publish 'The Workers Dreadnought' until its demise in 1924.

1920 - Clash between cenetistas and pistoleros del Libre (rightwing gunmen) on the street of Riera Alta in Madrid. CNT member Jaime Martínez Palau is arrested; also apprehended are Juan Lopez and Bartholomew Llabrés. The latter cenetistas are implicated in several atentados and end up spending six years in jail.

1920 - After a series of appeals and delays in connection with the conviction for sedition after her anti-war speech on June 27 at an IWW union Hall in Portland, Oregon, Dr. Marie Diana Equi is finally ordered to San Quentin to serve her sentence, which had since been commuted to a year and a half due to a pardon from US President Woodrow Wilson.

1922 - Durán Railworkers' Strike: When no reply was received, the railroad workers began a strike, backed by the Federación de Trabajadores Regional Ecuatoriana (Ecuadorian Regional Federation Of Workers), the Confederación Obrera del Guayas (Guayas Confederation of Workers) and the Asociación Gremial del Astillero (Association of Shipyard Guilds). In the following days, the solidarity of other workers' unions increased, with the workers in Guayaquil coming in large numbers to show solidarity their fellow workers. The Guayaquil FTRE sent a large delegation to help support the strike, to help organise and publicise the aims of the strikers and the misery of their current economic situation. Large demonstrations also took place in Guayaquil in solidarity with Durán's railway workers. During the strike itself women stood out for their role, as in the case of Tomasa Garcés, the companion of one of the railway union leaders. It is said that Tomasa laid down on the train rails, along with her three children, to prevent scabs from breaking the strike and to help calm the bloodlust of the military.
Ultimately, the demands that had led to the stoppage of the railways across the country, eventaully also forced the manager Dobbie to the negotiating table and to reach an agreement with the strikers, and on October 26 the parties signed an agreement accepting the workers' proposals.[www.anarkismo.net/article/14992

[F] 1930 - Date of the promulgation of the Codice Penale Italiano aka the Rocco Code, Articles 502 to 508 which sanctioned all forms of industrial action, the right to strike, to boycott, sabotage and business employment as "crimes against the public economy".

1935 - Anna Ilyinichna Yelizarova-Ulyanova (Анна Ильинична Елизарова-Ульянова; b. 1864 ), Russian revolutionary and a Soviet stateswoman, who was the older sister of Lenin, dies. [see: Aug. 26]

1944 - Operación Reconquista de España [Operation Reconquest of Spain] / Invasión del Valle de Arán [Invasion of the Aran Valley]: An ill-advised 10-day invasion of Francoist Spain involving approximately 6,000 Spanish republican guerrillas mainly from the PCE-dominated Unión Nacional Española (but including many anarquistas) via the Arán and Ronçal valleys in the Pyrenees, which would prove as equally calamitous as the forays across the border earlier in the month, begins. The events of October 3-27, 1944 marked what was effective the last (if belated) episode of the Spanish Civil War, as well as proving to be one of the most disastrous events of the post-Retirada fight against Franco's fascist dictatorship.
Following the withdrawal [retirada in Spanish] of Republican forces across the border into France with Franco's victory in early 1939, the vast majority of 450,000 plus Republican refugees ended up in the string of hastily built and ill-equipped (single sex) 'camps de concentration' spread across southern France. Through out the harsh winter, disease was rife with an estimated 15,000 people dying in the camps, mostly dysentery, between February to July 1939. The mortality rate amongst the children was 20% in some of the camps. Those 10,000 refugees that ended up in the North African camps fared even worse.
In April 1939 at the beginning of the war, the French began recruiting able-bodied men aged between 20 and 48 from some of the camps into the Compagnies de Travailleurs Étrangers (Companies of Foreign Workers), which contributed to the French war effort. Other internees joined the Régiments de Marche de Volontaires Étrangers (Regiments of Foreign Volunteers) of the Foreign Legion. Other, following the active encouragement of the French, either emigrated to the Americas or returned to Spain, where they either ended up in prison or were executed.
With the fall of France, those Spaniards who had not left the country or escaped the camps, ended up under the Vichy regime's forced labour schemes, the CTE and the later Groupements of Étranger Travailleurs (Foreign Workers Groups), or ended up in the Nazi's Organisation Todt (Death Organisation) as slave labour building the Atlantic coast fortifications or in its quarries and mines, where the mortality rate was just as bad as in the early days of the camps de concentration.
Many of those that managed to escape the camps and the CTE detachments ended up joining the French Résistance, the maquis (from the French colloquial term for the camps) based in the southern mountains, with communists, socialists, and anarchists fighting side by side against the German and Vichy forces. However, the main organisational structure with the Spanish exile maquisards was the PCE and the Francs-Tireurs et Partisans, the armed resistance organisation formed by the Parti Communiste Français. In April 1942, the Spanish communist maquisards had formed the XIV Cuerpo del Ejército de Guerrilleros Españoles but, following the PCE's efforts in Spain in 1943 to form a 'broad' anti-Francoist coalition, the PCE-dominated Junta Suprema de Unión Nacional (Supreme Council of National Unity), the XIV Corps re-formed as the Agrupación de Guerrilleros Españoles in May 1944, thereby distancing themselves from the FTP.
At the same time, with the imminent Allied landing in the North and prospect of the defeat of the Nazis, not just in southern France but across the continent as a whole, the 15,000 or so Spanish Republican exiles who had fought against the Germans began turning their attention back to their homeland in the firm belief that Franco could not survive the downfall of Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini. Additionally, the PCF leadership in exile (figures such as Santiago Carrillo and Dolores Ibárruri from their eerie in Moscow) firmly believed that the situation Spain was ripe for mounting an insurrection. Even Jesús Monzón Reparaz, de facto leader of the PCE in France and Spain, who had been a regular clandestine visitor to Spain from the Spring of 1943 onwards and was the main instigator of the 'invasion' plan, shared this over-optimistic view of the political situation in the peninsula - according to Hartmut Heine in 'La oposición política al franquismo. De 1939 a 1952' (1983), Monzón was convinced that "Spain had entered a pre-revolutionary stage and the minor boost from outside provoke a popular uprising and the defection of the vast majority of Franco's allies into the ranks of the UNE."
Such was the PCE's confidence in their position that they chose to organise the operation, dubbed 'Operación Reconquista de España', as if it were a conventional military operation with little by way of security. Its preparation was an open secret, with recruiting broadcasts by Radio Toulouse and Radio Pirenaica from Moscow. Before leaving for the south of France, some guerrilla units were the object of public tributes and large send-offs by the people of the French towns and cities where they had participated in the resistance. The PCE ordered its organisations in the interior of Spain to prepare for an immediate popular insurrection. This lack of secrecy might normally have been disadvantageous in forewarning the Franco regime of the invasion but Spain was already well prepared for any potential Allied invasion following the defeat of Axis forces and Franco's secret service spies had laready warned their masters of the PCE plans well in advance of the radio broadcasts. Of potentially greater threat to the plans were the concerns of De Gaulle and his US allies of the massing of insurrectionary forces in southern France, which might have tipped them into trying to prevent the attempted insurrection and reassert the Allies control over the maquis units.
The core plan of Operación Reconquista de España was to occupy the sector of Spanish territory comprising the land between the Cinca and Segre Rivers and the French border. The zone would then be declared as having been 'liberated' from the illegitimate Franco government and the Republican government in exile (presumably constituted by the PCE-founded Unión Democrática Española rather than the broader-based Junta Española de Liberación, despite the fact that many members of the organisations making up the JEL were in the maquis ranks then involved in Operación Reconquista de España [comprising socialist, republican, and Basque and Catalan nationalist parties], as were a significant number of anarchists) would set up a headquarters there, with the intention of provoking a general uprising against Franco throughout Spain. It was hoped that it would force the Allies to 'liberate' Spain the same way it was 'liberating' the rest of Europe. Operación Reconquista de España's military objectives were threefold: to take the port of La Bonaigua in order to prevent the arrival of pro-Franco reinforcements, to take the city of Viella to establish the capital of the newly liberated zone, and to create a secure communication path with France via the Pònt de Rei, where reinforcements could arrive or leave.
Prior to the main invasion, a number of diversionary and probing actions had taken place elsewhere on the Franco-Spanish border. On October 3, 1944, the 102nd Division launched the campaign with 250 UNE guerrillas of the 45th Brigade entering Spain via Roncesvalles in Navarra (western Pyrennes) and found itself facing a Policía Armada (Cuerpo de Policía Armada y de Tráfico) force in Portillo de Lazar, between the Sierra de Abodi and the Sierra de Uztarroz. Two policemen and a Guàrdia Civil were killed. On October 5, 400 men of the 153rd Brigade entered the Roncal Valley. This was the beginning of a series of raids in the Spanish Pyrenees in Navarra, and the provinces of Huesca and Lleida which ended with several brigades being forced to return to France after just a couple of days fighting across the border. On October 8, Franco's Legazpi XXIII battalion arrived in the Navarran Pyrenees from San Sebastian to counter the offensive by the maquisards. Yet despite the clear failure of the raids in Navarra, the second planned series of actions still went ahead on October 19th, even though the core plan plainly disregarded the obvious fact that a conventional military incursion would play directly into the hands of Franco’s vastly superior land forces.
To carry out the main invasion, the 204th Division had been newly created. Consisting of 12 brigades, the maquisards were relatively lightly armed - with French, German and Czech rifles, Sten submachine guns, BREN guns, Colt pistols, the odd Thompson sub-machinegun, some mortars and a single anti-aircraft artillery piece - weapons better suited for guerrilla fighting than taking on the might of the Spanish army, even allowing for the tried and tested morale and powerful ideological convictions, convictions that would maintain the anti-Francoist guerrilla fight into the mid-1960s. The division was commanded by Vicente López Tovar, a popular Maquis commander and PCE member, he had fought during the battle for the Cuartel de la Montaña during the fascist uprising in Madrid in 1936 and was commander of the Batallón de Hierro (Iron Battalion) during the Siege of the Alcázar, going on to reach the rank of colonel (known as Colonel Albert) during WWII and was head of the AGE's XV Division before being given the task of organising the operation alongside Ceneral Luis Fernández, the military chief of the Agrupación de Guerrilleros Españoles.
In the lower Arán the progress of the maquis was swift, with the 11th Brigade entering via Port de Benasc and turning towards Hospital de Viella and the southern entrance to the Túnel Alfons XIII in order to prevent access to any Francoist reinforcements. The 551st Brigade entered via Puerto de Era Roqueta and divided into three columns: one went to Bausen and Canejan, provking the local Guardia Civil into flight, the second column went towards Lés, occupying Porcingles and taking 10 guardias civiles prisoner, and the third came through the Estiuera and Cuma valleys, heading towards Bossòst, where they got into a firefight at the Guardia Civil headquarters. The 410th Brigade entered Catalonia via the Port de Tavascan, heading in the direction of Es Bòrdes where they ran into stiff resistance of the second company of the Batallón Albuera.
In the Alto Arán resistance from the Francoist forces was stronger. The 9th Brigade came through the port of Orla towards Salardú, occupying Bagergue as one of the battalions settled into the surrounding hills from where they could control the Tremp-Viella highway, whilst the rest of the brigade attacked Salardú without being able to take the town .
In its initial stages, the operation was a success, occupying the villages of Bausen, Canejan, Porcingles, Pradell, Les, Bossòst, Era Bordeta, Vilamós, Benòs, Bòrdes, Aubèrt, Betlan, Vilach, Mont, Montcorbau and Vila, and establishing a headquarters in Bossòst on October 20, where it remained until the withdrawal. The towns sized by the Republican brigades, however, were villages with few inhabitants and not enough territory or the population size for a 'popular uprising'. Added to that, the local population was used to different groups of people passing through across the nearby semi-porous border or making their temporary home amongst them - Republican exiles, socialists, anarchists and communists fleeing the Civil War; Jews and Allied soldiers fleeing the European’ Nazi occupation in the early part of the war; and later the German troops fleeing defeat in southern France. All these received the hospitality of the local population, so it is of little surprise that they chose not to take the side of the new visitors, and maintained their habitual neutrality.
Despite defeating a number of small Guardia Civil detachments stationed at the border, with the main fighting took place in Bossòst and in Salardú on the 19th, and in Bordeta and Bòrdes the following day, the invaders halted the offensive on October 23 at the outskirts of Viella, realising that the town had been reinforced by General José Moscardó with thousands of Guardia Civil and army troops, together with tanks and artillery, against whom the Republicans were and heavily outnumbered and outgunned. That, combined with the arrival of other Franco reinforcement, 5.º Batallón de Cazadores de Montaña, and regular army troops and Legión Española units, in the port of La Bonaigua on the 19th, rendered their established bridgehead undefendable and with units of Franco's forces threatening to cut off their routes of retreat, López Tovar ordered a halt to the advance on the 22nd.
What happened next has been the subject of a number of 'revisions of history'. However, it appears that when Manuel Azcárate Diz and Santiago Carrillo arrived at the border on October 28, the guerrillas had already been ordered to withdraw by López Tovar, not by Carrillo as he was later to claim when he belated learnt of the 'monzonist adventurism', and he certainly did not 'lead the retreat' or act to personally avert a disaster as he later claimed [see: 'Memorias' (1994)]; he even boasted in a telegram to Dolores Ibárruri that he had prevented the capture of 1,500 guerrilleros. In fact López Tovar claimed that had to be convinced to approve what had already been decided.
The Val d'Aran ended with 129 dead amongst the guerrillas and 588 wounded, most being captured and tried by military tribunal. An unknown number were also summily shot by firing squad. Others managed to escape the encirclement and joined maquis groups within Spain. The Francoist forces suffered 32 dead. Meanwhile, the Free French had officially recognised the Francoist government on October 16, 1944, and now set about disarming those Spanish guerrillas remaining on their territory.
Seizing his opportunity to take control of the PCE organisation in France, he and his fellow pro-Stalin members on the PCE's Central Committee, having recently arrived back from the Soviet Union, set to purging the heads of the party who had remained behind to fight the Germans. Jesús Monzón was a prime target and the blame for the failure of Operación Reconquista de España was laid squarely at his door. As the preferred scapegoat, he and his followers were accused by Carrillo of opportunism and 'deviationism' and the PCE began a "depuración monzonista" (monzonista cleansing). Summonsed to Toulouse, Monzón went to ground in Barcelona, hidden by members of the Joventut Combatent group there. Eventually, he was tracked down by the PCE and betrayed to the Francoist police, who dragged him out of his sick bed. He ended up receiving a 30 year sentence but was released in January 1959 after 16 years and emigrated to Mexico. Many of the other purged PCE members fare less well, most were either kidnapped and shot or summarily judged and assassinated.
The PCE continued its guerrilla operations in Spain, creating several maquis in several points of the Spanish territory but in 1948 the party, now headed by Santiago Carrillio, abandoned the strategy.

[B] 1973 - Margaret Caroline Anderson (b. 1886), American anarchist and lesbian, founder, editor and publisher of the anarchist art and literary magazine 'The Little Review', dies. [see: Nov. 24]

[A] 1989 - The Guildford Four released from prison after their sentences for the 1974 Guildford and Woolwich pub bombing were quashed.

1998 - Pier Carlo Masini (b. 1923), Italian anarchist historian and journalist, dies. [see: Mar. 26]

2000 - Kati Horna (Kati Deutsch; b 1912), Hungarian photographer and anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: May 19]

[E] 2001 - Digna Ochoa y Plácido (d. 1964), Mexican human rights lawyer, representing dissidents and those bringing cases against the government including torture by the police and army, is shot and killed in Mexico City and her body left in the law office where she worked. A note was left by her body warning the members of the human rights law centre where she had recently worked that the same thing could happen to them. [see: May 15]
1823 - François Léopold Charles Ostyn (d. 1912), French woodturner, communard, Bakuninst and anarchist, born. Member of the first Central Committee of the National Guard. Elected March 26 to the Council of the Commune, he sat on the board of Subsistances, then the Utilities. He voted against the creation of a committee of public salvation.

1853 - Hélène Lecadieu (Hyacinthe Adolphine Lecadieu; d. 1916), French anarchist and anti-militarist, born.

[B] 1854 - Arthur Rimbaud (d. 1891), French poet, anti-bourgeois anarchist, deserter, gun-runner and notorious homosexual absinthe and hashish aficionado, born. He published his first poem at the age of 16 and quit writing aged 20. A rebel from an early age, he ran away from home three times – most notoriously, in February 1871, to join the anarchist insurgents of the Paris Commune. The precocious boy-poet of French symbolism, he wrote some of the most remarkable poetry and prose of the 19th century before he abandoned writing for gun-running.
"J'ai choisi d'attaquer les clichés, les a priori, les fantasmes, voire les mensonges publiés au sujet du poète. Le but de cet essai est d'essayer de savoir pourquoi l'adolescent, qui rassemblait tous les ingrédients de l'anarchie, s'écarta de la lutte sociale, de l'amour et enfin de la poésie, pour plonger dans un individualisme itinérant." ("I chose to tackle the stereotypes, assumptions, fantasies or lies published about the poet. The purpose of this test is to find out why the teenager, who brought together all the ingredients of anarchy, moved away from the social struggle, love poetry and finally, to dive into a travelling individualism.")

1859 - Carlo Abate (d. 1941), Italian anarchist sculptor and teacher, who was the printer and engraver for the militant Italian language journal 'Cronaca Sovversiva', born. Emigrated to America in 1896 and settled in the Italian neighborhood of Barre, Vermont, one of the cradles of U.S. granite industry and a hotbed of industrial militancy. One of the more active groups there were the small Italian anarchists grouped around a number of different Italian language newspapers, including the Galleanist 'Cronaca Sovversiva'. Abate also taught for many years in industrial design school.

1895 - Gaston Leval (born Pierre Robert Piller; also used the pseudonyms Max Stephan, Silvio Agreste, José Benito, Felipe Montblanc, Josep Venutto and Robert Le Franc; d. 1978), French anti-authoritarian writer, combatant and historian of the Spanish Revolution of 1936, born. Wrote 'The Collectives in Aragon' (1938), and 'Collectives in Spain' (1945).

[E] 1901 - Virginia Bolten aka 'the Louise Michel of Rosario' (1876 - ca. 1960), Uraguayan anarcha-feminist militant of German descent is arrested for distributing anarchist propaganda during a strike outside the gates of the Refineria, a huge sugar factory where she worked, and that employed thousands of workers, many of them European immigrants and many of them women.
Much of the previous version(s) of her early life, including the story of her having helped organise and led a May Day demonstration in 1890 aged just 14 years old, have been thrown into dispute following new evidence [see: http://kaosenlared.net/biografias-anarquistas-virginia-bolten/]. We hope to have a full version of her life based upon this latest evidence ready for the birth date on December 26.
libcom.org/files/Bolten, Virginia 1870-1960.pdf

1902 - [O.S. Oct. 10] Sam Dolgoff (Sholem Dolgopolsky; d. 1990), US anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist author, editor and militant, born in Byelorussia. [expand]

[D] 1905 - [O.S. Oct. 7] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Hundreds are killed or injured in a clash between revolutionaries and Black Hundreds (Чёрная сотня) in Tomsk, Siberia. A young Sergei Kirov (Серге́й Ки́ров) participates.

1910 - Aberdare Miners' Strike or 'Block Strike': Powell Duffryn workers at Lower Duffryn pit downed tools on October 20 in an unofficial stoppage, and consequently they received no strike pay and the ensuing hardship cut deep into the community. Superficially, their stoppage was a protest against the decision of the mine manager, E.M. Hann, to end the 40-year-old custom whereby miners were permitted to take home blocks of waste timber from the mines for use as household fuel. More broadly it was a reaction to the perceived threat to their livelihoods posed by the colliery company’s drive to increase productivity. The 'Block Strike' as it became known locally, was every bit as violent as the Cambrian Combine dispute. Some of the key incidents of disorder were played out in late October and early November, at almost the same time as the outbreak of rioting in Tonypandy and yet compared with events in the Rhondda they have been all but forgotten. Only one or two historians have paid it any serious attention and there is limited public awareness outside the locality in question.
Having downed tools, the workmen marched to neighbouring Powell Duffryn collieries at Aberaman and Cwmbach, and very quickly all the Cynon Valley pits were stopped and 11,000 men out on strike. As the strikers had not given notice of their intention to strike, the South Wales Miners Federation refused to sanction it, and different to the Cambrian strikers, they received no strike pay. On November 1, the strike notices at the Cambrian Combine expired and they joined the Ely pit on strike. From now on the Cynon and Cambrian strikes were intermingled.
In Aberaman on November 2 the first major scenes of violence had occurred. This, plus the appeal by the leaders, made the Aberdare strike headline news. Even 'The Times' devoted a long article to it on the 4th. The overtly hostile coverage of the strike by the 'Western Mail' was attacked by Stanton, and on the 3rd a 'Western Mail' reporter was chased off the railway station by a crowd of strikers. The violence at Aberaman had happened when a train carrying about 100 labourers who were still working at the pits was stormed at the Tonllwyd Crossing and several of the occupants were "badly mauled". Later the same day, the houses of many colliery officials who were still working were stoned. By the 4th every colliery and most of the officials' houses were being picketed.
On November 8, following a meeting in the Miners' Institute, Aberaman, where the educationalist, socialist, and campaigner for free, compulsory, secular education and free school meals Mary Bridges-Adams had been speaking, those attending had assembled in front of the Institute where their numbers swelled to about 2,000, including many women and children. A contingent of 500, in a diversionary move, proceeded to attack the Aberaman Colliery where they were kept at bay with fire hoses. The rest of the crowd, preceded by an advanced guard of 200 youths, marched to the colliery power station and washery at Cwmbach, which were still in operation, and began to stone the buildings. Several attempts were made to storm the power station, but the 29 policemen inside kept the crowd at bay by electrifying the perimeter fence and by hosing the rioters with hot water from the boilers. As the demonstration was breaking up in confusion, the police charged, injuring 60 and pushing many into the nearby canal.
Somehow, the people of Aberdare did not appreciate what the police were doing for them. The following day a train was stoned and there was a disturbance at Aberaman when two mounted police tried to disperse a crowd of women and children by riding into them. Attacks on colliery officials and their houses became daily occurrences. The following Sunday, a chapel service was interrupted by the congregation and a colliery official was removed from their midst.
More violence followed at Aberaman on November 13, at Cwmbach on the folowing day, and again at Aberaman on November 22, when a crowd gathered to look for blacklegs coming home from work. 1,500 people, mainly women and children, followed one blackleg on to Aberaman railway station and "shouted uncomplimentary remarks", struck and kicked him, and eventually allowed him to go home only to smash his windows once he had got there. Other officials were caught and tarred and twelve policemen were injured. The following day, a furniture van was held up by pickets and the contents were left strewn across the road in the pouring rain. The owner had been supplying the troops with provisions. These incidents were not on the scale of the Tonypandy riots, but they demonstrate the involvement of the wider community in the attempt to prevent any blacklegging.
On November 14, the union executive called a conference, at which a proposal from the executive committee that the Aberdare men should return to work as recommended and that anyone who was not re-employed would receive lock-out pay was put before the 284 delegates (representing 152,559 miners). A call for a wider stoppage was made but lacked support and the meeting broke up having only adopted a resolution condemning "the action of the Home Secretary in refusing to grant an inquiry into the conduct of the police and military forces". At the reconvened conference on December 14, the executive committee's recommendation for a return to work was passed by 1,815 votes to 921. A mass meeting of the Aberdare strikers held on December 15 discussed a resolution calling on each colliery committee to meet its management to obtain a guarantee of no victimisation before the men returned to work. The meeting eventually broke up in disorder, revealing the demoralised mood of the miners.
After receiving assurances from the executive committee that any victimisation would be a breach of the Conciliation Board agreement and that the Federation would assist any victimised men, the PD strikers decided to return to work at a meeting on December 23rd. A large section of the PD men had wanted to continue but the prospect of carrying on without the other pits was enough to deter them. Because of the need for repairs to the workings. the actual return to work was delayed until January 2, 1911. Only about half of the PD men had their jobs back. immediately. As further repairs went ahead more men had their jobs back, but by the end of 1911, 1,000 were still out of work, still on lock-out pay.
The result of the strike was the temporary defeat and demoralisation of the labour movement in Aberdare. As might be expected. the victimisation of the PD men led to an increasing level of non-unionism in 1911.

1916 - Appearing in court to testify on behalf of Bolton Hall, anarchist-feminist Emma Goldman is arrested for having distributed birth control information. Her friend Margaret Sanger is also arrested, on the 26th, for distributing birth control information.

1917 - An anarchist-inspired motion is passed at the first Congress of Factory Councils in revolutionary Russia in favour of workers' self-management.

1923 - Philip Whalen (d. 2002), America Beat poet and Zen anarchist, born. A close friend of Gary Snyder (and fellow Zen anarchist), they were both associated with the anarchist circle around fellow San Francisco poet Kenneth Rexroth. Jack Kerouac dramatised him as Ben Fagan in 'Big Sur' and as Warren Coughlin in 'Dharma Bums'.

1926 - Eugene Victor Debs (b. 1855), US locomotive fireman, wholesale grocery salesman, city clerk, union leader, editor, founding member of the Industrial Workers of the World and jailed seditionist, who stood five times as the candidate of the Socialist Party of America for President of the United States, dies of heart failure at the age of 70 in the Lindlahr Sanitarium in Elmhurst, Illinois, his health ruined by the 2.5 years he spent in prison. [see: Nov. 5]

1932 - The reappearance in the Italian anarchist fortnightly newspaper 'Nova Umanità' is published in exile in Puteaux, Hauts-de-Seine, France by the Italian anarchist Antonio Cieri in collaboration with Camillo Berneri and Rivoluzio Gilioli.

1935 - Aquilino Gómez Pozo (b. 1871), Basque anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies.

[C] 1945 - El Quico (Francisco Sabaté) and two other anarchist guerillas, Jaime 'Abisinio' Pares Adán and Juan 'Roget' Salas Millón, at the request of Committee of Resistance of the CNT, break three prisoners out of jail in Barcelona.

[EE] 1948 - Daidōji Ayako (大道寺 あや子), Japanese member of the 'Wolf' (狼) cell of the Higashi Ajia Hannichi Busō Sensen (東アジア反日武装戦線), or East Asia Anti-Japan Armed Front armed struggle organisation and of the now disbanded Nihon Sekigun (日本赤軍), or Japanese Red Army, born. She is currently on the run after being released along with eight other JRA members in the wake of the Japan Airlines Flight 472 hijacking in October 1977.

[A] 1971 - Home of Bryant, Birmingham building boss, bombed while his workers are on strike. Communique issued by the Angry Brigade.

1971 - Eduard Vives (b. 1917), Catalan militant anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Aug. 15]

1974 - Adelchi Argada, Italian left-wing militant of the Revolutionary Communist Popular Front of Calabria, is killed by fascists in Lamezia Terme, Calabria.

1975 - Joan Enseñat Rigo, aka 'El Periodista' (b. 1901), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [expand]

1981 - Ex-members of Weather Underground, now belonging to the May 19th Communist Organisation, and members of the Black Liberation Army attempt to rob a Brinks armoured truck containing $1.6 million. All the money was subsequently recovered and most of those involved were either arrested or killed during shoot-outs.

1983 - Juan Francisco Abad Fornieles (b. ca. 1921), Spanish anarchist, journalist, poet and writer, dies. In the libertarian ranks from an early age, he joined the war at fifteen years old together with his father and in 1938 served as a press correspondent, writing regularly in 'Solidaridad Obrera' (Workers Solidarity) and 'Tierra y Libertad' (Land and Freedom). Imprisoned by the Fascists on January 8, 1940, he spent time in a number of prisons including Torrero-Zaragoza (1942), Ocaña (1945) and Puerto de Santa Maria (1947), where he formed a lasting friendship with the social prisoner Vega Álvarez. Released in June 1951, survived like other anarchists (Guzman, Gomez Casas, Vega, Olcina) by writing western novels, policieres, war stories and romances (publishing more than two hundred under several pseudonyms, including Juan de España and Marsh Scrape) and from 1955 onwards he combined his "survival writing" with working in a factory until his emigration (first to France, where was not understood by the Toulouse libertarians, and then, since 1960, in Germany). In his German years he stopped writing and quit politics until well into the seventies, when animated by Cristóbal Vega he returned to the anarchist fold and to the pen. A poet from the age of eleven, he wrote much, but published very little and was a poet of "bitter sweetness" in the opinion of Vega Álvarez. He collaborated on 'Correo Literario', 'Espoir', 'Ideas-Ortho', 'Solidaridad Obrera' in Barcelona (during the war and in the post-Franco era), 'Tierra y Libertad' in Spain and Mexico and 'Umbral' (Threshold). He also wrote the preface to Raimundo Ramirez de Antón's poetry collection 'Antes de Ser el Alba' (Before the Dawn; 1984) and author of 'Tierra de olvido y seis poemas a norte fijo' (Land of oblivion and six poems of fixed north; 1981) and 'Pulsando mi Lira' (Playing my Lyre; 1982).

1985 - Jean-Roger Caussimon (b. 1918), French libertarian, comedian, actor, poet, singer and songwriter, dies. [see: Jul. 24]

1985 - Ines Lida Scarselli (b. 1906), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist, dies of colon cancer. [see: Mar. 26]

1990 - Bridget Bate Tichenor (born Bridget Pamela Arkwright Bate; b. 1917), also known as Bridget Tichenor or B.B.T., Mexican surrealist and magic realist painter, model and fashion editor, dies. [see: Nov. 22]

1994 - Antonio Ramos Palomares (aka El Carbonero; b. 1905), Andalusian anarcho-syndicalist and anti-Francoist fighter, dies.

2005 - Eva Švankmajerová (b. 1940), Czech Surrealist artist, painter, ceramicist, poet, filmmaker and writer, dies. [see: Sep. 25]

[F] 2010 - Mariano Ferreyra (b. 1987), Argentine student militant in the Federación Universitaria de Buenos Aires (University Federation of Buenos Aires) and Partido Obrero (Workers Party) activist, is shot in the chest and killed in Buenos Aires by members of the largest Argentine railway workers union, the Peronist Unión Ferroviaria (UF), during a protest about the dismisal and outsourcing of workers by Unidad de Gestión Operativa Ferroviaria de Emergencia (Emergency Railway Operational Management Unit) railway company. Prevented by members of the Peronist union from occupying rail tracks at the Avellaneda station in Buenos Aires, who were reinforced by units of the Policía Federal, the protesters – outsourced workers, members of the Partido Obrero and the unemployed workers group Movimiento Teresa Rodríguez, and others – withdrew after an exchange of stones and bottles (from the protesters) and rubber bullet (from the police). However, when the UF members began to pursue them, the Policía Federal stationed between the two moved aside to let them pass. The pursuers, now reinforced by barras bravas (Argentine Ultras) and coordinated via phone by a UF delegate Pablo Diaz, attacked the demonstrators, with two of the attackers, Gabriel Sánchez and Cristian Favale, repeatedly fired on the demonstrators. At the same time, the UF thugs also stopped a camera crew from the news channel C5N filming the event. As a result of the attack, 23-year-old Mariano Ferreyra was killed and Elsa Rodríguez, Nelson Aguirre and Ariel Benjamín Pintos seriously injured.
After Mariano's death, 14 people were sentenced in connection with the attack: Sánchez and Favale both got 18 years, as did Pablo Diaz; and the former UF Secretary José Pedraza was sentence to 15 years in prison. [see: Jun. 3]
1858 - Henri Willems (d. unknown), Belgian sculptor/carver, anarchist and director of the Belgian newspaper 'Le Libertaire', born. [see: Aug. 11]

1868 - Mécislas Golberg (or Goldberg; d. 1908), Polish anarchist thinker and prolific writer (in French), born.

1876 - The third Congress of the Italain section of the IWA, orginally due to be held on the 22nd, takes place in Tosi near Florence. Despite the intervention of the police, the Congress adopts a motion abandoning collectivism in favour of anarchist-communism, proclaiming:
"The International should not be exclusively working association indeed the aim of the social revolution is not only in the emancipation of the working class but in that of all mankind...
The Italian Federation considers the collective property of the products of labour as the necessary complement to the collectivist programme, the aid of all for the satisfaction of the needs of each being the only rule of production and consumption which corresponds to the principle of solidarity. The federal congress at Florence has eloquently demonstrated the opinion of the Italian International on this point..."

1880 - Viking Eggeling (d. 1925), Swedish avant-garde artist and filmmaker connected to Dadaism, Constructivism and Abstract art, who was one of the pioneers in absolute film and visual music alongside his long-term collaborator Hans Richter, born. His film 'Diagonal-Symphonie' (1924) is one of the seminal abstract films in the history of experimental cinema. An anarchist sympathiser, he paid a number of visits to the Ascona colony following his 1917 move to Zurich and re-encountering Hans Arp, befriending Marcel Janco, Richard Huelsenbeck, and Sophie Taeuber whilst participating in the Cabaret Voltaire. In 1918, Tristan Tzara introduced Eggeling to Hans Richter and the pair went on to co-found the Artistes Radicaux (Association of Revolutionary Artists) group in Zurich, a more political section of the Das Neue Leben (New Life) group (which featured Marcel Janco, Hans Arp, Sophie Taeuber, Augusto Giacometti and others). Back in Berlin, Eggeling and Richter joined the radical Weimar artists group Novembergruppe.

1887 - Ramón Domínguez Basco (d. 1959), Basque militant anarcho-syndicalist, born.

[AA/DD] 1894 - Révolte de Forçats Sur les Îles du Salut: A large group of anarchist prisoners on Saint-Joseph, Îles du Salut, French Guyana organise a prison uprising. In September a guard named Mosca had killed the anarchist convict François Briens, and his comrades had sworn revenge. On the night of October 21, they seized their opportunity. Forcing open a newly unlocked cell door, they attacked and stabbed two guards (some sources claim three), freeing a number of other prisoners. They quickly sought out Mosca and killed him. Some escaped the prison grounds; others quietly returned to their cells, hoping to escape detection. However, informers had tipped off prison officials to the revolt and they were just waiting. The escapees were ruthlessly hunted down, their bullet-riddled bodies thrown into the sea. All told, four guards and 12 convicts, including ten anarchists, died during the uprising.
collin.francois.free.fr/Le_tour_du_monde/textes/ATLM1910/Bagne de Guyane 1910.htm

[BB] 1896 - Pia Zanolli (Pia Zanolli-Misèfari; d. unknown), Italian anarchist, fashion designer, poet and writer, born. Companion of the Italian anarchist, philosopher, poet and engineer Bruno Misèfari, who she met whilst he was staying with her family as an exile in Switzerland as a deserter. In July 1919 Bruno Misèfari was expelled from Switzerland and she accompanied him first to Germany and then to Italy following an amnesty for Misèfari. She was to appeared on the list of dangerous subversives to be arrested in certain contingencies in the province of Reggio Calabria as the wife of a notorious anarchist [i.e. Misèfari], with whom she had been arrested in Domodossola in December 1919. She moved to Ponza in 1931 to be with Misèfari whilst he was in internal exile as a political prisoner, and they were married in a civil ceremony there on May 28, 1931. Once free, they settled in Calabria and, after Misèfari's death in 1936, she became his literary executor as well as publishing two memoirs of him, 'Tu o uno come te' (You or someone like you; nd) and 'L'Anarchico di Calabria' (The Anarchist of Calabria; 1967). Her own poetry was published in 2 volumes: 'Cinque Parole' (Five Words; 1965), 'Ruota del Mondo: Poesie sociali' (Wheel of the World: Social Poems; 1965)

1904 - Isabelle Eberhardt (b. 1877), the great anarchist writer and adventurer is swept away by a flash flood in the Algerian desert at the age 27. [see: Feb. 17]

1905 [O.S. Oct. 8] October All-Russian Political Strike [Октябрьская всероссийская политическая стачка]: The strike by railway workers has by now developed into a general strike in St. Petersburg and Moscow. This prompts the setting up of the short-lived St Petersburg Soviet of Workers' Delegates, an admixture of Bolsheviks and Mensheviks.
The rail strike reaches Nizhny Novgorod, Ryazan, Yaroslavl, Kursk, and the Urals. The telephone and telegraph service shuts down in central Russia, and the Union of Unions begins setting up strike committees throughout Russia in support of the rail strike.

[E] 1918 - Gabriella 'Ella' Antolini (1899 - 1984), Italian-American agricultural worker and Galleanist anarchist, is sentenced to 18 months to be served at the Missouri State Penitentiary in Jefferson City and a $2000 fine following her arrest on a train from Steubenville to Chicago in January 1918 carrying a black leather case containing thirty-six sticks of dynamite and a .32 caliber Colt automatic. The items were to be used to carry out revenge attacks for the arrests and persecution of the Milwaukee anarchists and the death in custody of Augusto Marinell on September 15, 1917. In prison she befriended Emma Goldman and socialist Kate O'Hare , the three becoming known as 'The Trinity'.

1920 - CNT activist Ramón Jaume Mateu is attacked by Pistoleros del Libre. Attacks by these right wing assassins, supported by anti-labour businessmen and the Catholic Church, against militant workers are common during this period.

[F] 1920 - About 25 delegates of the Unione Sindacale Italiana (USI), the 300,000-strong syndicalist union, meeting in Bologna, are all arrested as part of an on-going government crackdown against the union and numerous anarchist organisations and publications.

1920 - Anarchist general Kim Jwa-jin draws Japanese forces into an ambush, leading to the victory of Korean nationalists in the Battle of Chingshanli

1921 - Massive demonstrations all over Europe in support of the anarchists Sacco and Vanzetti. In Paris 10,000 police and 18,000 soldiers attempt to control the crowds.

1922 - The first issue of 'L'Ouvrier du Bois et du Bâtiment', "organe officiel en langue française de la Fédération des Ouvriers du Bois et du Bâtiment (FOBB)", is published in Lausanne.

[A] 1928 - Giuseppe 'Pino' Pinelli (d. 1969), Italian railway worker, organiser in Gioventu Libertaria (Libertarian Youth) and secretary of Milan Anarchist Black Cross whose death whilst under police interrogation inspired the Dario Fo play 'Accidental Death of an Anarchist', born. [expand]

[B] 1929 - Ursula Kroeber Le Guin (d. 2018), US libertarian science fiction and fantasy novelist, short story writer, poet and essayist, born. Author of 'The Dispossessed' (1974), an anarchist dystopia, and 'The Left Hand of Darkness' (1969), an examination of gender and power politics. [expand]

1936 - Fascist siege of Madrid begins.

1939 - Serge Livrozet, French burglar sent to prison numerous times who became an anarchist and writer, born. Was active in the struggle against high-security prisons and the death penalty and, after meeting Michel Foucault, they formed the 'Comités d'Action des Prisonniers'.

1941 - Federica Montseny, pregnant and a refugee in France with her daughter Blanca, is arrested by the Vichy police and imprisoned in Perigueux, Dordogne. She will be transferred to Limoges (where she find Caballero) and is put on trial, narrowly avoiding extradition to Spain. Instead, she is placed under house arrest and banned from being able to give birth in the maternity ward at Périgueux hospital.

[C] 1943 - The Minsk Ghetto, notable for its large scale resistance organisation, which cooperated closely with Soviet partisans and where about 10,000 Jews were able to escape the ghetto and join partisan groups in the nearby forests (as many as 20,000 are also estimated to have died trying to escape the Ghetto to join the partisans), is liquidated. By the time the Red Army retook the city on July 3, 1944, there were only a few Jewish survivors.

1949 - The anarchist Miguel García García is arrested. Tried and sentenced to death along with eight other companions, five of whom were executed. Garcia spent 38 days in the condemned cell until his sentence was commuted to 30 years imprisonment.

1949 - Julio Rodríguez Fernandez, aka 'El Cubano', a fighter with Catalan guerrilla groups, and his comrades José Barroso Ruiz and Francisco Martínez Márquez, aka 'Paco' (b. 1922), die in a clash with the fascist police in Barcelona.

1963 - Shooting on Buñuel's film version of the Mirbeau novel 'Diary of a Chambermaid' begins.

1967 - Three days (Oct. 21–23) of anti-Vietnam war actions organised by the National Mobe (National Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam), including the March on the Pentagon to Confront the War Makers, begin. 100,000 are at the Lincoln Memorial on the D.C. Mall, 35,000 (or up to 50,000?) go on to the Pentagon for another rally and an all-night vigil, others to engage in acts of civil disobedience and various Yippies try to levitate the building. 647 are arrested, among them novelist Norman Mailer, who describes the events surrounding the protest (including his time sharing a jail cell with Noam Chomsky) in his book 'The Armies of the Night'.

[D] 1969 - International Anti-War Day [1969年10月21日国際反戦デー]: On International Anti-War Day, Japanese police arrest more than 1,500 students and radical from a wide range of organisations such as Hansen Seinen Iinkai (the Anti-War Youth Committee), Beheiren (Citizen’s League for Peace in Vietnam), Zengakuren (All-Japan Federation of Student Self-Government Associations), Zenkyôtô (the non-sectarian All-Campus Joint Struggle), the various New Left and traditional left factions, and Sōhyō (General Council of Trade Unions of Japan) as an estimated 900,000 people march through Tokyo, just one of 600 protests on the day across Japan ahead of Prime Minister Sato’s forthcoming visit to America. They demand an end to the Vietnam war; the abolition of the security treaty with the United States; and the return of Okinawa, the site of a massive US military base. Public meetings were banned and, in addition to the 25,000 Tokyo police on the streets, a further 75,000 cops were drafted in from across the rest of the country to try and prevent a repeat of the scenes of the previous year when students took control of Shinjuku station and the train line supplying the US air base at Tachikawa for three hours. Under conditions of heavy repression, acts of resistance and guerrilla insurgency broke out across Tokyo and other cities, as police departments and police boxes were attacked. The tactics later escalated, with the organised use of molotov cocktails as well as explosives against prominent targets.
The 1969 Anti-War Day protests in Tokyo also signalled the beginning of what became know as the "1970 struggle", the increasingly violent and confrontational fight against the renewal of the Japan‐United States Security Treaty that year.

1969 - Bolesław Stein (d. 1907), Polish doctor, anarcho-syndicalist and WWII freedom fighter, dies. [see: Apr. 29]

1981 - Black anarchist Kuwasi Balagoon is finally captured by the state following the Brinks robbery

1981 - Germinal Esgleas (Josep Esgleas i Jaume; b. 1903), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Oct. 5]

1984 - Maurice-Henry (b. 1907), French poet, painter, filmmaker and cartoonist, dies. [see: Dec. 29]

1992 - Anton Ciliga (b. 1898), Croatian philosopher, Left Communist and anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Feb. 20]

1994 - Anarchy in the UK 94: Ten Days That Shook The World, a massive anarchist festival (Oct 21- 30) with over 500 events throughout London, begins today.
1834 - Abigail Scott Duniway (d. 1915), US women's rights advocate, newspaper editor and writer, who was an early author of westerns and Pacific Northwest suffrage leader, (1871-1915), who succeeded in winning woman suffrage in Oregon (1912), born.

1851 - Joseph Dejacque, French anarchist, is sentenced to two years in prison for a volume of poetry 'Lazaréennes: Socialist Fables and Poems'.

1864 - José Sánchez Rosa (d. 1936), Spanish autodidact, teacher, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. A member of Mano Negra (1883), he was arrested several times and sentenced to various penalties, including death in 1892 as one of the supposed leaders of peasant revolt at Jerez de la Frontera, despite his avowed pacifism. The sentence was commuted to life imprisonment, during which he met his own teacher in anarchist thoughtFermín Salvochea, and in 1901 he was pardoned. Upon his release he became involved in the establishing of numerous rationalist schools across Andalusia, in which he also taught. He also undertook a speaking tour in 1904 on behalf of the Federació de Societats Obreres de la Regió Espanyola (Federation of Workers Societies of the Spanish Region; FSORE) and ended up in prison in Tangiers. Released in Jan. 1905, he settled in Aznalcóllar. In 1910 he moved to Seville, where taught in the district school in Triana and became director of the Agrupación Pro-Enseñanza Racionalista (Pro-Rationalist Education Association), as well as setting up a workers library in his home and founding and directing the anarchist newspapers 'El Productor' and 'La Anarquíay' (1919-1921). [expand]

1867 - Émile Derré (d. 1938), French sculptor, pacifist, Dreyfusard and anarchist sympathiser, born. An activist for a "brotherly and largely human art" . He frequented the Parisian anarchist and almost all his works have a political connotation. In 1905 he made the bust of Louise Michel that adorns her grave. A year later for the Salon des Artistes Français he created 'le Chapiteau des Baisers' (the Capital of Kisses), originally known as 'Rêve Pour une Maison du Peuple' (Dream House of the People) with its recognisable images of Louise Michel, Elisée Reclus and Auguste Blanqui.
After WWI, which deeply affected him, he made the monumental statue entitled 'Réconciliation. Tu ne tueras pas' (Reconciliation. Thou shalt not kill), representing the embrace of a French and a German soldier. Exhibited at the Salon d'Automne of 1932, it caused a scandal and caused its immediate withdrawal. With the threat on a new war, he killed himself in 1938.

1874 - Mina Schrader (Appoline Wilhelmine Schrader; d. unknown), French artist's model, sculptor and anarchist fellow-traveller, who used a number of pseudonyms including Mina de Nyzot, Mina Schrader de Nysold, Mina Schrader de Wegt de Nizeau, Ysolde Vouillard, etc., born.

1882 - During the night a bomb explodes at the restaurant of the Bellecour Theatre in Lyon, killing an employee. The anarchist Antoine Cyvoct is wrongly suspected because of an article published in the Lyon anarchist paper 'Le Droit Social'. Cyvoct was sentenced to death, despite no proof that he was responsible. His sentence was eventually commuted to forced labour and, despite an intense campaign by anarchists in 1895 to gain his release, Cyvoct was not amnestied until March 1898.

1887 - John Reed (John Silas Reed; d. 1920), U.S. radical journalist, poet-adventuer, communist and Wobbly, whohronicled the Mexican and Soviet revolutions, and wrote 'Ten Days That Shook the World' about the latter, born. [expand]

1892 - The first issue of 'Ravachol', "Periódico anarquista", is published in Sabadell, Catalonia. The editor, Joaquim Pascual Soler, is prosecuted and imprisoned, but manages to escape from prison. The cover states "this paper will come out when it can" but only manages 2 issues. Banned, it will reappear as 'El Eco Ravachol'.

1893 - The first issue of the fortnightly 'Le Libertaire', "Organe socialiste-révolutionnaire des groupes de St-Josse-ten-Noode", is published in Brussels. It replaces the newspaper 'L'Antipatriote', also published by Henri Willems.

1893 - Fasci Siciliani Uprising: In Floresta, in the province of Messina, the police station is attacked during a Fasci protest. The police are disarmed and taken prisoner.
In Marineo the fascio organises a demonstration to quash rumours that it has disbanded. As with the other Fasci, it would continue its protests against the duties on essential goods and against the activities of the municipal administration.

[AA/DD] 1894 - Révolte de Forçats Sur les Îles du Salut: Ten* anarchists - Benoît Chevenet, Jules Stanislas Joseph Amboise Garnier, Léon Jules Léauthier, Luis Lebeau, Eugène dit Vulgo Mattei, Julien Mazarguil, Henri Pierre Meyrueis, Charles Achille Simon aka 'Biscuit', who took part alongside Ravachol on the attack against the president of the cour d'assises de la Seine, Benoit, and his deputy Bulot, Maxime François Thiervoz, and Edmond Aubin Marpaux - who had all taken part in yesterday's attempted uprising, are hunted down and summarily shot [Marpaux on the morning of the 23rd]. Simon, Léauthier, Lebault and Maservin's last words were to shout "Vive l'anarchie!" "Cold blood and no quarter given" were the orders of the Commander Bonafi, chief of Internal Security, whose men had gotten as drunk as pigs for the occasion. The following day their bullet ridden bodies were thrown into the sea for the sharks to eat, while the hurriedly appointed Commission of Inquiry continued the repression, putting in irons anyone who was even slightly suspected of helping the rebels. Of these, Jean-Baptiste Eugène Anthelme Girier aka 'Lorion', considered "the soul of the plot", and Bernard Mamert, alleged to have been one of the assassins of Mosca, plus five others, Forest, Heuzelin, Bonnacourci, Flameng, and Bernard, were later brought before the special maritime Court of Cayenne. Girier and Mamert were sentenced to death in June 1895 and all the others were acquitted.
Mamert died in prison on October 11, 1895, a few days after an appeal against his death sentence had been rejected. Girier's death sentence was commuted to five years in solitary confinement on January 16, 1896, though he did not hear about the commutation until a month later. He died on November 16, 1898.
[*There is some dispute over the exact number with some sources also giving the numbers of 11 & 12 dead, possibly due to two others (Jean-Baptiste Eugène Anthelme Girier aka 'Lorion' and Bernard Mamert) also having been given death sentences and later having died in prison.][guillotine.cultureforum.net/t1366p45-les-bagnes-de-guyane
collin.francois.free.fr/Le_tour_du_monde/textes/ATLM1910/Bagne de Guyane 1910.htm

1894 - Léon Jules Léauthier (b. 1874), French anarchist shoe-maker who stabbed and seriously wounded the Minister of Serbia, dies during a prison uprising on the island of St. Joseph, Guyana. [see: Jan. 5]

1905 - [O.S. Oct. 9] October All-Russian Political Strike [Октябрьская всероссийская политическая стачка]: The rail strike reaches Kiev and Voronezh. Assistant Interior Minister Trepov is now urging "the most drastic measures" to end the strike.

1905 - [O.S. Oct. 9] October All-Russian Political Strike [Октябрьская всероссийская политическая стачка]: As telegraph workers join the strike, Count Sergei Witte (Серге́й Ви́тте) confronts the Tsar, warning him that to save Russia he must make great reforms or impose a dictatorship, and demands either a constitutional government or a military dictatorship; he misinforms the Tsar that under a constitution the crown could still revoke any law.

[D] 1905 - Argentian police massacre some 200 demonstrators opposing a tax on cattle, called by the Comité Pro Abolición. Popular outrage sweeps the country and workers call a General Strike. The government declares a state of siege. Despite heavy military protection of the cowards who hide in the palace, insurreccionadas attempt to take the building.

1905 - Huelga de la Carne [Meat Strike] aka Semana Roja [Red Week]: Today, during the Semana Roja (Red Week), a crucial event in early Chilean workers' history, 30,000 people join the uprising in Santiago, inspired by the revolutionary ideas sweeping working class public opinion.

1908 - Benigno Andrade García aka 'Foucellas' (d. 1952), Spanish locksmith, anarchist militant and anti-Francoist guerilla, born. He fought in the Civil War but with its end, he carried on with his guerilla activities alongside an autonomous band based in the Bacelo hills. Early in 1952, he was ambushed in Betanzos as a result of treachery and was wounded and arrested. Brutally tortured, he was sentenced to death and executed by garrote at 7 am on August 7, 1952 in the provincial prison of A Coruña, Galicia.

[C] 1913 - Robert Capa (Endre Friedmann; d. 1954), Hungarian combat photographer, photojournalist and anti-fascist, who covered five different wars, including the Spanish Revolution, born. [expand]

1919 - Doris Lessing (Doris May Tayler; d. 2013), British author [novelist, poet, playwright, librettist, biographer and short story writer], radical, one-time communist, anti-colonialist and anti-racist, and Nobel Laureate, who was adopted as a feminsit icon by the women's movement in the 1960's following the publication of 'The Golden Notebook' (1962), born [in Iran].

[B] 1921 - Georges Brassens (d. 1981), French anarchist singer-songwriter, poet and novelist, born. Already a published poet, 'Des Coups d’Épée dans l’Eau' (1941) and 'A la Venvole' (As the Wind Blows; 1942) having been working in a Renault car factory in Paris, he was forced by the Germans to work in a labour camp at a BMW aircraft engine plant in Basdorf near Berlin in Germany during WWII under the Service de Travail Obligatoire, but went AWOL on 10 days leave in Paris, hiding out with relatives till the end of the war.
In 1946 he joined the Fédération Anarchiste and wrote articles for 'Le Libertaire' under a number of pseudonyms, including Pépin Cadavre, Geo Cédille and Gilles Collin. He also wrote his first novel, 'La Lune Écoute aux Portes' (The Eavesdropping Moon), in 1947 and continued to write poetry and songs, performing them at fundraisers and for his friends. But it wasn't until 1952 that he actually started to perform his songs (accompanying himself on guitar) in public at cabarets such as the Caveau de la République, the Lapin Agile in Montmartre, Milord I'Arsouille and the Villa d'Este. Unsuccessful at first, it wasn't until he appeared at Les Trois Baudets (The Three Donkeys) and a Polydor recording cintract quickly followed, as did a second novel, 'La Tour des Miracles' (1953), and a part in René Clair's film 'Porte des Lilas' (Brassens also composed the film's music). A massive public success in France, he is little known elsewhere.
Amongst his best known songs are: 'La Mauvaise Réputation' (1952); 'Les Amoureux des Bancs Publics' (1952); 'Le Gorille' (1952); 'La Cane de Jeanne' (1953); 'Chanson pour l'Auvergnat' (1954); 'Les Copains d'Abord' (1964); 'Supplique pour être Enterré à la Plage de Sète' (1966); 'Fernande' (1972); and 'Mourir pour des Idées' (1972).

1922 - French composer Jacques Ibert's tone poem, 'La Ballade de la Geôle de Reading' (Ballad of Reading Gaol; 1922), premières at the Paris Concerts Colonne.

[CC] 1924 - Despite not being a member, the notorious and rabid anti-Semite William Joyce is a steward (as leader of the BF's 'I Squad' - he regularly stewarded for the British Fascisti and was a habitual participant in their street fights with anti-fascists) at a Conservative Party election meeting at Lambeth Baths Hall. There he becomes involved in a fight, receiving a razor cut from the corner of his mouth to behind his right ear that left him permanently scarred (to add to his broken nose picked up fighting during his school days). Joyce is convinced that his assailant was a "Jewish Communist" and the injury made his anti-Semitic stance even more implacable. [PR]

1936 - Bobby Seale, radical political activist and co-founder, with Huey Newton, of the Black Panther Party, born.

1956 - A Moroccan DC-3 plane ferrying the foreign affairs personnel of the FLN from Rabat to Tunis for a conference with President Bourguiba and the Sultan of Morocco is re-routed to Algiers. Senior FLN members Hocine Aït Ahmed, Ahmed Ben Bella, Mohammed Boudiaf, Mohamed Khider and Mostefa Lacheraf are arrested.

1964 - Jean-Paul Sartre turns down the Nobel Prize for Literature, claiming: "a writer must refuse to allow himself to be transformed into an institution."

[A] 1966 - Soviet spy George Blake escapes from prison with the assistance of the Committee of 100 and is smuggled out of the UK.

[E] 1971 - Former Sozialistisches Patientenkollektiv member Margrit Schiller is captured by police. While arresting her, fellow Rote Armee Fraktion members Irmgard Möller and Gerhard Müller attempt to rescue her, getting into a shootout with police. Police sergeant Heinz Lemke is shot in the foot. Sergeant Norbert Schmid is killed.

1974 - Thirty members of the Oxford Anti-fascist Committee force their way into an election meeting at Headington Middle School for the NF candidate Ian Anderson. The audience of five people watch in disbelief as Union flags are torn down, the speaker's table overturned and Anderson is physically thrown out of his own meeting. This fiasco is followed a few days later when a much large meeting in Oxford Town Hall is invaded by around 100 anti-fascists who force Anderson from the platform and stage their own anti-fascist speeches. [PR]

1989 - Ida Scarselli (b. 1897), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist militant, dies in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. [see: Jul. 17]

1996 - 25 Venezuelan prisoners die in a fire at La Planta prison in Caracas deliberately set by guards.

[F] [2018 - Labour Day in New Zealand. Celebrated on the fourth Monday of October.]
1685 - Elizabeth Gaunt, an Anabaptist shop-keeper in London, is the last woman to have been executed for a political crime in England - sentenced to death for treason after having been convicted for involvement in the Rye House Plot.

[E] 1778 - Kittur Chennamma (d. 1829), Indian freedom fighter and Queen of Kittur, a princely state in Karnataka, born. In 1824, she was first Indian ruler to lead an armed rebellion against the British East India Company.

1885 - André Lorulot (aka André Georges Roulot) (d. 1963), French free-thinker, anarchist individualist, lecturer, propagandist and playwright, born. Lorulot began writing for Libertad’s journal 'l’Anarchie' from the first issue (13 April 1905), adopting the pseudonym Lorulot and essentially devoting his life, until 1914, to the cause of individualist anarchist propaganda.
In 1906 he and his partner Émilie Lamotte joined the Libertaire anarchist commune in Saint-Germain-en-Laye and in 1907 he was exempted from military service for "heart disease and deafness". The colony lasted 2 years, during which time he lectured through out the country, resulting in his arrest in May 1907 for 'incitement to murder' and being sentenced to one year in prison on Aug. 9. Then his pamphlet 'L'Idole Patrie et ses Conséquences' resulted in another prison sentence on Nov. 16 1907, of 115 months for encouraging military disobedience. Fortunately the authorities mixed up the sentence and he was paroled early in Feb. 1908.
Following the death of Libertad on November 12 1908, Lorulot took over the editorship of 'l’Anarchie' and continued extensive travels with Émilie, lecturing in France, Algeria and Switzerland. Émilie died on June 6 1909 whilst they were travelling via caravan across France and Lorulot decided to set up printing of the newspaper Romainville, where he founded and edited the magazine 'L’Idée Libre' on Dec. 1 1911 (having quit 'l’Anarchie'). The magazine developed into a combination propaganda organ for individualism and anti-clericalism, and resulted in his becoming embroiled in the case of the Bonnot Gang because of his advocacy of illegality, but is not charged during the Feb. 1913 trial.In Jan 1915 he is again arrested, this time on a counter feit currency charge as well as for insulting and defaming the army. The charges are dropped in July 1915 but his is banished from Paris for 4 years. He moved to Lyon and then Saint-Étienne, where he resumed the publication 'L’Idée Libre' in 1917.
Despite his individualism, his long term opposition to syndicalist thought (unions were mere "boîtes à cotisations") and denial of the division of society into classes, he became enamoured of the Bolshevik revolution, defending the idea of the need for "some dictatorship", even after the events at Kronstadt.
From then on his principle activities focused on his anti-clerical/free thought activities, becoming on of the main speakers for the Fédération Nationale de la Libre Pensée (Federation of Free Thinkers) and writing for the journal 'l'Antireligieux', as well as 'Réveil de l'Esclave' (The Awakening Slave; 1920-25); 'l'Action Antireligieuse' (1925); 'La Libre Pensée' (1928); and the satirical magazine 'La Calotte' (The Skullcap; 1930). In the Thirties he also participated in Sébastien Faure's 'l'Encyclopédie Anarchiste'.
In 1958 Lorulot became president of the Fédération Nationale de la Libre Pensée. A prolific writer, his misanthropy is perhaps best expressed by the title of his 1939 pamphlet: 'Les Hommes me Dégoutent' (Men Disgust Me). Amongst his other writings are: 'Le Mensonge Électoral' (The Electoral Falsehood; 1908); 'Chez les Loups' (Among Wolves; 1920); 'Méditations et Souvenirs d'un Prisonnier' (Meditations and Memories of a Prisoner; 1921); 'L'Église et la Guerre' (The Church and War; 1930); 'Histoire de Ma Vie et de Mes Idées' (Story of My Life and My Ideas; 1939); 'Histoire Populaire du Socialisme Mondial' (People's History of World Socialism; 1945); etc.
He also wrote a number of plays, including: 'Mon Royaume N'est Pas de Ce Monde' (My Kingdom is Not of This World; 1934); 'Dans les Geôles de France' (In French Jails; 1938); 'La Toile d'Araignée' (The Spider's Web; 1938); and 'La Morale de Croquemitaine' (The Moral Bogeyman; 1936).

1886 - The first issue of the Brussels newspaper 'La Liberté', "Organe communiste - anarchiste", published every Saturday.

1887 - Salvador Cordón Avellán (d. 1958), Andalusian writer, journalist, rationalist teacher, propagandist anarchist, playwright and novelist, born. [expand]
His fictional works include: 'Pedazos de mi Alma: girones de mi vida' (Pieces of my Soul: shreds of my life; 1911), 'La Familia Política: drama en tres actos y en prosa' (The Family Policy: drama in three acts and in prose; 1913) (with Isabel Pereyra), 'La Virgen Roja: drama social en tres actos y un cuadro, en prosa' (The Red Virgin: social drama three acts and a picture in prose; 1913), 'La Caída: novela social' (The Fall: social novel; 1915), 'País al Rojo: tragedia social en tres actos, divididos en siete cuadros' (The Red Country: social tragedy in three acts, Divided into seven tables; 1922), 'Entre Rejas: novela' (Behind Bars: novel; 1924) and '¡Al jabalí! La Novela Ideal' (The boar! The ideal novel; 1925).
Amongst his other writings are 'Andalucía Bajo el Látigo de Suspensión Negreros' (Andalusia under the lash of slave trader; 1919), 'Frente al Estado' (Against the State; 1919), 'Frente a la Masa' (Facing the Masses; 1920), 'El Grito' (The Cry; 1920), 'La Siega que Viene' (The harvest to come; 1920), 'De mí Bohemia Revolucionaria' (From A Bohemian Revolutionary; 1921), 'Hermanos!' (Brothers!; 1925), 'Locos' (Crazy; 1925) and 'Pueblo en la Sombra' (People in the Shadows; 1928), plus numerous other unpublished works.

1894 - Révolte de Forçats Sur les Îles du Salut: Edouard Aubin Marpeaux (b. 1866), French anarchist expropriator, and member of the Ligue des Antipatriotes, dies during a prison mutiny on l'île du Salut. [see: Oct. 17]

1894 - Marcel Body (Jean Alexandre Body (d. 1984), French typographer, Bolshevik, translator and later, anarchist, born.

1899 - Arthur Lehning (d. 2000), Dutch anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, and archivist and historian of the international anarchist movement, born. Co-founder, with Rudolf Rocker and Augustin Souchy, in December 1919 of FAUD (Freie Arbeiter Union Deutschland). Establishes and becomes curator of the monumental Bakunin Files, with the International Institute of Social History (IISH( of Amsterdam, in 1971.

1903 - First attempt to test anti-anarchist immigration act: At an event at Murray Hill Lyceum, where Emma Goldman is scheduled to speak, English anarchist John Turner is arrested and charged with promoting anarchism and violating alien labour laws. Turner was held on Ellis Island until his deportation, with the words "Let freedom ring" burning in his ears.

1905 - [O.S. Oct. 10] October All-Russian Political Strike [Октябрьская всероссийская политическая стачка]: The rail strike reaches Kharkov and Reval (Tallinn). All Moscow rail services have been shut down; a general strike is called in the city. St. Petersburg communications and service employees strike and Menshevik youths urge St. Petersburg workers to form a soviet / strike committee. Moscow Bolsheviks belatedly come out in favour of the general strike. A general strike is also in place in Batum.

[F] 1905 - Huelga de la Carne [Meat Strike] aka Semana Roja [Red Week]: Following the previous day's massive protest in Santiago, Chile – an estimated 50,000 in a city of 320,000 residents – against the tariffs imposed on Argentinian livestock imports, workers at the Libertad foundry, la Maestranza and other railway workshops, the Cervecerías Unidas brewery, in the sewerage, construction and slaughterhouse sectors go on strike. Elsewhere, groups of striker roam the city trying to enforce shutdown in other business, facing frequent clashes with the police.

1913 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: During the early hours of the morning, three members of the Bristol WSPU break into Bristol University's newly built Combe Down athletic pavilion and start a fire, causing £2000 worth of damage. Suffragette literature was found nearby, along with a note demanding the release from prison of a suffragette who had been arrested in London: "Business before pleasure. Hobhouse being responsible will pay. Release Mary Richardson." The following day, 300 students retaliate by attacking the Queen's Road WSPU shop. The shop is looted, windows smashed and produce tossed on a bonfire. Both Suffragettes in the shop escaped, one through an upstairs window. There is a noticable lack of Police presence, as they ignored calls from the women inside and failed to make more than one arrest. On the 25th, a second attack was launched, with women being pelted with eggs and missiles and the "Votes for Women" sign overpainted with "Varsity".

1919 - The trial of Charles Krieger, charged with setting off explosives at the home of Carter Oil Company President J. Edgar Pew’s home on October 29, 1917, begins in Tulsa, Oklahoma. After Defense Attorney Fred Moore’s eighteen cross examination, the prosecution’s witness Hubert Vowells admitted that he had confessed to blowing up Pew’s home for a bribe given by Krieger because Pew and other Carter Oil officials promised him they would use their influence to have him released and placed in the army.

1920 - Sylvia Pankhurst, who was arrested October 19, charged with attempting to cause sedition ("unlawfully publish[ing] ideas likely to cause sedition and disaffection among H.M. Forces") in the navy by editing and publishing an issue (October 16, 1920) of the newspaper 'The Workers Dreadnaught', is convicted at Mansion House on 23 October 1920 for publishing seditious matters and sentenced to 6 months imprisonment.

1921 - Massive demonstrations all over Europe in support of Sacco and Vanzetti. The demonstration in Paris is barely contained by 10,000 police and 18,000 soldiers.

[B] 1927 - Philip Lamantia (d. 2005), Sicilian-American anarchist and Surrealist poet, born. A key link between the Surrealists and, as an influence, the Beats. Expelled from a junior high school for "intellectual delinquency", Lamantia discovered Surrealism as a teenager. He was immediately drawn to this movement and began to write poetry, leaving California for NY to meet André Breton, who recognised his talent and began publishing his poems. Lamantia's work appeared in Breton's 'VVV', as well as Charles Henri Ford's 'View' and other experimental journals.
Married to Nancy Peters, a surrealist poet and co-owner, with Lawrence Ferlinghetti, of City Lights Books publishers.

[EE] 1932 - Ilona Tóth (d. 1957) Hungarian medical intern, who was a member of the Voluntary Rescue Service as well as the illegal underground resistance, born. As a revolutionary, Tóth tended selflessly to the wounded, whether street fighter or communist, Hungarian or Russian. When she was not caring for the injured, she was making forays to the Austrian border to secure food an medical supplies. The young intern barely slept, relying on caffeine tablets to keep going. And when the uprising was suppressed, she joined the resistance, hiding freedom fighters among the sick and wounded and assisting in the printing and distribution of illegal newspapers, including 'Életünk' (Our Lives). She was arrested on November 18 along with some other colleagues, after the revolution had been overwhelmed by the Soviet army, and held without charge until December 4, when she was charged with the murder of a secret policeman supposedly named as István Kollár. According to the charge, she injected gasoline into a vein in his neck. Since that did not kill him, she then allegedly injected air into his veins. When that did not kill him, she allegedly stepped on his neck and, in a final desperate attempt, stabbed him in the heart with a knife. A clear fabrication, the victim's body was never produced and the only István Kollár on the Interior Ministry records lived to retire in 1981. The 100-page indictment charged her with premeditated murder and attempted overthrow of the state. A considerable portion of the indictment was in fact a polemic, charging that all of the "counter-revolutionaries" were fascists, heavily influenced by 'Mein Kampf' and National Socialist thought. Ilona Tóth was to be held up as a warning to other students and revolutionaries of the merciless consequences facing any resistance and to show the world how dispicable the "counter-revolutionaries" really were.
For two weeks she steadfastly denied the charges against her. Then an emergency "appendectomy" was performed on her and her resistance was broken. She admitted responsibility for the supposed death, hoping to take guilt away from her comrades. At the show trial, it was obvious to all who knew her that she had been tortured and drugged. Beating the bare soles of her feet seemed to have been a part of the regimen to get her to voluntarily "confess".
As had been foreordained, she was convicted. She made three final requests after she was sentenced to be hanged: she wanted to be hanged without a hood put over her head, without any hand restraints, and to have her mother present. Only the first request was granted.

1940 - J. William Lloyd (b. 1857), American individualist anarchist, poet and writer, dies. [see: Jun 4]

[C] 1943 - Bergen-Belsen Transport Uprising: A transport of around 1700 of Polish Jews had arrived on passenger trains at the death camp at Auschwitz-Birkenau, although they had been told that they were being taken to a transfer camp called Bergau near Dresden, from where they would continue on to Switzerland to be exchanged for German POWs. One of the passengers was Franceska Mann, a beautiful dancer who had probably obtained her foreign passport from the Hotel Polski on the Aryan side of the Warsaw Ghetto. In July 1943 the Germans arrested the 600 Jewish inhabitants of the hotel and some of them were sent to Bergen-Belsen as exchange Jews. Others were sent to Vittel in France to await transfer to South America.
The new arrivals at Auschwitz II (also known as Birkenau) were not registered but were told that they had to be disinfected before crossing the border into Switzerland. They were taken into the undressing room next to the gas chamber and ordered to undress. Different accounts give different details of what happened next, but what is confirmed is that she fatally wounded the roll call officer Josef Schillinger, using a pistol (many accounts say his own) and fired two shots, wounding him in the stomach. Then she fired a third shot which wounded another SS Sergeant named Emmerich.
According to Jerzy Tabau [a prisoner who later escaped from Birkenau and wrote a report on the incident], the shots served as a signal for the other women to attack the SS men; one SS man had his nose torn off, and another was scalped. However, different accounts say different things; in some Schillinger and Emmerich are the only victims. Reinforcements were summoned and the camp commander, Rudolf Höss, came with other SS men carrying machine guns and grenades. According to Filip Mueller, all people not yet inside the gas chamber where mowed down by machine guns. Due to various conflicting accounts, it is unclear what truly happened next; the only things that are certain are on that day Schillinger died, Emmerich was wounded, and all the Jewish women were killed.

1946 - Oakland General Strike: A dispute over union recognition begins at two downtown department stores, Hastings’ and Kahn’s, where 425 clerks (mostly women) end up on strike. The dispute followed a month-long organising campaign in the summer by the Retail Clerks Local 1265, during which the mostly female workforce had signed union cards at two downtown stores - Hastings, a haberdashery, and Kahn's, a department store situated across the street. (The fact that both stores were in the same block would be an important factor in what was to happen later.) The Retail Merchants Association (RMA), representing 28 non-union stores, refused union recognition. With the holiday shopping season nearing, Hastings workers went on strike Octtober 23. Picket lines were set up a week later at Kahn's. The Alameda AFL labour council issued a call for members of its 142 affiliated locals to honour the lines, as did the national association for the advancement of colored people. Most importantly, drivers who were members of teamster local 70 refused to make deliveries.

[A/D] 1956 - 1956-os Forradalom [Hungarian Revolution]: Within 4 months of the death of Stalin on March 5, 1953, Mátyás Rákosi, self-styled 'Stalin’s best pupil' and General Secretary of the Magyar Kommunista Párt (Hungarian Communist Party) since October 1944, had been replaced by Imre Nagy at the instigation of the Soviet politburo. Under Rákosi’s rule over 300,000 Hungarians had been purged: exiled, imprisoned or killed. The ousting of Hungary's own 'Vlad the Impaler' proved popular and under Nagy; life improved, goods appeared in shops, and political prisoners were released. However, Nagy became too popular for the Kremlin’s liking and in April 1955 Rákosi was put back in charge and the oppression started anew. But Nagy remained a popular hero.
A year after his re-appointment, Rákosi was replaced by fellow hard-line Stalinist, Ernő Gerő. (The Kremlin, finally realising how unpopular Rákosi was, told him to resign on grounds of ill health and fly to Moscow for treatment. He did, never to return to his home country. He was not missed). But under Gerő, nothing changed – arrests continued, the AVO, the Hungarian secret police, was busier than ever, while discontent simmered and people longed for the return of Imre Nagy.
On October 23, 1956, students in Budapest stage a peaceful demonstration, having, the night before, drawn up a list of sixteen demands (Sixteen Points). Among them, the demand for a new government led by Imre Nagy; that all criminal leaders of the Stalin-Rákosi era be immediately relieved of their duties; general elections by universal and secret ballot to elect a new National Assembly with all political parties participating; for the Russian language to cease being a compulsory subject in Hungarian schools; and for the removal of Soviet troops from Hungarian soil.
The students meet at the statue of General Jozsef Bem, a national hero of the 1848 Hungarian Revolution. By 18:00, the demonstration has reached 200,000 in number. Spirited, but peaceful, the demonstrators shouted: "Russians go home!" Red stars are torn down from buildings. At 20:00, First Secretary Ernő Gerő broadcast a speech condemning the writers' and students' demands. Angered by Gerő's hard-line rejection, some demonstrators decided to carry out one of their demands: the 30-foot bronze statue of Stalin in the city’s Hero Square, erected five years previously as a gift to the dictator from the Hungarian People, is pulled down, leaving only his boots on the plinth, in which Hungarian flags are placed. A delegation of protestors try to broadcast their demands on national radio from the Radio Budapest building, demanding that the radio should belong to the people. Guarded by the Államvédelmi Hatóság (State Protection Authority), the secret police throw tear gas from the building's upper windows and then open fire on the crowd, killing many. Ernő Gerő condemns the protest and sends in the troops, but, to his dismay, finds that many of his soldiers side with the demonstrators, tearing the red stars from their caps and joining them.

1972 - The 'Research Group' (研究会) of the L-Class Struggle Committee (Lクラス闘争委員会), the forerunner of anarchist East Asia Anti-Japan Armed Front (東アジア反日武装戦線), bombs the Fusetsu no Gunzo (風雪の群像), a bronze monument celebrating the Japanese colonisation of the Ainu, and the Institute of Northern Cultures (北方文化研究施設), two targets symbols of Japan’s imperialistic aggression against the Ainu Moshiri (アイヌモシリ) or Ainu homeland problem

1990 - Elvira Trull i Ventura (b. ca. 1896), Catalan textile worker, maid and anarcho-syndicalist, dies.

1998 - Andrea Wolf aka Ronahî (b. 1965), German radical leftist activist and PKK militant, is captured in a clash with the Turkish army and killed by an officer, her body dumped in a mass grave with 40 other Kurdish fighters. [see: Jan.15]

1999 - A massive demonstration in Stockholm commemorates Björn Söderberg, a Sveriges Arbetates Centralorganisation activist and anti-fascist murdered by neo-Nazis on October 12, 1999.
[B] 1868 - Alexandra David-Néel (born Louise Eugénie Alexandrine Marie David; d. 1969), Belgian-French explorer, spiritualist, Buddhist, anarchist, Freemason, opera singer, writer, lecturer, photographer, born. Known for her writings on her travels (many disguised as a man) to India in 1890-91; Sikkim and Nepal in 1911-16 (where she met the Dalai Lama, lives in a cave for 2 years and adopts a young Sikkimese monk, Aphur Yongden, who becomes her travelling companion); Japan in 1916; Korea and China in (1916-21); spend 3 years on the route to Tibet, arriving in Lhasa (1924-28) [her most famous and beloved work, Mystiques et Magiciens du Tibet (Magic and Mystery in Tibet; 1929)] and the eastern Tibetan highlands in early 1937. She and Aphur Yongden remain trapped in China and the Tibetan marches following the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War later that year and war in Europe in 1939, only returning to France in 1946.
At the age of 18, having already visited England (to study Eastern philosophies), Switzerland (walking and mountain climbing) and Spain (cycling tour), all on her own, she moved to Paris and became involved with Madame Blavatsky's Theosophical Society. She also joined various secret societies, reaching the thirtieth degree in the mixed Scottish Rite of Freemasonry and moved with anarchist and circles, writing a number of feminist articles and in 1899, Alexandra composed an anarchist treatise with a preface by the French geographer and anarchist Elisée Reclus (a great friend of her father, anarchist teacher and journalist Louis David). Publishers were, however, too terrified to publish a book written by a woman so proud she could not accept any abuses by the State, army, Church or high finance. Her friend the composer Jean Haustont however printed copies himself and it was eventually translated into five languages.
As a young woman (and following family financial problems) Alexandra tried to make a living as an opera singer (1894-1900), touring Europe, Africa and Asia, including one stint touring Indochina with a French opera company (1895-97), appearing at the Hanoi Opera House and elsewhere as La Traviata and Carmen. But by 1900 her career was going nowhere and she accepted a job with the municipal opera in Tunis, where she met railway engineer, Philip Neel, whom she married in 1904, but never travelled with (divorcing him in 1928). She is also the author of the murder mystery 'La Puissance de Néant' (The Power of Nothingness; 1954), a Buddhist whodunnit set in Tibet and co-written with her adopted son, Aphur Yongden.

1870 - Mikhail Bakunin manages to escape from France, having been in hiding since the end of the Lyon Commune and the issuing of a warrant for his arrest, sailing from Marseilles to Locarno.

1882 - La Bande Noire: On the sixth day of the trial, the prosecutor ask for the postponement of the hearing due to the pressure exerted on the jury by means of threatening letters and the attacks on the night of October 22-23 at the Théâtre Bellecour's L'Assommoir restaurant in Lyon (for which Antoine Cyvoct was wrongly convicted). [see: Oct. 18]

1886 - A letter by French anarchist militant Clément Duval of La Panthère des Batignolles justifying the group's activities appears in 'Le Révolté': "Le vol n'est que la restitution, opéré à son profit par un individu conscient des richesses produites collectivement, et indûment accaparée par quelques-uns." (The theft is only restitution, operated on their behalf by an individual conscious of the wealth produced collectively and unduly monopolised by a few.)

1892 - New Orleans General Strike: Members of three unions – the Teamsters, the Scalesmen, and the Packers – go on strike in New Orleans for a 10-hour work day, overtime pay, and a union shop. A general strike involving 46 other unions and 25,000 workers quickly followed and the city came to a halt. After a number of failed attempts to divide and crush the strike, employers agreed to binding arbitration, and the workers won the 10-hour day and overtime pay, but not the union shop.

1893 - Berek Lajcher [also remembered by Treblinka survivors by the names Dr Marius Leichert and Dr. Lecher](d. 1943), Jewish physician, former reserve officer in the Polish Army and social activist from Wyszków before the Holocaust in Poland, who was a leading member of the Organising Committee in the prisoner uprising at Treblinka extermination camp, born. Lajcher became the leader and secret organiser of the Treblinka revolt. On August 2, 1943, after a long period of preparation, the prisoners stole some weapons from the arsenal and made an attempt at an armed escape from the Totenlager. Lajcher was killed in the fighting. Several Trawniki guards were killed and some 150 Jewish prisoners escaped.

1905 - [O.S. Oct. 11] October All-Russian Political Strike [Октябрьская всероссийская политическая стачка]: The rail strike reaches Smolensk, Kozlov, Łódź, and Ekaterinoslav (Dnipropetrovsk), where there is bloody street fighting to Oct.27 - Moscow rail workers present demands to Sergei Witte (Серге́й Ви́тте), Chairman of the Committee of Ministers, including a call for a constituent assembly - a mass meeting in St. Petersburg calls for a nation-wide rail strike

1907 - Ana María Cruzado Sánchez (d. 1982), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist militant, born. Active member of the Sindicat del Vestir of thea CNT and in the Joventuts Llibertàries, where she met her future partner and fellow anarcho-syndicalist militant Antonio Zapata Córdoba (1908-2000). In February 1939 at the end the Civil War, they went into exile in France and lived in Font Romeu and Toulouse. In 1945, she returned clandestinely to Spain and was arrested. Following her release, she continued her underground activities in the CNT in Barcelona and was again arrested. In 1946, she went into exile in France and finally settled in Toulouse, where she participated in the freedom movement until her death. Her brother, Alfonso Cruzado Sánchez (1910-​​1983)[see: Oct. 27], was a member of the Sindicat del Transport of the CNT in Barcelona.

1912 - Little Falls Textile Strike: The strikers vote to affiliate with the IWW and are awarded with a charter as Local 801, the National Industrial Union of Textile Workers of Little Falls. [see: Oct. 9]

[E] 1913 - The first of two attacks by Bristol University students on the WSPU shop in the city's Queen's Road in retaliation for the arson attack on the University's newly built Combe Down athletic pavilion on October 23. The shop is looted, windows smashed and produce tossed on a bonfire. Both Suffragettes in the shop escaped, one through an upstairs window. There is a noticable lack of Police presence, as they ignored calls from the women inside and failed to make more than one arrest.
A second revenge attack on the WSPU shop in Bristol occurred the following day with the suffragettes present being pelted with eggs and missiles and the "Votes for Women" sign over-painted with "Varsity". [see: Oct. 23]

1914 - In Milan anarchists produce a new fortnightly anti-militarist newspaper, 'Il Ribelle', as part of the increasing resistence to the war and, despite many difficulties, the paper remains in print until Feb. 1915.

1917 - [N.S. Nov. 6] October Revolution [Октя́брьская револю́ция]: A Bolshevik coup in Petrograd against the Kerensky Provisional Government begins in the early hours of the night (Oct. 24-25) takes place when parties of Bolshevik operatives are sent out from the Smolny Institute, then Lenin's HQ. They take over all the major government facilities, key communication, installations and vantage points in Petrograd with little opposition.

1918 - Wilhelmshaven Mutiny [Matrosenaufstand von Wilhelmshaven]: Flottenbefehl vom 24. Oktober 1918 (Fleet Command of October 24, 1918) is issued by the German Admiralty in an attempt to provoke a decisive battle between the German High Seas Fleet and the British Grand Fleet in the southern North Sea. It will help provoke the Wilhelmshaven and Kile Mutinies. [see: Oct. 29 & Nov. 3]

[DDD] 1921 - Patagonia Rebelde / Patagonia Trágica: The offices of the Federación Obrera Regional Argentina (Argentine Regional Workers' Federation) in Río Gallegos, Puerto Deseado, San Julián and Puerto Santa Cruz are searched and closed, and labour leaders arrested. Antonio Paris, general secretary of the FORA is detained and tortured by the police, and deported along with other labour leaders. A second general strike is declared in Santa Cruz (the previous one had been called on Nov. 1, 1920, and the reneging by the employers on the agreement reached in Feb. 1921 led directly to this new latest dispute). [see: Oct. 18, 1920 post] Meanwhile, Antonio Soto, general secretary of the FORA branch in Río Gallegos and the 'Líder de la patagonia rebelde', had set out with his fellow anarchists Luis Sambucetti, Severino Fernández and Pedro Mongilnitzkiof on September 15 on a recruitment and propaganda tour, via car and horseback, of the estancias in the mountain region. Hearing the news of the general strike whilst on the Bella Vista estancia, where he was then staying, Soto hoisted a red and black flag of anarchism and began to promote the strike around the farms he was visiting.
Within days the general strike called by the Federación Obrera Regional Argentina in Puerto Santa Cruz has spread and developed into a second national general strike. By October 28, Antonio Soto had managed to ferment a revolt across a wide section of the southwestern territory of Santa Cruz; the workers on the Buitreras, Alquinta, Rincon de los Morros, Glencross, La Esperanza and Bella Vista estancias had been pursuaded to join the rural workers movement. This first part was achieved absolutely peacefully: entering the estancias, talking with the peons, requisitioning weapons and provisions, which are documented with Soto's signed receipts, and when owners or managers are present, taking them hostage.
The rebels were then organised into two large groups, the columna Antonio Soto and the columna José Font, better known as the columna Facón Grande after José Font's nickname. Based at the estancia La Anita in the Punta Alta with a force of around 600 strikers, Soto resolved that while he continue leading the movement in the country and that his fellow militants, with whom he had set out from Río Gallegos on September 15, should try to enter Rio Gallegos to replace the strike leaders recently imprisoned there and try and re-establish a foothold in the city. When the three anarchists arrived in Rio Gallegos on November 1 they were swiftly arrested and beaten by the police.

1923 - Denise Levertov (d. 1997), British-born American poet, anti-war activist and anarchist fellow-traveller, born. Socially committed from an early age (he father was a Jewish refugee and members of the family campaigned against Italy's invasion of Abyssinia, Britian's lack of support for Republican Spain and worked on behalf of refugees from Facism), and became renowned as one of the better English Neo-Romantic poets, who included the likes of Alex Comfort, George Woodcock and Herbert Read. Moving to the States, she became influenced by the Black Mountain poets and became involved with the San Francisco poets around Rexroth, Ferlinghetti and Robert Duncan, whom she carried out a long correspondence with and who famously criticised he pacifism from an anarchist viewpoint [see: 'The Letters of Robert Duncan and Denise Levertov', ed. by Robert J. Bertholf and Albert Gelpi. Stanford (2004) and 'Decision at the Apogee : Robert Duncan's anarchist critique of Denise Levertov' (2006) - Robert J. Bertholf]
"In the '40s, when I was an anarchist activist, Denise Levertov was perhaps loyal in sentiment to the cause, although not herself in any way active. During the '60s she became an activist, and her actions certainly proved her sincerity. What disappoints one in her writing on this subject, however, is that it rarely goes beyond emotional generalities." - George Woodcock, 'Pilgrimage of a Poet', in 'New Leader', March 4, 1974, (pp. 19-20).

Two girls discover
the secret of life
in a sudden line of

I who don’t know the
secret wrote
the line. They
told me

(through a third person)
they had found it
but not what it was
not even

what line it was. No doubt
by now, more than a week
later, they have forgotten
the secret,

the line, the name of
the poem. I love them
for finding what
I can’t find,

and for loving me
for the line I wrote,
and for forgetting it
so that

a thousand times, till death
finds them, they may
discover it again, in other

in other
happenings. And for
wanting to know it,

assuming there is
such a secret, yes,
for that
most of all.

'The Secret' [in 'O Taste and See: New Poems' (1964)]


[C] 1924 - Italian anarchist militant Ernesto Bonomini (aka Dick Perry) is sentenced to eight years hard labour (later commuted to prison time) for killing fascist Nicola Bonservizi, a writer for Mussolini's fascist newspaper 'Popolo d' Italia', in a Paris restaurant. He originally faced the death penalty but the murder of Giacomo Matteotti, an Italian antifascist politician, by Mussolini's henchmen on June 10, 1924, created a sympathetic atmosphere at the time of his sentencing.

1925 - The first issue of Italian language anarchist and anti-fascist weekly 'Il Monito' (The Warning) is published in Paris by Raffaele Schiavina. It will go on to support Gino Lucetti, vilified by the Communists, and also denounced the neo-Bolshevism of the Plate-forme d'Organisation des

1929 - Wall Street Crash.

1932 - At the first British Union of Fascists (BUF) public meeting, held in the Memorial Hall, Farringdon Street, Mosley responded to hecklers by referring to them as "three warriors of the class war, all from Jerusalem." The hecklers were abused and assaulted. Fights broke out in the hall and spilled out on to the street outside. [PR]

1932 - Adrian Mitchell (d. 2008), English poet, novelist, playwright, librettist, anti-authoritarian social-anarchist and anti-war activist, born.

My brain socialist
My heart anarchist
My eyes pacifist
My blood revolutionary

- 'Loose Leaf Poem' [in 'Ride the Nightmare' (1971)]

I was run over by the truth one day.
Ever since the accident I’ve walked this way
So stick my legs in plaster
Tell me lies about Vietnam.

Heard the alarm clock screaming with pain,
Couldn’t find myself so I went back to sleep again
So fill my ears with silver
Stick my legs in plaster
Tell me lies about Vietnam.

Every time I shut my eyes all I see is flames.
Made a marble phone book and I carved out all the names
So coat my eyes with butter
Fill my ears with silver
Stick my legs in plaster
Tell me lies about Vietnam.

I smell something burning, hope it’s just my brains.
They’re only dropping peppermints and daisy-chains
So stuff my nose with garlic
Coat my eyes with butter
Fill my ears with silver
Stick my legs in plaster
Tell me lies about Vietnam.

Where were you at the time of the crime?
Down by the Cenotaph drinking slime
So chain my tongue with whisky
Stuff my nose with garlic
Coat my eyes with butter
Fill my ears with silver
Stick my legs in plaster
Tell me lies about Vietnam.

You put your bombers in, you put your conscience out,
You take the human being and you twist it all about
So scrub my skin with women
Chain my tongue with whisky
Stuff my nose with garlic
Coat my eyes with butter
Fill my ears with silver
Stick my legs in plaster
Tell me lies about Vietnam.

'To Whom It May Concern' (1964)?


1944 - Étienne O'Leary (d. 2011), Québécois actor, director and soundtrack composer of experimental short film, painter and libertarian, born.

[D] 1956 - 1956-os Forradalom [Hungarian Revolution]: Following the disturbances that had continued well into the night, the Hungarian Working People's Party (Magyar Dolgozók Pártja) Secretary Ernő Gerő requested Soviet military intervention "to suppress a demonstration that was reaching an ever greater and unprecedented scale." The first Soviet tanks begin arriving in Budapest at 02:00. Martial law is imposed. What had began as a peaceful demonstration had turned very quickly into a fullscale revolution.
Armed revolutionaries quickly set up barricades to defend Budapest, and are reported to have already captured some Soviet tanks by mid-morning. By noon, Soviet tanks are stationed outside the Parliament, and Soviet soldiers guard key bridges and crossroads.
The Kremlin replaced the Prime Minister András Hegedüs with Imre Nagy, hoping that limited concessions might calm things down. On the radio, Nagy promised the people a return to reforms in return for an end to the violence. However, the population continues to arm itself as sporadic violence continues. Armed protesters seize the radio building. At the offices of the Communist newspaper 'Szabad Nép' unarmed demonstrators are fired upon by ÁVH guards who are then driven out as armed demonstrators arrive. At this point, the revolutionaries' wrath is focused on the ÁVH; Soviet military units are not yet fully engaged, and there are reports of some Soviet troops showing open sympathy for the demonstrators.
Hungarian troops are warned of the prospect of execution of those who refuse orders to fight the insurgency.

[A] 1969 - The beating of prisoners in segregation sparks off a major riot in HMP Parkhurst on the Isle of Wight.

1970 - During the Council workers' strike a bomb explodes in the cleansing department head office, Greenford. [Angry Brigade chronology]

[F] 1975 - Icelandic Women's Strike: Ninety percent of Iceland’s female population, led by women’s organisations, refuse to go to their paid jobs and do not do any housework or child-rearing for the day to "demonstrate the indispensable work of women for Iceland’s economy and society" and to "protest wage discrepancy and unfair employment practices".

1975 - Ricard Sanz i García aka Cipriano Mera Sanz (b. 1897), French anarcho-syndicalist, militia leader and army commander in the Spanish Revolution, dies. [see: Nov. 4]

1978 - All section 1 charges dropped. [ABC Trial]

1990 - Yoshiko Yuasa (湯浅 芳子; b. 1896), Japanese Russian language scholar and translator of Russian literature in the Shōwa period, socialist, feminist and lesbian, who travelled in the Soveit Union (1927-30) with her lover Yuriko Miyamoto (宮本 百合子), dies aged 93. [see: Dec. 7]

1999 - Philip Sansom (b. 1916), English anarchist pacifist and co-editor of 'War Commentary', which led to 9 months in prison accused of inciting agitation among soldiers alongside fellow editors Vernon Richards and John Hewetson, dies. [see: Sep. 19]

2004 - Paul Calvert, a 40-year-old father of two who had a history of self-harm and depression, is found hanging in his cell at HMP Pentonville less than two days after arriving the prison. An inquest is later to return a verdict of accidental death contributed to by neglect.

2005 - Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (b. 1913), African American civil rights activist and NAACP member, who in Montgomery, Alabama, on December 1, 1955, refused to obey bus driver's order to give up her seat in the 'coloured section' to a white passenger, after the 'white section' was filled, dies of natural causes at the age of 92. [see: Feb. 4]

2013 - Faith Petric (b. 1915), US folk singer, IWW member, peace, anti-fascist and community activist, dies. [see: Sep. 13]
1783 - Deborah Sampson (December 17, 1760 - April 29, 1827) is honourably discharge from the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War after her sex is discovered whilst hospitalised for a fever, having served one and a half years disguised as her deceased brother, Robert Shurtlieff Sampson.

1806 - Max Stirner (d. 1856), German philosopher, theorist of individualist anarchism and author of 'Der Einzige und sein Eigentum' (The Ego and It's Own; 1844), born.

1862 - Ernest Coeurderoy (b. 1825), medical doctor, writer, journalist and anarchistic Socialist, who forced into exile because of his radical positions, commits suicide. [see: Jan. 22]

[A] 1870 - The Marseilles Commune declares the abolition of both the state and all debt. [source?]

1878 - Spanish anarchist Juan Oliva Moncasi attempts to shoot Alfonso XII of Spain, but is disarmed by the crowd, and executed several weeks later, after refusing to be pardoned. The attack is used as an excuse to arrest many internationalist militants, especially in Andalusia. [see: Dec. 4]

[B] 1881 - Pablo Ruiz y Picasso (d. 1973), Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, anarchist and later communist, born. At the age of 13 his family move to Barcelona, where he first encountered anarchism and began associating with anarchists in Madrid when he attended the Royal Academy of San Fernando. In 1901, and inspired by his first trip to Paris the previous year, he founded the magazine 'Arte Joven' (Young Art) with his friend the anarchist writer Francisco de Asís Soler [painting]. It was during this time, the Blue Period, that his art most clearly displays an anarchist influenc with its working class subject matter and method of depiction. Picasso would later be denied French citizenship because of his association with the anarchist and art dealer Pedro Mañach [painting] who was an important financial supporter during the Blue Period, signing a contract with Picasso guaranteeing to take his pictures for two years and to pay 150 francs per month by way of fixed income. He also floated the idea of a first Paris Picasso exhibition at the Galerie Vollard in 1901.

1886 - Eleuterio Quintanilla Prieto (d. 1966), Asturian anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, Freemason and rationalist eductor, active in the Spanish Revolution of 1936 and the Orto group in the FAI, born.

1886 - The anarchist burglar Clément Duval is arrested for breaking into a rich woman's apartment, stealing her jewels, and setting the place on fire (accidentally). It all ends badly. [see: Jan 11/Feb. 11 & 28/Mar. 25]

1891 - Gregorio Jover Cortés (d. 1964), Spanish militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist activist and fighter against Franco, born. [expand]

1893 - Josef 'Sepp' Oerter is sentenced to 8 years in prison and his brother Fritz to 1 year for delivering "seditious speeches" at a meeting of the unemployed in Mainz in Dec. 1892.

[FF] 1905 - [O.S. Oct. 12] October All-Russian Political Strike [Октябрьская всероссийская политическая стачка]: Strike action in St Petersburg spreads to become a general strike. Over 2 million workers were on strike and there were almost no active railways in all of Russia. Growing inter-ethnic confrontation throughout the Caucasus resulted in Armenian-Tatar massacres, heavily damaging the cities and the Baku oilfields.
The rail strike reaches Samara and Poltava. St. Petersburg is utterly paralyzed by a general strike; all rail service to the Tsar’s palace is shut down; troops are moving into the city. After days of inactivity, the Tsar orders Dmitri Trepov (Дми́трий Тре́пов), Assistant Minister of Interior, to deal vigorously with the unrest; Trepov in turn orders provincial police to "act in the most drastic manner ... not stopping at the direct application of force."
During the night (Oct. 25-26), the St. Petersburg Bolsheviks belatedly come out in favour of the general strike.

1905 - [O.S. Oct. 12] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The Liberal Kadet Party (Constitutional Democratic Party / Конституционно-демократическая партия) is established by the Union of Unions and Zemstvo groups. It holds its First Congress in Moscow on October 30th.

1909 - Jean-Paul Chanois (born Jean-Paul Étienne Dreyfus; d. 1985), French filmmaker, TV and theatre director, actor, French Communist Party member and trades union activist, born. Active in the Resistance under the German occupation.

1911 - 'Los Angeles Times' Bombing: Jury selection begins. The first panel of jurors was exhausted on October 25, forcing the court to order an additional panel of jurors to appear. The jury was finally seated on November 7. [see: Oct. 1]

1912 - Little Falls Textile Strike: Marching under the IWW banner, the strikers paraded in a great circle around the Gilbert and Phoenix Mills. The better-paid male 'American' workers of the Snyder bicycle plant attempt to attack the largely female and foreign-born strikers, but newly hired police deputies manage to keep the two sides apart. The daily parades under the IWW banner continued until a major clash occurred on October 30. [see: Oct. 9]

1913 - The second of two attacks by Bristol University students on the WSPU shop in the city's Queen's Road in retaliation for the arson attack on the University's newly built Combe Down athletic pavilion on October 23, with women present being pelted with eggs and missiles and the "Votes for Women" sign overpainted with "Varsity". [see: Oct. 23]

[D] 1917 - [N.S. Nov. 7] October Revolution [Октя́брьская револю́ция]: As Red Guards 'storm' the Winter Palace at 02.10, the Cossacks guarding the building desert when they approach, and the Cadets and the 140 volunteers of the Women's Battalion surrender rather than resist the 40,000 strong army. The Aurora was then commandeered to then fire blanks at the palace in a symbolic act of rejection of the government. In fact the effectively unoccupied Winter Palace fell not because of acts of courage or a military barrage as the Bolshevik mythology has it, but because the defenders were heavily outnumbered and there was no one inside the building worth defending and the 'takeover' resembled little more than the changing of the guard.

1923 - Beate Sirota Gordon (d. 2012), Austrian-American performing arts presenter and women's rights advocate, who at 22 almost single-handedly wrote women's rights into the post-War Constitution of Japan, born.

1928 - Catalan anarchists Jaime Tadeo Peña, Agustin Garcia Capdevilla and Pedro Boadas Rivas along with the Argentinians Antonio and Vicente Moretti rob the currency exchange in Messina, Montevideo, of 4,000 pesos. In the attack the director of the agency, an employee and a taxi driver are killed. Three others are wounded. All 5 anarchists are arrested on November 5.

1936 - Bernard Thomas (d. 2012), French libertarian journalist, including theatre critic and columnist for 'Canard Enchaîné', born. Wrote 'Alexandre Marius Jacob' (1970), 'Les Provocations Policières' (1972), 'Aurore ou la Génération Perdue' (1984), 'Anarchism and Violence: Severino di Giovanni', etc.

1946 - Artur Streiter (b. 1905), German graphic artist, painter, writer, literary critic, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Jan. 17]

[E] 1947 - Brigitte Asdonk, founding member of the Rote Armee Fraktion, who was involved in the 1970 freeing of Andreas Baader in Berlin and several bank robberies, born.

[C] 1948 - Over 100 fascists try to storm a Peace Conference organised by Hackney Trades Council in Stoke Newington Town Hall. The 43 Group had been warned by informants that there was a likelihood of it being attacked by fascists and told the organisers, who in turn had asked for police help. Several hundred fascists began to attack at 7.15pm, using a variety of weapons, including knuckle-dusters but were repelled a number of times by 43 Group stewards. Petrol bombs and broken bottles were also used in the fighting. The police arrived at 7.45 and refused to help the besieged members of the Trades Council to provide any of the delegates, not even the Dean of Canterbury, with an escort.

[F] 1949 - Hawaiian Dock Strike: A 177-day strike begun in May by longshoremen in Hawaii over wage parity with their mainland counterparts ends in victory despite scabbing and attempts to break the strike, arrests and court actions, and the employers’ refusal to go to arbitration. The ILWU victory gave Hawaii longshoremen the same kind of recognition and status won by the mainland longshoremen in 1934.

1955 - Ettore Cropalti (b. 1900), Italian shoemaker, anarchist and anti-fascist militant, dies. [see: Jul. 8]

1956 - 1956-os Forradalom [Hungarian Revolution] / Véres Csütörtök [Bloody Thursday]: In Kossuth Square, where a number of Soviet tanks have been stationed since yesterday, a protest of about 5,000 peaceful demonstrators had gathered in front of the Parliament building. Some of the Russians are fraternising with the Hungarians when, according to an American eyewitness (the building contained American diplomatic apartments), around 11:00 an ordnance charge ia dropped from an apartment building roof near the Széchenyi Rakpart, onto the Russian tanks below. [Other versiosn have the tanks firing, causing the 'loud explosion'.] Nobody knows who dropped the ordnance, but firing by ÁVH secret police snipers from the roof of the Agriculture Building across the square into the demonstrators. ÁVH units also began shooting from the rooftops of other neighbouring buildings. Some Soviet soldiers began returning fire on the ÁVH, mistakenly believing that they are the intended targets. Supplied by arms taken from the ÁVH or given by Hungarian soldiers who have joined the uprising, some in the crowd start shooting back. The crowd in the square found it difficult to escape. The massacre killed 61 and wounded more than 300 according to a report by the United Nation. Other sources claim upto 800-1,000 died.
Armed insurrection became inevitable and the Corvin (Budapest VIII. district) insurgents began attacking with renewed vigor against the Soviet troops and secret police units. Units led by Béla Király, after attacking the building of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, carry out the killings of dozens of suspected communists, state security members, and military personnel. Photographs showed victims with signs of torture.

1986 - Ricardo Sanz Asensio (b. 1898), Valencian anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist fighter against Franco, dies. [see: Oct. 25]

1989 - 1989 Soviet Miners' Strikes [Забастовки шахтёров СССР в 1989 году]: In a powerful challenge to the new Soviet ban on strikes in energy and other crucial industries, thousands of coal miners in the Arctic Circle's northern Vorkuta region walked off their jobs, demanding political and economic changes.

1995 - Kenneth Severin, a 25-year-old black prisoner with mental health problems, is stripped naked, handcuffed, held down and beaten by 6 prison officers in a hospital wing strip cell at Belmarsh Prison, south London. He died of positional asphyxia.

2011 - Police arrested more than 100 people as they forcefully evicted the Occupy Oakland encampment in Frank H. Ogawa Plaza, renamed Oscar Grant Plaza by protesters in honor of the unarmed, handcuffed 22-year-old father slain by Bay Area Rapid Transit police officer Johannes Mehserle in 2009.
[D] 1795 - Fired up by the French Revolution, a mass meeting of workers is held today in Islington. In its turn, the meeting prompts, three days later, an angry crowd to waylay the corrupt King George III in St. James Park. He is stoned and jeered, and the bootmaker John Ridley is unfortunately foiled in his attempt to haul him from his coach and lynch him (though Ridley is never apprehended).

1876 - The 8th congress of the A.I.T. is held, Bern (26-28 Oct.).

[B] 1879 - Biófilo Panclasta (born Vicente Rojas Lizcano; d. 1942), Colombian writer, poet, militant individualist anarchist and agitator, born. Biófilo Panclasta ranslates as "over of life, enemy of all", his pen name. A prolific propagandist for his Stirnerite and Nietszchean views, he visited more than fifty countries - bannished from many, imprisoned in others - carrying the anarchist message, participating in demonstrations and workers' protests and in the process meeting the likes of Kropotkin, Ravanchol, Lenin and Maxim Gorky. Author of numerous articles published in the world's press, of a series of memoirs on his many years in prison including 'Mis prisiones, mis destierros y mi vida' (My prisons, my destiny and my life; 1929) and 'Siete años enterrado vivo en una de las mazmorras de Gomezuela: Horripilante relato de un resucitado' (Seven years buried alive in one of the dungeons of Gomezuela: A harrowing tale of one of the resurrected; 1932), and a series of letters in the form of prose poems.

Your beautifully expressed sympathies have come to comfort my spirit in this, the sad solitude of the prisoner.

But it was not the solitude of things that sunk it in its long and nostalgic meditations.

It was the solitude of thought.

Believing oneself a defender without anyone to defend.

A liberator without anyone liberated.

A man of heart among heartless beings.

To feel alone is to feel useless.

Therefore your letter transcends for me, in a very superior way, the kind of fraternal palliative usually shared in times of misfortune.

My suffering has something of greatness.

I am not I who suffers; it is the living and suffering humanity that paints on the sensible canvas of my soul all the sufferings of its uncomprehended misery.

I am not imprisoned by myself.

If I am feared, it is because they know that my word, as the miraculous medicine of a doctor of the soul, can remove from the eyes of the prejudiced the blindfold that keeps them in the land of the “dark barbarians.”

To be persecuted is to be feared.

And I who can teach nothing and preach nothing, I am feared because like the “firefly fleeing from the light, carrying the light, I illuminate the same shadows that I go seeking.”

For me, prison cannot exist.

Like all tyrannies, it is only in the heart of slaves.

I consider my guardians to be beings of a prehistoric nature. And I despise them.

They are too human!

I am not in the habit of making feline madness logical, and I leave its proof to the empire of force; force is the reason of beasts.

As such, even behind walls I believe myself, and am, free.

Free, free as my thought, neither limitless nor incommunicable.

And as this thought is the language of our souls, I send from here, to you, to that place, all the psychic wealth of my evoked feeling as a tribute of reciprocity on the altar of love that the god of Harmony has erected.

We struggle, but we struggle like Prometheus, for being beginnings...

We struggle against death, that Christianity of life.

Let us live.

For life and with it.

Art and freedom.

That is a path.

Let us live for ourselves.

And let us unite, yes, let us unite against everything weak, everything small, everything vile.

To be a Christian is to be defeated.

Let us be biófilos (lovers of life).

Let us be strong. Like crystal. Light and hardness, hardness and light.

And may others learn.

Without us teaching. To be a teacher is to be a tyrant. Leave thought out like meat.

Have no duties. Leave that to the moralists.

We alone, among those who go alone, let us each walk our path; personally; intensifying life, increasing pleasure, feeling existence...


For man is not born but to live.

And to live is not to suffer.

Because life is beautiful!

It can be beautiful!

Let us make it beautiful!

Be biófilos!

Let us be that!


Biófilo Panclasta.

Barranquilla Police Station, April 19, 1910.

[published as 'Carcelarias' (Prisons) by the editors of 'Biófilo Panclasta, el eterno prisionero' (Biófilo Panclasta, the eternal prisoner; 1992)]


1886 - Justin Olive (d. 1962), French militant anarchist and revolutionary syndicalist, born.

1900 - Karin Maria Boye (d. 1941), Swedish writer, poet, translator, socialist and anti-fascist, born. A member of the non-partisan socialist organisation Svenska Clartéförbundet (Swedish Clarté League) and member of the editorial board of the organisation's journal 'Clartés', she was married to fellow Clarté member, Leif Björck – a friendship union given that she was a lesbian (her novel 'Kris' (Crisis, 1934) depicts her personal crisis over her lesbianism and religious beliefs). Outside Sweden, her best-known work is probably the dystopian science fiction novel 'Kallocain' (1940), inspired by her visit to Germany during the rise of Nazism (Kallocain being a kind of truth serum). In her last days she was becoming increasingly mentally unstable – increasingly ambivalent about her relationship with her partner Margot Hanel (she called her her "wife") and helping her friend Anita Nathorst, who was dying of cancer, whilst suffering from an uncurable form of skin cancer herself, she took an overdose of sleeping pills on April 24, 1941. Boye was found curlded up on a boulder on a hill with a view just north of Alingsås, near Bolltorpsvägen, by a farmer who was going for a walk. The boulder is now a memorial stone. A month later, Margot Hanel gassed herself. Anita Nathorst died of cancer in August that year.

1903 - Maurice Rollinat (b. 1846), French poet, habituee of Le Chat Noir and member of Les Hydropathes, dies. [see: Dec. 29]

1905 - [O.S. Oct. 13] October All-Russian Political Strike [Октябрьская всероссийская политическая стачка]: The rail strike reaches Minsk, Rostov-on-Don, Kremenchug and Simferopol; rail traffic and telegraphs are shut down throughout European Russia. Moscow hospitals strike. Moscow industrialists and bankers urge stern measures against the general strike. Dmitri Trepov (Дми́трий Тре́пов), Assistant Minister of Interior, orders the suppression of illegal Moscow meetings by force if necessary.

[F] 1905 - [O.S. Oct. 13] October All-Russian Political Strike [Октябрьская всероссийская политическая стачка]: The first meeting of the new St. Petersburg Soviet of Workers Deputies (Петербургский совет рабочих депутатов), taking its name form the coordinating group of striking workers that formed in late January–early February 1905, and that met at the apartment of Voline. Formed on the initiative of the printers' strike committee to represent striking workers and better co-ordinate the strike, it functions as an alternative government. The Mensheviks dominate it as the Bolsheviks boycott and similar soviets are soon created in other cities.

[C] 1913 - José Ester i Borrás (d. 1980), Spanish anarchist, arrested by the communists in Spain, then the Nazis in France, born. Active in the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias anarchist youth movement and the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo, he fought in the famous Colonna Tierra y Libertad during the Spanish Civil War, seeing combat on the Aagon front, in Madrid and catalonia. In May 1938 he was arrested by the Communists and accused with two other of having killed a member of the brigade, remaining imprisoned until the fall of the front. He later fled to France after the fall of the Spanish Republic, where fought in the Résistance against the Nazis and was arrested and deported to the Mauthausen concentration camp.
Ester returned to France in 1945 and founded the Federación Española de Deportados e Internados Políticos (Spanish Federation of Former Political Prisoners and Camp Inmates), which campaigned for political prisoners in Franco's Spain, but also for the Spanish antifascists who were deported to labour camps in the Soviet Union after the Civil War. These prisoners were released only in 1956. Ester also worked, from 1953 onwards, for the Office Français de Protection des Réfugiés et Apatrides (French Office for the Protection of Refugees and Stateless Persons) and remained active until well into the 1970s, and died in 1980.

[E] 1916 - Brownsville Clinic Raid: An undercover police woman and NYPD vice-squad officers raid America's first birth control clinic on Amboy Street in Brownsville, Brooklyn. Margaret Sanger had opened the clinic just ten days before, on October 16th 1916, along with her sister Ethyl Byrne, who was a registered nurse, and their friend and Yiddish interpreter Fania Mindell. In the 9 days the clinic was open, they saw 400 women. During the raid all three women resisted and were arrested for distributing "obscene literature" – books and pamphlets informing women about contraception – under the so-called Comstock laws, literature that the police confiscated along with assorted items of contraception. All three women were released the following morning on $500 bail
Sanger went on to re-open the Clinic on November 14, but she and Byrne were arrested again, this time charged with maintaining a public nuisance and the distribution of contraceptives, prohibited under a New York state law. The Clinic opened once more on November 16, but police forced the landlord to evict Sanger and her staff, and the Clinic closed its doors a final time.
Ethyl Byrne was the first to go on trial in January 1917. She was convicted and sentenced to 30 days in Blackwell's Island prison where, in the prison workhouse, she immediately went on hunger strike and became the country's first female political prisoner to be force fed after 185 hours without food or water. Fearing for her sister's life, Sanger appealed to New York's Governor Whitman to issue a pardon, personally promising that Byrne would not break the law again, and Byrne was pardoned after ten days in prison. At Sanger's own trial, she was also convicted but was offered a suspended sentence if she promised not to repeat the offence. Having refused to make that promise, she was then offered the choice of a fine or a thirty day prison sentence. She chose prison and spent thirty days in the Queens County Penitentiary, finishing her sentence without incident. Fania Mindell was the last to be tried, and she was convicted and fined fifty dollars for disturbing the peace. [see: Oct. 16]

1918 - Natalia Sergeyevna Klimova (Наталья Сергеевна Климова; b. 1885), Russian teacher, writer and revolutionist, dies during the Spanish flu epidemic. [see: Sep. 30]

1922 - Durán Railworkers' Strike: Forced to the negotiating table, J.C. Dobbie on behalf of the Guayaquil and Quito Railway Company signs an agreement with the company's workers in which almost all of the workers' demands are met. [see: Oct. 17 & 19]

1928 - Ruhreisenstreit [Ruhr Iron Dispute]: With both sides at loggerheads in the current pay negotiations, the state conciliator Wilhelm Joetten announces a 6 Pfennig increase in the hourly rate and 2 Pfennigs on the piecework rate. Five days later, the trade unions accepted the arbitration, despite their "serious doubts" but the Arbeit-Nordwest refused to endorse it. On November 1, the employers go ahead and lock out around 230,000 workers. [see: Nov. 1]

[A] 1935 - The Minister of Press and Propaganda assumes control of the radio stations in Italy.

1945 - Housman's Bookshop, Shaftesbury Avenue, London, opens.

1956 - 1956-os Forradalom [Hungarian Revolution]: Russian tanks fire on unarmed demonstrators in Budapest. Armed resistance begins in industrial centres, General Strike begins, and state power disrupted as power is now in the factories and the streets.
The central committee of the Magyar Dolgozók Pártja (Hungarian Workers Party) meet. Members of the military committee demanded the ruthless suppression of the uprising, but others declare support for the protests. Insurgent groups form, centred on Hay Square (Széna Téren), Moricz Zsigmond Square (Móricz Zsigmond Körtéren) and the Thököly Road - Dózsa György Road (Thököly út – Dózsa György út) intersection, successfully deploying Molotov cocktails primarily against the Soviet tanks in the narrow streets of the city.
In the town of Kecskemét, demonstrations in front of the office of State Security and the local jail are fired uppon by the Third Corps under the orders of Major General Lajos Gyurkó, leading to seven protesters being shot and several of the organisers arrested.

1970 - Barclays Bank at Stoke Newington firebombed. Newspaper report says: "Police are investigating several similar incidents at other branches".
Today there are also simultaneous bomb attacks against Iberia Airlines in Geneva, Frankfurt, Paris and London airports. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1996 - Aurelio Chessa (b. 1913), Italian anarchist baker, journalist and historian, dies. [see: Oct. 30]

2011 - Hundreds of Occupy Oakland demonstrators take to the streets in response to yesterday's evictions and are attacked by police using rubber-coated steel bullets, chemical agents including tear gas, concussion grenades and other 'less lethal' projectiles.
[D] 1789 - Battle of Turnhout: One of the pivotal moments of the Brabant Revolution and the Belgian émigré Patriots army's unlikely victory led to the expulsion of Austrian forces to Luxembourg from the Southern Netherlands for nearly a year.

1857 - François-Louis Duprat aka 'Paul' or 'Pilloux' (d. unknown), French journeyman tailor, wine merchant , and anarchist activist and propagandist, who was charged in the Procès des Trente, born.

1889 - [N.S. Nov. 7] Nestor Ivanovich Makhno (Не́стор Іва́нович Махно́ [uk] Не́стор Ива́нович Махно́ [rus]) aka батько Махно [father Makhno](d. 1934), Ukrainian anarcho-communist guerilla leader, born. [expand]

[B] 1898 - Germain Delatousche (d. 1966), French painter and wood engraver, born. He illustrated numerous newspapers and magazines including: 'La Vache Enragée'; 'L'Internationale'; 'Les Chansons de la Butte'; 'La Revue Anarchiste'; 'L'Art Vivant'; 'La Revue Anarchiste'; 'Le Quotidien'; 'Les Humbles'; 'L'En Dehors'; 'L'Almanach de la Paix' (1934); 'Le Libertaire' (1945-50); etc.. Plus books by Maurice Hallé, Gaston Couté, CA Bontemps, Eugene Bizeau, Georges Vidal and Regis Messac.

1905 - [O.S. Oct. 14] October All-Russian Political Strike [Октябрьская всероссийская политическая стачка]: The general strike had reached into Siberia, Central Asia, and Georgia. The Trans-Siberian Railway, and hence European Russia, was paralysed. Only one newspaper was being printed in the entire Russian Empire (in Kiev); electricity in St. Petersburg was no longer being generated; St. Petersburg lawyers, doctors, and civil servants were also on strike. The St. Petersburg Soviet (Петербургский совет рабочих депутатов) now presented radical demands to the startled city council, as the Soviet began to act as a shadow government. Dmitri Trepov (Дми́трий Тре́пов), Assistant Minister of Interior, publicly orderd the St. Petersburg garrison: "Spare no cartridges and use no blanks." The police and the army ignored the order; War Minister General Aleksandr Rediger (Алекса́ндр Ре́дигер) was amongst those expressing their concerns about the army’s loyalty. Bloody clashes between troops and strikers were now taking place in Odessa. In Rostov-on-Don (Ростов-на-Дону) the stike was now city-wide, and had swept out to the other cities of the Don region and all the way to Vladikavkaz. A number of revolutionary leaders and activists, and opposition group members in Rostov had also been arrested, further heating up the political situation in the city.
That evening, Sergei Witte’s assistant drew up the soon-to-be notorious 'October Manifesto', based on the demands of the Zemstvo Congress that had been held in September. In a series of meetings (Oct. 31 to early Nov.) Witte failed to gain liberal support in the wake of the liberals astonishment at the appointment of the arch-reactionary Pyotr Durnovo (Пётр Дурновó) as Minister of the Interior on November 4 [Oct. 22].

[1906 - [O.S. Oct. 14] SR Maximalists stage a violent robbery of 400,000 rubles of state funds in St. Petersburg

[E] 1907* - [N.S. Nov. 9] Dora Brilliant [Дора Бриллиант] (Dora Vladimirovna Vulfovna [Дора Владимировна Вульфовна] b. 1879), Russian revolutionist, member of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party (Партия социалистов-революционеров) and its Combat Organisation (Боева́я организа́ция), dies in the Peter and Paul Fortress having gone insane. [see: Nov. 9]
[NB. Some sources give the years as 1906 or 1909.]

1908 - Antonio Zapata Córdoba (d. 2000), Spanish construction worker, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and Spanish Civil War fighter, born. The youngest of four brothers of a family of day labourers, he attended a rationalist school set up by miners from the age of 5, which had a profound effect on him. At the age of 9 he had to start work in the fields. He went to Barcelona at the age of 12 here his brothers were working. There he worked first as a market gardener, then in a belt buckle factory, before going on to the building sites. He became involved in the anarcho-syndicalist trade union, the CNT, taking part in activities during the years of repression under the Primo de Rivera dictatorship. He was imprisoned for his activities for the first time at the age of 22. Here, he came in contact with the flower of the militants of the Spanish anarchist movement, which was a school for his own anarchism.
With the declaration of the Republic in 1931, he was freed and militated in the CNT in the shanty town of Gracia. He was a member of the Groups of Confederal Defence, which physically defended the CNT from the attacks of the bosses and the State. He took part in the building workers strike, and then in the Civil War of 1936-9 joined in the fighting against the right-wing coup led by General Franco. He became a member of the Control and Administration Commission of Urban Property in Barcelona. He fought on the front, and like so many others had to flee to France with his then partner, Ana María Cruzado Sánchez (1907-1982)[see: Oct. 24]. He settled in Toulouse, remaining a supporter of the CNT until his death in on the night of January 12-13, 2000.

[C] 1912 - Conlon Samuel Nancarrow (d. 1997), US avant garde composer, jazz trumpeter, CPUSA member and anti-fascist combatant, born. He joined the Communist party in June 1935 after a period as a 'fellow-traveller' and the following year he travelled to Europe for a month as the trumpeter on a ship’s band. There he visited London, Paris, Austria and Germany, where he presumably encounters fascism for the first time. In March 1937 he set sail for Spain to fight against the Franco dictatorship. In May of that year he joined the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, fighting in various anti-aircraft batteries for the Defensa Contra Aviación (DECA) and the German Dimitrov Battery of the International Anti-Aircraft Battery until the International Brigades were disbanded in September 1938. Having stayed in Spain after demobilisation, he spent some time in the south of the country (not in combat) and managed to escape Valencia in January 1939 in the hold of a freighter bound for Barcelona. He then missed the evacuees' train in Figueres, arriving in Barcelona on January 26, the day that Barcelona fell to Franco's troops. Setting off on foot towards the border in the company of other ex-Brigaders, they found the border closed (except for women, children and old men) at Port-Bou amd continued inland. They eventually crossed into France on February 7, just after the border had been reopened to troops and men of military age, and Nancarrow spent five days in the Argelès-sur-Mer concentration camp [not Gers as is widely claimed] before being released as he was a U.S. citizen. After a brief sojourn in Paris, he arrived back in New York on February 25m, 1939, aged 27 years old.
Upon his return to the United States in 1939, he learned that his Brigade colleagues were having trouble getting their U.S. passports renewed because of their Communist Party membership. After spending time in New York City in 1940, Nancarrow eventually fled the U.S. for México City to avoid being arrested for his former Communist affiliations. Upon his first subsequent return to the U.S., in 1981 (for the New Music America festival in San Francisco), he consulted a lawyer about the possibility of returning to his native country, since the pollution in Mexico City was worsening his emphysema. He was told that he would have to sign a statement swearing that he had been "young and foolish" when he embraced communism, which he refused to do. Consequently, he continued living in Las Águilas, México City, (eventually taking up Mexican citizenship) where he remained in political exile until his death in 1997, aged 84.
"Cage isn't really an anarchist, he just doesn't want to be bothered!"

1914 - Dylan Thomas (d. 1953), Welsh boyo, poet and prose writer, born. A drunk and serial philanderer, his youthful poems were paeans to masturbation [c.f. 'My hero bares his nerves' (1934)].

[E] 1907* - [N.S. Nov. 9] Dora Brilliant [Дора Бриллиант] (Dora Vladimirovna Vulfovna [Дора Владимировна Вульфовна] b. 1879), Russian revolutionist, member of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party (Партия социалистов-революционеров) and its Combat Organisation (Боева́я организа́ция), dies in the Peter and Paul Fortress having gone insane. [see: Nov. 9]
[NB. Some sources give the years as 1906 or 1909.]

1919 - At her deportation hearing Emma Goldman refuses to answer questions about her beliefs on the grounds that her American citizenship invalidated any attempt to deport her under the Anarchist Exclusion Act, which could be enforced only against non-citizens of the US. She presented a written statement instead: "Today so-called aliens are deported. Tomorrow native Americans will be banished. Already some patrioteers are suggesting that native American sons to whom democracy is a sacred ideal should be exiled." Louis Post at the Department of Labor, which had ultimate authority over deportation decisions, determined that the revocation of her husband's American citizenship in 1908 had revoked hers as well. After initially promising a court fight, she decided not to appeal his ruling.

1925 - Anastasia Ivanovna Galayeva (Анастасия Ивановна Галаева) aka Anastasia Stepanova-Galayeva (Ивановна Степанова-Галаева; b. 1885), active Ukrainian anarchist-communist and former popular primary school teacher, dies of a terminal illness, having been released from prison under special surveillance of the Cheka in Moscow. [expand]

1936 - A Generalidad decree orders militarisation of Spain's People's Militias.

1937 - The Italian Fascist youth organisation, Gioventù Italiana del Littorio (GIL), is founded with the aim of increasing the spiritual, sporting and military 'education' (i.e. indoctrination) of Italian children based on the principles of the ideology of the regime. It's oath: "Nel nome di Dio e dell'Italia giuro di eseguire gli ordini del Duce e di servire con tutte le mie forze e se è necessario col mio sangue la causa della Rivoluzione Fascista." (In the name of God and of Italy swear to carry out orders of the Duce and to serve with all my strength and with my blood if it is necessary to the cause of the Fascist Revolution.)

[F] 1946 - The right to strike is fully recognised in the French Constitution - "Le droit de grève s'exerce dans le cadre des lois qui le réglementent" (The right to strike is exercised under the laws which regulate it) , paragraph 7 of the preamble)

1948 - Albert Camus' play 'L'Etat de Siege' premières in Paris.

1956 - 1956-os Forradalom [Hungarian Revolution]: During the morning, Imre Nagy forms a new government, which in addition to the reform communist MDP (Hungarian Workers Party) members, contains former Kisgazdapárt (Smallholders' Party) members, including Zoltan Tildy and Bela Kovacs. The new government announces an immediate ceasefire and demands that the people have the right to decide on the direction of radical political change. Overight Nagy and Kádár hold a long discussion in the Soviet embassy with Moscow's CPSU delegates, Anastas Mikoyan and Mikhail Suslov, about the need for a ceasefire and withdrawal of Soviet tanks from the capital.
In Budapest and other areas, the Hungarian Communist committees organise defence. At the working-class stronghold of Csepel in Budapest by the Danube River, scene of some of the heaviest fighting, some 250 Communists defend the Csepel Iron and Steel Works. On 27 October, army units were brought in to secure Csepel and restore order.
27 fighter jet strafed a protest in the town of Tiszakécske, killing 17 people and wounding 117. In Kecskemét, a tank is used to fire on a demonstration, killing three protestors.

1958 - Gusto Gräser (Gustav Arthur Gräser; b. 1879), German nomadic 'poet-prophet' who, with his brother Karl Gräser (1875–1920), co-founded the Monte Verità utopian anarchist vegetarian community in Ascona, Switzerland, dies. [see: Feb. 16]

1963 - Exclusion of Attila Kotànyi from the Belgian section of the Situationist International.

1966 - Miquelina Sardinha (Miquelina Maria Possante Sardinha; b. 1902), Portuguese educationalist and militant anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Nov. 11]

1968 - Rosario (Roser) Dulcet Martí aka 'Dolcet' (b. 1881), Catalan textile worker, anacrho-syndicalist militant and propagandist, dies. [see: Feb. 2]

1969 - 22-year-old Cesare Pardini Italian student is killed by police in Pisa. Following an attack on a group of students by Fascists, a large demonstration is called by trade unions and left-wing parties. 100,000 take to the streets including Cesare. After the march, hundreds try to break through police lines and attack the HQ of the fascist MSI. Vicious hand to hand fighting breaks out. Cesara is struck in the chest at pointblank range by a tear-gas bomb and then brutally clubbed by the police, suffering a broken a rib and other injuries, from which he dies.

1973 - The Carltonville inquests exonerates the police from any blame for the shootings at the Western Deep Levels on September 11, 1973, in which eleven black miners were killed and which caused an international outcry.

1975 - Rex Todhunter Stout (b. 1886), American writer of detective fiction, and one-time communist fellow traveller, who was best known as the creator of the fictional detective Nero Wolfe, dies. [see: Dec. 1]

1979 - At a Two-Tone Tour gig at Hatfield Polytechnic featuring The Specials, The Selecter and Madness, the latter who at the time had an unwanted hardcore following of nazi skinheads, a bloody battle breaks out between local anti-fascists and the skins. National Front and British Movement skinheads wrecking concerts by multi-racial Ska bands at various Two-Tone gigs and they had met very little resistance up to this point. The vicious fight left many injured on both sides, but the Nazis took the worse of it and the Nazis never felt confident enough to turn up at any more Two-Tone concerts. [PR]

1991 - In Peru anarchist Andrés Villaverde arrested for sabotage. Sent to prison without trial and held for years despite a total lack of proof to substantiate charges of membership of the Maoist Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path) guerilla group.

2001 - Liberto Sarrau Royes (b. 1920), Spanish militant anarchist, anti-fascist fighter and writer, dies age of 81. [see: Oct. 27]

2002 - John Moore (b. 1957), British anarchist author, teacher, organiser, member of the Anarchist Research Group, theorist of the pro-Situ anarchism, dies.

[A] 2005 - Three weeks of mass urban unrest erupts across France following the deaths of 2 teenagers being pursued by police in Clichy-sous-Bois, a Parisian banlieue.

2006 - Indymedia photographer Brad Will shot dead in Oaxaca, Mexico. [see: Jun. 14]

2011 - President of the Government of Navarra, Yolanda Ginger, is pied by four assialants in protest at the development of a high-speed train network that threatens forest land in the Pyrenees. The four emvironmentalists - Gorka Ovejero Gamboa, Julio Martín Villanueva, Ibón García Garrido and Mikel Álvarez Forcada – are members of Mugitu, an environmental activist group dedicated to non-violent protest against the rail plans - go on to be charged with "criminal attack against authority", with the prosecutor demanding sentences of between 9 & 5 years in jail and fines of 2,700 euros ($3,650).
1726 - Jonathan Swift's 'Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World, in Four Parts. By Lemuel Gulliver, First a Surgeon, and then a Captain of Several Ships', better known as 'Gulliver's Travels', first published.

1841 - Michelina Di Cesare, the 'Leonessa del Sud' (d. 1868), Italian bandit and leader of a criminal guerilla group, born in the then Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. In 1862 he met Francesco Guerra, a former Bourbon soldier and draft dodger and the leader of the gang of robbers formerly headed by Domenicangelo 'Rafaniello' Cecchino, and would lead the gang along side her partner Guerra. Amongst the most famous of the female bandits of the era, much of that fame she carefully cultivated through the publication of photographs of herself posed in regional folk costumes.

1846 - Albert Dubois-Pillet (d. 1890), French neo-Impresssionist and Pointillist painter and anarchist fellow-traveller, born. Fought the Franco-Prussian War, during which he was made prisoner by the Germans but took up art after the war, adding his mother's maiden name (Pillet) to disguise his art activities from the military. A friend of Georges Seurat, he become one of the first artists to adopt Pointillism. His association with anarchists and anti-militarists such as Seurat, Angrand and Signac is thought to have led to his posting to Le Puy in south central France in 1889 as commander of the local gendarmerie. He died there during a smallpox outbreak in 1890.

1868 - The Groupe Genevois de l'Alliance de la Démocratie Socialiste is set up in Geneva by Bakunin.

1872 - Giuseppe Emanuele Modigliani (d. 1947), Italian anarchist, socialist, trades union organiser, pacifist and anti-fascist, born. Brother of the artist Amedeo Modigliani. In 1894 he co-founded the Livorno section of the Italian Socialist Party and was imprisoned for 6 months in 1898 for running an anarchist newspaper in Piacenza. He was also the Italian representative on the executive of the Sozialistische Arbeiter-Internationale (SAI) between 1923 and 1940.
tenpagesormore.blogspot.co.uk/search/label/Emanuele Modigliani]

1879 - Gérard Hervé Coatmeur aka C. Hervé (d. 1944), French militant anarchist individualist propagandist, writer, naturist, docker, porter, bookseller and fairground showman, born.

1879 - Luisa Capetillo Perón (d. 1922), Puerto Rican writer, novelist, journalist, trade unionist, libertarian propagandist, women's rights activist and anarcha-feminist, is born in the then Spanish colony to a French maid, Louise Marguerite Perone, and a Basque labourer, Luis Capetillo Echevarría. One of Puerto Rico's most famous labour organisers, her parent had come to Puerto Rico to seek their fortunes but had to settle for employment below their aspirations. Both held liberal and progressive ideas and never married. Thier only daughter Luisa was educated at the Maria Siera Soler private school, considered one of the best in the country, and also learnt French from her mother. [expand]

[EEE] 1884 - [O.S. Oct 16] Maria Alexandrovna Spiridonova (Мария Александровна Спиридонова; d. 1941), prominent Russian member of the Left Socialist-Revolutionaries (Партия левых социалистов-революционеров) party and onetime honourary chair of the party as well as editor of its paper 'Land and Freedom' (Земля и воля), born. The death of her father caused her to drop out of education in 1902, later working as a clerk for the local assembly. She soon became involved in political activism; she was arrested during the student demonstrations of March 1905. In September 1905, she applied for training as a nurse, but was rejected for her political record. Instead she joined the Socialist-Revolutionary Party, and became a full-time activist. On January 29 (16), 1906, she mortally wounded colonel of the gendarmes Gabriel Nikolaevich Luzhenovsky (Гавриил Николаевич Луженовский), who as the head of the Okhrana in Tambov played a key role in the suppression of the 1905 peasant uprising in the Tambov Province. Arrested and tortured, something that received widespread international publicity, she was sentenced to death by hanging, later commuted to perpetual servitude in the harsh prison conditions of the Transbaikal region. In March 1917, the Right S-R Minister of Justice Alexander Kerensky (Алекса́ндр Ке́ренский) ordered her release. Highly critical of the Provisional Government, the Left S-Rs also intially refused to particiapte in the Soviet Government, the Council of People's Commissars (Совет народных комиссаров). Spiridonov and the other Left S-Rs reluctantly began working with the Bolsheviks, believing their influence would quickly wane and in January 1918 was elected honoury chair of the First All-Russian Congress of Trade Unions (1-го Всерос. съезда профсоюзов). Spiridonov supported Lenin on the issue of the conclusion of the Brest-Litovsk peace treaty, rejecting the appeals of those who proposed to start a war against German imperialism.
The break with the Bolsheviks eventually came with the Central Executive Committee decrees of May-June 1918 (criticising the agricultural policy of the Bolsheviks, claiming that the socialisation of the land had been replaced by a policy of nationalisation, and on the reintroduction of the death penalty). Spiridonov later actively participated in the Left Socialist-Revolutionary mutiny of July 6 - 7, 1918, ending up locked in the cells in the Kremlin ("For twelve years I fought against the tsar, and now the Bolsheviks have put me in the royal palace") She took responsibility for the assassination of German ambassador, Count Wilhelm von Mirbach, and was sentenced to one year in prison. Upon her release she resumed her political activities but would spend the rest of her life under constant supervision and harassment by the Cheka.
In February 1919, she was again arrested and sent to the Kremlin Psychiatric Hospital, from where he escaped with the help of the SR Central Committee and went in hiding. In 1920, again arrested and released on bail on the condition that she would never engage in political activity again. In 1923 she unsuccessfully tried to flee abroad and was sentenced to three years in exile, where she suffered badly with tuberculosis. In 1931 again sentenced to three years of exile. This period was later extended for 5 years, served in Ufa. Spiridonov married, worked as an economist-planner and completely withdrew from political activity. In 1937 she and 12 other former Left S-Rs were arrested for plotting a peasant uprising as "part of a united SR centre and to the deployment of a wide counter-revolutionary terrorist activities organised terrorist and sabotage groups in Ufa, Gorky, Tobolsk, Kuibyshev and other cities ..." and sentenced to 25 years in prison. In September 1941 during the wartime evacuation of prisoners, Spiridonov was shot by the NKVD alongside 153 other political prisoners in the Medvedev Forest outside Oryol by order of the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR (Военная коллегия Верховного суда СССР).

[E] 1901 - Émilienne Léontine 'Mimi' Morin (b. 1901), French stenographer, militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and companion of Buenaventura Durruti, born. Daughter of Étienne Morin, a militant anarcho-syndicalist in the construction industry, in 1916 she became secretary of Sébastien Faure's journal 'Ce Qu'il Faut Dire'. Following a failed marriage to an Italian anarchist named Mario Cascari, she met Durruti in July 1927 and accompnied his clandestine travels around Europe (Durruti is persona non grata in many European countries), escaping numerous threats and attempts at deportation or extradition.
Eventually, with the advent of the Republic, they moved to Spain in 1931. Active in the CNT and revolutionary struggle, she gave birth on December 4, 1931, to a daughter named Colette, who she raised almost singlehanded as Durruti was in hiding most of the time. With the advent of the Durruti Column, she worked as a secretary and head of the press department for the column. She eventually quit the front to care for her daughter in Barcelona, whilst Durruti went to a Madrid to help in the defence against the Fascists, where he was killed on November 20.
After the funeral, she worked for the Defence Council for a while, but returns to France in 1938. There she works in the Solidarité Internationale Antifasciste (SIA) and writes about her experiences on the Aragon Front in Libertaire.

1902 - Kate Cooper Austin (b. 1864), American anarchist, feminist and journalist who wrote for many working class and radical papers, dies. [see: Jul. 25]

1904 - François-Charles Carpentier (d. 1988), French militant anarchist and combatant during the Spanish Revolution, born.

1905 - [O.S. Oct. 15] October All-Russian Political Strike [Октябрьская всероссийская политическая стачка]: St. Petersburg bank, post and telegraph workers, ballet dancers, servants, janitors, cab drivers, and retail clerks strike. Dmitri Trepov (Дми́трий Тре́пов), Assistant Minister of Interior orders police to surround the University of St. Petersburg, forbids rallies, and threatens to clear the campus by force.
Sergei Witte (Серге́й Ви́тте), Chairman of the Committee of Ministers, presents the 'October Manifesto' to the Tsar and refuses to participate in a military dictatorship. Discussions are held on the possible need to evacuate the Imperial family abroad.

[C] 1909 - Claude Bourdet (d. 1996), French writer, journalist, anti-fascist, anti-colonialist and militant socialist, born. During WWII, he was active in the Résistance, helping found the 'Combat' newspaper, the Noyautage des Administrations Publiques (NAP) intelligence and sabotage network, becoming its leader, and a member of the Conseil National de la Résistance. In 1944, he was arrested by the Gestapo and, after being imprisoned at Fresnes, he was deported to various concentration camps, including Neuengamme, Sachsenhausen, and Buchenwald, emerging in an emaciated state from the latter.
After the Liberation, he was involved in the Centre d'Action des Gauches Indépendantes (CAGI) and, with various members of Socialisme et Liberté, founded the journal 'Octobre'. He also continued writing for 'Combat', succeeded Albert Camus as editor in 1947. He resigned in 1950 to found 'L'Observateur', which went on to become 'L'Observateur Aujourd'hui' (1953), then 'France Observateur' (1954) and finally the 'Nouvel Observateur' (1964). In the spring of 1956, he was arrested at his home, handcuffed and hauled off to be strip-searched at Fresnes Prison, where the Gestapo had taken him upon his arrest in 1944. The 1956 seizure followed a series of articles in which Bourdet attacked the French campaign to destroy the guerillas battling for Algerian independence and condemned plans to call up 100,000 military reservists. In 1961, he investigated and denounced Maurice Papon, the prefect of the police force, in connection with the shootings of Algerian FLN demonstrators on October 17 in what became known as the 'Paris Massacre'.

[F] 1905 - [O.S. Oct. 15] Vuoden 1905 Suurlakko [1905 General Strike]: With a general strike spreading like wildfire across Russia, the revolutionary movement has now spread to Vyborg and Tampere as Finnish workers on the St. Petersburg-Vyborg railline go on strike. Strikes and mass proests spread across the Grand Duchy over the following days. [expand]

1911 - 'Los Angeles Times' Bombing: The California State Federation of Labor releases a report concluding that the explosion was caused by a gas leak, not by dynamite. [see: Oct. 1]

[B] 1913 - Le Cinéma du Peuple, a co-operative film company, is created by a group of Parisian anarchists. They would produce the first full length film on the Paris Commune.

[A/EEE] 1920 - Sylvia Pankhurst is imprisoned for six months for attempting to cause sedition ("unlawfully publish[ing] ideas likely to cause sedition and disaffection among H.M. Forces") in the navy by editing and publishing two articles in the October 16 issue of the newspaper 'The Workers Dreadnaught' — 'Discontent on the Lower Deck', which was based on a letter from a young Navy rating called Springhill and published under the pseudonym S.000 (Gunner), and an article on racism entitled 'The Yellow Peril and the Dockers', written by Claude McKay under the pseudonym Leon Lopez. A leading light of the Hands Off Russia! campaign, the article 'The Yellow Peril and the Dockers' urged Dockers not to load ships supplying arms to anti-Communist forces, just a few months after the successful boycott of SS Jolly George.

[D] 1921 - Patagonia Rebelde / Patagonia Trágica: The general strike called by the Federación Obrera Regional Argentina in Puerto Santa Cruz has spread and developed into a second national general strike. [see: Oct. 24]

[CC] 1925 - Four members of the National Fascisti appear in court charged with a breach of the peace in connection with the hijacking of a 'Daily Herald' van earlier in the month - the Left were outraged at the fact that they were not facing larceny charges and claiming this as clear evidence of the government's 'class' prejudice. They were eventually bound over for 12 months.
The four, dressed in black shirts, had held up the van and its cargo of eight thousand newspapers as it was being driven en route to Euston train station. The driver was forced out into the street at gun-point before the van was driven off. Police found the crashed van a few hours later. The hijacking followed an expose of the National Fascisti in the 'Daily Herald' a few month earlier which had left the organisation smarting.
At the trial, during which the Director of Public Prosecutions dropped the original charges of larceny against the men and substituted it with breach of the peace (one was also charged with possession of a revolver without a licence, for which he was convicted and fined £20, or one month's imprisonment), the four read out a statement: "We the undersigned, being loyal subjects to his Majesty the King, having noted of late that a certain paper known as the 'Daily Herald' has been publishing certain matters which did not lead us to suppose that it is loyal to this country consider that some action should be taken."
The four were bound over in a surety of £100 to be of good behaviour for 12 months, or in default to be imprisoned for six months. The fascist fined £20 for the offence against the Firearms Act could neither pay his fine nor find a surety, and was banged up in Wandsworth Prison. [PR]

1934 - In the lead up to Mosley addressing a meeting at the Albert Hall in London on October 28, it was rumoured that he would delcare BUF's position on the 'Jewish question'. He announced that the BUF leadership had decided to openly endorse anti-Semitism (as flagged up in Belle Vue the month previous) and the fascist movement would now be overtly campaigning against the perceived 'Jewish threat' (perceived as a national rather than a religious or racial issue) in Britain: "I have encountered things in this country which I did not dream existed in Britain. One of them is the power of organised Jewry which is today mobilised against Fascism .... Today we do not attack Jews on racial or religious grounds; we take up the challenge they have thrown down because they fight against Fascism and against Britain .... Tonight we take up that challenge: they will it: let them have it!" [Mosley's speech as quoted in a MI5 report] He attacked plutocratic ‘Big Jews’ and ‘Small Jews’ for swamping British culture: "The Jews owe no allegiance to this country, but only to their friends, kith and kin in other countries ... Fascism will end the system of international usury whereby the Jews live. We accept the challenge of this alien race which Is trying to rob us of our heritage!"
Reading out a list of 64 people convicted of attacks on fascists since June, 32 were Jewish, he added cynically: "Spontaneous rising of the British people against Fascism!" He also tied BUF's new position into what was happening in Germany: "We fought Germany once in a British quarrel, but we are not going to fight her again in a Jewish quarrel." [PR]

1942 - A group of around 25, led by Shmuel Gruber (also known as Samuel Gruber; 1913 - 2006) and another prisoner named Kaganowicz (first name either Berko or Josef), escape from the Lipowa Street camp in Lublin. Kaganowicz was later found dead.

1954 - Enrique Flores Magón (b. 1877), Mexican revolutionary anarchist and brother to the better known Ricardo Flores Magón, dies. [see: Apr. 13]

1956 - 1956-os Forradalom [Hungarian Revolution]: At dawn, the Soviets launch an offensive on the Corvin Közi (Corvin Alley) area despite the agreement of the previous evening. Colonel Paul Maléter and soldiers in the Kilian Barracks and the Kossuth Artillery Officers' School (Kossuth Tüzér Tiszti Iskola) refuse to participate in the attack on the insurgents. The attack is swiftly repelled and the rebels destroy one of the Soviet tanks during fierce resistance. At noon, the government declares a cease-fire and accept the demands of the uprising. The House holds a meeting and at 14:00 the new government takes the oath of office. At around 17:30,
Nagy makes a speech on radio announcing the new government, a general amnesty for the participants in the uprising, the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Budapest, the disbanding of the Államvédelmi Hatóság (ÁVH), the reintroduction of the Kossuth-címerrel (Kossuth coat of arms) as the emblem of the Republic, and declares March 15 as a national holiday. He also states that the new government is not against the revolution, but as a national democratic movement, appreciates what took place.
In the evening, during the ten o'clock news bulletin on the radio a call goes out asking young people to join the new Nemzetőrséghez (National Guards) force, as well as the suspension of the curfew. During the night, Gerő Ernőt, Hegedüs András and several other Stalinist party leader and their families flee to Moscow via airplane. October 28 signals the de facto victory of the revolution.
Khrushchev withdraws his troops from Hungary – but only as far as over the border. Hungarians sense victory. Political parties, long since banded, reform; new newspapers spring up, most only a side long, and are plastered up on shop fronts, trees and street lamps. Hundreds of Hungary’s secret police are lynched – punishment for their years of torture and oppression of the Hungary people. Imre Nagy, riding the wave of optimism, promises open elections and a coalition government. A few days later he went even further – promising Hungary’s withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact.

1959 - Camilo Cienfuegos (b. 1932) dies when his small plane disappears. Raised in a family of Spanish anarchist emigres, he became a key figure of the Cuban Revolution. [see: Feb. 6]

1967 - Black Panther Huey P. Newton is shot and arrested, and later charged with murder, in Oakland, Califonia.

1968 - Publication of 'Enragés & Situationists in the Occupations Movement', signed by René Viénet, Gallimard, Paris.

1972 - Lilian Ida Lenton aka 'Ida Inkley' (b. 1891), English dancer, suffragette, and winner of a French Red Cross medal for her service as an orderly in WWI, dies. [see: Jan. 5]

1984 - Sicilian anarchist Pippo Scarso is arrested and sentenced to a year in prison for refusing Italian military service.

1987 - André-Aimé-René Masson aka André Masson (b. 1896), French Surrealist painter, sculptor, illustrator, designer and writer, dies. [see: Jan. 4]
1763 - The Marquis de Sade is imprisoned for excesses committed in a brothel.

[A/D] 1795 - In response to the French Revolution, 200,000 people smash up Downing Street and mob the English King in St.James Park, chanting "No War! No King!"

1854 - Jean-Marie Guyau (d. 1888), French poet and libertarian philosopher, born. Kropotkin labelled him as being "unconsciously anarchist".

1866 - Victor Loquier (d. 1944), French hairdresser, anarchist activist and propagandist, born.

1875 - [N.S. Nov. 10] Anastasia Alekseevna Bitsenko (Анастасии Алексеевна Биценко; d. 1938), prominent Russian revolutionary, born. [see: Nov. 10]

1890 - Claire Goll (Klara Liliane Aischmann; d. 1977), German-French poet, writer, journalist and translator, who was married to the poet and anarchist Yvan Goll, born. [expand]

1899 - Syndicats 'Jaunes': In the wake of the great strike in Le Creusot, Eugène II Schneider, head of Schneider et Cie and the Le Creusot steel works, who was prominently involved in the strike-breaking efforts during the ongoing industrial unrest in the city, set up the first 'syndicats jaune', the syndicat des corporations ouvrières du Creusot et de ses dépendances (union of workers' guilds of Le Creusot and its dependencies).

[E] 1899 - Gaetana Teresa Recchia (d. 1935) Italian union organiser, Trotskyist and anti-fascist activist, born. A member of the Socialist Club in Borgo San Paolo, Teresa was in the forefront during the proletarian riots of August 1917 in Turin, and, together with her comrades, she persuaded a detachment of Alpini who were stationed in Piazza Villafranca to fraternise with the insurgent workers. Teresa took part in the factory occupations in Turin in September 1920. It was during those years that she met Mario Bavassano, who was to become her lifelong companion. During the tragic days of 1922 she was amongst the organisers of the armed working class response to the Fascist terror. She remained in Italy, despite arrest and persecution, until March 1927, when she and Mario were forced to emigrate, first to Switzerland and then in France. In July 1930 she was expelled from the PCI, and went on to help form the Nuova Opposizione Italiana, the Italian section of the International Left Opposition.
On April 19, 1935, Teresa died of tuberculosis in the Tenon hospital in Paris, a victim, as her comrades of the Union Communiste wrote, "of a long illness contracted in the course of her underground revolutionary activity against Italian Fascism, and aggravated by the hard privations of exile".

1901 - Leon Czolgosz (b. 1873), self-proclaimed anarchist (the 'Free Society' newspaper carried a warning that he might be a police spy and doubts persisted about his motives), is electrocuted for the assassination of US President McKinley.

[B] 1902 - Kitasono Katue (北園克衛; d. 1978), real name Hashimoto Kenkichi (橋本健吉), renowned Japanese poet, painter, photographer, critic and anarchist, who helped introduced Dada and Surrealism into Japan, born. Editor and graphic designer for more than 500 magazines and poetry books, and created numerous covers for novels, trade journals, commercial magazines, etc.. Chief among the magazines were his own journal 'VOU', published from 1935 to 1940, and then again from 1945 until his death in 1978; the Dadaist magazine 'GE GJMGJGAM PRRR GJMGEM' and later issues of 'MAVO'. Introduced to poetry and art by his brother the sculptor Hashimoto Heihachi (橋本平八), he became an early master of the haiku, later expanding his art to embrace Dadaist, Surrealist and Futurist poetics;. He later began creating his coloured drawings or 'katto' (cuts), took up photography in the 1950s, and began his Plastic Poems (造型詩), a form of visual poetry inspired in the mid 1960s by the work of some of his fellow photographers involved in 'VOU'.
Nicknamed Kit Kat by Ezra Pound, he was considered by many of his contemporaries to be one of the most important world poets and famously designed the first four covers of the Black Mountain Review. Amongst his volumes of poetry are 'White Album / Shiro in Arubamu' (白のアルバム; 1929); 'Black Fire / Hi Kuroi' (黒い火; 1951); and 'Black Rain' (1954). 'Monotonous Space / Tanchona Kukan' (単調な空間; in 'VOU' no. 58, 1957), considered by many to be his masterpiece.

'Monotonous Space'

white square
within it
white square
within it
black square
within it
black square
within it
yellow square
within it
yellow square
within it
white square
within it
white square

within it
within it
within it
within it
within it
within it
within it

's glass
's umbrella
's building
's handkerchief

white square
within it
white square
within it
white square
within it
white square
within it
white square

'Night Mechanist' (1924)

the café girl
is completely transparent
continuing her pink breathing
she makes her expensive finger shine
and hides mint-coloured talk
in a lobelia leaf
while playing the table’s piano
dreamer of chairs and curtains
bohemian of a pitiful city.
from the shadow of curacao
and peppermint
she flashes a seven-coloured heart
seducer with stunning matches
on stove chimneys
ties passion ribbons
and dissolves her lovers
into cash register buttons—
mechanist of splendid night

from 'Human Dismantled Poems' (1926)


on the back of the face
insert a blue lens
and peep everyday


burn sulphur
and weird smoke fills it up
a triangular ornament
tinplate nose
twist it
stuff a brush inside
and drag that spiral out from the rear!

'Dessin du Poéte'

Opening a thick, oval window, a Latin round-body
pronounces the following. Acts. Signals.
* It is said, "How could a self be rational which isn't even
conscious of itself as emotional?" A movement to
awaken people to that.
* A movement to make innocent friends perceive the
degree that we love loss of innocence.
* It is said, "How could you who haven't even passed
through anarchism become communists? And you who
haven't even comprehended futility. A magical
movement to stress that.
* It is said, "In a socialist world there is no room for
sneers, scorn and deceptive logic." This is deceptive
logic to sneer and scorn at not even understanding that.
* It is said, "A small bird."
* As for the saying, "Your limitless, orderly negativity
doesn't even have an affirmative value," if one says,
"How civilized?" it's the logic of you boarding a soap
bubble and being able to fly outside the earth's orbit. Yet
you are educated for an airship. For that overly physical
airship you try to imagine even a soap bubble space
expedition. Such an affirmatively affirmative you. You
don't perceive that.
* Materialistic. Materialistic art.
* Noblelady where small birds live.
* Noblelady where fish live.
* Gavo . . . Gavo . . . Gavo . . . Gavo . . . pon pon pon . . . pan . . .
pim . . . pum . . . Gattan . . . GovoGovoGovo? . . . I am lonely.
* Noblelady where fish and small birds live.
* The time you can say "Lonely, lonely" isn't lonely at all.
* The story of a boy on a dirigible balloon.
* A glass dish gathering tears.
* A bulb that doesn't breathe.
* Red curtain.
* Red.
* Mephistopheles with parasol today also displays a white
heel through the window of a high-rise building. The
view of an ocean that wants to smoke tobacco.
* Metaphysics without kangaroos.
* Brontasaurus.
* Sincerity, in moderation, speaks of lies. At least. That's
what becomes of it.
* If truth is so necessary, let me teach you one inventive
art. That is to search for the most stupid thing. But now.
Could anything be the most stupid?
* Roses and books.
* Midair-falling-doll.
* The surface where pressure operates. The surface where
pressure doesn't operate.

The Latin round-body completely quit his tactics of low-
altitude flying. Then he closed the thick, oval window. Space
stretched out infinitely. Insects within white gas probably
sing acetylene tunes. He doesn't know. Probably no one gets
to know.


1905 - [O.S. Oct. 16] October All-Russian Political Strike [Октябрьская всероссийская политическая стачка]: The general strike reaches Zhitomir. All Russian rail lines are shut down by strikes. Dmitri Trepov (Дми́трий Тре́пов), Assistant Minister of Interior, warns the Tsar that order cannot be forcibly restored without very heavy bloodshed.
Government troops open fire on a Social Democrat demonstration at a street market in Revel (Tallinn), Estonia, killing 94 (or 150, depending on sources) and injuring over 200.

1905 - The first issue of the fortnightly 'L'Ordre', "Organe Communiste-Anarchiste", is published by Armand Beaure in Limoges. The title is based upon Henri Beylie's apposite question "l'anarchie n'est-elle pas la plus haute expression de l'ordre?" (anarchism, is it not the highest expression of order?)

[F] 1916 - Norsk Syndikalistisk Forbund (Norwegian Syndicalist League) founded in Kristiania, Oslo under the influence of blacklisted Swedish syndicalists from the Sveriges Arbetares Centralorganisation and its daughter Lokal Samorganisation (Local Co-operation) syndicates, who had been forced to go to Norway after the general strike of 1909 (the Storstrejken or Great Strike) and had established Lokale Samorganisasjoner (the Norwegian version of the syndicates) linked to the SAC.

1918 - Wilhelmshaven Mutiny [Matrosenaufstand von Wilhelmshaven]: Disquiet amongst war-weary German sailors, hopeful of a successful negotiations for an armistice with the Allies, that they might be putting to sea to engage with the British Fleet, provokes a mutiny amongst Wilhelmshaven sailors.
Following the Battle of Jutland, the capital ships of the Imperial Navy had been confined to inactive service in harbour. Many officers and crewmen had volunteered to transfer to the submarines and light vessels which still had a major part to play in the war. The discipline and spirit of those who remained, on lower rations, with the battleships tied up at dock-side inevitably suffered.
Five days before the mutiny an order, the Flottenbefehl vom 24. Oktober 1918 (Fleet Command of October 24, 1918), had been issued by the German Admiralty in an attempt to provoke a decisive battle between the German High Seas Fleet and the British Grand Fleet in the southern North Sea. As part of the plan, the German High Seas Fleet assembled on Schillig Roads off Wilhelmshaven on the afternoon of October 29. The plan called for the fleet to sail the following day, under the guise of a training exercise, with the raid on the Thames and the Flanders Coast scheduled for dawn on October 31, followed by a battle with the British Fleet later the same day.
However, the evening of October 29 was marked by unrest and serious acts of indiscipline in the German Fleet, as the men became convinced their commanders were intent on sacrificing them in a deliberate attempt to sabotage the Armistice negotiations, as well as attempting to rescue their military honour (the German Fleet largely having been laid up without fighting since mid 1916 and the Battle of Jutland) through their sacrifice, and they wanted to prevent the military leadership compromising the chances of the imposition of parliamentary government through an armistice (as demanded by the Americans).
Despite secrecy, in no time word the plan spread. A large number of stokers from the SMS Derfflinger and Von der Tann failed to return from liberty ashore and were rounded up by the authorities; mutiny and sabotage were rampant on board the I. Squadron ships SMS Thüringen, Kaiserin, Helgoland and Regensberg; and mutinous demonstrations took place on the III. Squadron ships SMS König, Kronprinz Wilhelm, Großer Kurfürst and Markgraf - on the König, Markgraf and Großer Kurfürst the sailors also refused to weigh anchor. Even on the fleet flagship SMS Baden the mood of the crew was dangerous. The mutinous behaviour however was confined to the crews of the larger ships; the crews of torpedo-boats, submarines and minesweepers remained loyal.
When a day later, some torpedo boats pointed their cannons at these ships, the mutineers gave up and were led away without any resistance. Nevertheless, the Naval Command had to cancel the operation on October 30 as the crew's loyalty could no longer be relied upon, and the fleet was dispersed in the hope of quelling the insurrection. The III. Battle Squadron was ordered back to Kiel and during the trip through the Kiel Canal, Vice-Admiral Kraft had 47 sailors of the Markgraf, who were regarded as ringleaders, arrested. When the squadron arrived back in Kiel on November 1, their men helped spark the Kiel mutiny on November 3.

1922 - General Strike throughout Spain. [source??]

1929 - Oh dear, where did all that money go? The Wall Street Crash.

1932 - The first issue of the fortnightly 'Le Réveil Syndicaliste', newspaper of the Groupes d'Action Syndicaliste, is published in Jupille-Liege by Jean De Boe, Nicolas Lazarevitch and Ida Mett.

1935 - Peter Watkins, radical English film and television screenwriter and director, whose films have included biographical films on explicitly anarchist subjects including 'Edvard Munch' (1974) and 'La Commune (Paris, 1871)' (2000), born. Amongst his other films are classics such as 'Culloden' (1964), 'The War Game' (1965) and 'Punishment Park' (1970).

1941 - Kaunas Massacre: In the Kaunas Ghetto around 9,200 Jews are murdered by SS Einsatzgruppen units, in collaboration with Lithuanian partisans, in a single day at the Ninth Fort, Kaunas [Каунас] (also known by an earlier Russian name Kovno [Ковно]), Lithuania. Known as the 'Grosse Aktion', it was the second of two aktions to take place at the Ninth Fort, which had been used by the NKVD to house political prisoners on their way to the labour camps in Siberia during the 1940-41 Soviet occupation. The previous had taken place on September 25.
In both aktions, selected ghetto inmates were taken to the Fort, which had been used by the NKVD to house political prisoners on their way to the labour camps in Siberia during the 1940-41 Soviet occupation, and shot in ditches dug by prisoners of war. First children were thrown in, then the naked women, and finally the men. On this single day 2,007 Jewish men, 2,920 women, and 4,273 children were killed - the largest mass murder of Lithuanian Jews.
Kaunas is also notorious for the Lietūkis Garage Massacre when, on June 25 (or 27 [two contradictory date given for the event that was part of a pogrom stretching over four days as the Germany army invaded Lithuania and the Red Army beat a hasty retreat]), 1941, when local Lithuanian "patriots" wearing the white armbands of the Lithuanian Activist Front (LAF), butchered dozens of Jewish passers-by at the NVKD garage on Kaunas’s Vytautas Avenue, using a variety of execution methods, including clubbing to death with crowbars, and particularly, forcing water from high-pressure hoses into bodily orifices of the victims until they burst. A growing crowd, including women holding up their young children to get the best views, cheered them on. Nealry 4,000 Jews were murdered in Kaunas during the four-day (June 25–29) pogrom and a further 1,200 in other towns in the immediate region.

1947 - Asger Jorn participates in the International Conference of Revolutionary Surrealism in Brussels.

1948 - Safsaf Massacre: During an operation (Operation Hiram) in Galilee, the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) kill 52-64 villagers during the capture of the Palestinian Arab village of Safsaf. The village, which is defended by the Arab Liberation Army's Second Yarmuk Battalion, is attacked by two platoons of armored cars and a tank in a battle that lasts until the early hours of the following day. Evidence suggests that 52 of the dead men had their hands tied and shot and killed, and then buried in a pit. Several women were also allegedly raped, including a 14-year-old, and killed.

1952 - 'No More Flat Feet', a tract denouncing Charlie Chaplin signed by the Lettrist International (Berna, Brau, Debord and Wolman), is thrown into the crowd at a press conference for Chaplin's film 'Limelight' at the Ritz Hotel, Paris.

1956 - 1956-os Forradalom [Hungarian Revolution]: The Hungarian army, having gone into the working-class stronghold of the Csepel neighbourhood in Budapest on the 27th, withdraws and the insurgent groups resume control of the area.
The police, the army and the rebel leaders discussed the details of the truce. Janza Károly ordered ordered the reformation of the revolutionary soldiers' councils (forradalmi katonatanácsok alakítására). During the day in the capital's many institutions revolutionary committees were formed. The government continued the reorganisation of the National Guard, the police and the Armed Forces in order to defend the achievements of the revolution, to ensure public order and control the armed rebels.

1969 - During the Chicago Eight Trial, U.S. Federal Judge Julius Hoffman orders Bobby Seale bound and gagged for the next 4 days after Seale is refused permission to act as or have his own defence counsel. Bobby Seale and seven others (David Dellinger, Rennie Davis, Thomas Hayden, Abbie Hoffman, Jerry Rubin, Lee Weiner, and John Froines) are charged with conspiring to cross state lines "with the intent to incite, organise, promote, encourage, participate in, and carry out a riot" by organising the anti-war demonstrations in Chicago during the 1968 Democratic National Convention.

1978 - Recording of anarcho-punk band Crass's second album 'The Feeding of the 5000'.

1981 - Georges Brassens (b. 1921), French anarchist singer-songwriter and poet, dies. [see: Oct. 22]
"Je suis anarchiste au point de toujours traverser dans les clous afin de n'avoir pas à discuter avec la maréchaussée." ("I'm an anarchist, so much so that I always cross at the zebra crossing to avoid arguing with the police.")

[C] 1993 - Stanislaw Marusarz (b. 1913), Polish Nordic skiing competitor and anti-Nazi resistant, dies. [see: Jun. 18]

2005 - Ian Bush, a 22-year-old sawmill worker, is shot in the back of the head 20 minutes after his arrest for holding an open beer can in the parking lot of a hockey arena in Houston, British Columbia. At the time of his death, he was in the process of being released by the RCMP.

2006 - Peter Gingold (b. 1916), German Communist resistance fighter against National Socialism, dies. [see: Mar. 8]

2011 - The first day (of two) of celebrations in Paris of 30 years of Radio Libertaire.

2016 - A six hour disturbance (10:30-16:30) at HMP Lewes takes place as prisoenrs go "on the rampage" after screws loose control of C-wing. Cells and offices were damaged in what the POA blamed on "poor management and severe shortage of staff". POA chair Mike Rolfe: "There were only four staff on that wing and all four retreated to safety after threats of violence and the prisoners went on the rampage."
1793 - Querelle du Bonnet Rouge: Following concerted petitioning by female merchants and others, who hated the Society's emphasis on price controls and had become very suspicious of women wearing the cockade and red liberty bonnets (Phrygian caps), something that the members of the Citoyennes Républicaines Révolutionnaires had taken to doing, in contravention of the Convention vote on September 21, 1793, which required women to wear the cocarde tricolore, a symbol of the Republic, at all time [the bonnet rouge however was reserved solely for wearing by men, a further outrageous act by the women], petition the Convention to ban the Society. The National Convention now decreed that "clubs and popular societies of women, under whatever denomination, are forbidden". The député Louis-Joseph Charlier opposed the proposal: "Je ne sais sur quel principe on peut s'appuyer pour retirer aux femmes le droit de s'assembler paisiblement. À moins que vous contestiez que les femmes font partie du genre humain, pouvez-vous leur ôter ce droit commun à tout être pensant." (I do not know on what principle we base the removal of a woman's right to peaceably assemble. Unless you are disputing the fact that women are part of the human race, how can you take from them the common right of every thinking being.)
The Society of Revolutionary Republican Women was officially dissolved, despite numerous protests by leading figures in the club. It was now forbidden for women to meet together.

1810 - Guerra de Independencia de México [Mexican War of Independence]: The insurgent troops of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla and Ignacio Allende encounter the New Spain royalist troops of General Torcuato Trujillo in battle in the Sierra de las Cruces mountains between Mexico City and Toluca. Despite the fact that Hidalgo's army won the Battle of Monte de las Cruces [Batalla del Monte de las Cruces], it marks the furthest advance towards Mexico City of the first rebel campaign, before Hidalgo decided to retreat towards Guadalajara.

1871 - Paul Valéry (d. 1945), French poet, essayist, philosopher, polymath and non-doctrinal anarchiste, born. Considered to be the last of the French Symbolists (or Anarcho-Symbolists).
His 'Les Principes d'Anarchie Pure et Appliquée' (1984), which features his thoughts on an-archie as he termed it, was published posthumously.

1884 - La Bande Noire: The third of three blasts blows up the engineer Michalovski's bedroom but he escapes uninjured again. [see: May 12 & Jun. 5]

1889 - Marcelo Salinas (d. 1976), Cuban anarchist, playwright and journalist, who was forced into exile by the Castro regime, born.

1899 - [O.S. Oct. 18] Nadezhda Mandelstam [Наде́жда Мандельшта́м] (Nadezhda Yakovlevna Khazina [Наде́жда Я́ковлевна Ха́зина];d. 1980), Russian teacher, linguist, writer and memoirist, born. The wife of the poet Osip Mandelstam, who died in the Stalinist camps, Nadezhda memorized Osip’s poetry, which could not be published, in the hope that one day it would be possible to publish it. Many years later, after the death of Stalin, she was able to arrange for publication. She also wrote two volumes of memoirs, 'Hope Against Hope' (Воспоминания; 1970), and ''Hope Abandoned' (Воспоминания: Вторая книга; 1972/1974), which paint a vivid picture of the persecution and fear of the Stalinist Years. (The titles of the books encompass a word-play: ‘Nadezhda’ means ‘Hope’ in Russian.) [expand]

1904 - The Leon Czolgosz issue [see Oct. 29, 1901] continues unabated and Emma Goldman is arrested for articles published in 'Mother Earth' defending Czolgosz and for 'inciting to riot'. She is due to speak at a meeting to protest the arrests of several anarchists who had debated on Oct.27th whether Czolgosz was an anarchist.

[B] 1904 - Georges Navel (Charles François Victor Navel; d. 1993), French proletarian writer, novelist and libertarian, born. His works include the autobiographical novel 'Travaux' (Work; 1945). He was involved with Émile Malespine and his (post-Dadaist/pre-Surrealist) Suridéalist magazine 'Manomètre' (Revue trimestrielle, mçlange les langues, enregistre les idées, indique la pression sur tous les méridiens, est polyglotte et supranational; 1922-28).

1905 - [O.S. Oct. 17] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Nicholas II finally signs and issues the 'October Manifesto' [see: Oct. 14], owing to his desire to avoid a massacre, and a realisation that there was insufficient military force available to do otherwise. The document grants civil liberties, the need for Duma consent before passing laws and a widening of the Duma electorate to include all Russians; mass celebrations follow; political parties form and rebels return, but acceptance of the Manifesto pushes the liberals and socialists apart. The St. Petersburg Soviet (Петербургский совет рабочих депутатов) prints its first issue of the newsheet Izvestia; left and right groups clash in streetfights.

1905 - [O.S. Oct. 17] October All-Russian Political Strike [Октябрьская всероссийская политическая стачка]: The St. Petersburg Soviet (Петербургский совет рабочих депутатов) elects a non-partisan Executive Committee and a chairman. The first issue of the Soviet’s secretly printed newspaper 'Izvestia' is published and the government is forced to use soldiers to print its official gazette.
That afternoon, Grand Duke Nicholas allegedly threatens to shoot himself in front of the Tsar unless the Nicholas II signs the 'October Manifesto'. After crossing himself, a hesitant, shaken Tsar signs the Manifesto, pledging a constitution, an extended franchise, and civil liberties.
Count Sergei Witte (Серге́й Ви́тте) becomes Premier that evening, and urges an amnesty for political prisoners. Rumours of Witte’s imminent fall from power begin to circulate almost immediately.

1906 - Scheduled to speak at a meeting to protest the Oct. 27 arrests of several anarchists for debating whether Czolgosz was an anarchist, Emma Goldman is arrested for articles published in 'Mother Earth' and for inciting to riot. Nine others are also arrested on the same charge. Goldman is released on $1,000 bail the following day.

1908 - Marcel Béalu (d. 1993), French poet, writer and anarchist, born. His first collection of poetry, 'Poèmes sur un Même Thème' (Poems on a Similar Theme) in 1932 and later met the influential Cubist poet Max Jacob in 1937 as well as discovering the Surrealist poets the following year. When mobilised at the beginning of WWII, his papers warned "un anarchiste dangereux, à surveiller".

1910 - Congreso de Constitución de la CNT [Constitutional Congress of the CNT]: Following the Semana Trágica / Setmana Tràgica (Tragic Week) and the mass repression of the anarchist movement in Spain, the decimated ranks of Solidaridad Obrera / Solidaritat Obrera (Workers' Solidarity) holds its second congress [Oct. 30-Nov. 1] at the Salon des Beaux Arts in Barcelona with the objective of helping re-establish the workers' movement. Former and current members of the Federació Regional Espanyola de l'AIT and its successor organisations, the Federació de Treballadors de la Regió Espanyola, the Confederació Regional de Societats de Resistència, and Solidaritat Obrera attend with 136 delegates from 119 societies (77 from Catalonia) and local federations Badalona, Sabadell, Terrace, Valls, Vilafranca and Zaragoza present. At this meeting, the decision (by 84 votes in favour, 14 against and 3 abstentions) is taken to establish a new Confederació General del Treball, known as the Confederació Nacional del Treball, with the provisional regulations that had been submitted to the workers' organisations present being approved. The congress also debated the organisational structure of the CNT (by unions and federations of trades), its ideological pinning (revolutionary syndicalist) and tactics, as well as its initial basic demands: abolition of piecework, abusive rents, the 8-hour day, women's work rights (equal wages, maternal leave one month before and one after childbirth, etc.) and a minimum wage.
www.fideus.com/sindicals - cnt.htm
www.cedall.org/Documentacio/IHL/MovObreroCat Solidaridad Obrera 1907 1919.pdf
www.rojoynegro.info/sites/default/files/El anarcosindicalismo y sus Congresos.Completo.pdf

1910 - Miguel Hernández Gilabert (d. 1942), Spanish poet, playwright and anti-fascist, born. Hernández campaigned for the Republic during the Spanish Civil War, writing poetry and addressing troops deployed to the front. However, he was unable to escape following the fall of the Republic and was constantly harassed, arrested and imprisoned for his anti-fascist sympathies, and was eventually sentenced to death. His death sentence, however, was commuted to a prison term of 30 years, leading to incarceration in multiple jails under extraordinarily harsh conditions until he eventually succumbed to tuberculosis in 1942. Just before his death, Hernández scrawled his last verse on the wall of the hospital: "Goodbye, brothers, comrades, friends: let me take my leave of the sun and the fields."

1911 - Italian conscript trooper and anarchist Augusto Masetti fires a gunshot at his colonel on the parade ground of the Cialdini barracks, in Bologna, while shouting out "Down with the war! Long live Anarchy!" in protest of the war in Libya.

1912 - Little Falls Textile Strike: Following their daily parade under the IWW banner in Little Falls, New York, mounted police attack picketing textile workers – mostly immigrant women and girls – when they fail to clear a path for scab workers, beating some of the strikers unconscious.
"As Chief Long and his deputies clashed with the strikers, special police and patrolmen mounted on horses closed in on the largely unarmed pickets with their clubs. During the riot, a local police officer was shot in the leg, a special policeman furnished by the Humphrey Detective Agency of Albany was stabbed several times, and numerous strikers were beaten, some into unconsciousness." [Robert Snyder - 'Women, Wobblies and Workers Rights; the 1912 Textile Strike in Little Falls NY' (1979)]
A running battle ensued, with the police pursuing strikers across the river into the south side, where most of them lived. The police then broke into the strike headquarters at the Slovak Hall, smashed the place up, destroying their union charter, and proceeded to make mass arrests. All 24 members of the Strike Committee were taken into custody, and some were held for over a year. Helen Schloss, by now considered a ringleader, was arrested a mile away. The police brought in three doctors to "examine her sanity" but she had a lawyer who soon secured her release.
The strike however continued. Matilda Rabinowitz, a Russian-born IWW organiser, soon arrived and joined forces with Helen Schloss. Together, the two women had an entirely female picket line up within a day of the mass arrests. 'Big Bill' Haywood, a founder of the IWW arrived few days later to organise the Little Falls Defense League to provide living expenses and legal support for the strikers. Haywood, Schloss and Rabinowitz set off on a speaking tour of the north east that month to raise the funds that kept the strike going into the winter months. The anarchists Carlo Tresca and Filippo Bocchino also came to Little Falls to help organise the Italian-speaking strikers.
Matilda Rabinowitz and Helen Schloss later won a public relations victory by announcing that the children of strikers would be sent away for the Xmas holidays to join Socialist families in Schenectady. With the newspapers publishing reports of the embattled mothers and their children, Albany politicians were moved to act. Just after Christmas, the state Board of Mediation and Arbitration held three days of public hearings in Little Falls. [see: Oct. 9]

1913 - Aurelio Chessa (d. 1966), Italian anarchist baker, journalist and historian, born. Militant in Gruppi of Iniziativa Anarchica (GIA), created following the 1965 split in the Federazione Anarchica Italiana (FAI), and infatigable editor of the Berneri Family Archive, a role taken over by his daughter Fiamma.

[F] 1916 - Everett Shingle Weavers' Strike: The attacks on IWW members and supporters in Everett reach a peak in an incident that would end in the horror of the massacre six days later on November 5th. During the evening, forty-one IWW members had arrived by ferry in Everett to carry on the free speech fight at the corner of Hewitt and Wetmore. They were met by more than 200 armed deputies and were told they could only speak at a location away from the centre of town. The IWW members refused, and some were beaten at the dock. Deputies then loaded the Wobblies into waiting trucks and cars and drove them to a remote wooded area near the Beverly Park interurban station southeast of town. In darkness and a cold rain, McRae's men formed two lines from the roadway to the interurban tracks and forced the Wobblies to run a gauntlet. One by one the men were beaten with clubs, axe handles, guns, whips and rubber hoses loaded with shot, leaving a trail of blood, teeth, and flesh on the tracks, and then told to get out of town. Despite severe injuries some were forced to walk the 25-mile track to Seattle. The Wobblies vowed to return, in greater number, to show solidarity for their cause. [see: Nov. 5]

1917 - Criminal Syndicalism: Minnesota becomes the first state to convict anyone criminal syndicalism legislation when Jesse J. Dunning, a lumberjack and former secretary of the IWW local at Bemidji, is convicted of publicly displaying books teaching sabotage and sentenced to serve two years in the local penitentiary. [see: Jul. 22]

1918 - Wilhelmshaven Mutiny [Matrosenaufstand von Wilhelmshaven]: In response to yesterday's refusal by sailors to follow orders and sail into battle against the British Navy, the Naval Command orders units under their control to supress the mutiny. When a number of torpedo boats pointed their cannons at these ships, the mutineers gave up and were led away without any resistance.
Admiral Hipper cancels the operation set out under Flottenbefehl vom 24. Oktober 1918 (Fleet Command of October 24, 1918) and orders the fleet dispersed in the hope of quelling the insurrection. The III. Battle Squadron was ordered back to Kiel and during the trip through the Kiel Canal, Vice-Admiral Hugo Kraft had 47 sailors of the Markgraf, who were regarded as ringleaders, arrested. When the squadron arrived back in Kiel on November 1, their men helped spark the Kiel mutiny on November 3.

[E] 1923 - Dorothy Thompson (Dorothy Katharine Gane Towers; d. 2011), British socialist and feminist historian, and political activist, first in the Communist Party (she and her husband Edward broke with the party in 1956) and then in the peace movement, born.

1929 - Australian Timber Workers' Strike: The prosecution of seven union officals collapses [expand]

1932 - Louis Malle (d. 1995), French film director, screenwriter and producer, born. His 1967 film 'Le Voleur' (The Thief of Paris), a fierce attack on bourgeois society, is based on the anarchist novelist Georges Darien's book of the same name and was responsible for the rediscovery of this largely forgotten writer. Much of his work bears the influence of his friend Luis Buñuel.
Malle's films 'Le Voleur' (The Thief of Paris; 1967), 'Lacombe Lucien' (1974) and 'Au Revoir, les Enfants' (1987) all address anti-Semitism (and Dreyfus - 'Le Voleur', in passing) and/or the Résistance and the Nazi occupation.

1937 - At the congress of the Union Anarchiste in Paris (Oct. 30 - Nov. 1) the Comité pour l'Espagne Libre created by Lecoin, Faucier, Odéon and Le Meillour is transformed (at the request of the CNT-FAI) into the French section of the Solidarité Internationale Antifasciste (SIA).

1938 - A broadcast of HG Wells' 'War of the Worlds' by Orson Welles causes widespread panic in north eastern USA as many American's think that little green men are invading.

1940 - António Ferreira de Jesus (d. 2013), Portuguese libertarian autodidact, long-term prisoner and prisoner rights activist,

1956 - 1956-os Forradalom [Hungarian Revolution]: The fighting finally subsided, the bulk of the Soviet troops left Budapest and retreated to barracks in the country. Király's forces attacked the Central Committee of the Magyar Dolgozók Pártja building in Republic Square (Köztársaság Téren) defended by 46 ÁVH soldiers who remained in the building despite the fact that the government had dismissed the body and thus constituted an illegal armed group. All the revolutionary committees and workers' council now recognised the National Government, and the municipalities, factories and mines began electing a new decision-making bodies through new free and democratic decision making processes. Workers' councils were now recognised as the true owners of the country's factories and mines, a historically unique situation. Nagy also announced that the various rebel groups would be involved in the setting up of a new police force, yet these groups continued to detain thousands of people, many of whose names were on a series of death lists in circulation, without reference to the government.

1956 - Victor Yarros (b. 1865), Russian-born American anarchist and author, dies. [see: Apr. 8]

1969 - Pedro Alvarez Sierra (b. 1888), Spanish woodworker, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, who was opposed to the use of vilonce, dies. [see: Jun. 20]

[A] 1971 - Post Office Tower in London is bombed by the Angry Brigade.

[D] 1975 - Having had a series of massive heart attacks and internal bleeding in the past three weeks, the dictator Francisco Franco's grip on power in Spain is loosened, as he makes his heir designate, Prince Carlos, provisional head of state for Spain.

[C] 1979 - Prominent National Front member Martin Webster is found guilty of inciting racial hatred. He is fined £150 and ordered to pay costs up to £350 as the judge did not "want to make a martyr" of him.

1995 - Over 80 people were arrested at Sugarloaf Mountain in southern Oregon during a massive direct action to prevent clear-cutting of old-growth forests on public land by private timber companies.

2011 - The second day of celebrations in Paris of 30 years of Radio Libertaire.

2011 - At 03:00 the Occupy Newcastle camp is attacked by 20-30 EDL, SDL and BNP supporters, who had been demonstrating in the city the day before. People were held down and punched and kicked. Bricks where thrown, whilst one occupier was hit in the face and another was stamped on. The police were called, it took them ten minutes to arrive, by which time the EDL thugs had vanished. one occupier was hit in the face, bricks were thrown. Nobody had to be hospitalised but it could have been worse.
1858 - Georges Mathias aka Paraf-Javal (d. 1942), French individualist anarchist, scientist and prolific author, who founded the Ligue Antimilitariste with Émile Armand, born.

1870 - French national guards revolt on this date during the siege of Paris. There is also a massive demonstration in front of the Town hall supporting the Paris Commune. Louise Michel is a participant.

1876 - Natalie Clifford Barney (d. 1972), US playwright, poet and novelist who lived as an expatriate in Paris, born.

1878 - [N.S. Nov. 12] Vera Vladimirovna Vannovsky (Вера Владимировна Ванновская; d. 1961), Russian revolutionary, member of Lenin's St. League of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class (Союз борьбы за освобождение рабочего класса) group in St. Petersburg and later of the RSDLP group 'Will' (Воля), born. [see: Nov. 12]

1881 - Edgard Leuenroth (d. 1968), Brazilian journalist, publisher, writer and anarchist, born. [expand]

[E] 1884 - Marie Bashkirtseff (Maria Konstantinovna Bashkirtseva [Мари́я Константи́новна Башки́рцева]; b. 1858), Ukrainian-French painter, sculptor, diarist and feminist, who wrote a number of mysandrist articles for Hubertine Auclert's newspaper 'La Citoyenne' under the pseudonym Pauline Orrel, dies of tuberculosis aged just 25 years old. [see: Nov. 24]
"Let us love dogs, let us love only dogs! Men and cats are unworthy creatures."

1889 - Rolf Engert (d. 1962), German poet, playwright, publisher and writer on Stirner and Ibsen, born. Wrote under the pseudonyms Angelus Saxonicus and Maximus, and co-founded the Vereinigung der Stirnerfreunde (Friends of Stirner Association) with John Henry Mackay in 1918. A figure in the anti-Nazi Inner Emigration underground. Was excluded from the Deutscher Schriftstellerverband (East German Writers' Association) in 1950.

1892 - Maurizio Garino (d. 1977), Italian anarchist and syndicalist, who was involved in the Biennio Rosso and the Italian factory council movement, born.

1892 - The first Sherlock Holmes story, 'The Adventures of Sherlock Homes', published.

1894 - In Paris, the Procès des Trente (Trial of the Thirty), which began August 6, comes to a close.

1905 - [O.S. Oct. 18] October All-Russian Political Strike [Октябрьская всероссийская политическая стачка]: The St. Petersburg Soviet and the RSDRP order the general strike to continue, but strikers are returning to work en masse. Moscow calls off its strike, bringing and end to Russia's first political general strike.

1905 - [O.S. Oct. 18] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Massive demonstrations for and against the 'October Manifesto' take place in St. Petersburg and Moscow. Right-wing violence begins to erupt throughout Russia with attacks on workers, students, and intellectuals and pogroms against Jews (690 pogroms are recorded by mid November - for the whole month there are an estimated 25,000 Jews killed; 100,000 injured; 200,000 Jewish families ruined with losses of 400,000,000 roubles.). The professional Bolshevik revolutionary Nikolai Bauman (Никола́й Ба́уман) is beaten to death by a member of the reactionary Black Hundred in Moscow, having spent the past 16 months in Tagan prison.
A bloody pogrom breaks out in Odessa; police stand by while 800 Jews are murdered and 5,000 wounded, and intervene only against Jewish self-defense units.

1905 - [O.S. Oct. 18] Rostov-on-Don Anti-Jewish Riots: A pogrom in Rostov-on-Don (Ростов-на-Дону) raged for three days [Oct. 31-Nov. 2] with the active participation of Cossack units. More then 150 Jews were murdered and 500 wounded, with Jewish shops, stores, warehouses, and mills damaged and looted.
During the morning news of the 'October Manifesto' and its contents had reached Rostov-on-Don where the Social Democrats had organised a midday mass demonstration of workers and students, leaving from the train station on the main street and ending in the area of the city prison and tram depot. There a rally of 10,000 demanded the release of political prisoners (as allowed for in the Manifesto - 23 who had recently been arrested on suspicion of opposition activities were released during the rally. Meanwhile, a rumour allegedly started by members of the Black Hundreds, and certainly fanned by them, spread that "the Jews had attacked Russians, beat them up and had torn up and thrown away a portrait of Nicholas II". Large numbers of drunk members of the Union of the Russian People and assorted thugs, stirred up against the revolutionaries and Jews , gathered in New Church of the Intercession (Ново-Покровской церкви), located on the site of the present Kirov Square, joining a large crowd of reactionaries with national flags and portraits of the king already assembled there.
By dusk the crowd of protesters outside Rostov prison had gradually thinned out and dispersed and with only 200-400 people left, a large group of reactionaries (includes disguised gendarmes), attacked from the west followed from behind by mounted Cossacks. The protesters outside the prison walls began throwing stones in self-defence as the fascists began beating them. At least one shot was heard, probably from ​​a provocateur. As the Cossacks rode into the crowd, beating them with whips (with wire woven into them), wooden staves, and iron and rubber coshes, prison guards were ordered to fire on the radicals, but (sympathetic to the protesters) fired over their heads instead. Many demonstrators were killed or injured by reactionaries shouting "Death to the Jews! Beat the protesters!" ("Бей жидов! Бей демонстрантов!").
Drunk with the taste of human blood, the Black Hundreds crowd rushed to the Pokrovsky Bazaar (located near to the New Church of the Intercession), where it began to smash Jewish shops. By 22:00 the Pokrovsky Bazaar was in flames and the massacre had spread to the whole city. From the Pokrovsky Bazaar they moved to the New Bazaar (Новый базар) and Moscow Street (Московскую улицу) as the pogrom swept Jewish homes, stores, shops, synagogues and streets; from Haymarket Street (Сенной улица), now Gorky (М. Горького) to Police Street (Полицейской улица), now Turgenev (Тургеневской ), and from Bogatyanovsky Lane (Богатяновского пер) to Post Office (Почтового) Lane [Ostrovsky (Островского)] including the Old and New Markets (Старый базар & Новый базар).
According to participants in the events, shops were looted by a certain plan involving groups of 10-15 people, led by plainclothes policemen and gendarmes. First they smashed the windows of jewellery stores, then they attacked clothes, shoes shops and cobblers, then furniture, tableware and music shops. Some shops were torched; all were looted.
"Jews were hiding in basements, attics, and homes of compassionate Russians as the crowds of thugs swept on, reinforced by the crowds coming from the side streets, forming an instant raging whirlpool spinning in one place and suddenly rushing to change direction." [P. Ivanov quoted in A.T. Vodolazkyy - 'The armed uprising in Rostov-on-Don in 1905. (From the memoirs of participants)', 1933]

1905 - [O.S. Oct. 18] 1905 Kronstadt Mutiny / Russian Revolution of 1905-07: In the summer of 1905 revolutionary ferment grew stronger in the Kronstadt garrison, which had been reinforced by a large number of reservists, many of whom were revolutionary-minded workers. In addition, more than 2,000 'unreliable' sailors and soldiers from other garrisons had been transferred to Kronstadt. Following the destruction of the fleet by the Japanese in the Russo-Japanese war of 1904-1905, Kronstadt joined the general uprising which swept the demoralised country, and widespread agitation began to manifest itself in September 1905.
Following a call by the Kronstadt Committee of the RSDLP, reacting to the publication of the 'October Manifesto', sailors, soldiers, and workers held an anti-government demonstration in Kronstadt. Further protests would following in the next days, resulting in a spontaneous uprising on November 8th-9th.

1907 - [O.S. Oct. 18] Evstolia Pavlovna Rogozinnikova aka 'Little Bear' (Евстолия Павловна Рогозинникова 'Медвежонок'; b. 1886), Russian revolutionary and member of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party (Партия социалистов-революционеров) and its Combat Organisation's (Боева́я организа́ция) 'Northern combat flying squad' (Северный боевой летучий отряд / ЛБО СО ПСР), is hung in the village of Lisy Nos (Лисий Нос) near St. Petersburg for the assassination of the Head of Prison Administration Alexander Mikhailovich Maximovsky (Александр Михайлович Максимовский) three days earlier. [see: Jan. 13]

[B] 1913 - Jesús Guillén Bertolín aka Guillembert (d. 1999), Spanish anarchist, painter and designer, partner of Sara Berenguer, born.

1918 - Wilhelmshaven Mutiny [Matrosenaufstand von Wilhelmshaven]: Following the mutiny and sabotage committed by I. and III. Squadron crews during the night on October 29-30, Admiral Hipper cancels the operation set out under Flottenbefehl vom 24. Oktober 1918 (Fleet Command of October 24, 1918) and orders the fleet dispersed in the hope of quelling the insurrection. The III. Battle Squadron was ordered back to Kiel and during the trip through the Kiel Canal, Vice-Admiral Hugo Kraft had 47 sailors of the Markgraf, who were regarded as ringleaders, arrested. In Holtenau (at the eastern end of the Kiel canal) they were taken to the Kiel Arrestanstalt (military prison) and to Fort Herwarth in the north of Kiel.
When the squadron itself arrived back in Kiel late on November 1, their men immediately began organising to prevent the fleet from setting sail again and to achieve the release of their comrades, actions which would result in the mutiny on November 3.

[F] 1919 - In Turin the Shop Stewards Program, which dictated that their primary purpose was "to set in train in Italy a practical exercise in the realisation of communist society", is adopted. [expand]

[DDD] 1921 - Patagonia Rebelde / Patagonia Trágica: Within seven days of the beginning of the strike in Patagonia, Antonio Soto had managed to ferment a revolt across a wide section of the southwestern territory of Santa Cruz. So far, the workers on the Buitreras, Alquinta, Rincon de los Morros, Glencross, La Esperanza and Bella Vista estancias had been pursuaded to join the rural workers movement. This first part was achieved absolutely peacefully: entering the estancias, talking with the peons, requisitioning weapons and provisions, which are documented with Soto's signed receipts, and when owners or managers are present, taking them hostage.
The rebels are organised into 2 large groups, the columna Antonio Soto and the columna José Font, better known as the columna Facón Grande after José Font's nickname. Based at the estancia La Anita in the Punta Alta with a force of around 600 strikers, Soto resolved that while he continued leading the movement in the country, his fellow militants on September 15 on a recruitment and propaganda tour, by car and on horseback, should try to enter Rio Gallegos to replace the strike leaders recently imprisoned there and try and reestablish a foothold in the city. When the 3 anarchists arrive in Rio Gallegos are swiftly arrested and beaten by the police.

1922 - The headquarters of the Italian anarchist newspaper 'Umanità Nova' are ransacked by fascists after Benito Mussolini is announced as prime minister.

1922 - Victor Dave (b. 1845), Belgian anarchist and member of the International, dies. [see: Feb. 25]

1922 - Karl Capek's play 'The World We Live In' (The Insect Comedy) opens in NYC.

1922 - Clément Pansaers (b. 1885), Belgian poet, artist (painting, engraving and sculpture), libertarian, internationalist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: May 1]

1924 - Enrico Baj (d. 2003), Italian anarchist painter, sculptor, writer and activist, best known for his collages of ridiculous-looking generals made from shards of glass, scraps of flowery material and shells, born. He fled Italy in 1944 for Geneva to avoid being enlisted in Mussolini's army. Following the conclusion of the Second World War and after having joined the radical COBRA group in the late 1940s, he founded the Nuclear Art Movement with Sergio Dangelo with the goal of "demolishing all the 'isms' of painting that inevitably lapses into academicism, whatever their origins might be." One of his major works is his 1972 painting 'Funeral Of The Anarchist Pinelli'.

[(CCC)] 1926 - Anteo Zamboni (b. 1911), 15-year old Italian anarchist, who having just attempted to assassinate Benito Mussolini in Bologna by shooting at him during the parade celebrating the March on Rome, is immediately attacked and lynched by nearby squadristi. The man who first detained him and identified him as the would-be assassin was cavalry officer Carlo Alberto Pasolini, father of film director Pier Paolo Pasolini. The event was used as political leverage by the fascist government to abolish liberties and dissolve the remaining opposition parties. The son of a former anarcho-syndicalist (and now fascist) Mammolo Zamboni, his extended family is arrested and his father Mamolo and his aunt Virginia Tabarroni were both sentenced to 30 years in prison after being found guilty of "guilty of complicity in failed premeditated murder". [see: Apr. 11]

[D] 1931 - Led by unemployed lumberjack Jesse Jackson, the first Hooverville was built on vacant land owned by the Port of Seattle near Pioneer Square. Within two days over 50 shacks were erected and by 1934, 600-1000 people were living in them. By 1941, Seattle's 'Hooverville' covered 25 blocks. Hoovervilles eventually spread throughout the country.

1935 - David Harvey, radical geographer and social theorist whose work draws very much on the anarchist tradition, born. "Being a geographer, the traditional radicalism in geography was always anarchist, and the anarchists have a long history, particularly the social anarchists, of being much more interested in environmental and urban issues than the marxists."

1941 - Herwarth Walden (pseudonym of Georg Lewin; b. 1879), German Expressionist artist and gallery owner, art expert, who was the founder of the radical German Expressionist magazine 'Der Sturm', dies in a Soviet prison in Saratov. [see: Sep. 16]

1955 - François-Henri Jolivet (b. 1875), French worker-poet, anarchist and pacifist songwriter, dies. [see: Aug. 1]

1956 - 1956-os Forradalom [Hungarian Revolution]: Imre Nagy broadcast that Hungary would begin negotiations on Hungary's withdraw from the Warsaw Pact and becoming a neutral state. This was pushing the Russians too far and János Kádár left the government in disgust, establishing a rival government in eastern Hungary which was supported by Soviet tanks. The Soviets had already been told of the Hungarian position the previous day and had decided to intervene in the country again. A 'Pravda' article states that: "The Soviet Government is ready to begin the necessary negotiations with the Government of the Hungarian People's Republic and other Member States of the Warsaw Pact on the question of Soviet troops remaining in Hungary."
The MDP is disbanded and replaced by the Magyar Szocialista Munkáspárt (Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party). Political prisoners also begin to be released from prisons.

1961 - Augustus Edwin John (b. 1878), Welsh Post-Impressionist painter, draughtsman and etcher, dies. [see: Jan. 4]

1966 - Germain Delatousche (b. 1898), French painter and wood engraver, dies. [see: Oct. 27]

1969 - Juana Rouco Buela (d. 1889), Spanish-Argentinian dress maker, autodidact, anarchist propagandist, anarcho-syndicalist and anarcha-feminist pioneer, who helped create the Centro Femenino Anarquista (Women’s Anarchist Centre), with Virginia Bolten, Teresa Caporaletti, Marta Newelstein and Maria Collazo, and others, dies. [see: Apr. 19]

[A] 1977 - The Free State of Frestonia declares independence from the UK.

1978 - 30,000 oil workers strike against repressive rule of the Shah in Iran.

1991 - Nikita Kalin (Никита Калин; d. 2012), Russian student, anarchist and anti-fascist activist, born. Kidnapped by a fascist squadists, his body was found on February 9, 2012 near the Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of the Sciences [FIAN] in Samara. Kalin had 61 stab wounds, several fractured ribs and head injuries. His murder was clearly concealed by the Russian police. A human rights organisation facilitated legal support to his family and Moscow Anarchist Black Cross launched a fundraising campaign to pay for his funeral. A few weeks later, on February 24, an attack on fascists in Kallithea (Attica, Greece) was held in his memory. Finally, Nicholas Zalivako a neo-Nazi was arrested, but the attack was obviously perpetuated by a group, not one person in isolation.

1995 - Nellie Dick (Naomi Ploschansky; d. 1995), Anglo-American anarchist pedagogue, dies. [see: May 15]

[C] 2002 - Bernard Konrad Świerczyński aka 'Aniela' & 'Kondek' (b. 1922), Polish journalist, libertarian and a key figure in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, dies. [see: Aug. 20]

2009 - Diana Blefari Melazzi (b. 1969), Italian member of the Nuove Brigate Rosse, who was arrested on December 22, 2003 in Santa Marinella and sentenced to life imprisonment for the murder of labour lawyer and jurist Marco Biagi, hangs herself with a bedsheet in her cell in Rebibbia prison shortly after having had the life sentence handed down at her retrial confirmed. [see: Apr. 4]
Daily pick: 2013 [A] 2014 [B] 2015 [C] 2016 [D] 2017 [E] 2018 [F]
Weekly highlight: 2013 [AA] 2014 [BB] 2015 [CC] 2016 [DD] 2017 [EE] 2018 [FF]
Monthly features: 2013 [AAA] 2014 [BBB] 2015 [CCC] 2016 [DDD] 2017 [EEE] 2018 [FFF]
PR: 'Physical Resistance. A Hundred Years of Anti-Fascism' - Dave Hann (2012)


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Detect languageAfrikaansAlbanianArabicArmenianAzerbaijaniBasqueBelarusianBengaliBosnianBulgarianCatalanCebuanoChichewaChinese (Simplified)Chinese (Traditional)CroatianCzechDanishDutchEnglishEsperantoEstonianFilipinoFinnishFrenchGalicianGeorgianGermanGreekGujaratiHaitian CreoleHausaHebrewHindiHmongHungarianIcelandicIgboIndonesianIrishItalianJapaneseJavaneseKannadaKazakhKhmerKoreanLaoLatinLatvianLithuanianMacedonianMalagasyMalayMalayalamMalteseMaoriMarathiMongolianMyanmar (Burmese)NepaliNorwegianPersianPolishPortuguesePunjabiRomanianRussianSerbianSesothoSinhalaSlovakSlovenianSomaliSpanishSundaneseSwahiliSwedishTajikTamilTeluguThaiTurkishUkrainianUrduUzbekVietnameseWelshYiddishYorubaZulu

AfrikaansAlbanianArabicArmenianAzerbaijaniBasqueBelarusianBengaliBosnianBulgarianCatalanCebuanoChichewaChinese (Simplified)Chinese (Traditional)CroatianCzechDanishDutchEnglishEsperantoEstonianFilipinoFinnishFrenchGalicianGeorgianGermanGreekGujaratiHaitian CreoleHausaHebrewHindiHmongHungarianIcelandicIgboIndonesianIrishItalianJapaneseJavaneseKannadaKazakhKhmerKoreanLaoLatinLatvianLithuanianMacedonianMalagasyMalayMalayalamMalteseMaoriMarathiMongolianMyanmar (Burmese)NepaliNorwegianPersianPolishPortuguesePunjabiRomanianRussianSerbianSesothoSinhalaSlovakSlovenianSomaliSpanishSundaneseSwahiliSwedishTajikTamilTeluguThaiTurkishUkrainianUrduUzbekVietnameseWelshYiddishYorubaZulu

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