Labor Day [USA]: The first Monday in September.
1666 - Great London Fire begins in Pudding Lane. 80% of London will end up being destroyed.

1843 - [N.S Sep. 13] Nadezhda Prokofievna Suslova (Надежда Прокофьевна Суслова; d. 1918), Ruaaia's first qualified female doctor, who was also a youthful revolutionary and one-time close friend of Fyodor Dostoyevsky (her sister Apollonia Suslova was Dostoyevsky's lover), born. [see: Sep. 13]

1845 - Félicien Bonnet (d. unknown), French carpenter and anarchist militant, born.

1846 - Carlo Cafiero (d. 1892), Italian anarchist, member of the International and champion of Bakunin, born. [expand]

1853 - [N.S. Sep. 13] Sophia Lvovna Perovskaya (Russian: Со́фья Льво́вна Перо́вская; d. 1881), Russian revolutionary and prominent member of Narodnaya Volya (People's Will), who helped to organise the successful assassination of Tsar Alexander II of Russia, for which she was executed by hanging, born. [see: Sep. 13]

1855* - Teresa Fabbrini (Teresa Maria Anna Carolina Fabbrini Ballerini; b. 1855), Italian anarchist and feminist, who from a young age was distinguished both as a tireless propagandist of anarchist ideas and as a lecturer and writer in favour of anarchism and women's rights, born. She was also recognised by the police as playing an important role in anarchist propaganda circles, they also dismissed her in typical misogynistic terms as being a "woman of easy virtue". Amongst her most important works ii 'Dalla schiavitù alla libertà' (From slavery to freedom; 1904)
[* NB: some sources give the date as August 1, 1855]

1856 - Joseph Jean-Baptiste Trenta (d. unknown), French maker of precision mechanical and optical instruments and anarchist militant, born.

1869 - Julio Chavez Lopez (b. unknown), Mexican peasant and libertarian revolutionary propagandist, is captured by the army and shot in the courtyard of the Free and Modern School of Chaloco after being handed over to the police following 4 months of anarchist insurgency by a peasant army across Puebla and Veracruz.
"I am a socialist because I am an enemy of all governments and communist because with my brothers we want to work the land in common".

1873 - The Sixth General Congress of the International Workingmen's Association opens in Geneva (Sept. 1-8).

1882 - Sara Bard Field (d. 1974), American poet, pacifist, suffragist, Christian socialist and anarchist sympathiser, born. Partner to philosophical anarchist Charles Erskine Scott Wood, her work appeared in the anarchist periodical 'The Blast' alongside that of C.E.S. Wood.
[ C. Fremont&brand=calisphere]

[B] 1887 - Blaise Cendrars (born Frédéric-Louis Sauser; d. 1961), Swiss Modernist novelist, amputee left-handed poet, adventurer, soldier, failed film director and an anarchist fellow-traveller who never fully committed himself to the movement, born. A poor student, he left school early and in 1904 was apprenticed to a Swiss watchmaker in Moscow, where he frequented Russian anarchist circles and was present during the 1905 Revolution. In 1912, he and the anarchist writer Emil Szittya, who owned a clandestine printing press, started the journal 'Les Hommes Nouveaux' (also the name of his press where he published his early poems). In the same year Cendrars held a conference a few days after the death of Jules Bonnot on the theme 'La Beauté Devant l'Anarchisme', proclaiming "La vie est anarchisme. La Vie est beauté. La beauté est anarchisme. L'anarchisme est la vie." (Life is anarchism. Life is beauty. Beauty is anarchism. Anarchism is life.) Amongst those who attended was Kibaltchie, aka Victor Serge, who translated Cendrars' first novel, 'L'Or' (1925; published in English as 'Sutter's Gold'), into Russian.
His masterpiece is generally held to be the barely disguised autobiographical second novel 'Moravagine' (1926), which features the eponymous patient number 1731 at the Waldensee Sanatorium, a mental institution near Berne, Switzerland, who is last descendant of a degenerate East European noble lineage. The narrator, Dr. Raymond la Science, a young, brilliant, newly-graduated psychologist, who becomes his analyst, is fascinated by the personality of this "grand fauve humain" (great human beast) and subsequently engineers his patient's escape, accompanying him as he rampages around the world.
As with a significant number of foreign artists living in France and of anarchists who chose to fight in WWI, Cendrars joined the Foreign Legion and fought on the Western Front, which is where he lost his right arm in the Second Battle of Champagne in 1915, which in turn led to him having to learn to type left-handed.
"It is an outrage towards the masses.. ..It’s wanting to treat them as though they’re incapable of raising themselves up to this new realism (promoted by Léger and Le Corbusier) which is that of their area, which they’ve made with their hands.. ..To want to say to these men ‘the modern is not for you it’s an art for the rich bourgeoisie.." (attack on the notion of a social realist art, c. 1949)

1893 - Fasci Siciliani Uprising: The Fascio di Santa Caterina is founded by 25-year-old Filippo Lo Vetere in his home town, despite residing in Palermo. Based in the Piazza Garibaldi, it is mainly made up of peasants and labourers, it is part of the Partito dei Lavoratori Italiani (Italian Workers Party). Within a few months it has 500 members.

1895 - Gil Bel Mesonada (d. 1949), Spanish militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, writer, journalist, novelist and avant-garde arts theorist, born. On January 1, 1929 created a Biblioteca Popular in Utebo and creating a radical avant garde manifesto, printed on red and black paper. In 1930 he was editor of the anarchist journal 'Cultura y Acción' (Culture and Action) and published an article entitled 'Propositos', which is considered to be the first statement on the theoretical principles of the plastic arts issued in Catalonia. During the Civil War, he organised the Sindicato de Espectáculos (Entertainment Union) and created the anarchist colony at Torrelodones (Madrid), to which he invited Luis Buñuel. Following Franco's victory, he remined in Spain, working under the pseudonym of Vicente Gil for the film distributor and publisher UFILMS and as editor of 'Fermina Bonilla'. He also wrote under various other pseudonyms including Fray Luzbel, Luzbel (Lucifer) and G. Bellini on publications such as 'El Comunista', 'La Democracia', 'La Gaceta Literaria' (Literary Gazette), 'Lucha Social' (Social Control), 'Nueva Senda' (New Path), 'Pluma Aragonesa' (Aragonese Pen), 'Revista de la Casa de América-Galicia' (Journal of the House America-Galician), etc.. He is the author of 'El Último Atentado' (The Last Bombing; 1922), 'Nazarenos de Violencia' (Nazarene of Violence; 1923), 'Voces Interiores' (Inner Voices; 1923), 'Delicadeza' (Delicacy; 1923), 'Abajo lo Burgués' (Down with the Bourgeois; 1932), 'Fuego en el Mar' (Fire at Sea; 1942), amongst others.

1898 - Welsh Coal Strike: The strike is defeated and comes to an inglorious end. The only chink of light was the formation of the South Wales Miners’ Federation. [see: Apr. 9]

1898 - The first issue of 'El Porvenir del Obrero' (The Future of the Workers) is published in Mahón, Menorca. Initially the newspaper of mutual co-operativist society of the same name, when Joan Mir y Mir took it over from number 15 on October 20, 1899, it takes a clear anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist orientation and becomes the mouthpiece for the Societat Llibertària Agrupació Germinal.

1901 - The first issue of the bi-monthly journal 'Le Flambeau', "Organe des ennemis de l'autorité", is published in Vienna. Its openly libertarian position results in its editor Georges Butaud being arrested.

1903 - Bernard Lazare (Lazare Marcus Manassé Bernard; b. 1865), French author, journalist, anarchist, polemicist and Dreyfusard, dies. [see: Jun. 14]

1906 - [O.S. Aug. 19] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Premier Pyotr Stolypin (Пётр Столы́пин) orders field courts-martial for civilians, with immediate sentencing and execution; the decree provokes nearly universal outrage. A state of emergency has been extended throughout most of Russia, as local governments are given extraordinary powers. Mass arrests pushes the SR Maximalists into retreat, with its groups becoming increasingly disconnected and unable to co-ordinate actions.

[C] 1906 - Missak Manouchian (d. 1944), French-Armenian poet, a militant communist in the MOI (Main d'Œuvre Immigrée or Immigrant Workers Movement), and military commissioner of the FTP-MOI (Francs-Tireurs et Partisans de la Main d'Œuvre Immigrée; Partisan Irregular Riflemen of the MOI) in the Paris region, born in Adıyaman (now in southeastern Turkey). Manouchian's father died during the Armenian Genocide of 1915, and , with his mother dying soon afterwards, he and his brother, Karabet, now orphaned, joined the stream of Armenian refugees heading south into the French protectorate of Syria. In an orphanage there they learned the French language, carpentry and other manual skills. They remained until they were able to secure passage to Marseilles in 1925. In Paris Missak took a job as a lathe operator at a Citroën plant and joined the CGT (Confédération Générale du Travail). He also began writing poetry and with his Armenian friend Kégham Atmadjian, who used the pseudonym of Séma, founded two literary magazines, 'Tchank' (Effort) and 'Mechagouyt' (Culture). With the outbreak of war, in September 1939 Manouchian was evacuated from Paris as a foreigner. After the defeat of June 1940, he returned to occupied Paris and was arrested on June 22, 1941, by the Germans in an anti-Communist round-up in Paris. Interned in a prison camp at Compiègne, he was eventually released without charge due to the efforts of his wife. He was then the political chief of the Armenian section of the underground MOI until February 1943, when Manouchian transferred to the FTP-MOI, where he made his name commanding three detachments, totalling about 50 fighter. The Manouchian group, as it became known, is credited with the assassination on September 28, 1943, of General Julius Ritter, the assistant in France to Fritz Sauckel, head of forced labour under the German STO (Service du Travail Obligatoire) in Nazi-occupied Europe, and carrying out around thirty successful attacks on German interests from August to November 1943. However, the efforts of the Special Brigade No. 2 of General Intelligence eventually led to the complete dismantling of the FTP-MOI of Paris by mid-November 1943. On the morning of November 16, 1943, Manouchian was arrested in his headquarters at Évry-Petit Bourg. He and the other FTP-MOI fighters were tortured for information, and eventually handed over to the Germans' Geheime Feldpolizei (GFP). The 23 were given a 1944 show trial for propaganda purposes before execution. Manouchian and 21 of his comrades were shot at Fort Mont-Valérien near Paris on February 21, 1944.
Following the executions, the Germans printed 15,000 propaganda posters on red background paper, the notorious 'Affiche Rouge', featuring the photos of ten of the dead, each within its own black medallion. The central photo was of Manouchian and had the inscription: "Armenian gang leader, 56 bombings, 150 dead, 600 wounded". Aimed at portraying the MOI (and the Résistance in general) as criminal, murderous foreigners who were a danger to law-abiding, cooperative citizens, they were defaced with the words "Morts pour la France!"

[CC] 1908 - Lou Kenton (d. 2012), English printer, potter, communist and anti-fascist, born in Stepney, east London, to Jewish Ukrainian refugees. He joined the Communist party in 1929 against the backdrop of rampant anti-Semitism in the East End. In the 1930s, he was a printer in Fleet Street, convenor of the Printing and Allied Trades Anti-Fascist Movement and was one of those heckling at the Blackshirts' rally at Olympia on June 7, 1934, and was in the thick of things during the battle of Cable Street two years later. In 1937, he volunteered as an International Brigades ambulance driver, distributed supplies, helped evacuate Basque children and raise funds back in Britain. His first wife, Lillian, an Austrian refugee, also went to Spain to work as a nurse. During WWII, he worked on a whaler in the south Atlantic but was later badly injured in a bombing raid back in Britain and was hospitalised for two years. After the war, he worked as an organiser for the Communist party in London, and helped run the ex-servicemen's squatting movement. Following the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968, he left the CPGB and joined the Labour party. In retirement he found a new career, as a prolific maker of commemorative pottery for unions and other organisations. In 2009, he was one of the IB veterans awarded Spanish citizenship. When he died in 2012, aged 104, he was the oldest surviving British member of the International Brigades.

1909 - In the wake of the La Revolució de Juliol / Setmana Gloriosa [see: Jul. 26] and the ensuing closure of the secular schools, the Spanish government, at the behest of the Catholic Church, arrested Francisco Ferrer. He is to be put on trial as the supposed instigator of the La Revolució de Juliol / Setmana Gloriosa [see: Oct. 9] and will be shot on October 13.

[D] 1911 - Revolución Méxicana: Zapata manages to escape from the sugarcane fields, as General Huerta advances and takes Villa Ayala, which he finds deserted as the inhabitants of the town had left with Zapata as he fled south towards Puebla.

[F] 1910* - Cambrian Combine Miners' Strike / Tonypandy Riots: Under the general management of Leonard Llewellyn the Cambrian Combine produced 50% of the Rhondda’s coal output and maximised profits by advanced cost-efficiency methods. In its employ were over 12,000 men. Throughout 1909 negotiations were under way to settle a new cutting price for a seam in the Ely pit in Penygraig in the Rhondda. The management of the pit wanted to open up a new seam. It was a particularly problematic one, with a band of stone running through it, but the bosses claimed that during a test period miners had been working deliberately slowly so they could demand a higher price per ton of coal. The miners, paid on a piecemeal basis, demanded wages of two shillings and nine pence, but were only offered one and nine. When no agreement could be reached the management locked out not just the 70 'test men' but to all 950 workers at the colliery. The miners responded by calling a strike and when the Cambrian Combine, a cartel of mining companies formed to regulate prices and wages in South Wales, duly brought in strike breakers from outside the area it was clear that serious trouble lay ahead.
Managers protected the colliery and powerhouse with around 100 policemen, as power was maintained by 60 strike-breaking blackleg stokers and officials. On September 5, just days after the lock-out began, workmen at two other Naval pits went on strike in solidarity. Then miners at Cambrian and Glamorgan collieries followed suit and began picketing the work site. On September 16, the South Wales Miners Federation held a meeting attended by 248 delegates, representing the 147,000 miners of the Miners' Federation of Great Britain, a decision to support the strikers was made. Several token pay increases still far below what could be considered a minimum living wage were offered by the mine owners and were all rejected by the workers, with the Cambrian Combine employees in the other pits in the Tonypandy area agreeing that this was the first move in a plan to undercut their piece-rate wages too (i.e. the amount they received per ton of coal cut). On November 1, the South Wales Miners Federation (universally known as the Fed) balloted workers and 12,000 men from all the Cambrian pits voted to go out on strike. The pits stopped work and picketing began at all of the collieries that made up the Cambrian Combine in the area.
Despite a lack of enthusiastic support by the official South Wales Miners’ Federation leadership the men stayed out until the high summer of 1911 when they returned on the wages and conditions they were offered in October 1910. It was a bitter pill to swallow. Even so the issue of a minimum wage and the allied fair treatment for men working underground in ‘abnormal places’ (i.e. where water, or the height of the roof, or, as in the case of the Ely pit, the amount of stone in the coal made much work unproductive or ‘dead’) would not go away. In 1912 the British miners struck for, and won, at least some provision for a minimum wage.
As early as November 2, 1910, authorities in south Wales were enquiring about the procedure for requesting military aid in the event of disturbances because of the strike (in addition to the Cambrian Combine dispute there was a month-old strike in the neighbouring Cynon Valley) and in the Rhondda the Chief Constable of Glamorgan Lionel Lindsay had, by Sunday 6 November, concentrated over 200 imported police in the area. It was this force he judged inadequate after the attack on the Glamorgan colliery on November 7. His request for troops went straight to the War Office and, immediately, troops were entrained.
Winston Churchill, as Home Secretary, now learned of this movement and, after a brief conference with the War Office halted it. He rightly surmised that the local authorities were over-reacting and certainly hoped that a Liberal government could calm matters down. However, he did accede to the extent of despatching Metropolitan police officers (foot and mounted) and some troops (the cavalry) did proceed to Cardiff that day. Churchill’s personal message to the strikers was to the effect that ‘We are holding back the soldiers for the present and sending only police’. This could be seen as a veiled threat more than a promise.
Churchill, as Home Secretary, now learned of this movement and, after a brief conference with the War Office halted it. He rightly surmised that the local authorities were over-reacting and certainly hoped that a Liberal government could calm matters down. However, he did accede to the extent of despatching Metropolitan police officers (foot and mounted) and some troops (the cavalry) did proceed to Cardiff that day. Churchill’s personal message to the strikers was to the effect that ‘We are holding back the soldiers for the present and sending only police’. This could be seen as a veiled threat more than a promise.
[* some sources erroneously give the date of the lock out as August 1]

1912 - Paint Creek-Cabin Creek Miners' Strike: A force of over 5,000 miners from the north side of the Kanawha River now joins the strikers' tent city, leading Governor Glasscock to establish martial law in the region the following day. The 1,200 state troops confiscating arms and ammunition from both sides lessened tensions to some degree, but the strikers were forbidden to congregate, and were subject to fast, unfair trials in military court. Meanwhile, strikers' families began to suffer from hunger, cold, and the unsanitary conditions in their temporary tent colony at Holly Grove.

1912 - The first issue of Émile Aubin's bimonthly anti-militarist newspaper 'Le Cri du soldat', "Bulletin non officiel des Armées de Terre et de Mer", is published in Pantin, near Paris.

1912 - Paul Robin (b. 1837), wrongly forgotten French anarchist educator and néo-Malthusian whose libertarian legacy influences the educators Sébastien Faure and Francisco Ferrer, dies. [see: Apr. 3]

1917 - The first issue of the magazine 'Der Zeigelbrenner' (The Bricklayer) is published in Munich. Created by Ret Marut aka B. Traven, the magazine is illegal (following the defeat of the Soviet Republic of Bavaria ) and is released clandestinely, attacking censorship, militarism and state. It ceases publication in December 1921.

1918 - In the wake of the attempt on Lenin's life the previous day, the official decree launching the 'Red Terror' in Russian is released.

1922 - La Grève du Havre: With the prospect of the new school year and the threat of schools not opening their doors to the children of workers who remained out on strike, together with a hardening in the positions of some employers and their friends, including that of the landlords of some workers, who threatened to evict them if they continued their strike, the general strike in Le Harve in solidarity with the city's steelworkers ends.

1923 - A team from the action group Los Solidarios, consisting of Buenaventura Durruti Dumange, Gregorio Martínez Gazán aka 'El Toto', Rafael Torres Escartín, Miguel Garcia Vivancos, Adolfo Ballano Bueno, Gregorio Suberviela Baigorri and Eusebio Brau i Mestres, attack the Bank of Spain in Gijón at noon, seizing 650,000 pesetas but are intercepted by the Guardia Civil. Eusebio Brau and Rafael Torres Escartín cover the escape of their comrades but fail to escape themselves, being cornered the following day near Oviedo. Eusebio Brau is mortally wounded after they hold off the police for several hours but Torres Escartín is captured and tortured by the police before eventually being imprisoned.

1929 - Eduardo Colombo, French doctor, psychoanalyst, anarchist activist, member of the French CNT and former member of the FORA, born.

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: A two-day strike is called by the CNT in response to the killing of Isidro Floria Sánchez by the Guardia Civil the previous day. The strike, which would last 4 days, was characterised by numerous acts of sabotage and armed clashes with the Guardia Civil and the army, which the government had sent in along with cavalry units to guard government buildings, banks, Telefónica premises and the Central Market. The army and police fire on strikers on a number of occasions.
Strikes and sabotage spread across the country to town and cities including Cadiz, Huelva, Teruel, San Sebastián, Pozoblanco, Zamora, and Criptana. [see: Aug. 31]

1931 - In Valencia, during a waiters' strike, the CNT attacks premises that remain open.

1932 - The first edition of the journal '¡Tierra!', "Libre de Capitalismo Estado y Propiedad", is published in Montevideo.

1933 - The first issue of the monthly 'Acción Libertaria', paper of the Comité Regional de Relaciones Anarquistas, is published in Buenos Aires.

1934 - U.S. Textile Workers' Strike: On July 12, 1934, workers at the Dwight cotton textile mill in Gadsden, Etowah County, walked out. Two days later, workers at the Saratoga mill in Guntersville, Marshall County, also went on strike, and on July 17 the leaders of the Alabama branch of the United Textile Workers of America agreed to call for state-wide action, consolidating the workers' demands of an end to the 'stretch-out' (paying reduced 'piece rates', limiting breaks, and hiring more supervisors to discipline workers and speed production), a $20 minimum wage for a 30-hour work week, union recognition, and reinstatement of workers fired for union activity. The strike began in Huntsville the following day, then spread to Florence, Anniston, Gadsden, and Birmingham. While the strike was popular, it was also ineffective: many employers welcomed it as a means of cutting their expenses, since they had warehouses full of unsold goods. This move precipitated a national strike of textile workers, under UTW leadership, that began on September 1 and quickly moved far beyond the South's cotton mills. It remains the largest labour conflict in U.S. history and ended with the union's abject capitulation.

1937 - The first issue of the newspaper 'L'Espagne Antifasciste', "Organe trimestriel au service de la Révolution Espagnole", is published in Bordeaux. A collaboration between Paul Lapeyre, Jean Barrué and Robert Louzon, some of its articles are published in Spanish. In early 1938, it merges with 'L'Espagne Nouvelle'.

1938 - Council of Ministers revokes the citizenship of Jews granted after January 1, 1919, and requires Jews to move from certain areas. Tomorrow children are excluded from registering in schools and teachers excluded from the Academies and the Institutes of sciences, letters and arts.

1939 - Germany invades Poland, precipitating World War II.

1941 - Jiří Orten (Jiří Ohrenstein; b. 1919), Czech poet and nephew of the anarchist poet Josef Rosenzweig-Moir, dies 2 days after being knocked down in a Prague street by a German ambulance and refused hospital treatment as a Jew. [see: Aug. 30]

1941 - All Jews over the age of 6 in the German territories are ordered to wear the yellow star when in public.

1966 - Mabel Henrietta Capper (b. 1888), British WSPU 'soldier', who was imprisoned six times and was one of the first Suffragettes to be forcibly fed whilst on hunger strike, dies in a St Leonards on Sea nursing home, having suffered form crippling osteoarthritis and required full-time nursing care for the last ten years of her life. [see: Jun. 23]

[E] 1975 - Nomy Lamm (Naomi Elizabeth Lamm), US singer-songwriter, musician, anarcha-feminist and LBGTQ campaigner, who has referred to herself as a "bad ass, fat ass, Jew, dyke amputee", born.

1979 - Imperial Valley Lettuce Strike: Sun Harvest signs new contract with a $5.25 an hour minimum wage.

1981 - The first transmissions of Radio Libertaire 89.4 MHz, radio station of the Fédération Anarchiste, take to the airwaves.

[A] 1985 - A court case against four black defendants provokes a riot in Toxteth, Liverpool.

1985 - Agustí Centelles i Ossó (b. 1909), Spanish photojournalist noted for his iconic pictures of Republican Spain and especially Catalonia, dies. [see: May 22]

1992 - Casilda Hernáez Vargas [sometimes cited as Casilda Méndez Hernáez] aka 'Casilda, la Miliciana', 'Kasilda' & 'Kasi' (Soledad Casilda Hernáez Vargas ; b. 1914), Basque anarcha-feminst militant and member of the anti-Franco resistance, dies. [see: Apr. 9]

[EE] 1998 - Marina Padovese (b. 1958), Italian anarchist, feminist and anti-militarist, dies of leukaemia. Involved in the founding of the Pensiero e Volontà group in Como, part of the Gruppi Anarchici Federati. She was also involved in the editorial and graphic redesign of 'A-Rivista Anarchica', and during the Balkans conflict she was involved in the Donne in Nero (Women in Black) group, in solidarity with the women of the former Yugoslavia.
"Mi si ricordi come donna libera, anarchica, femminista, antimilitarista. Ho fortemente voluto una società di libere e di uguali, di pace, di giustizia e di solidarietà. Spero di averne lasciato traccia." ("I remember as a free woman, anarchist, feminist, anti-militarist. I really wanted a society of free and equal, of peace, justice and solidarity. I hope I have left these traces.") Marina Padovese's final testament.
[ Padovese]
1666 - Great Fire of London. Four-fifths of the city is destroyed in four days.

1830 - Justice Manning - notorious known for tracking down smugglers and poachers - has his barn and corn stacks burnt down by Swing rioters in Orpington, UK.

1848 - The first issue of Proudhon's newspaper 'Le Peuple', "Journal de la République Démocratique et Social", is published in response to the banning of 'Représentant du Peuple' on July 10, 1848. The newspaper is published until June 13, 1849, when it is replaced by 'La Voix du Peuple' from October 1, 1849 to May 14, 1850 before resuming under its original title between June 15 and October 13, 1850.

[B] 1854 - Hans Henrik Jaeger (d. 1910), Norwegian writer, playwright, novelist, bohemian and anarchist, an important friend and influence on Edvard Munch, born. Abused and driven out by the bourgeoisie and police in Kristiania, his portrait is Munch's final work. Member of the bohemian group Kristianiabohemen and friend of Edvard Munch, he was prosecuted for his novel 'Fra Kristiania-Bohêmen' (Scenes from Kristiania-Bohêmen; 1885) and sentenced to 60 days' imprisonment in 1886. His 1906 book, 'Anarkiets Bibel' (The Bible of Anarchism), advocating his philosophy of the expropriative general strike coupled with the need for individual and sexual liberation, encompassing a raging attack on religion, capitalism, private property and the state.

1872 - The fifth General Congress of the International Workingmen's Association opens in The Hague. In the aftermath of the Paris Commune and Bakunin characterisation of Marx's ideas as authoritarian, arguing that if a Marxist party came to power its leaders would end up as bad as the ruling class they had fought against (c.f. 'Statism and Anarchy'), it was inevitable that the Hague Congress of the First International would see the long-running conflict between anarchists and Marxists come to a head. It resulted in the expulsion of Bakunin and Guillaume and a split between the 'red' and 'black' internationals. The anarchist faction, including the Jura federation and the federations of Spain, Italy and Belgium, then held their own Congress of Saint-Imier a few days later on September 15-16, from which also emerged the Anarchist St. Imier International.

1876 - The second General Congress of the International Workingmen's Association opens in Lausanne (Sept. 2-7).

1885 - Henri Demaille aka 'Petit Breton' (d. unknown), French merchant and anarchist member of Groupe Libertaire Havrais, born.

1887 - Georges 'Émile' Dulac (d. 19??), French anarchist and chocolatier, born.

1888 - The only issue of the newssheet 'L'Urlo della Canaglia' (The Howl of the Scoundrel) is published in Padua. It bears the epigraphs of bears the inscriptions of Blanqui, "Neither God nor master", and Shetchley, "Having the right to vote, does not mean having the right to freedom."

1905 - [O.S. Aug. 20] Inter-ethnic Armenian-Azerbaijani riots erupt in Baku, Tiflis and Erivan (Sep. 2-8); thousands are killed.

1906 - Having chosen the date of September 16, 1906, the day that the Mexican Independence is celebrated, Ricardo Flores Magón and Juan Sarabia arrive in El Paso, Texas to coordinate plans for the uprising with Antonio I. Villarreal, Cesar E. Canales, Prisciliano G. Silva, Professor Lauro Aguirre and other members of PLM operating along the border. The plans involved 44 groups of guerrilleros, some involving with up to 300 (although the average was 50) who were to launch raids into México, capturing custom houses on the border, blowing up railways, cutting telegraph wires and raiding stores for weapons and supplies, fermenting a revolution across the country. However, US police began a series of raids over the following days in which they seized weapons and documents, and discovered the plans for the insurrection, which had to be postponed til September 26th.

1909 - Heinz Harro Max Wilhelm Georg Schulze-Boysen (d. 1942), German officer, commentator and anti-Nazi Resistance fighter, who was executed for his part in the activities of the (Nazi named) Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra) resistance group, born. In 1928, he joined the Jungdeutscher Orden, a youth organisation in the Weimar Republic and the Studentenverbindung Albingia student organisation. He studied law in Freiburg (Baden-Württemberg), and Berlin, without finishing and, by 1930, was a supporter of the intellectual-nationalistic group, the Volksnationale Reichsvereinigung (People's National Imperial Union). The same year, he became editor of Franz Jung's left-liberal anti-fascist 'Der Gegner' (The Opponents) and in 1932 he organised the Treffen der revolutionären Jugend Europas (Meeting of Europe's Revolutionary Youth). In April 1933, when the offices of Der Gegner were destroyed by Brown Shirt thugs, Schulze-Boysen was beaten up and had swastikas carved into his flesh. In May 1933 he began pilot training, later working in the communications department of the Reich Air Transport Ministry. Beginning in 1935, he became part of a circle of left-leaning anti-fascists - artists, pacifists, and Communists - who published anti-fascist writings amongst other activities. In 1936, Schulze-Boysen made contact with Arvid Harnack and his circle, and also with the Communists Hilde and Hans Coppi (widely known as the Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra) group. In July 1942, the group's radio messages were intercepted and decoded, and on August 31, Harro and his wife Libertas Schulze-Boysen were arrested by the Gestapo. They were sentenced to death on December 19 and executed three days later at Plötzensee Prison in Berlin.

1910 - The return of the editorial board to Los Angeles, and the third epoch of 'Regeneración' begins at 519 ½ E. 4th Street, Nelson Flats.

1910 - Domingo Trama (d. 2003), Argentine shipyard worker and militant anarcho-syndicalist, born. [expand]

1912 - Paint Creek-Cabin Creek Miners' Strike: The West Virginia governor imposes martial law in the mining areas following the arrival of a large force of miners at the strikers' Holly Grove tent city. Strikers are forbidden to congregate and face fast-track military courts and long sentences. State troopers are also allowed to confiscate weapons from both sides – the miners and the private security guards hired by the mine operators.

1917 - Mass arrests of Wobblies and other radicals during the Palmer Raids. [expand]

1918 - Claire Culhane (d. 1996), Canadian nurse, hospital records librarian, socialist, leading anti-Vietnam War activist in the Enough/Assez campaign and prisoner rights advocate, born.

1920 - Occupazioni delle Fabbriche: The factory occupations extends to all the metal foundries in major Italian cities. In Rome, Bologna, La Spezia, Genoa and Turin, the occupations are carried out in the greatest enthusiasm. At the FIAT Lingotto factory in Turin, police try to enter under cover of darkness in order to capture new guns, but they are put to flight by the siren and repelled under heavy fire from the sentries. In Genoa, a guard opens fire as workers try to enter the Odero factory to occupy it. One worker is killed and five others injured.

1921 - Battle of Blair Mountain: With the arrival of a squadron of Army Air Service reconnaissance planes the previous day, and now 2,500 army troops under the command of General Bandholtz, ordered to intervene President Warren G. Harding, the pro-union miners decided to lay down their arms and surrender. Roughly 1,000 exhausted miners eventually surrendered to the army, while the rest scattered and returned home – though scattered fighting continued between the miners and the Logan Defenders until September 4.
The exact number of casualties suffered by both sides during the battle is not known, but up to 30 deaths were reported by Chafin's side and over a hundred on the union miners' side, with hundreds more injured or wounded. [see: Aug. 31]

1923 - Following yesterday's bank robbery by Los Solidarios, Rafael Torres Escartín, a member of the anarchist Los Solidarios, is arrested and tortured by the police. He manages to escape, but is later recaptured.

1931 - La Vaga de Lloguers de 1931 / La Huelga de Alquileres [1931 Barcelona Rent Strike]: Population pressure on Barcelona in the early 1930s had coincided with the proclamation of the Second Republic, resulting in a very expensive housing sector. [At the time Barcelona had the most expensive housing in Europe, according to the purchasing power of its population, representing between 30 and 40% of the average worker's wage labour, when it averaged 15% in most European cities.] This coupled with widespread unemployment and the precarious situation of the city's working classes, especially in the construction sector, led to numerous evictions by the republican police.
The lack of any response from the authorities led to a rent strike being called in April 1931 by the Comité de Defensa Económica del Sindicato de la Construcción de la CNT and the Federación Local de Sindicatos Únicos, just days after the establishment of the provisional government. The tactic was to stop paying rent indefinitely whilst demanding that the landlrds lower rents by 40% across the sector and the protests that had started in Barceloneta quickly spread to districts such as Sants, El Clot, Poblenou as well as L'Hospitalet and Santa Coloma de Gramenet. At its peak, 100,000 working families had stopped paying their monthly rent with the rebel tenants adopting flexible and imaginative tactics, such as their regular protests in front of the homes of landlords. Solidarity actions helped stop many eviction, and even when they did occur, within a few hours the evicted families had been helped to returned and reoccupy their homes. When electricity and water were cut off, other service workers helped reconnect them. To prevent the neighbours from replacing the furniture, for example, the Guardia de Asalto threw them out the window to break both the widows and the family's few precious possessions. Or they arrested those trying to rehouse the evicted.
The strike managed to hold firm, lasting the nine months until December 1931, thanks to the decisive role of women and children, the former having a major role as the administrators of their husbands' salary envelopes. However, the new Republican government together with the civil governor, Oriol Anguera de Sojo, and the president of the Cámara de la Propiedad (Chamber of Property), Juan Pich i Pon, reacted harshly, repressing the strikers and tenants who tried to return to their homes after being evicted and filled the Model prison and the floating prison ship 'Antonio López' in the city's harbour with hundreds of 'presos gubernativos' (government prisoners).
The repression triggered a hunger strike amongst some of the prisoners in the Modelo prison and their mistreatment in turn sparked a three day general strike, which was harshly repressed by the government and ended with eighteen workers killed and six policemen were injured, with over 300 workers arrested. The strong repressive climate led the union decided to call off the strike a few months later. But despite the repression, the rent strike achieved significant reductions in rents for many families and put on the table for the first time the debate about the right to property versus the right to housing.
During the morning of September 2, the Civil Governor of Barcelona, Oriol Anguera de Sojo , visits the 51 prisoners being held without trial and currently on hunger strike demanding their release. However, he tells them that he will not negotiate with them until they cease their protests. The prisoners refuse to give into his blackmail and the governor's intransigence provokes a rebellion, which extends to common prisoners, during which doors and mattresses are burned in the corridors of the prison, and the prison chapel and printing press burns down. The guardias de asaltos storm the jail and put down the mutiny within a few hours. The workers of Barcelona respond by launching an insurrectionary general strike the following day.

[E] 1942 - Ekaterina Ivanovna Gabrielts (Екатерина Ивановна Габриэльц; b. 1898), Russian accountant and anarcho-syndicalist (according to other sources an S-R Party [ПСР] member), dies in the women's special department of the Karaganda labour camp. First arrested in 1922, since that time constantly in prisons, camps and exile. Arrested on October 28, 1937 the NKVD and sentenced to 8 years by Special Council of the NKVD on December 29, 1937.

1944 - Maria Vetulani de Nisau, aka 'Maryna', (b. 1898), Polish socialist participant of the Warsaw Uprising, is murdered by the Germans during the liquidation of the insurgent hospital on Długa Street. [see: Nov. 27]

[D] 1945 - August Revolution [Cách mạng tháng Tám] / August General Uprising [Tổng Khởi nghĩa tháng Tám]: Hồ Chí Minh declares Vietnamese Independence from its French colonial rulers.

1956 - (2nd-8th) First World Congress of Free Artists at Alba, Italy. Participants: Enrico Baj (Nuclear Art Movement, Milan; excluded in the course of the conference on the Lettrist delegate's demand), Jacques Calonne, Constant (ex-Cobra; Christian Dotremont does not attend, ostensibly because of illness), Giuseppe Pinot Gallizio, Asger Jorn, Piero Simondo, Ettore Sottsass Jr, Elena Verrone (International Movement for an Imaginist Bauhaus), Gil J. Wolman (Lettrist International/Potlatch), Sandro Cherchi, Franco Garelli (Turin), Jan Kotik, Pravoslav Rada (Czechoslovakia), Charles Estienne, Klaus Fischer, several others.
Two exhibitions are held simultaneously: 'Futurist Ceramics 1925-33', organised by Jorn and Gallizio, at Alba town hall; and an exhibition by the experimental laboratory at Corino cinema, involving Constant, Gallizio, Garelli, Jorn, Kotik, Rada, Simondo and Wolman.

[C] 1962 - With their planned march from Victoria Park Square to Shoreditch banned, Oswald Mosley's Union Movement go ahead with their meeting. However, it would collapse under a hail of stones, eggs and fruit, and resulted in over 40 arrests. Mr Jeffrey Hamm started the meeting with a few supporters. When Mosley arrived about an hour later, the crowd had increased and eggs were being thrown. He climbed onto the speaker's 'platform' - a lorry - and spoke for two minutes, but his speech was drowned by shouts of "Six million Jews! Belsen, down with Mosley!" Then the police ordered the meeting to close. As Mosley moved away the crowed advanced towards his car and hammered on the windows with their fists. He was followed by his supporters, mainly teenagers, in the speakers lorry. Five hundred police cleared the Park and forty persons were arrested. It was the fourth Mosley rally broken up by angry crowds since June 22.

1962 - At the same time that Mosley was hold his meeting In Victoria Park, the British National Party meeting, which was planned for Ridley Road, had to be held a quarter of a mile away at Hertford Road. This is because Yellow Star Movement members had jumped the BNP pitch early in the day, to hold a marathon filibuster meeting with 136 speakers. The Hertford Road BNP meeting was met with strong opposition by a large crowd of mostly Jewish people, and the speech by John Bean, the party's acting secretary, was largely inaudible ddue to loud heckling. Bean, who was guarded by mounted policemen, said his speaker system had been 'smashed' and a Land Rover had been wrecked. Two of his supporters stood in front of him with bandaged heads resulting in their earlier failed attempt to retake the Ridley Road pitch and were subsequently attacked in Hertford Rd. by 400 anti-fascists, including 62 Group members. [PR]

[A] 1964 - Stuart Christie and Fernando Carballo Blanco are sent to prison for planning to assassinate Franco during a Real Madrid football game, after Christie is arrested with a rucksack full of plastic explosives. Charged with Banditry and terrorism and tried by a drumhead court martial within two weeks of their arrest, Carballo gets 30 years and Christie 20.

1967 - Ex-British Army Major and pirate radio broadcaster Paddy Roy Bates, who had seized HM Fort Roughs, a former World War II Maunsell Sea Fort in the North Sea 13 km (7 nmi i.e. outside the then three-mile territorial water claim of the United Kingdom and therefore in international waters) off the coast of Suffolk on 14 August, declares independence from Britain and establishes the Principality of Sealand with himself as hereditary head of state ('His Royal Highness Prince Roy' and his wife 'Princess Joan', with his son becoming 'Prince Michael, Prince Regent').

1973 - John Ronald Reuel Tolkien (b. 1892), English writer, poet, and professor, known for his literary works, 'The Hobbit' and 'The Lord of the Rings', dies. [see: Jan. 3]

[F] 1976 - Grunwick Dispute: All 137 striking workers are dismissed by the company. In the intervening period, APEX had declared the strike 'official' and sought a meeting with Grunwick management, as did, informally, ACAS. The company refused to meet with APEX or ACAS.

1979 - RAR/ANL Carnival Brockwell Park, London. Aswad, Stiff Little Fingers and Verdict on the bill.

1982 - Edith Lagos Saez (b. 1962), Peruvian guerrilla fighter and commander in the Ejército Guerrillero Popular (Sendero Luminoso) and member of the Partido Comunista del Perú, is bayoneted to death by members of the Guardia Republicana del Perú as she and her unit attempts to blow a hole in the wall of the Ayacucho jail in order to free a prisoner and steal arms. She is just 19-years-old. [see: Nov. 27]

1984 - Manos Katrakis (b. 1908), Greek theatre and film actor, who fought with the EAM/ELAS communist anti-fascist resistance during WWII and refused to sign a declaration of repentance during the Greek Civil War of 1946-49, dies. [see: Aug. 14]

2014 - Ferguson, Missouri: St. Louis County Police and Missouri State Highway Patrol arrest more than a dozen people, including Mary Moore, a freelance journalist who has worked for CNN. Protesters are charged with offences including failure to comply with police, noise ordinance violations and resisting arrest. In court they have to wear Guantanamo-style orange jumpsuits.
1812 - Luddite Timeline: Destruction of gig-mill at Southowram near Halifax. Shearing frames destroyed at Gildersome near Morley. [Luddites]

1843 - Greek Revolution [Επανάσταση της 3ης Σεπτεμβρίου]: Originally timed to coincide with the anniversary of the Revolution of 1821 (Επανάσταση του 1821), the armed uprising of the Greeks against the Ottoman Empire, on March 25, 1844, with the number of those with knowledge of the dateincreasing, it was decied to bring the uprising forward. During the night of the 2nd-3rd, the uprising takes place and by 03:00 the new government is in place.

1864 - Leo Tolstoy, Russian author and mystical anarchist, is seized with terror in a country inn and imagines he is confronting death, an incident that furnishes the basis for 'Notes of a Madman'.

1866 - The First General Congress of the International Workingmen's Association (Sept. 3-8) is held in Geneva. Fortyfive delegates, representing the Swiss, French and German Sections and the London General Council, set about debating the adoption of the organisation's General Statutes, including the adoption of the 8-hour work day as one of its fundamental demands.

1867 - Jehan-Rictus (Domitille-Camille-Gabrielle-Adine Randon de Saint-Amand; d. 1933), French poet and anarchist, born. His early Symbolist work was published under his birth name, Gabriel Randon, but he later adopted the pen name Jehan-Rictus and published more popular working class poems including his best known collection 'Les Soliloques du Pauvre' (1897), but by the time of WWI he had become a nationalist and Royalist. His early passion for anarchism resulted in an unpublished novel, 'l'Impostor' (c. 1892), recounting the return of Christ to France, a theme returned to in his most famous poem 'Le Revenant' about a meeting between a tramp and Jesus.

[B] 1878 - Madeleine Vernet (Madeleine Eugénie Clémentine Victorine Cavelier; d. 1949), French libertarian educator, novelist, poet, feminist, peace activist and propagandist, born. In 1888, Madeleine Vernet's parents moved to Barentin (Seine-Inférieure), where they opened a small business. Around 1900, Madeleine Vernet's then widowed mother moved to Pissy-Pôvilie (Seine-Inferieure) and, in order to survive, took charge of four orphan girls under the old 'enfants de l'Assistance publique' social welfare scheme. This event revealed to the young Vernet her vocation as a popular educator. She wrote a series of articles under the pen name 'Madeleine Vernet' on the "Bureautins" [children raised in the country at the expense of the charity office of Rouen] for Charles Guieysse's 'Pages libres' (Free Pages), denouncing the great misery of these fostered children and the abuses tolerated by the then Administration; in retaliation, the pupils entrusted to his mother were withdrawn. Madeleine Vernet tried to create a working-class orphanage managed by co-operatives in the Rouen region, but she failed. In 1904 Madeleine Vernet participated in founding the Ruche at Rambouillet, a school dedicated to avant-garde education and, at the end of that year, she moved to Paris to try to realise her plans. In order to subsist, Vernet worked as an accountant; whilst at the same time becoming tried to gain support for her plans from unions and cooperatives, journalists and deputies. It was then that she began frequenting libertarian circles, and met Albert Thomas, Marcel Sembat and Georges Yvetot. She also collaborated on 'Libertaire' and 'Temps Nouveaux', often writing about her opposition to the néo-Malthusian movement as well as her criticism of the then feminist movement, which she saw more concerned with their own personal struggles rather that the wider social struggle. Vernet also published a series of pamphlets, including the successful 'L'Amour Libre' [Monthly Pamphlet No. 30, April 1925] in which she denounced marriage, source of hypocrisy and sorrow, and affirmed the value of true love without chains or social obligations. She also published a novel, 'La Torine'.
On May 1, 1906, thanks in part to her mother's savings, and with the help from her sister and her partner Louis Tribier, whom she married on October 12, 1909, she founded the L'Avenir Social orphanage in a small house in Neuilly-Plaisance (Seine-et-Oise). In August, Madeleine Vernet rented a second house, since the orphanage now had twenty-four residents. In 1907 there were thirty: seventeen boys and thirteen girls. The orphanage was able to survive thanks to the donations of friends, the help provided by the cooperative La Bellevilloise, and subscriptions from 'Humanité' and 'Guerre Sociale'.
On April 14, 1908, L'Avenir Social was transferred to Épône (Seine-et-Oise). There, Madeleine Vernet continued her work in spite of the hostility of the clerical population and the harassment of the administration and the primary inspector of Mantes. Attacked for its "unhealthy coeducation", Madeleine was banned from teaching and the school fined and forced to close, but the orphanage survived thanks to the financial support of trade unions, cooperatives and various socialist and anarchist groups. In May 1914, L'Avenir Social officially became the 'l'Orphelinat du mouvement ouvrier français' (Orphanage of the French Labour Movement'.
The war forced Madeleine Vernet to leave Épône for the "colony of children of mobilised troops" in Etretat (Seine-Inferieure) but, as soon as the front was stabilised, she return to Épône. Throughout the war, Madeleine Vernet engaged in pacifist propaganda activities. She published poems, took in Johan, the eldest son of Marie and François Mayoux, who were in prison at the time for their anti-militarist propaganda activities, organised a defence committee for Hélène Brion, a schoolteacher and secretary of the board of Épône, who had been arrested for distributing pacifist propaganda. Madeleine Vernet distributed an underground pamphlet, and two numbers of Les Voix qu’on étrangle, a pacifist sheet. In 1916–17 she contributed to Sébastien Faure's journal 'Ce qu’il faut dire'. In April 1918 she published 'L'École laïque menacée' (The Lay School Threatened), and undertook a lecture tour in Lyon, Saint-Étienne, Firminy and Saint-Chamond. On her return to Épône she was charged with defeatist propaganda, but the charges were dropped with the armistice.
In October 1917 Madeleine Vernet founded 'La Mère Éducatrice', which she published until her death, as a platform to espouse her particular synthesis of feminism, pacifism and maternity, and collaborating with radical feminists such as Nelly Roussel, Louise Bodin and Hélène Brion. In 1921, Madeleine Vernet founded the Ligue des femmes contre la guerre (League of Women against War) in Paris, and continued her educational work in the orphanage at Épône for a while. However, by 1922 the majority of the board of directors of the orphanage were Communist and, disagreeing with their views, in January 1923 she resigned as director. On June 13, 1923, the pupils of Épône left for Mitry-Mory (Seine-et-Marne), new residence of the work. Two years later, L'Avenir Social was taken over by the Union départementale unitaire de la Seine. Transferred to La Villette-aux-Aulnes (Seine-et-Oise), it became L'Orphelinat Ouvrier, which ceased to function in 1938.
Madeleine then lived at 39 rue Chaptal in Levallois-Perret where from July 1923 she managed the bookshop Au Panthéon de la Pensée. In 1928, Madeleine Vernet was secretary-general of the Comité international d'action et propagande pour la paix et le désarmement (International Committee for Action and Propaganda for Peace and Disarmament), whose newspaper, 'La Volonté de Paix' (The Will to Peace) she founded in June 1927. The newspaper was banned in January 1936 following the trial of its manager, her partner Louis Tribier, who had been accused of incitement (of soldiers) to disobedience. In April 1935, Madeleine Vernet was elected to the Governing Board of the Ligue internationale des combattants de la Paix.
Madeleine Vernet died on October 5, 1949 and was buried in the cemetery of Barentin (Seine-Inférieure).

"What we want is to raise the child for himself (...) is to awaken to the ideas of association, solidarity, understanding, it is to give him the taste for work and to inspire him with the disgust of domesticity."


[C] 1899 - Wilhelm (or Vilmos) Stepper-Tristis (d. unknown), Hungarian novelist, journalist, literary critic, communist and anti-fascist, who joined the French Résistance and is presumed to have died in a concentration camp, born. [expand]

1903 - [O.S. Aug. 20] Preobrazhenie Uprising [Преображенско въстание]: A strong Ottoman force begins reasserting their control.Илинденско-Преображенско_въстание–Preobrazhenie_Uprisingилинденско-преображенско-въстание-у/Вътрешна_македоно-одринска_революционна_организация]

1906 - Thomas H. Rynningg leads Arizona Rangers and immigration officers in a raid on an underground cell of the Partido Liberal Méxicano during a meeting in Douglas. They discover dynamite, pistols and banners, and seven members are arrested for violation of the Neutrality Law. The group had been gathering weapons and ammunition for a major expedition into
México which included capturing custom houses on the border, blowing up railways, cutting telegraph wires and raiding stores for weapons and supplies as part of the planned insurrection of September 16.

[F] 1910 - Corruganza Boxmakers' Strike: The dispute was settled by the Board of Trade, with the firm agreeing to reinstate all the strikers and the piece work rates were to remain as before, except in the case of tube rolling for incandescent mantle boxes where the rate was to be reduced. Mary Williams, the forewoman, decided not to return but was sent £10 by a well-wisher to help her until she found another position. The Women's Freedom League newspaper 'The Vote' saw the victory as an important step for women: "The amount of sympathy and help given to the strikers by the public shows that, thanks to the Suffrage agitation, fair play towards women has now made decided progress."

1915 - Wobbly Tom Barker is arrested in Australia for his 'Workers, follow your masters: stay at home' anti-war poster. He is sentenced to 12 months hard labour, but is quickly released within three months, following a series of fires in stores and factories. Tom Barker, organised for the IWW in New Zealand, Australia, Chile, Argentina, the US, the UK, Russia, Germany and upon the High Seas. "For every day Barker is in jail, it will cost the capitalists £10,000" - Donald Grant, IWW leader.

[E] 1918 - Fanya Yefimovna Kaplan [Фа́нни Ефи́мовна Капла́н] (Feiga Haimovna Roytblat [Фейга Хаимовна Ройтблат]; b. 1890), Russian Socialist-Revolutionary and one-time anarchist, who unsuccessfully attempted to assassinate Lenin at the 'Hammer and Sickle' factory on August 31, 1918, is executed. [see: Feb. 22]

1920 - Joseph Lane (b. 1851), British anarchist, dies. One of the little-known founders of the libertarian socialist movement in Britain. Author of 'An Anti-statist, Communist Manifesto' (1887). [see: Apr. 2]

1920 - Occupazioni delle Fabbriche: In Spezia, nearly all the factories have been occupied and are under workers' control. [see: Sep. 2]

1921 - Italian anarchist Giuseppe Morelli is attacked by a group of Royal Guards and Fascists in Piombino whilst putting up Arditi del Popolo posters against the Patto di Pacificazione (Pact of Pacification), the peace treaty between Fascists and Socialists. A Deputy Commissioner of Police shoots him dead. During the night, in an attempt to pre-empt an anarchist backlash, the police raid homes and workplaces (during night shifts), arresting more than 200 comrades. Having eliminated the most politically active and militant anarchist trades unionists, the fascists understood that this was the time to launch their attack. Having attacked the Camera del Lavoro (Trade Union hall) and the printshop of the regional socialist newspaper 'La Fiamma', and then headed towards the Camera Confederale (Trade Union headquarters), they were intercepted by a patrol of young anarchists, who were soon reinforced by groups of workers, and the fascists had no choice but to surrender to the police in order to escape a severe dose of working class justice.

1923 - Foundry worker and anarchist guerilla Eusebio Brau (b. unknown), who was mortally wounded in the same firefight yesterday that resulted in Rafael Torres Escartín's capture, dies of his wounds.

1923 - Mario Castagna (1903-unknown), an exiled Italian anarchist militant and anti-fascist, is confronted in Paris by a group of fascists. Defending himself from attack, Castagna pulls a pistol and shoots dead one of the attackers. He is sentenced to 7 years in prison on June 28 1924, despite it clearly being a case of self-defence.

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: Clashes continue in Zaragoza and across the country. Meanwhile, the CNT calls an assembly of the Frontón Zaragozano at 16:00, chaired by Mariano Andrés. A return to work is agreed and demand that the governor frees prisoners and opens trade union halls within 48 hours. Several thousand workers attend the meeting. [see: Jul. 6 & Aug. 31]

[D] 1931 - Vaga General de Barcelona / Huelga General de Barcelona: An insurrectionary general strike is launched in Barcelona in protest against the treatment of the hunger strike prisoners in the Modelo. The strike begins with the paralysis of industry, public transport and lighting of the city. Shops and restaurants open initially, but after a little persuasion from trade unionists, almost all acceed and close their blinds. Nothing moves in the port and even private car disappear from th roads. Earlier that morning, two cars on the Paseo de San Juan who had been seized by the authorities, were stopped by a group of strikers who did not know they contained police. The cops exited the cars and fired on the pickets, wounding four of them. Another incident occurred at 08:00 on Calle del Carmen, when a group of pickets tried to force a private car to return to the garage. A number of guardias de Seguridad, realising the situation proceeded to search them but they fired at the guards, seriously wounding one of them. In a further exchange of shots, several people are wounded. On the same morning, a group tried to set fire to the church in the Collblanc barrio, but the fire brigade quickly extinguished it. In L'Hospitalet (Barcelona) the church of San Ramón is also torched.
The gobernador civil de Barcelona, José Oriol Anguera de Sojo, responsible for public order in the province of Barcelona, stated that transgression of the law would be punished with adequate force, and that any act of hostility would be repressed. He also suspended the publication of the newspaper 'Solidaridad Obrera'.

1934 - U.S. Textile Workers' Strike: Nearly 10,000 workers march in the Labor Day parade in Gastonia NC, where authorities had brutally suppressed a textile strike five years earlier. The next day, 20,000 of the city’s mill workers walked off the job. During the next week, thousands of union members traveled throughout the South in cars and trucks to organise workers and help close down mills. People called these fleets of union supporters 'flying squadrons'. By week’s end, 300,000 to 500,000 textile workers from New England to the Deep South had gone on strike. Most strikers came from the cotton mills of North and South Carolina. All 104 mills in Gaston County had closed by September 7.

1938 - Barthélemy De Ligt (b. 1883), Dutch anarcho-pacifist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Jul. 17]

1940 - Eduardo Hughes Galeano, Uraguayan libertarian writer, novelist and journalist, born. Author of 'Días y Noches de Amor y de Guerra' (Days and Nights of Love and War; 1982).

1942 - Łachwa Ghetto Uprising: The ghetto in Lachwa was established on April 4, 1942, and was massively overcrowded and the meagre food allowance for Jews in the ghetto drove Jews to seek food outside of the ghetto, something punishable by death. In August and September 1941, news of massacres in the surrounding towns spread in Lachwa. Beginning in January 1942, Jewish youth organised underground groups led by Yitzhak Rochczyn and aided by Dov Lopatyn, head of the ghetto’s Judenrat. On September 3, 1942, the Germans informed Dov Lopatyn that the ghetto was to be liquidated, and ordered the ghetto inhabitants to gather for deportation, promising that the members of Judenrat, the ghetto doctor and 30 labourers (whom Lopatyn could choose personally) would be spared if they cooperated. Lopatyn refused the offer, reportedly responding: "Either we all live, or we all die."
When the Germans entered the ghetto, Lopatyn set fire to the Judenrat headquarters, which was the signal to commence the uprising. Other buildings were also set on fire. Members of the Ghetto underground attacked the Germans as they entered the ghetto, using axes, sticks, molotov cocktails and their bare hands. This battle is believed to represent the first ghetto uprising of the war. Approximately 650 Jews were killed in the fighting or in the flames, with another 500 or so taken to the pits and shot. Six German soldiers and eight German and Ukrainian (or Belarusian) policemen were also killed. The ghetto fence was breached and approximately 1,000 Jews were able to escape, of whom about 600 were able to take refuge in the Prypeć (Pripet) Marshes. Rochczyn was shot and killed as he jumped into the Smierc River, after killing a German soldier with an axe to the head. Although an estimated 120 of the escapees were able to join partisan units, most of the others were eventually tracked down and killed. Approximately 90 residents of the ghetto survived the war. Dov Lopatyn joined a communist partisan unit and was killed on February 21, 1944, by a landmine.

1943 - Michael Anthony 'Mick' Farren (d. 2013), English journalist, writer, poet, musician, activist, agent provocateur and anarchist, born. Frontman for anarchist proto-punk band The Deviants (1967-69) plus various reunions/one-offs. Solo artist whose albums include the wonderfully titled 'Vampires Stole My Lunch Money' (1978). Co-writer on songs for The Pink Faries, Hawkwind and Motörhead. Organiser of the Phun City Festival in 1970.
Writer for, and briefly editor of, 'International Times' and later 'New Musical Express'. Columnist for 'Trouser Press' and 'LA CityBeat'. Author of 23 science fiction novels, including: the 'DNA Cowboys Trilogy' (actually a quartet; 1976-1989) and 'Jim Morrison's Adventures in the Afterlife' (1999); plus 11 non-fiction books, such as 'Conspiracies, Lies And Hidden Agendas: Our Deepest Secret Fears, from the Antichrist to the Trenchcoat Mafia' (1999), 'Who's Watching You?: The Chilling Truth about the State, Surveillance and Personal Freedom' (2007), 'Elvis Died for Somebody's Sins But Not Mine: A Lifetime's Collected Writing' (2013), and his 2001 memoir, 'Give The Anarchist A Cigarette'; and reams of poetry, including the collection 'Black Dogs Circled' (2012).
He was also a prominent activist in the White Panthers UK, helping organised free food and other support services for free festivals from the Windsor Free Festival in 1972 onwards.
"There I was, cocky and paranoid, yet another anarchist art student teenage asshole, rebel without a clue, too dumb to recognize the impossible but with that burning desire to do it. It was 1967, and all things seemed possible, we wanted the world and we wanted it now. Vietnam was getting ugly and LSD-25 was hitting the headlines." - Notes for 'PTOOFF!' [A thousand miles of barbed wire starts with the first barb…]

1956 - Jean Le Gall (b. 1896), militant French libertarian and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Jun. 14]

1965 - Beatriz González Ortega (b. 1873) Mexican teacher, who during the Toma de Zacatecas turned her school, the Escuela Normal de Zacatecas, into a temporary hospital treating more than 500 wounded federal and revolutionary soldiers, without distinguishing between sides, dies in Mexico City.

[AA] 1972 - French gangster Jaques Mesrine escapes with a comrade (Jean-Paul Mercier) from the maximum security Saint-Vincent-de-Paul prison in Canada. He later returns with weapons to attempt a mass breakout. This fails, Mercier is wounded, but they remain unapprehended.

[A] 1976 - Hull Prison riot ends but the prison would stay closed for the best part of a year following the damage wrought by the prisoners.

1977 - A mass paint-out of racist slogans around Warwick and Leamington Spa planned to follow a called by the Leamington 4 Defence Committee [see: Feb. 17], the support group for 4 local anti-fascists who are awaiting trail on charges of criminal damage for painting out an earlier racist slogan ["Wogs out! Had enough Whitey?" (sic)], is called off after Warwick police and Council pre-empt the action and paint-out the offending graffiti themselves. Six local British Movement members, led by local neo-Nazi Michael Cole who was responsible for the "Wogs out!" graffiti along with the notorious Robert Relf, quickly make themselves scarce as the 150 protesters march into Warwick market Place.

1983 - 5000 pepole take part in a demonstration protesting the events of August 28 1983 when the CRS attacked the Radio Libertaire premises, wrecking equipment and beating and arresting staff.

1993 - Baltasar Lobo (b. 1910), Spanish artist, illustrator, sculptor and anarchist, dies. [see: Feb. 22]

2001 - Emily Rosdolsky (Emily Meder; b. 1911), Austrian Trotskyist, anti-Stalinist, and activist in the anti-fascist, trade union and feminist movements, dies in Vienna at the age of 90 years. [see: Jun. 2]
1834 - Tolpuddle Martyrs: Having set sail on May 17 from Portsmouth aboard the William Metcalfe bound for Van Diemen's Land, George Loveless arrives in Hobart Town. [see: Mar. 17 & 18]

[E] 1838* - Victorine Brocher-Rouchy aka Victorine B (Victorine Malenfant; d.1921), French anarchist and Pétroleuse, is born into a family with a long revolutionary tradition. The daughter of a Republican shoemaker and Freemason, she married Jean Rouchy, an artisan shoemaker, in 1861 and through out the decade the pair participated in various socialist groups in Orleans and Paris in several socialist groups, and become involved in the Association Internationale des Travailleurs from very early on. In 1867, she participated in the foundation of a cooperative bakery and cooperative shop. During the Franco-Prussian War, her husband enlisted as a franc-tireur (irregular) in the Loire and whilst she enlisted as an ambulance driver. During that period she lived with her mother, who helped raise her two sons as well as the son of a neighbour they adopted. The three children would all die within a few years of each other. On March 20, 1871, she joined her husband in the Bataillon pour la Défense de la République and were in charge of the officers' mess, but with the outbreak of fighting, she returned to her post of ambulance driver. She fought on the barricades during the Semaine Sanglante. During the savage repression that followed, she was arrested and condemned to death for burning down the Cour des Comptes (Court of Accounts). Through friends, she managed to escape, first to Switzerland and later to London, while her husband was imprisoned and was to die in captivity. She returned to Lyon and then to Paris in 1878, and became very active in the anarchist movement. She was a member of the group that published the anarchist paper 'La Révolution Sociale'. She also met the French priest-turned-anarchist writer Gustave Brocher (aka Rehcorb) whilst attending the International Anarchist Conference in London as a Parisian delegate in 1881. They married in Lausanne in 1887 and adopted five orphans of the Commune. In 1909, she published her memoirs under the title 'Souvenirs d'une morte vivante' (Memories of one of the living dead).
[NB: A d.o.b. of 1839 is also cited by some sources.]
[ femmes/gdes-femmes4-2.html]

1846 - David de Gaudenzi (d. unknown), French tinsmith and anarchist, who was involved in the 1882 Montceau-les-Mines protests, born.

[DD] 1870 - Commune de Lyon: At 07:30 a crowd began to collect at reading posters announcing news of the capture of Emperor Napoleon III at the Battle of Sedan. The Hôtel de Ville is occupied and the préfet is taken prisoner. At 09:00, the Republic is proclaimed, half a day before Paris. The red flag flies from the top of the building and remains there until March 4, 1871. The insurgents set up a Comité de salut public (Committee of Public Safety), comprising a majority of radical, free-thinking néo-Jacobines, radicale, as well as a number of individual internationalistes and moderate Republicans included the former député Hénon.

[B] 1871 - Georges Delaw (Henri Georges Deleau; d. 1938), French anarchist, poet, artist, designer and illustrator, born.

1879 - Antoine Scipion Gauzy (d. 1963), French anarchist individualist and Bonnot gang member, born. [expand]

1882 - Leonhard Frank (d. 1961), German Expressionist novelist, short story writer, playwright, libertarian pacifist and anarchist fellow-traveller, born. A regular visitor to the Monte Verità libertarian writers colony at Ascona in Switzerland, he was heavily influenced by the ideas of the psychoanalyst Otto Gross and became close to the likes of Franz Jung, Karl Otten, Oskar Maria Graf and Erich Mühsam.

1885 - Louis Célestin Boisson (d. unknown), French plasterer, revolutionary syndicalist activist and anarchist, born. Secretary of the syndicat CGT du Bâtiment (builders section of the CGT) in Bouches-du-Rhône in 1913-14, secretary of the Fédération autonome du Bâtiment (Autonomous Federation of Building), member of the board of the CGT-SR and editor of its newspaper 'Le Combat Syndicaliste' (1928-32).

1887 - The first issue of the Italian language free newspaper 'Il Ciclone' (The Cyclone), "Bollettino rivoluzionario anarchico", is published in Paris by the Gli Intransigenti group of the anarchist illegalists Luigi Parmeggiani and Vittorio Pini. With its recipies for making explosives, its mottos are: "Mezzi of emancipazione: Espropirazione - PUGNALE - Dinamite" (Means of emancipation: expropriation - DAGGER - Dynamite) and "Più organizzazione my Bensi Autonomia completa dei dell'individuo and gruppi" (More organisation but the complete autonomy of the individual and groups).

[F] 1894 - 'The New York Times' on September 5, 1894 reports that the "contract tailors of New York and Brooklyn celebrated Labor Day yesterday by going on strike". 10,000 workers went on strike for shorter working hours and demanded to be paid wages instead of being paid for piecework. Unemployed tailors pledged not to replace their striking brothers. "Reports show that the tailors…are united and will not give in." [expand]

1895 - Xiang Jingyu (向警予; 1928), one of the earliest female members of the Communist Party of China (CPC), who is widely regarded as a pioneer of the women’s movement of China, born. In 1919, together with Cai Chang, Xiang initiated a work-study program for Hunan women studying in France. Xiang participated in the Xinmin Society, a left-wing youth club jointly launched by Mao Zedong and Cai Chang's brother, Cai Hesen (蔡和森; 1895 - 1931). In the same year, Xiang went to France, along with Cai Hesen and Cai Chang, where she studied French and Marxism while working at a textile factory. In 1921, Xiang returned to China. The next year, she joined the Communist Party of China in Shanghai. In 1925, then head of the Ministry of Women Xiang led Shanghai women to support the May 30th Movement and the Canton-Hong Kong Workers' Strike. In October, together with Cai Hesen and prominent CPC cadre Li Lisan (李立三), Xiang was sent to University of the Toilers of the East in Moscow to study. In July 1927, Xiang was transferred to a new post to work in north China's Hubei Province. On March 20, 1928, Xiang was arrested due to a leak from a traitor, tortured and handed over to the Guomindang police, who executed her on May 1 1928.

1896 - Antonin Artaud (Antoine Marie Joseph Artaud; d. 1948), French playwright, poet, actor, theatre director, theoretician, who invented the concept of the Théâtre de la Cruauté (Theatre of Cruelty), born. One of the most influential figures in the evolution of modern drama theory, Artaud associated himself with Surrealist writers, artists, and experimental theater groups in Paris during the 1920s. When political differences resulted in his break from the Surrealists, he founded the Théâtre Alfred Jarry with Roger Vitrac and Robert Aron. 'Héliogabale ou L'Anarchiste Couronné' (1934), with its six vignettes by André Derain, is the novelised biography of the 3rd-century Roman Emperor Heliogabalus and it is probably Artaud's most inflammatory work. Shot full of blood, shit and other human effluvia, it is a poetic, even mystical interpretation of the corrupt and decadent life of an Emperor crowned almost despite himself.
"Avoir le sens de l'unité profonde des choses c'est avoir le sens de l'anarchie et de l'effort à faire pour réduire les choses en les ramenant à l'unité." (To have a sense of the profound unity of things is to have a sense of anarchy and the effort to reduce things by returning them to unity) - from 'Héliogabale ou L'Anarchiste Couronné' (1934)

1897 - Ramón Sempau i Barril (1871-1909), Catalan lawyer, writer and journalist attempts to assassinate Lieutenant Narciso Portas, 'el botxí de Montjuïc', chief torturer at the Montjuïc prison. Editor of 'El Divulio'(The Flood) and a member of the Catalan modernist group Colla del Foc Nou (League of New Fire), he was influenced by republicanism and anarchism and, at the start of the Procés de Montjuïc in 1896, he was forced to flee to France to avoid standing trial for his criticism of the actions of the Spanish authorities in Cuba. After visiting London and Brussels returned to Barcelona, ​​where, on September 3 1897, he attempted to shoot Narciso Portas, head of the policia judicial in Barcelona, specialising in the repression of the anarchism, and primarily responsible for torture at Montjuïc. His poor marksmanship and ancient pistol led to failure and he was captured. Sentenced to death before a court martial, his case was eventually moved into the civil jurisdiction, following the Liberals' victory in the 1989 general election, where he was acquitted (though he got two months and a day for using a false name). He was author of 'El capitán Dreyfus. Un proceso célebre' (1899); 'Los victimarios. Notas relativas al proceso de Montjuïc' (1900); and the novel 'Esclavas del oro (Trata de blancas)' (Handmaids of gold (Trafficking of whites); 1902).

1897 - The first issue of the newspaper 'La Revancha' (Revenge), "Periodico comunist-anárquico", is published in Reus, near Tarragona, Catalonia.

[FF] 1904 - Eccidio di Buggerru [Massacre of Buggerru]: In the zinc and lead mines of Buggerru, a town in Sardinia's Iglesiente region that was know as 'piccola Parigi' aka 'petite Paris', which were owned by the French company Société anonyme des mines de Malfidano, the inhumane working conditions, low pay and the long shifts that often resulted in fatal accidents, had led to the workers forming the Lega di Resistenza di Buggerru, which at the time had 4000 members. In the early months of 1904, the miners had begun a series of strikes aimed at improving their wages as well as their living and working conditions; and on May 7 four of their fellow miners had been killed in an incident in the mine. Things reached a head when, on September 2nd, the mine director Achilles Giorgiades announced that the break between the morning and afternoon shifts would cut to one hour [from two]. The reaction was immediate, with Alcibiade Battelli, secretary of the Lega di Resistenza, calling a strike. So, on Saturday 3rd the miners refused to work. The director Giorgiades responded by calling in two carabinieri companies armed with rifles and bayonets, which he obtained from the prefecture to maintain public order.
The following day, while the union delegation was in talks, the workers gathered in front of the headquarters of the mining directorate in support of the union delegation. The gathering was peaceful, except for one stone thrown at the windows of the carpenter's workshop in the mine, but that was enough for the order to be given for the carabinieri to open fire. Two miners, Francesco Littera, 24, and Salvatore Montixi, 36, died on the spot, while Giustino Pittau, 32, succumbed to his gunshot wounds shortly after arriving in hospital. Eleven others were wounded in the incident.
Not long after the Buggerru incident, another massacre took place on September 13 in Castelluzzo, in Sicily's Trapani, where the carabinieri fired on a demonstration by peasants protesting against the dissolution of a local meeting and the arrest of the socialist manager of a local agricultural cooperative. Both incidents led directly to the proclamation of a countrywide general strike, called by the Camera del Lavoro di Milano, the first in Europe, which lasted from September 16-21 and involved Italian workers from all sectors.

[C] 1910 - Heinz Kiwitz (d. 1938), German Expressionist artist and anti-fascist, born. The son of a book printer, he was exposed to the graphic arts from an early age and in 1927 began studying art at the Folkwang University of the Arts in Essen, where he joined the Assoziation revolutionärer bildender Künstler Deutschlands (Association of Revolutionary Visual Artists). Kiwitz soon put his prefered medium, the woodcut, to work for the anti-fascist cause, satirising the Nazis in a series of illustrations which included his famous caricatures of Hitler, Goebbels and Göring and his depiction of the Nazi book burnings. It was inevitable then that when the Nazis seized power he would be one of their targets. Kiwitz' studio was ransacked by the Sturmabteilung (SA) and he was forced to leave Berlin. At the same time, his communist girlfriend was arrested and Kiwitz’s arrest followed too in the summer of 1933, thrown in Kemna concentration camp for "antifascist activity" and having produced "work critical of society". Following a transfer to Börgermoor concentration camp, he was released in June 1934 and abandoned his political themes for a while, illustrating books and book covers including 'Don Quichotte' (1934), William Faulkner's 'Licht im August' (Pylon; Light in August; 1935) and 'Wendemarke' (1935), and Hans Fallada's 'Märchen vom Stadtschreiber, der aufs Land flog' (1936).
Having realised he remained under threat of rearrest despite his abandonment of public criticism of the Nazis, he managed to flee to Copenhagen but his three month residence permit was not renewed and he left for Paris. There he renewed his anti-fascist activities, joining the Union des Artistes Allemands Libres, which organised an exhibition entitled Fünf Jahre Hitler-Diktatur (Five Years of Hitler Dictatorship) in a local union hall. His contributions for the exhibition and its catalogue, 'Cinq Ans de Dictateure Hitlerienne', were had using pieces of lino taken from the flooring under his bed. He also produced his famous woodcut of the bombing of Guernica in this period as well as reproducing some of the early anti-Nazi works that he had destroyed following his release from the camps in 1934. In August 27, 1937, published 'Absage eines deutschen Künstlers an Hitler' (Renunciation of Hitler by a German Artist), an open letter to Hitler, in the German language ‘Pariser Tageszeitung':

"One Who Does Not Want To Be Praised In The Brown Press

A young German artist, Heinz Kiwitz, presents to the public the following findings:

The Berlin art exhibition at the Haus der Kunst on Königsplatz was proclaimed by the Nazi Party and the 'Reich Commissioner for Artistic Design' Schweitzer-Mjölnir as paving the way.
Without asking me or obtaining my consent, woodcuts of mine were put on exhibit. A portion of the coordinated Berlin press dedicated much space to me in the arts section, which now, instead of offering art criticism, treads lock-step. They have held me up as one of the most important artists of the 'new Germany'.
In addition, is this fact: I went into exile from Germany in January 1937. I do not wish to be recognized by those who rule Germany today, who lock up art in military barracks and have it kicked into shape by combat boots. Everything in me rebels against the violent abuse of art that is to mask the hideous face of war.
If of necessity the fascist newspapers are forced to admit that I am an artist of the people, it is not a compliment for me, rather it is to be judged as an admission of the bankruptcy of little Goebbels' art factories. For I myself deliberately and always have repudiated the un-German destruction of art, which chases and hunts the true artist abroad, declares every house painter a genius if only he has had the Party membership in his pocket long enough and kowtows before the dictator. It is precisely this adulteration from above from which the authentic, great German art arose as protest, from Riemenschneider to Schiller's Don Carlos to Lehmbruck and Barlach. My populism makes me belong with Nolde and Barlach, against whom the Schwarze Korps is leading a brutal campaign, whose works they remove from galleries and whose exhibitions were closed by the Gestapo because they unswervingly carry on the tradition in the path of Albrecht Dürer and Matthias Grünewald.
At the cradle of German art stood a sculptor, Tilmann Riemenschneider, who, because his heart beat with the hunted, rebelling peasants, was so harmed in torture by the rich tyrants, that by the end of his life, he could no longer wield a chisel.
The German artist Wilhelm Lehmbruck, in 1914, as a socialist, refused the same militarists his service in war, who today have declared total war on free art.
Guernica, concentration camps and war against religion – what can German art create with this dance of death of human culture, other than to swing the scourge against this forced march into barbarism? Desperately, they search their Party card file for a small talent and cannot find it. They are prepared to pay any price, believe they can buy Serious Geniuses for money just like they acquire mansions and cars. True art grows from love of life, human kindness and fruitful unfoldment. Art always goes against tyranny and with liberty. Death, hate and deprivation are the negative fundamental values of fascism. They have proclaimed the Führerprinzip and eradicated freedom of thought, declared the people to be "disciple" minors without rights, tributary masses.
But German art grows out of the people, with the people, for the people, and against coercion, amateurish capriciousness and dictators. The genuine artist only wants to be recognized by that Germany which the greatest German artists long for, a true democratic people's republic of Germany. Because for us, that means freedom of thought, creative freedom, artistic freedom."

Heinz Kiwitz
Pariser Tageszeitung’, August 27, 1937

In 1938, he went to Spain to fight against Franco in the Spanish Civil War, where he apparently died sometime during the Battle of Ebro (exact date unknown).

1914 - Charles Péguy (b. 1873), French poet, playwright, essayist, editor, libertarian socialist and anti-clericalist, dies. [see: Jan. 7]

[D] 1918 - American troops invade Northern Russia, one year after the Russian Revolution, landing at Archangel to "protect US interests". They are ultimately soundly defeated.

1926 - Ivan Illich (d. 2002), Austrian philosopher, Roman Catholic priest and libertarian-socialist social thinker, born.

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: Workers return to work following yesterday's decision by the CNT in Zaragoza but industrial unrest continues across the Second Republic.

1931 - Vaga General de Barcelona / Huelga General de Barcelona: During the early hours of the morning, the guardia civil come across a number of people in the Calle Lope de Vega 'behaving suspiciously'. When they try to intervene, the group responds by firing at the guardia civil and fleeing, leaving behind a number of rifles, grenades and a pistol.
Elsewhere, the governor orders a raid on a meeting in the local of the Sindicato único de la Construcción on the Calle Mercaders. When the guards arrived, several shots are fired from the balconies and roofs at the cop, wounding two of them. The guards responded to the shooting and began a siege to the premises, setting up security cordons in the district. At 16:00, reinforcements from the army arrive. In an attempt to negotiate, the mayor, Jaime Aguadé and the head of the mozos de escuadra, Pérez Farrás, enter the local and persuade those present to surrender. The army then entered and detained about 150 people.
That same morning, in the neighborhood of the plaza de la República, there is a shootout between guards and strikers, as well as another one in the Calle Montcada, during which one person died. bout sixty workers were also arrested, but when they reached the Police Headquarters, they refused to enter the cells. When the guardias de seguridad attempted to intervene, three of the detainees were shot and killed and a further five wounded. The rest of the detainees were taken to the cells.
The strike had now spread to other towns and cities in the province and prisoners were now being held on the prison ship Dédalo, due to the poor state of the Model prison. The governor continues to insist that any attempt at resistance would be repressed with great vigour and praises the attitude of the security forces. Several representatives of the CNT meet with the mayor in order to manage a removal of the police from the siege to the local in the Calle Mercaders, but the governor refused to do so. However, the intercession of Francesc Macià i Llussà, President of the Generalitat of Catalonia, managed to convince José Oriol Anguera de Sojo, the gobernador civil de Barcelona, to facilitate the departure of the besieged in exchange for being detained. Maciá jumped the gun, claiming that the strike was over, when in reality lasted a further day. Likewise, the president of the Generalitat made a citizen address warning that any revolutionary and violent act as well as the failure to prevent such acts should be considered acts against Catalonia and the Spanish Republic.

1933 - Revuelta de los Sargentos [Revolt of the Sergeants] / Golpe de Estado en Cuba de 1933 [1933 Cuban Coup]: Noncommissioned officers in the Cuban army unexpectedly arrest their superiors and take over command of the island`s military forces. Skillfully organised by Sergeant Fulgencio Batista y Zaldívar, the son of poor cane cutters from Oriente of mixed ancestry and the best stenographer in the army, overtrew the despotic regime of General Gerardo Machado y Morales.

[BB] 1934 - Jan Švankmajer, Czech Surrealist filmmaker, animator and artist, born. His themes are: freedom versus oppression, anarchy versus authoritarianism; with Svankmajer always questioning the difference between the lunatics and the people running the asylum - a mix of agitprop and Surrealism, which gradually brought him into conflict with the authorities and he was banned from making films in 1972 following his film 'Leonardo’s Diary'. Returning to literary themes in 1979 helped eased the restrictions, though the political satire crept back and led to many of his later films again being suppressed. Since 1964 many of his films have been made in association with his wife Eva Švankmajerová including he major films 'Alice' (Něco z Alenky; 1987) and 'Little Otik' (Otesánek; 2000).
“I’m an anarchist. I insist on my own creation..."

1939 - Following yesterday's occupation of Częstochowa by the Germans and false accusations that Jews had shot at Germans, troops begin a 3 day action known as 'Bloody Monday', killing 300 Jews.

1956 - Francisco Tortosa (b. 1880), Spanish-Mexican anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and painter, dies.

1973 - Elise Ottesen-Jensen aka 'Ottar' (b. 1886), Norwegian-Swedish sex educator, journalist, feminist and anarchist agitator, who was a member of the Swedish anarcho-syndicalist union Sveriges Arbetares Centralorganisation and a pioneer of women's rights to understand and control their own body and sexuality, dies. [see: Jan. 2]

1982 - Biagio 'Gino' Cerrito (b. 1922), Italian militant anarcho-syndicalist and anarchist historian, dies. [see: Feb. 11]

1982 - Ten thousand protest nuclear energy at Gorleben in Germany.

[A] 1987 - Mathias Rust gets four years hard labour for flying a small plane from West Germany into the USSR and landing it near to Red Square in Moscow (he served one).

1989 - Georges Simenon (b. 1903), Belgian author, creator of Inspector Maigret novels, dies. Though not an activist, during an interview he stated that he considered himself an anarchist from the age of 16: "Je me considère comme un anarchiste non violent, car l'anarchie n'est pas nécessairement violente, celui qui s'en réclame étant un homme qui refuse tout ce qu'on veut lui faire entrer de force dans la tête ; il est également contre ceux qui veulent se servir de lui au lieu de lui laisser sa liberté de penser." (I consider myself as a nonviolent anarchist, because anarchy is not inevitably violent, it does not claim that a man that refuses to change will be hit around the head; it is also against those who want to manipulate instead of allowing for the freedom of thought.) [see: Feb. 13]

2005 - Six days after Hurricane Katrina struck New Orleans, members of the city's police department kill two people: 17-year-old James Brissette and 40-year-old mentally disabled Ronald Madison, who is shot in the back, and wound four other people on the Danziger bridge. All victims are unarmed.

2010 - Seni Lewis was 23 years old when he died following prolonged restraint at the Bethlem Royal Hospital in South London on 31 August 2010. He was a successful graduate with a degree in IT and plans for further postgraduate study. In August 2010 he was physically well and had no history of mental illness. But within 48 hours of beginning to exhibit uncharacteristically odd and agitated behaviour - and within 18 hours of being brought to hospital - he was all but dead, having collapsed in the course of prolonged restraint involving 11 police officers of the Metropolitan Police Service (MPS). He never regained consciousness, and he was eventually pronounced dead four days later.
1568 - Tommaso Campanella (d. 1639), Italian philosopher, theologian, astrologer, precursor of egalitarian utopian communism and poet, born.

1698 - Russia's Peter the Great imposed a tax on beards.

1782 - Bartolina Sisa (b. 1753), indigenous Aymara leader, who led a major indigenous revolt, along with her ​​husband, Julián Apasa Nina (Túpac Katari), and sister-in-law, Gregoria Apaza Nina, against Spanish colonial rule in Bolivia, is beaten and raped, before being executed on the gallows following her capture along with Gregoria Apaza. Her body was then dismembered, her head stuck on a pole and put on show, whilst her limbs sent to various villages to try and intimidate the people. [see: Aug. 24]

1792 - Maximilien Robespierre is elected first deputy for Paris to the National Convention in France, the first step on the path towards the victory of his faction, the Montagnards, over the Girondins, and the unleashing of La Terreur (the Reign of Terror, September 5, 1793 - July 28, 1794).

[D] 1793 - La Terreur: The French Revolution's Reign of Terror (La Terreur) begins, as the National Convention institutes harsh measures to repress counter-revolutionary activities. One delegate, claiming that the middle class Girondist (moderates) leaders be sentenced to death cried: "It is time for equality to wield its scythe over all the heads. Very well, Legislator, place Terror on the agenda!" The delegates agreed to arrest all suspects and dissenters, try them swiftly in the kangaroo courts known as the Revolutionary Tribunals, and sentence them uniformly to death.

1839 - First Opium War: Britain declares war on China in order to compel the Qing Dynasty to allow opium imports, a lucrative source of profits for the British.

1877 - Great Sioux warrior Crazy Horse murdered.

[F] 1882 - The first Labor Day is observed on Tuesday, September 5, 1882, in New York City, called for by the Central Labor Union of New York. In 1894, after sending in the Army and U.S. Marshals to break the Pullman Strike, President Grover Cleveland sought appeasement with organised labour. Legislation making Labor Day a national holiday was rushed through Congress unanimously and signed into law by Cleveland six days after the strike ended. [see: Jun. 28]

1884 - André Augustin Bastelica (d. 1845), French typographer and printer, member of the First International, Communard, agitator, anarchist avant la lettre, supporter of Bakunin and organiser of the Marseilles working class, dies. [see: Dec. 14]

1885 - The first issue of 'Federación de Trabajadores' (Workers' Federation), "Semanario Anárquico-colectivista" is published in Montevideo.

1889 - London Gasworkers' Strike: George Livesey, the chair of the South Metropolitan Gas Company, who had already decided that he would begin laying down plans to remove the union from South Met., announces to his board that the National Union of Gas Workers & General Labourers had written to the Company saying that 'in effect' only Union members would be allowed to work. The company replied that the union would not be recognised and that non-union men would be protected. Men were sacked at Vauxhall and the union said that unless they were reinstated work would cease. The entire body of stokers handed in their statutory weeks notice and strike notices were handed in at most of the works. Unable to cope and with preparations to oust the union only partly made, Livesey stated his willingness to recognise the Union and apologised for some remarks made in a speech of his. An agreement was signed, stating that: "The Company agree … that members of the Gas Stokers Union shall not … be interfered with by … the company". The company's directors were not on board with Livesey's anti-union plans.

1889 - Great London Dock Strike: With the strike now in its fourth week, the Lord Mayor of London forms the Mansion House Committee. Its aim is to try to bring the two sides together to end the strike. Ben Tillett and John Burns represent the dockers at the negotiations. An important member of the committee was Cardinal Manning, Roman Catholic Archbishop of Westminster. He had shown that his sympathies were with the dockers, many of whom were Catholics. The Mansion House Committee persuaded the employers to meet practically all the dockers' demands. After five weeks the Dock Strike was over. It was agreed that the men would go back to work on September 16.

1893 - Great Lock-Out of 1893: "[O]n Sept. 5th, riots break out in every district. A demonstration is held at Wombwell, and the men pass a resolution that they will march to the pits and “persuade” the men who are at work to stop coal filling. Five hundred men march on Hoyland Silkstone. With a savage tour the crowd rushes on 25 men, who are filling railway wagons, and the blackleg run for their lives with broken heads and bleeding faces. The colliery offices are stormed by a crowd of frantic men armed with bludgeons, windows and lamps are smashed, the books are torn to pieces, their leaves scattered to the winds, and the manager is beaten and left half-dead. Growing in numbers the mob swarms one to Rockingham colliery. Here they overturn coal trucks by hundreds, while they pour petrol over wagons and stables, and a broad sheet of flame flares up to the sky. In Sheffield, at the Nunnery Colliery, carts bringing coal from Durham lame overturned, while at the Waterloo Main, near Leeds, mobs of strikers are scattered by police’, armed with cutlasses, The famished people driven mad with hunger have revolted, and the rich robbers, who feasted while children cried for bread, tremble at the storm." []
At least 500 miners with a leader waving a black flag went to Alfreton colliery (Blackwell Colliery Co.) and demonstrated. At the time there were 114 men underground and 43 on the surface at the new South Normanton pit, where the march started. []

1897 - Emma Neri (d. 1978), Italian primary teacher, anarchist and antifascist, born. She and her partner Nello Garavini escaped from fascist Italy and settled in Brazil.

1900 - Nguyen An Ninh (d. 1943), influential Vietnamese nationalist journalist, poet and libertarian communist, who was active in the revolutionary struggle against the French colonial empire, born.

1905 - [O.S. Aug. 23-24] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The Fourth Congress of the Union of Liberation (Союз Освобождения) is held in Moscow (Sep. 5-6), at which it is advocated that the union should participate in the elections to the Bulygin Duma and the founding of the Constitutional Democratic Party in conjunction with the Union of Zemstvo Constitutionalists. The Bolsheviks opposed the attempts by the Union of Liberation to seize the leadership of the revolutionary-liberation movement, and the zemstvo movement begins to split into factions, evolving into the liberal Kadet Party and the moderate conservative Octobrist Party. In October 1905, after the creation of the Constitutional Democratic Party, the Union of Liberation is disbanded.

1905 - Arthur Koestler (d. 1983) Hungarian-born British novelist, journalist and critic, born. In 1931 Koestler joined the Communist Party of Germany but disillusioned by Stalinism, he resigned in 1938. During the Spanish Revolution, he was sent by the Comintern to spy on Frenco's headquarters disguised as a right-wing Hungarian journalist working for the 'News Chronicle'. However, he came under suspicion and was arrested in February 1937 and held under a sentence of death in a Seville jail. He narrowly escaped execution because of a prisoner exchange the following year, writing about his experiences in 'Spanish Testament' (1937). His first novel, 'The Gladiators' (1939), was based upon the Spartacus slave revolt, which Koestler used as an allegory for the corruption of socialism by Stalin. He followed thus up in 1940 with the novel 'Darkness at Noon', an anti-totalitarian work, which further reflected his break with Stalinism and Communist Party and gained him international fame. In 1940 he was interned as a political prisoner in Le Vernet Concentration Camp by the Vichy government until January 1940. After his release he moved to England and wrote his first book in English, 'The Scum of the Earth' (1941), an account of his experiences of internment.
Koestler's oeuvre covered everything from novels, a play (the 1945 'Twilight Bar') and autobiography to political journalism and writings on the paranormal and the use of hallucinogens. Probably the least known of his works is the trilogy of sex encyclopaedias which he agreed to write in the early 30s in order to support himself, and which were published under the titles: 'The Encyclopœdia of Sexual Knowledge' (1934); 'Sexual Anomalies and Perversions, Physical and Psychological Development, Diagnoses and Treatment' (1936), both by the pseudonymous "Drs. A. Costler, A. Willy, and Others"; and 'The Practice of Sex' (1940).
"I think most historians will agree that the part played by impulses of selfish, individual aggression in the holocausts of history was small; first and foremost, the slaughter was meant as an offering to the gods, to king and country, or the future happiness of mankind. The crimes of Caligula shrink to insignificance compared to the havoc wrought by Torquemada. The number of victims of robbers, highwaymen, rapists, gangsters and other criminals at any period of history is negligible compared to the massive numbers of those cheerfully slain in the name of the true religion, just policy, or correct ideology ... the evils of mankind are caused, not by the primary aggressiveness of individuals, but by their self-transcending identification with groups whose common denominator is low intelligence and high emotionality ... The continuous disasters of man's history are mainly due to his excessive capacity and urge to become identified with a tribe, nation, church or cause, and to espouse its credo uncritically and enthusiastically, even if its tenets are contrary to reason, devoid of self-interest and detrimental to the claims of self-preservation ... We are thus driven to the unfashionable conclusion that the trouble with our species is not an excess of aggression, but an excess capacity for fanatical devotion." from 'The Ghost in the Machine' (1967)

1907 - Henri Storck (d. 1999), Belgian author, film-maker, documentarist, actor, Surrealist and anarchist, born. He co-founded the Cinémathèque Royale de Belgique (Royal Belgian Film Archive) and was an actor in Jean Vigo's 'Zéro de Conduite' (1933), playing the curé.

1908 - The first issue of 'Le Révolté', "Organe de propagande anarchiste, paraissant au moins une fois par mois" (Paper of anarchist propaganda, published at least once a month), publication of the libertarian communist colony L'Expérience, is published in Boitsfort, Belgium. It follows on from the newspaper 'Le Communiste', and ceases publication with the March 15, 1914 issue.

1909 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: Elsie Howey, Vera Wentworth and Jessie Kenney assault Herbert Asquith and Herbert Gladstone while they were playing golf.

1911 - Pupils desert their classrooms and parade through the Welsh town of Llanelli after a schoolboy is punished for passing round a note urging his friends to strike against corporal punishment. In the next fortnight, schools in over 60 major towns and cities come out in solidarity.

[E] 1912 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: WSPU member Kitty Marion is arrested after heckling David Lloyd George at the Royal National Eisteddfod, Wrexham. Kitty Marion gained admission to the meeting with the sole aim of heckling Lloyd George. As a result of her action Marion was set upon by the crowd and "received blows and abuse from every side, my hat being torn off and hair pulled down". During her subsequent imprisonment Marion complained in a letter to a fellow prisoner that her beautiful auburn hair was "falling out dreadfully here" (in prison). Whilst she believed this was as a result of her treatment by the hostile 'mob' in Wrexham it is more likely the poor condition of her hair was due to her prison hunger-strike.

1912 - John Cage (d. 1992), American composer, music theorist, writer, poet, artist and anarchist, born.

[B] 1914 - Nicanor Parra, Chilean mathematician, theoretical physicist, social ecologist, philosophical anarchist in an age ''without brotherhood'' and a poet who writes what he calls 'anti-poetry', born.


Quien haya estudiado a fondo
El mundo actual
No puede dejar de hacerse
Quien haya estudiado a fondo
El partido comunista
No puede dejar de hacerse anarquista
Believe me
No ser idealista a los 20
Es no tener corazón
Seguir siéndolo a los cuarenta
Es no tener cabeza


Anyone who has studied thoroughly
The world today
You can not stop being
Anyone who has studied thoroughly
The Communist Party
You can not stop being anarchist
Believe me
Not to be idealistic at 20
Does not have a heart
Continue to be so at forty
Does not have a brain)

'Also Sprach Altazor', Stanza XIII

[ Parra Critical Analysi Gale Virtual Reference Library.pdf]

1917 - SMS Prinzregent Luitpold Mutiny: Two of the so-called 'ringleaders' of the mutiny on August 2 are executed by firing squad at the Wahr firing range training grounds near Cologne. [see: Aug. 2 & Oct. 29]

1917 - Palmer Raids: Federal agents attack Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) halls and offices in 48 cities across the US.

1919 - In Barcelona, Commissioner Manuel Bravo Portillo, head of the employers' pistoleros and who led the band of gunmen on July 17 that kidnapped and killed the militant centista Pau Sabater i Lliró aka 'el Tero', is found dead - riddled with bullets. The authorities react by immediately declaring a state of siege that allowed numerous arrests and the closure of the newspaper 'Solidaridad Obrera'.

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: In Tolosa printing of the weekly 'Tradición Vasca' is suspended.

1931 - Vaga General de Barcelona / Huelga General de Barcelona: The general strike continues, albeit with less intensity. Public transport still does not work although many shops have reopened. In the port continued the total stoppage. As the day progressed, the city slowly returned to normal. The civil governor lets it b known that normality has returned to the city, and that during the day there had been no notable incidents. Annoyed by the criticism of some newspapers editorials, he insists that he had never abandoned any of his functions. The Generalitat de Catalunya, in the face of criticism for its passivity, reports that it has no powers over public order and expresses its full support for Francesc Macià and condemns the use of violence. The disagreements between Oriol Anguera de Sojo and Francesc Macià over the management of the strike were evident.

1933 - Revuelta de los Sargentos [Revolt of the Sergeants] / Golpe de Estado en Cuba de 1933 [1933 Cuban Coup]: Cuban president Carlos Manuel de Céspedes y Quesada and his cabinet abandon the Presidential palace following yesterday's coup.

[C] 1936 -24-year-old Federico 'Taino' Borrell García (b. 1845) dies. Valencian anarquista, member of the FAI, made famous by the iconic photo 'The Fallen Soldier' (aka 'Loyalist Militiaman at the Moment of Death, Cerro Muriano, September 5, 1936') by Robert Capa, who captured his moment of death. Later attempts to discredit Capa and the photograph have themselves been discredited.
Founder of the local branch of the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (Iberian Federation of Libertarian Youth) in Alcoi (Alcoy), and took part in the widespread sabotage carried out during the October insurrection by Asturian miners and others against the inclusion of fascists from the Confederación Española de Derechas Autónomas (Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Right-wing Groups). At the beginning of the fascist uprising, he took part in the storming of the infantry barracks in Alcoi and joined the local Republican militia, the Columna Alcoiana, led by the local anarchist activist, Enrique Vaño Nicomedes.
On the morning of September 5, 1936, Federico was one of fifty militia who arrived at the village of Cerro Muriano (Cordoba) to reinforce the militia’s frontline against the forces of Varela. In the afternoon Federico was defending the artillery battery in the rear of the detachment when Francoist troops infiltrated behind the lines and started shooting from behind as well as in front. Federico was shot at about 5pm and died instantly. According to records, he was the only member of the column to die in fighting that day.
In his honour and that of another anarchist from Alcoi, Juan Ruescas Ángel, who died on September 25, 1936 at Espejo, a militia column was named 'Ruescas-Taino'.
Much noise has been made since then about the authenticity of the shot(s), especially since a claim by José Manuel Susperregui in 2009 that the photo's were in fact taken near Espejo, 30 miles south of Cerro Muriano, something the likes of the Daily Mail and telegraph enthusiastically publicised. However, the arguments put forward by Capa's biographer Richard Whelan and the extensive work of José Manuel Serrano Esparza has effectively debunked this [see links below]. A recently discovered (in 2013) audio recording of Capa talking in 1947 about the taking of the shot tells a different different story. Make up your own mind.

1936 - Gustave Kahn (b. 1859), French Symbolist poet, novelist, playwright, art critic and anarchist, dies. [see: Dec. 21]

1938 - Matanza del Seguro Obrero / Seguro Obrero Massacre [Workers Insurance's Massacre]: Attempted coup by the Movimiento Nacional-Socialista de Chile (MNSCH), who occupy the Seguro Obrero building whilst another group take the headquarters of the Universidad de Chile. Ends in mass shooting as all captured Nazis lined up and shot - only 4 of the 63 involved survive.

1944 - Dolle Dinsdag [Mad Tuesday]: Celebrations in the streets across occupied Netherlands following yesterday's Allied taking of Antwerp. There is widespread panic amongst the occupying forces and the Nationaal-Socialistische Beweging in Nederland, leading 65,000 Dutch Nazi collaborators flee to Germany knowing that the game is up.

1944 - Iro Konstantopoulou (Ηρώ Κωνσταντοπούλου; b. 1927), Greek teenage resistance heroine, is executed – shot with 17 bullets, one for every year of her short life – along side forty-nine other anti-fascist fighters at the Haidari concentration camp. [see: Jul. 16]

1954 - Sandra Lehtinen (Alexandra Reinholdsson; b. 1873), Finnish servant, seamstress, trades unionist, militant feminist, agitator and organiser in the Suomen Työväenpuolue (Finnish Workers' Party), and later Social Democrat (Suomen Sosialidemokraattinen Puolue) MP, dies. [see: Jul. 1]

1954 - Theodor Bartošek (b. 1877), Czech lawyer, freethinker, anarchist fellow traveller and then communist politician, dies. [see: Nov. 4]

1962 - A bomb is found outside a luxury apartment in a development in Dolphin Square where many Jews and several Israelis live. Officials indicated it appeared the bomb had been placed by British fascists.

1964 - Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, 'The Rebel Girl', (b. 1890), US labour leader, activist, and feminist, who played a leading role in the Industrial Workers of the World, was a founding member of the American Civil Liberties Union and a visible proponent of women's rights, birth control, and women's suffrage, dies whilst visiting the Soviet Union. She given a state funeral in Red Square by the Soviet government, with over 25,000 people attending. [see: Aug. 7]

1964 - Melpomena Dimitrova Karnicheva [Мелпомена Димитрова Кърничева (bg) / Мелпомена Димитрова Крничева (mk)], popularly known as Mencha Karnichiu [Менча Кърничиу] or Carmen [Кармен](b. 1896), Bulgarian revolutionary of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешната македонска революционна организация), dies in Rome. [see: Mar. 28]

1972 - The Black September group take Israeli athletes hostage at the Munich Olympic Games.

1972 - Juan Puig Elias (b. 1898), Spanish teacher and militant anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Jul. 30]

1974 - 'Rivolta di S. Basilio': Nearly 150 families had occupied IACP apartments in the via Montecarotto and via Fabriano, in the village of San Basilio on the outskirts of Rome, for over a year. Warned of iminent eviction, a meeting was organised between those involved in the popular opposition to the evictions and militants of the revolutionary. The outcome was a mass defence of one of the largest occupations to take place in the city.
When, on September 5, huge numbers of police arrived to start the eviction of the families, the defenders put up a stiff resistance, resulting in street battles. Barricades were erected and the police met with stones, molotovs and bolts launched with slingshots. The cops responded with tear gas but were forced to suspend the evictions that afternoon.
By Saturday, all the empty apartments were occupied and a delegation went to the courts to try and get the evictions halted. Hundreds of demonstrators flocked in from all over the city, including many members of workers councils, as the fighting flared up again. A series of 'truces' were negotiated between the police and Lotta Continua, the main organisers of the occupation, led to breaks in the fighting and later the delegation with an agreement to suspend evictions until Monday morning.
Nevertheless, on Sunday 8 the police again attacked, evicting families and smashing up apartments. A popular assembly that was called in the central square of the village was also attacked by the cops, inundating it with tear gas. In the battle that followed, a platoon of police was forced to retreat whilst resorting to live-fire. Ceruso Fabrizio, a 19-year-old member of Autonomi Operai and active in the Comitato Proletario di Tivoli, is hit in the chest by a bullet. Bundled into a taxi, he is dead on arrival at the hospital.
As the news of Fabrizio's death became known, the whole neighborhood took to the streets. Anger spills over, lampposts are uprooted and roads plunged into darkness. This time the police are targeted shots fired from nearby houses. Eight policemen, including a captain, were injured, some seriously, and clashes continued late into the night. The following day negotiations began for the allocation of housing to the families of S. Basilio and the occupants of Casalbruciato and Bagni di Tivoli.

1977 - German business leader Hanns Martin Schleyer is kidnapped in Cologne by the Red Army Faction.

1978 - ABC [Aubery, Berry, Campbell] Trial opens at the Old Bailey.

[A] 1981 - Greenham Common Women's Peace Camp - 'Women For Life On Earth' - established outside Greenham Air Base.

1986 - Maurice Pernette (b. 1913), French anarchist, small press publisher, poet and author, dies. [see: Jul. 13]

2003 - Revolutionary Struggle (Επαναστατικός Αγώνας / Epanastatikos Agonas) carry out their first action, a double bombing of the Courthouse in which a policeman is injured.
1781 - Turncoat American General Benedict Arnold, in command of British troops, plunders and burns New London, Connecticut.

[E] 1782 - Gregoria Apaza Nina (b. ca. 1751), indigenous Aymara leader, who led a major indigenous revolt, along side her brother, Julián Apasa Nina (Túpac Katari), and sister-in-law, Bartolina Sisa, against Spanish colonial rule in Bolivia, is tortured and humiliated, before being executed on the gallows following her capture along with Bartolina Sisa, whose rape and execution she had to witness. Her body was then dismembered, her head stuck on a pole and displayed, whilst her limbs burnt and the ashes scattered. [see: Jun. 23]

1795 - Frances (Fanny) Wright (d. 1852), Scotish-American lecturer, writer, freethinker, feminist, abolitionist, founder of Nashoba co-operative community (a utopian community in Tennessee established to prepare slaves for emancipation), anti-authoritarian socialist and a central figure in the workingmen's movement, born.

1843 - Rebecca Riots: At Pontarddulais a crowd of over 100 Rebeccaites attacked the tollgate in the village. However, the ploice had been warned about the attack and Chief Constable Charles Napier of the Glamorgan Police, leading policemen and soldiers lay in wait. They suddenly appeared and challenged the rioters who fired shots at them for about 10 minutes and then tried to escape. Seven people were arrested and on October 26 they were tried at Cardiff Assizes. John Hughes, one of the leaders of the attack was sentenced to 20 years transportation, David Jones and John Hugh, seven years transportation, and the others lesser sentences.

1847 - Henry David Thoreau leaves Walden Pond and moves back into town, to Concord, Massachusetts.

1860 - Jane Addams (Laura Jane Addams; d. 1935), American social worker, public philosopher, sociologist, author, and prominent advocate of women's suffrage and world peace, born. Born into a privileged home (her father was an affluent state senator and businessman), she was one of the first generation of college-educated women in America, but rejected marriage and motherhood in favour of a lifetime commitment to the poor and social reform. A pioneer of the Settlement movement in America, she founded Hull House in Chicago, along with her college friend and partner Ellen Gates Starr (1859 - 1940), and was also one of the founders of the Women’s Trade Union League. Addams had a later 30-years long relationship ("marriage") with Mary Rozet Smith until the latter's death.
Adams supported anarchists Abraham Isaak, Lucy Parsons, Fanya Baron and others when they were jailed in Chicago; she also welcomed (ex-prince) Peter Kropotkin to Hull House but not it appears Emma Goldman, much to the latter's chagrin, who commented that "I did not happen to be known to Miss Addams as a princess".]

1862 - Henri Delange (d. unknown), French shoemaker, militant revolutionary syndicalist and anarchist, born. In 1888, he participated on 'L'Egalité Sociale', the newspaper of the Lyon members of the Conseil National of the first Fédération Française des Syndicats Ouvriers (French Federation of Trade Unions). His anarchist opinions earned him to be charged with "incitement to murder and pillage" following a conference in February 1885 in Lyon.

1868 - The Third Congress of the International Workingmen's Association takes place in Brussels (Sept. 6-13).

1869 - The Fourth Congress of the International Workingmen's Association takes place in Basel (Sept. 6-12).

1870 - Commune de Lyon: Challemel-Lacour, who was appointed préfet of Rhône by the Gouvernement de la Défense Nationale arrives in Lyon. [see: Sep. 4]

1880 - Jules Gustave Durand (d. 1926), French anarchist, revolutionary trade unionist and secretary of the Syndicat des Charbonniers in Le Harve, born. Durand was an initiator of the French general strike of 1910, and was wrongly charged with the murder of a blackleg in a brawl. On the back of a series of corrupt witnesses and a hate campaign by the press he was sentenced to death on November 25, 1910. In a tremendous show of solidarity against this injustice protests and strikes closed the docks at Le Harve and spread across the channel to English ports and to some American ports. After further protests spearheaded by the League of Human Rights, he was released on February 15, 1911. Sadly, due to his inhumane treatment and spending 40 days restrained in a straightjacket he suffered a complete mental breakdown and spent the rest of his days in an asylum where he died in 1926. His case was re-opened and his name was cleared and on June 15, 1918, it was stated that he had been completely innocent of the charge.

[A] 1882 - Well over 10,000 workers demanding the 8-hour day marched to protest working conditions in the first-ever U.S. Labour Day parade, held in New York City. About a quarter million New Yorkers turned out to watch.

1892 - Manuel Pérez Feliu (d. 1940), Spanish cabinetmaker, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist, born. Member of the Sindicat de la Fusta of the CNT, in May 1921 he was arrested, along with Bernardino Alonso García (El Porra), for having allegedly place a firecracker in a striking basketmaking workshop on April 1. In 1932, he was arrested and deported to Villa Cisneros, Rio de Oro, and then to Fuerteventura in the Canary Islands. He was also chair of the Faros Agrupació Pro Cultura in Barcelona. In January 1934, he was arrested in Barcelona with 23 comrades at a clandestine meeting and was not released until April because he was refusing to pay a fine of 20,000 pesetas for possession of explosives and demanding a trial instead. Following the fascist coup in July 1936, he was appointed to the CNT representative to the Guardia Popular Antifascista (Brigadas Populares de Policía) in Valencia, vice president of the Consell Provincial de Seguretat (Provincial Security Council) and the Tribunal Especial de Justícia del Comitè Executiu Popular (Comitè de Salvació Pública) (Special Court of Justice of the People's Executive Committee (Committee Public Safety)). During the war he was also a member of the East Regional Committees of the CNT and the Iberian Anarchist Federation (FAI). In 1938, he worked on the Valencia newspaper 'Fragua Social'. That same year, he stood in for Torres Domingo Maeso, performing the duties of mayor of Valencia, replacing him permanently in 1939. With the triumph of Franco, he was arrested and locked up in a concentration camp Albatera, along side his friend Manuel Pérez Fernández. Identified by the fascist authorities, he was imprisoned in Valencia. Tried and sentenced to death, Manuel Pérez Feliu was shot on the August 27 1940 at the Paterna camp along with 20 other detainees.

1893 - A New York Grand Jury indicts Emma Goldman on three charges following her Aug. 21 speech. She is returned from Philadelphia to New York on Sept. 9, where she is placed in confinement. On Sept. 11, pleads not guilty; released on bail Sept. 14. Benefit concert on Sept. 23 intended to raise money for Goldman's defence is a financial failure.

1899 - In the mining town of Spring Valley, Illinois, Emma Goldman heads a Labor Day procession, which ends with a meeting in the central market place, a direct violation of the mayor's denial of authorisation to do so.

1901 - The Polish anarchist individualist Leon Czolgosz (1873-1901) shoots the U.S. President William McKinley twice in the abdomen at point blank range during a walkabout by the politician at the Pan-American Exposition. Seriously wounded, McKnley dies eight days later from an infection. A grand jury indicted Czolgosz on September 16 with one count of first-degree murder. Czolgosz refused to speak to his appointed lawyers and they went on to try and convince the jury that Czolgosz is insane. However, Czolgosz was convicted on September 24, 1901 after the jury deliberated for only one hour. Two days later, they unanimously recommended the death penalty and Czolgosz was executed in the electric chair at Auburn State Prison on October 29, 1901.

1908 - The First Congress of the labour organisation Solidaridad Obrera is held in Barcelona (Sept. 6-8) and take the decision to establish a Confederació Regional de Societats de Resistència - Solidaritat Obrera based on the principle of direct action.

1911 - André Arru (Jean-René Saulière; d. 1999), French anarchist, pacifist and underground organiser during WWII, born. Already an anti-militarist in 1931 when he did his compulsory military service, he encountered anarchism for the first time whilst assisting at a conference where Sébastien Faure was speaking. He went on to participate in the anti-fascist solidarity with Spanish anarchists and discovered Stirner's 'The Ego and His Own'. At the start of WWII, he went underground, moving from Bordeaux to Marseilles, the city of his birth. There he helped form an anarchist group, which included Voline and one Marcel-André Arru who gave him his army discharge papers, allowing him to change is name from Saulière to Arru. He also participated in the underground Résistance, producing propaganda and helping hide those being pursued by authorities.
Post-WWII, Arru became the general secretary for the French SIA (International Antifascist Solidarity) and in the 1950s he participates in the establishment of the Fédération Anarchiste. In addition to his pacifist engagement, he was an active organiser of the Libre Pensée and the publication of the quarterly review 'La Libre Pensée des Bouches-du-Rhône' (1969-1980). In addition, he was a member, since 1983, of the ADMD (an association for the right to die in dignity) and, in 1999 at the age of 87, he voluntarily ended his life, refusing to subject himself to the risks and dependency of advancing age and disease.

1916 - Benito Milla Navarro (d. 1987), Spanish militant anarchist propaganist, editor and anti-fascist combatant, born. A member of the libertarian movement in the Alicante area, he moved to Barcelona in the early 1930s where he became a well-known activist. A member of the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias, in July 1936 he joined the Durruti Column, organising FIJL groups at the front as the organisation's secretary within the Column. In 1938, he returned to Barcelona, ​​becoming the manager of 'Ruta', the Libertarian Youth's newspaper and served as a delegate of the 121st Brigade's FIJL groups at the 2nd national congress of the FIJL in Valencia. Exiled in France during the retirada, he was interned in various camps before settling in Marseilles during the Occupation and participating in the reorganisation of movement. After the liberation, he was elected general secretary of the FIJL in exile in April 1945. At he 2nd Congress in March 1946, he was appointed Secretario de relaciones internacionales and took over editing 'Ruta', published weekly in Toulouse and Paris. During this period he was also firmly opposed to the tactics of the action groups of the Mouvement Libertaire de Résistance (MLR). In 1949 he left France for America and, in 1951, he moved to Montevideo where he founded and led several journals - 'Cuadernos Internacionales', with Nicolas Sanchez Albornoz and Germinal Gracia, 'Deslinde' (1956-61) and 'Temas' (1965-67) - and collaborated on the periodicals 'En Marcha' and 'Accion'. In 1958, he founded the publishing house Alfa, which would publish more than 400 titles, and in 1968 he emigrated to Venezuela, where he founded the publishing houses Monte Ávila Editores and, in 1971, Nuevo Tiempo. He returned to Spain in 1977 after the death of Franco, becoming a well-known publisher and was appointed director in Barcelona of the publishers Editions Laia, where he promoted the publishing of many anarchist books.

1920 - Àngel Pestaña leaves Russia profoundly disillusioned by all that he has observed after having spent several months in Moscow as a CNT delegate to the Second Congress of the Third International. He tells the congress, which opened in Moscow on July 15, 1920: "You tell us that the revolution cannot take place without a communist party and that without the conquest of political power emancipation is not possible, and that without dictatorship one cannot destroy the bourgeoisie: all these assertions are absolutely gratuitous."

1925 - Mariana Yampolsky (d. 2002), Mexican printmaker, painter and monograph writer, who was one of the major figures in 20th-century Mexican photography, born in Chicago to a Russian father and German mother whose Jewish families had both fled anti-Semitism and the Nazis. Having studied at La Esmeralda (National School for Painting, Sculpture and Graphics) in Mexico City, she became a member of the radical leftist Taller de Gráfica Popular (People’s Graphics Workshop) in 1945 – the only woman at the time, specialising in photographing the everyday life of ordinary people. She also documented numerous antifascist protests.

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: In Doña Mencia, the mayor leads an assault against the Guardia Civil post, leaving two guards and three attackers wounded.
In the city of Toledo and in several towns in the province, six killed and forty wounded in anti-anarchist reprisals by the Communists.

[C] 1934 - In a speech in Bari, Mussolini mocks the racial doctrines of German National Socialism. Three years later, the spineless buffoon will adopt them himself.

1934 - U.S. Textile Workers' Strike: Scabs and special deputies open fire on the 300 textile workers picketing the Chiquola Mill in Honea Path, South Carolina, killing six people and wounding dozens of others; a seventh man died the next day from his wounds. The national textile strike of 1934 saw nearly half a million textile workers from New England, the Mid Atlantic, and the South walk off the job to demand better wages and working conditions.

1941 - Julia Romera Yañez (b. 1916), working class Spanish anarchist, dies in Barcelona's Les Corts women prison from tuberculosis, which had been aggravated by the continuous beatings to which she was subjected by her fascist prison guards. Born into a working class family in Mazarrón, Murcia, the family moved to Barcelona in 1921. She began working as a teenager, joining the CNT in 1931 and, from 1934 onwards, becoming active in FIJL. When the revolution broke out in 1936, she was appointed secretary of the Santa Coloma FIJL Santa Coloma and was responsible for the newspaper 'Aurora Libre' (Free Dawn; 1936, 2 numbers).
In May and June 1939, a few months after Santa Coloma had fallen to the fascists, she and 20 other members (aged 15 - 22 years old) and seven sympathisers of the Unió de Joventuts Antifeixistes (Union of Antifascist Youth), which had been formed in February 1939 by militants of the FIJL in Santa Coloma de Gramenet and Sant Adrià de Besos (Barcelona) to continue the resistance against Franco, and of which she was treasurer, were arrested. On July 2 that year she was taken to the Teatre Cervantes in Badalona, which had been commandeered for use as a women’s prison. At the Consell de Guerra Sumaríssim i d'Urgència (Emergency Summary Court-Martial) in Badalona on January 2, 1940, five death sentences were pronounced (Manuel Campeny Pueyo, Bernabé García Valero, Enrique Vilella Trepart, Jesús Cárceles García and Joaquin Miguel Montes), of which only the main group leader, Manuel Pueyo Campeny, was eventually executed [shot in the Parc del Camp de la Bota, Barcelona, ​​on July 29, 1940]. Julia Romera Yañez was convicted with seven others and given life imprisonment.
Towards the end of the summer of 1941, after a number of fever attacks, the Les Corts prison doctor diagnosed her with TB, a disease exacerbated by the repeated beatings to which she was subjected. Julia Romera Yañez eventually died at 22:00 on 6 September 1941, having declined 'spiritual comfort', in the infirmary of the Les Corts female prison in Barcelona. She is commemorated by the Ateneu Popular Julia Romera in Santa Coloma de Gramanet.

1942 - The Nazis begin the deportation [September 6-21] of nearly 48,000 Jews from Warsaw to the Treblinka extermination camp.

[B] 1949 - Lucien Descaves (b. 1861), French libertarian novelist, dies. [see: Mar. 18]

1960 - Manifeste des 121: Déclaration sur le droit à l’insoumission dans la guerre d’Algérie (Declaration on the right of insubordination in the Algerian War), an open letter signed by 121 intellectuals calling on the French government and public opinion to recognise the Algerian War as a legitimate struggle for independence, denouncing the use of torture by the French army, and calling for French conscientious objectors to the conflict to be respected by the authorities, is published in the magazine 'Vérité-Liberté'.
[ statements/Proclamation of the 121.htm]

1966 - Margaret Higgins Sanger (b. 1879), US birth control activist, sex educator, nurse and anarchist fellow traveller, dies. [see: Sept. 14]

1966 - Five nights of racial rioting begin in Atlanta. Stokely Carmichael arrested for "inciting riot" along with 15 others.

1970 - Palestinian guerrillas seized control of three jetliners which were later blown up on the ground in Jordan after the passengers and crews were evacuated. [see: Sep. 18]

[D] 1971 - Before dawn in Montevideo, Uruguay, a 106 Tupamaros (Movimiento de Liberación Nacional-Tupamaros) guerrillas escaped from prison through a precisely-engineered 40m tunnel lined with plastic coated cardboard that emerged into the middle of a neighbouring house's living room. The owner was held prisoner for 9 hours through the night.

1973 - Rebellion at Statesville Prison, Indiana.

1974 - 'Rivolta di S. Basilio': [see: Sep. 5]

[F] 1976 - Gerardo Gatti Antuña (b. 1931), Uruguayan anarchist militant and head of the Uruguayan graphic workers' union, is disappeared by the Argentine government. One of the founders and the first secretary of the Plenario Intersindical de Trabajadores - Convención Nacional de Trabajadores (PIT-CNT; Intersyndical Plenary of Workers - National Convention of Workers), a leader of Resistencia Obrero Estudiantil (ROE; Student Worker Resistance), the Federación Anarquista Uruguyaya (FAU) and the Partido por la Victoria del Pueblo (Party for the People's Victory).
He will be tortured in the Automotores Orletti, the clandestine detention and torture centre that operated in Buenos Aires, and an attempt made to ransom him for $2m, before his death (date unknown). [see: Apr. 4]

1989 - The 'Guardian' reported that a French police computer had mixed codes and accused 41,000 Parisians of murder and prostitution rather than traffic fines.
[D] 1812 - Food Riots: The series of Luddite-associated food riots that had been affecting Sheffield and Leeds in Yorkshire now spread to Nottinghamshire, and the town of Nottingham itself.
"It having been ascertained that a considerable reduction took place in the price of wheat in our market on Saturday last, (but which, it appears, did not exceed from 10 to 15 shillings per quarter on corn that was in a fit state to grind), the people naturally conceived that as the bakers and dealers in flour had profited by the rise in every instance, on their stock in hand they ought, on a principle of fair dealing, to concede the advantage of a fall in the prices of corn in the market to the public. They were therefore, persuaded, that flour would be sold on the Monday following at a proportionable reduced rate; but the dealers had bought in their stock at the highest possible price, they could not, without sustaining very material loss, lower it to the price so confidently expected, and so anxiously desired, and in consequence, a strong ferment was created in the public mind, which led to the commission of much mischief."
"What added to the tumult was, the bread served out to the soldiers was found to be short of weight; and many of them were, on Monday, seen active in the mob." ['Nottingham Journal', 12/09/1812]
"On Monday morning, a baker in Nottingham had the temerity to advance his flour two-pence a stone, in the face of a falling market, which so enraged the women, that several got a fishing-rod, and fixed a halfpenny loaf upon it, which they coloured over with reddle, in imitation of its being dipt in blood, and likewise adorned it with a piece of crape. With this they then began to parade the streets, and soon collected a very large mob, among which were two women with hand-bills, who were dignified with the titles of Madam and Lady Ludd. The first object of their vengeance was the Baker who had advanced the price of his flour; they broke his windows, and compelled him to drop his flour sixpence a stone. The mob then divided into several parties, and treated nearly every baker and flour-seller in the same manner; not sparing their windows till they had promised to drop flour sixpence per stone." ['Morning Chronicle', 11/09/1812]
Military reinforcements were called out, and the Riot Act was read, and the crowd eventually dispersed.

[A] 1830 - Fences are torn down on Otmoor. Forty are arrested and taken to Oxford, but then freed by a mob which formed at the St.Giles Fair.

1843 - Rebecca Riots: In the small village of Hendy (Yr Hendy) near Llanedi, Carmarthenshire, Sarah Williams a young female gate keeper died during an atack on her tollgate. Warned that the rioters were on their way, she refused to leave and during the attack she could be heard shouting "I know who you are" by a family living up the road who had locked their doors from the rioters. Williams called for help at the house of John Thomas, a labourer, to extinguish a fire at the toll gate, but when she returned to the toll house, a shot was heard. Williams returned to the house of John Thomas, and collapsed at the threshold of the house. Two minutes later she was dead.

1844 - Francesco Natta (d. 1914), Italian mechanic, anarchist militant and internationalist, born. [expand]

1855 - The 'Exposición presentada por la clase obrera a las Cortes Constituyentes' (Exposition presented by the working class to the Constituent Cortes), written by the prominent Catalan libertarian socialist Francesc Pi i Margall, is published in Madrid along with the 'Alocución a los obreros españoles' (Address to Spanish workers). It demands the right of workers to organise and includes instructions for the gathering of signature. Eventaully signed by 33,000 workers, it was delivered to the Cortes at the end of december that year.

1857 - Charles Malato (d. 1938), French revolutionary, journalist, theoretician and anarchist propagandist, born. Though from a 'noble' Neapolitan family, his father fought for the insurrectionist side in the 1848 Italian revolution, and later supported and fought to defend the Paris Commune, for which he was banished to the penal colony of New Caledonia, where Charles was born. After the 1881 amnesty, the family returned to France. In 1886 he founded the revolutionary paper 'La Révolution Cosmopolite' as his politics shifted decidedly towards anarchism. In 1897, he published 'The Philosophy of Anarchy' in which he laid out his anarchist communist views. His journalism at the time appeared in numerous papers including 'L'Art Social', 'La Société Nouvelle', 'L'Aurore', 'Le Réveil Lyonnais', as well as Ernest Gégout's journal 'L'Attaque' where one of his articles earned him a fifteen months sentence in prison in April 1890 for "incitement to murder, looting and arson". Exiled as a non-French citizen, he went into exile in London. [expand]

1859 - Paul Vigné d'Octon (Paul-Étienne Vigné; d. 1943), French physician, writer, poet, journalist, libertarian, rationalist, anticlerical, neo-Malthusian, freethinker and anti-colonialist, born.

1872 - During the Hague Congress, Mikhail Bakunin is expelled from the First International.

[E] 1873 - The first issue of the Brazilian weekly 'O Sexo Feminino', "para defender el derecho al sufragio de las mujeres y su acceso a la educación" (defending the rights of women to vote and have access to educación) is published by the writer and educator Francisca Senhorinha da Motta.

1890 - Southampton Dock Strike: With the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company refusing to recognise the Dockers' union (Dock, Wharf, Riverside and General Labourers' Union) and the National Union of Seamen, and to bring its rates into line with the other companies on Southampton Docks, who had agreed to grant wage increases of 1d an hour at the end of August, dock workers go out on strike. [expand]

1893 - Featherstone Massacre / Great Lock-Out of 1893: Starving Featherstone miners at the daily pit side gathering at Ackton Hall, one the town's two pits (with Featherstone Main), now found themselves facing men loading coal from the pithead stockpiles for mine owner Lord Masham's textile business – the vast Lister's Mill in Bradford. Angry at what they considered a betrayal and that Lord Masham was profiting whilst they went hungry, the miners and their families blamed the pit manager, Alfred Holiday, who was assisting in the movement of coal. Holiday claimed that the coal was for the pit engines rather than the Bradford mill, but the people disagreed. On September 7, a group of men attacked Holiday and those loading the coal. Panicked, Holiday rushed to the local Pontefract police for assistance, but was sent to Wakefield. There he chanced upon Lord St Oswald, another local pit owner, who was seeking protection for his mine. He recommended to the Wakefield police that troops be brought in.
That afternoon, twenty-nine soldiers of the 1st Battalion South Staffordshire Regiment, under a Captain Barker, arrived to face a growing crowd of miners and onlookers. Angry at the presence of the troops, the crowd demanded their withdrawal. A later report alleged that some of the mob threw stones and others set fire to timber – the flames could be seen "for miles round". As the afternoon passed, thousands more spectators appeared; many from outside Featherstone.
By evening, fearful of the 2000-strong mob, the local magistrate Bernard Hartley JP took the drastic step of reading the 'Riot Act'. This meant that anyone in the crowd remaining after one hour could be arrested. Accounts differ but it is believed that before an hour was out Hartley panicked and ordered warning shots be fired. Still the crowd remained. Mistakenly, they believed the troops were firing blanks. The troops shot again, this time injuring eight. Two of those injured later died of their wounds - twenty-two year old James Gibbs and twenty-five year old James Arthur Duggan. Both were passive bystanders. Both were miners, although Gibbs reportedly also volunteered as a Sunday School teacher in Normanton.
Even though the two men had not been protesting, a Wakefield inquest concluded that Duggan's death was "justifiable homicide". The inquest into Gibbs' death took place in Featherstone itself. Here the jury blamed the lack of police and Holiday's overreaction. The difference in the verdicts led to a Parliamentary Commission being set up by the Liberal Home Secretary, H. H. Asquith. As a result of a speech by Keir Hardie, Gibbs' and Duggan's families received £100 but no compensation was awarded to the six injured, and the Government accepted no responsibility for the deaths.
[ - miner's strike.pdf'_Federation_of_Great_Britain]

1893 - Great Lock-Out of 1893: "A crowd of 1,500 men and boys set off from Bulwell market place then made their way to Watnall and whilst passing by Bulwell colliery did some damage to surface buildings. By the time they reached New Watnall colliery the numbers had swelled to about 5,000. They set fire to wagons standing in the sidings and also set fire to a number of buildings and damaged some machinery. Eventually after some time reinforcements of police arrived to assist the police trying to control the crowd and the Riot Act was read and blows were struck on both sides. Seven ringleaders, Henry Birchmore, Sam Briddlestone, Charles Eaves, John Gully, Albert Palmer, John Richards and Henry Saint were arrested and the crowd was dispersed by police charges. Following this incident large detachments of police were drafted into the area from other parts of the country but they had little to do. It was also stated that some 3,000 people condemned the actions and violent behaviour of the men who took part in the riot." []

1907 - Roberto Barreto Pedroso das Neves aka Ernst Izgur (d. 1981), Portuguese-born Brazilian writer, journalist, poet, historian, Freemason, Esperantist, graphologist, anarchist individualist, vegetarian and naturist, born. Having worked on the anarchist journals 'A Batalha' and 'O Libertario', and been persecuted by the Salazar police (13 arrests), he left Portugal in 1942 for Brazil. There he founded and led the Editora Germinal (Editions Germinal), which published anarchist books, and collaborated on the anarchist publications 'Relações Anarquistas', 'Acção Directa' and 'A Plebe'.
His works include the poetry collection 'Assim Cantava um Cidadão do Mundo - poemas que levaram o autor treze vezes aos cárceres do Santo Oficio de Salazar' (Just One Song of a World Citizen - poems that led the author thirteen times the prisons of Salazar's Inquisition; 1952) and the anti-religion polemic 'O Diário do Dr. Satã. Comentários subversivos às escorrências cotidianas da sifilização cristã' (The diary of Dr. Satan. Subversive comments on the daily seepage of christian syphilisation; 1954) [NB Satã was the name das Neves used when he joined the Masons].

1908 - Ben Reitman delivers speech on the meaning of Labor Day at Cooper Union. When the audience learns that the speech was written by Goldman, there is a tremendous uproar; Berkman and young anarchist Becky Edelsohn arrested.

1911 - Guillaume Apollinaire is arrested and jailed on suspicion of aiding and abetting the theft of the 'Mona Lisa' from the Louvre. Five days later his innocence is proved. Though Apollinaire was a friend of Géry Piéret, someone who had been stealing artifacts from right under the guards' noses for quite a while, there was no evidence that he had any knowledge or had in any way participated in the theft of the 'Mona Lisa'.

1919 - Bruno Filippi (b. 1900), Italian individualist anarchist writer and activist, dies when the bomb he is carrying explodes as he attempts to attack the Café Biffi in the gallery Vittorio Emanuele in Milan where the 'Circolo dei Nobili (club of nobles), the richest people of the city, are having a meeting. His foot is all that remains amongst the rubble but it will lead to his identification and the arrest of a number of his comrades. [see: Mar. 30]

1927 - François Malicet (b. 1843), French barber, lifelong anarchist, member of Les Déshérités group in Nouzon, is killed by a burglar. [see: May 15]

[B] 1929 - Gil J. Wolman (born Gil Joseph; d. 1995), French film-maker, writer, political activist and Internationale Lettriste, born. An active agent provocateur from an early age, by 24 he had been: a member of the Young Communists, journalist for the magazine 'Combat', drug trafficker in the Algiers Casbah, long-distance lorry driver from Greenland to Pompeii, merchant marine captain, published poet and accomplished knitter. In 1950, he and Isidor Isou developed the principles of Lettrisme
In February 1952, the showing of his second film 'L'Anticoncept' (1951), at a Letterist film screening causes a major scandal. His first experiment in his new 'Cinematochrone' process, abolishing images altogether in a violent flurry of black and white strobes projected on a weather balloon, and accompanied by a soundtrack of his poems, brief reflections and syncopated texts. 'L'Anticoncept' was banned by the French censors; its screening at the Cannes Film Festival the month after it was completed was only open to the press and the banning prompts Wolman to lead a systematic disruption of the Cannes Film Festival the Letterists and he is only saved by a police escort.
In June 1952, Wolman and Debord formed the Letterist International and co-write 'A User's Guide to Détournement' and 'Theory of the Dérive' (both 1956) and published in the Belgian surrealist review 'Les Lèvres Nues' (Naked Lips). In 1955, Wolman and Debord wrote 'Why Lettrism?', published in Potlatch no. 22, and Wolman went on to represent the Letterist International at the World Congress of Artists in Alba, Italy, establishing important links between the Letterist International and others (e.g. Asger Jorn and Pinot-Gallizio of the International Movement for an Imaginist Bauhaus) who would go on to collaborate on forming the Situationist International.
Other Wolman innovations include the devising of his 'Scotch Art' in 1963, a process which consists in tearing off bands of printed matter and using adhesive tape to reposition them on fabrics or wood. He later developed 'dühring dühring', 'decompositions' and finally 'depicted painting' in a long line of artistic innovations and genius - "genius is what we all have when we stop improving one thing in order to make something else. When we only refuse to have talent".

[F] 1931 - Estevan Coal Strike: A strike by coal miners in Bienfait, Saskatchewan, organised by the Communist Party of Canada's trade union umbrella, the Workers Unity League, breaks out and will end with the September 29, 1931 Estevan or Black Tuesday Riot.

1931 - José García Viñas (b. 1848), Spanish physician, militant internationalist, pioneering advocate of anarchism in Spain, editor of 'La Federacíon' (1869) and 'La Revista Social' (1872-1880), dies. [see: Dec. 3]

1936 - Communist Josep Renau is named Director General of Fine Arts by Jesus Hernández, Minister of Public Instruction in the government of Largo Caballero. One of the artists most heavily involved in the Civil War, Renau's duties included the safeguarding of the artistic heritage of Spain. He was in charge of evacuating from Madrid to Valencia the paintings in the Prado Museum, which were threatened by the bombings.

1942 - American-German literary historian and German Resistance fighter Mildred Fish-Harnack is arrested, together with her husband Arvid Harnack, by the Nazis in the hunt for the Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra). Both would be found guilty of "the preparation of high treason and espionage" after a four-day trial before the Reichskriegsgericht (Reich Military Tribunal). Arvid was sentenced to death on December 19 and executed 3 days later. Mildred however received a sentence of six years hard labour but, days after the German defeat at Stalingrad, Hitler refused to confirm the sentence and, after a retrial, she sentenced to death on January 16, 1943. Mildred Fish-Harnack was beheaded on February 16, 1943. [see: Sep. 16 & Feb. 16]

1943 - Plötzensee Executions: During an air raid on Berlin in the night September 3-4, 1943, the blacked out Plötzensee prison was hit several times by Allied bombs and heavily damaged. As during every air raid, the prisoners remained locked in their cells without any defense against direct hits. Part of the large cell block building (House III) was destroyed. Fires broke out. Many of the cell doors were torn open by the force of the explosions, and in the general confusion four prisoners awaiting execution were able to escape. In early September of 1943, a total of about 300 prisoners sentenced to death were confined in Plötzensee awaiting the outcome of pending clemency proceedings. On September 3, 1943, immediately before the heavy air raid on Berlin, Hitler issued a complaint to the Reich Minister of Justice about the long time involved in completing clemency proceedings. The ministry was now intent on speeding up executions in Plötzensee even more. However, the execution shed was also hit in the air raid, and the guillotine was severely damaged and, the ministry contemplates having death sentences carried out at Wehrmacht target ranges by police or Wehrmacht firing squads.
However, the completion of clemency proceedings for convicted prisoners is greatly accelerated. The Reich Ministry of Justice receives the names of prisoners sentenced to death by telephone on September 7, 1943. As Justice Minister Otto Thierack is away on official business, his state secretary Curt Rothenberger reviews the cases and rules on the clemency proceedings without waiting for the usual depositions. In nearly every case, Rothenberger orders the sentence to be carried out and has the names forwarded to Plötzensee by telephone. In Plötzensee, executioner Ernst Reindel and his assistants prepare for the executions. In the evening, a Regional Court director representing the senior Reich prosecutor of the People's Court and a public prosecutor from the public prosecutor's office of the Regional Court, Berlin, arrive as enforcement supervisors. Because the guillotine has been destroyed, the prisoners are hanged on the back wall in groups of eight each. During the night of September 7-8, 1943, alone, 186 people die in this manner including six prisoners whose execution had not been ordered at all but are also "accidentally" hanged.

1949 - José Clemente Orozco (b. 1883), Mexican social realist painter, muralist and lithographer, dies. [see: Nov. 23]

1957 - Francisco Ballester Orovitg aka 'El Explorador' aka Sebastián Grado Ortega (b. 1920), Catalan carpernter, anarchist, anti-Franco guerrilla and Esperanto speaker, dies during a derailment of the Paris-Nîmes train. [see: Sep. 12]

[DD] 1969 - Segundo Rosariazo [Second Rosariazo]: n the wake of the Primer Rosariazo (First Rosariazo) and Cordobazo [see: May 29] the military government interfered in the running of the Unión Ferroviaria (Railway Union), labour agreements were modified unilaterally, union leaders were imprisoned and an across the board salary reduction was introduced. Tensions continued to simmer and soon reached boiling point.
Rosario students returned to the streets on September 7th to commemorate the death of those killed in the conflict with the forces of repression. The following day, delegates from the UF's Rosario section went on strike to protest the suspension of the administrative delegate Mario J. Horat , who had been penalised for advocating anti-government strikes. More than 4,000 workers joined the action and that night decided to prolong it for for 72 hours. Other sectional groups joined the action.
On September 12, the union declared a nationwide indefinite strike. The government responded by sending in the security forces and mobilising all railway workers under the Código de Justicia Militar (Code of Military Justice), thereby criminalising the strike. Several factories were occupied in Córdoba, and there was a massive uprising in Cipolletti, Río Negro.
On September 15, the CGT of Rosario declared a strike, and on the morning of the next day the workers marched on the city. Street fighting and repression were widespread throughout the city. Between 100,000 and 250,000 people are estimated to have taken part in the protests, which later came to be known as the Second Rosariazo (or the Proletarian Rosariazo). The workers converged on the seat of the CGT and were joined by students, who had previously gathered at the faculties.
The police were eventually overwhelmed by the protesters, who set up barricades and re-grouped in many different points throughout the city. Public transport vehicles were set on fire. Police control was limited to a few important buildings such as the Command Seat of the Second Army Corps, the Police Headquarters, the courts and the major radio stations. The conflict then spread to the barrios on the outskirts of Rosario.
In light of the deteriorating situation, on September 17 the Army took charge. Future president Colonel Leopoldo Galtieri was among the Army personnel involved in the repression. That evening, the Commander of the II Army Corps, Brig Gen. Herbert Robinson released the following statement: "The public is warned that in this mission, my troops are under orders to fire without warning on any outrage or attack." ('Antenore', 2004) From that point forward, the fight was effectively lost for the protesters. The Rozariazo ended with hundreds dead or wounded, and many arrested.

1974 - 'Rivolta di S. Basilio': [expand] [see: Sep. 5]

1974 - 7,000 anti-fascists occupy Hyde Park in London, forcing the police to reroute a NF and Ulster Loyalist march. Other anti-fascists were at the assembly point for the NF and clashed with the fascists only to be arrested. [PR]

[C] 1986 - Operación Siglo XX: Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet survives an assassination attempt. His motorcade is ambushed by at least 12 rebel fighters of the Marxist guerilla group, the Frente Patriótico Manuel Rodríguez, as he made his way back from his country home to the Chilean capital. The fierce attack, using machine guns, rifles, bazookas and hand grenades, kills five of his bodyguards and wounds 11 more. Pinochet escapes with only minor injuries to his hand. The guerillas escape and Pinochet declares a 90-day "state of siege" - which gives him sweeping powers of detention and censorship.

1990 - Ploughshares Two activists Stephen Hancock and Mike Hutchinson are jailed for 15 months for disabling a F-111 bomber at Upper Heyford air base on March 21, 1990, the first day of Spring.

2003 - Mikey Powell, a 38 years old father of three young children who at the time was suffering mental health problems, dies in police custody. Whilst trying to arrest Powell, the police deliberately drove their car at him, beat him with a baton, and sprayed him with four times the recommended amount of CS gas. He was restrained on the ground for more than a quarter of an hour by eight officers who, knowing he was injured, drove him to a police station rather than a hospital. He died within 4 minutes of arriving at Thornhill Road police station in Birmingham.

2014 - Anti-fascists clashed with CRS as they tried to reach a far-right anti-immigrant protest [including Sauvons Calais, Réseau d'Identité & Parti de la France] in Calais.
1812 - Food Riots: Rioting in Nottingham. "On Tuesday morning the scenes of tumult were renewed with increased violence: carts loaded with potatoes were stopped in the streets and sold at reduced prices: a corn warehouse was attacked with great fury, as well as many bakers’ shops, without any mischief being done, except the breaking of windows, and some other trifling affairs. What added to the tumult was, the bread served out to the soldiers was found to be short of weight; and many of them were, on Monday, seen active in the mob. A peace officer and a party of the West Kent Militia are now stationed in every house or warehouse considered in danger, while parties of hussars constantly parade the streets." ['Morning Chronicle', 11/09/1812]
" at length became necessary to call in gave the military, small parties of which were station in some of the bakers houses for the protection of their property. Hitherto the proceedings were principally confined to the women; but on Tuesday evening a large mob collected in Hockley, who insulted the Magistrates, and threw stones at the Hussars, who were at length ordered to clear the streets, and several pistols having been fired by way of intimidations the whole speedily dispersed without further mischief. The town has since remained perfectly tranquil." ['Nottingham Journal', 12/09/1812]

1820 - Andrew Hardie and John Baird executed for their part in the Scottish Insurrection of 1820. [see: Apr. 3]

1843 - Rebecca Riots: The 'Daughters of Rebecca' set fire to wheat mows on the estate of the powerful Dynevor family again. [see: Aug. 30]

1870 - Commune de Lyon: Ten commissioners are nominated for the "intermédiaires du peuple lyonnais auprès du Comité de Salut public" (intermediary for the people of Lyon to the public Salvation Committee). [see: Sep. 4]

[B] 1873 - Alfred Jarry (d. 1907), French writer, novelist, playwright, anarchist, freelance scoundrel, proto-surrealist inventer of Pere Ubu and of Pataphysics, the science of imaginary solutions and the laws governing exceptions, born.
"Nous sommes libres de faire ce que nous voulons, même d’obéir ; d’aller partout où il nous plaît, même en prison! La liberté, c’est l’esclavage!" (We are free to do as we please, even free to obey, free to go everywhere we want, even to prison! True freedom lays in slavery!) - 'Ubu Enchainé' (1899)
"The great merit of 'Pataphysics is to have confirmed that there is no metaphysical justification for forcing everybody to believe in the same absurdity, possibilities for the absurd and in art are legion. The only logical deduction that can be made from this principle is the anarchist thesis: to each his own absurdities. The negation of this principle is expressed in the legal power of the state, which forces all citizens to submit to an identical set of political absurdities." - from 'Pataphysics - A Religion In The Making' by Asger Jorn, originally appeared in 'Internationale Situationniste' No.6 (August 1961)

1873 - Sante Geronimo Caserio (Sante Jeronimo) (d. 1894), Italian anarchist who stabbed French President Sadi Carnot to avenge the execution of Auguste Valliant, born. [some give the date as Sep. 9][expand]

1879 - Jules Ardouin (Georges Eugène Ardouin; d. 1917), French florist, anarchist and anti-militarist, born. [NB Dates given are September 8 or poss. 9.]

1892 - Fasci Siciliani Uprising: The Fascio Contadino di Corleone (Peasant Fascio of Corleone), one of the first fasci in rural Corleone is founded by Bernardino Verro.

1893 - Teresa Wilms Montt (María Teresa de las Mercedes Wilms Montt; September 8 1893 - December 24 1921), Chilean writer, poet, and anarcha-feminist, who in her short life was locked in a convent by her family, escaping with the help of the anarchist-sympathiser Vicente Huidobro, and was deported from New York to Spain, accused of being a German spy, born.

1897 - Yefim or Jefim Golyshev (Ефи́м Го́лышев; d. 1970), Ukrainian-born painter and composer, who was active mainly in Europe and was a member of the Dadaist Revolutionary Central Council alongside Huelsenbeck and Hausmann, born. One of the pioneers of twelve-tone composition.

[D] 1902 - Repression of a demonstration against excessive taxation and administrative abuses in Candela, Foggia, leaves a total eight dead and ten wounded on both sides.

1903 - [O.S. Aug. 25] Preobrazhenie Uprising [Преображенско въстание]: In the Strandzha region the Turks have restored control and are mopping up the last pockets of resistance.

1905 - [O.S. Aug. 26] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The first denunciation of master-terrorist Yevno Azef (Евгений Филиппович) as a police spy for the Okhrana, in an anonymous letter, is disregarded by the Socialist-Revolutionary Party.

[F] 1911 - The first conference of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo / Confederació Nacional del Treball is held in the Palau de les Belles Arts in Barcelona [Sep. 8-10]. It is attended by 121 delegates representing 99 workers' organisations or societats obreres (59 of Catalonia) and six local federations (4 Catalonia) from 29 localities (12 in Catalonia). However, there was no representation for Madrid by a significant labour organisation.
[ó_Nacional_del_Treballón_Nacional_del_Trabajoón_Nacional_del_Trabajo - cnt.htm]

1914 - Hans Leybold (b. 1892), German expressionist poet and anarchist fellow traveller, whose small body of work was a major inspiration behind Berlin Dada, and in particular the works of his close friend Hugo Ball, dies. [see: Apr. 2]

1918 - Teresa Turon Turon (d. unkown), Spainsh anarchist militant and feminist member of the Mujeres Libres group in the Pueblo Nuevo neighborhood of Barcelona, born.

1924 - Mimi Parent (d. 2005), Canadian surrealist artist, born. ​[expand]
"Knock hard. Life is deaf."

1931 - Industrial Unrest in Second Republic: Strikes take place in the port of Gijón and in the mining area of León.

1939 - The Gómez Talón grupo de acción - Salvador and Rafael Gómez Talón, Juan Baeza Delgado, José Tarín Marchuet, Fulgencio Rosaledo Martinez, Juan Tarrazón Hernando, Pascual López Laguarta, Genaro Solsona Ronda, Mario Marcelino Goyeneche, Manuel Benet Beltrán, Rafael Valverde Cerdán, Alfonso Martí González, Juan Pallarés Mena, Pilar López Xiprés, Dolores Tarín Marchuet, Anita López López, Donato Sánchez Heredia, José Gómez Bujes and Magdalena Farrés Cortina - are arrested. Numerous weapons and ammunition are seized at nº 83 rue Cerdeña.

[CC] 1941 - Melkestreiken [Milk Strike]: Following the announcement in early August by Nazi authorities of the introduction of milk rationing, cutting the daily litre bottle of milk, an essential subsidy for many families in a country where wages were so low when workers lost their daily workplace quota of milk, workers arriving on Monday morning found that the subsidy has now been cut completely. A strike broke out in Oslo among workers at the shipyard Akers mekaniske verksted and the Spigerverk industry site in Christiania as workers left their workplaces after breakfast.
By the 9th, the number of workers on strike was estimated to be 20-25,000, at around fifty industry sites and was especially strong in the steel industries. Reprisals by the Nazi authorities began, with about fifty workers at Akers mekaniske verksted being arrested. Throughout the day, workers at other enterprises were also arrested, leaving about 200 in German hands.
On the third day of the strike the German Reichskommissar Josef Terboven declared martial law in Oslo and the neighbouring municipality Aker. Two union leaders, Viggo Hansteen and Rolf Wickstrøm, were summarily sentenced to death by a court-martial, and immediately executed by a SS Sonderkommando. Later three other union leaders - Ludvik Buland, Harry Vestli and Josef Larsson - would also be sentenced to death, but their convictions were changed to imprisonment for life in German jails. Both Buland and Vestli later died in German prisons. The leadership of the Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions also underwent a period of "Nazification", with members of the Fascist party Nasjonal Samling installed as leaders.

1943 - Italy formally surrendered to the Allies, though areas of central and northern Italy remained in the hands of the Germans and of the fascist Salo Republic.

[CCC/E] 1944 - Lela Carayannis (Λέλα Καραγιάννη; b. unknown), Greek grandmother and leader of the resistance/intelligence organisation known as 'Bouboulina' (Μπουμπουλίνας) is shot along with 71 of her followers and co-workers by Nazi execution squad in what is now the Diomideios Garden — the Botanical Garden now in the grounds of the University of Athens. The event came to be known as the Chaidari Massacre. Following the German invasion of Greece in April 1941, Lela began to organise safe house for Allied soldiers left behind after the evacuation, helping the wounded get treatment and setting up an underground railroad whereby they could be helped to escape either over the mountains or via fishing boat. Very quickly, she managed to get an organisation of over 150 volunteers from all over Greece willing to take part in the resistance. She formed them into intelligence units and later into assault teams to fight the invader. Her organisation was given the code-name 'Bouboulina' after her own great grandmother, the Greek heroine in the war of independence over 100 years earlier. She managed to plant members of her team in many German offices, including the local Kriegsmarine and Luftwaffe commands, and in the German and Italian high commands. She even managed to recruit agents from the enemy’s own ranks: disgruntled anti-Nazi German officers; Italian anti-fascists; and Germans who had married Greek women. The information they gathered on German army and ship movements, on enemy fortifications, and on movements of supplies and personnel was then to the Allied headquarters in the Middle East.
Unfortunately, after working undercover for nigh-on three years, a member of her organisation was caught and interrogated. This led the Germans to Lela and on July 11, 1944, she was arrested at the Red Cross Hospital where she had been taken after she became ill. On August 14, in the office of the Gestapo interrogator Fritz Bäcke, Lela was brought face to face with her assistant who had been tortured and broken by the German interrogators. For three solid days, had been subjected to cruel torture by her SS interrogators. One by one her fingernails had been forceably removed and wounds inflicted on her body with razor blades, the cuts being salted for maximum pain. However, they failed to break her and, frustrated and humiliated by Lela’s courage and strength of character, Bäcke finally gave up. Lela and four of her children, her sons, Byron (my stepfather) along with Nelson, and two of her daughters, Ioanna, and Electra, were transferred to the concentration camp at Chaidari where they were subjected to horrific torture and abuse. In the early hours of that fateful morning of September 8, 1944, before Lela and 71 of her followers were machine-gunned to death. Witnesses observing from the hills said that the group of prisoners, led by Lela Carayannis, began to sing and that Lela led them in the Zallogos, a symbolic Greek dance of defiance in choosing death rather than loss of freedom or submission to the enemy.
Lela’s children and some of her co-workers held in another part of the camp, destined for execution the following day, managed to escape with the help of an anti-Nazi German. They went into hiding in Athens and did not learn of their mother’s execution until several days later. After the war Lela was awarded the highest medals for valour, and her heroic actions are remembered every year in Greece on the anniversary of her execution.
Her old house in Athens on the corner of Lela Karagiannis and Drosopoulou Streets in Kypseli was bequeathed to the University of Athens and the Ministry of Education on the understanding that it would be used to house indigent students from the Ionian Islands. However, it stood empty from 1960 onwards, falling into disrepair until the abandoned building was occupied by students in April 1988, going on to become a self-organised squatted social space, 'LK37', the oldest squat in Greece until its eviction in January 2013.

1944 - Gérard Hervé Coatmeur aka C. Hervé (b. 1879), French militant anarchist individualist propagandist, naturist, writer, docker, porter, bookseller and fairground showman, dies. [see: Oct. 28]

[C] 1962 - A meeting by Mosley and the UM in Croydon is broken up by 3,000 anti-fascists. A rally in the East End the following day passes off largely peacefully.

1968 - Ryszard Siwiec commits suicide by self-immolation in front of 100,000 people at a festival in Warsaw, as a protest against Polish complicity with the Soviet invasion of the Czech Republic.

1968 - Huey P. Newton is convicted of voluntary manslaughter in the killing an Oakland policeman.

1969 - Segundo Rosariazo [Second Rosariazo]: Following yesterday's student commemoration of thsoe who died during the First Rosariazo, delegates from the UF's Rosario section go on strike to protest the suspension of the administrative delegate Mario J. Horat , who had been penalised for advocating anti-government strikes. More than 4,000 workers join the action and that night decide to prolong it for for 72 hours. Other sectional groups join the action.

1969 - Alexandra David-Néel (born Louise Eugénie Alexandrine Marie David; b. 1897), Belgian-French explorer, spiritualist, Buddhist, anarchist, Freemason, opera singer, writer, lecturer, photographer, dies at almost 101 years of age. [see: Oct. 24]

1969 - Emilio Vilardaga Peralba (b. 1912), Catalan militant anarcho-syndicalist and member of the 'Tierra y Libertad' column, who was imprisoned under Franco, dies in an industrial accident. [see: Jan. 26]

[A] 1970 - The London home of Attorney General, Sir Peter Rawlinson, in Chelsea, is bombed. Again this goes unreported . [Angry Brigade chronology]

1974 - Ceruso Fabrizio, a 19-year-old member of Autonomi Operai and active in the Comitato Proletario di Tivoli, is hit in the chest by a bullet during the 'Rivolta di S. Basilio'. [see: Sep. 5] Bundled into a taxi, he is dead on arrival at the hospital. As the news of Fabrizio's death became known, the whole neighborhood took to the streets. Anger spills over, lampposts are uprooted and roads plunged into darkness. This time the police are targeted shots fired from nearby houses. Eight policemen, including a captain, were injured, some seriously, and clashes continued late into the night. The following day negotiations began for the allocation of housing to the families of S. Basilio and the occupants of Casalbruciato and Bagni di Tivoli.

1976 - Robert Louzon (b. 1882), French engineer, anarchist, revolutionary syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, dies. [see: Jun. 30]

1979 - The 'infamous' Crass and Poison Girls concert at Conway Hall in London, and a period where British Movement/National Front activity at punk gigs was particularly prominent. The gig was a fundraiser for 'Persons Unknown' and there were a number of fascists present, who Red Action and SWP members attacked and ejected. Crass' response was to issue the Conway Hall Statement Flyer and a pamphlet criticising Rock Against Racism and anti-fascist violence. Many anarchist groups, including Class War, react negatively to Crass' stance.

2006 - Première of 'Salvador' or 'Salvador (Puig Antich)', a Spanish film directed by Manuel Huerga and based on Francesc Escribano's 'Compte Enrere. La Història de Salvador Puig Antich', which describes the execution of Salvador Puig Antich, the last person executed by garrote under the dictatorship of Francisco Franco. The film is widely despised amongst anarchist as a "slick, commercial melodrama offers us no explanation of Salvador Puig Antich's actual battle, the reasons why he fought and perished, what he believed in, the process whereby he became radicalised politically and his commitment to the struggle alongside what was then the most radically anti-capitalist strand of the workers' movement." [KSL: Bulletin of the Kate Sharpley Library, #46-7, (July 2006)]
1828 - Leo Tolstoy (d. 1910), famed Russian novelist, religious pacifist and anarchist, born.

1843 - Rebecca Riots: "About 2 o'clock ... a party of men disguised in white dresses, went to Hendy Gate, about half a mile from Pontarddulais. They carried out the furniture from the toll-house, and told the old woman, whose name was Sarah Williams, to go away and not return. She went to the house of John Thomas, a labourer, and called him to assist in extinguishing the fire at the tollhouse, which had been ignited by the Rebeccaites. The old woman then re-entered the tollhouse. The report of a gun or pistol was soon afterwards heard. The old woman ran back to John Thomas's house, fell down at the threshold, and expired within two minutes. She had received several cautions to collect no more tolls."

1855 - Ludovic Ménard (Charles Ménard; bd. 1935), French anarchist, syndicalist and founder of the slate workers union, born. Signatory of the Charter of Amiens, adopted by the Confédération Générale du Travail in 1906. His efforts on behalf of his fellow slate workers won them the same standing as miners. The inscription on a monument to him in Trélazé reads: "Syndicaliste pacifiste, fondateur des syndicats ardoisiers. Sa vie au service des travailleurs fut un combat permanent pour la justice sociale et la paix." (Pacifist unionist, founder of slate workers unions. His life in the service of workers was a constant struggle for social justice and peace.)

1856 - Possible date [see also: Sep. 15] for the birth of Francisco Saverio Merlino (d. 1930), Italian lawyer, theorist, propagandist of Italian anarchism, then a libertarian socialist - though he continued to defend anarchists.

1857 - [O.S. Aug. 28] Elizaveta Nikolaevna Olovennikova (Елизавета Николаевна Оловенникова; d. 1932), Russian revolutionary and Narodnaya Volya (People's Will) activist, who was the sister of fellow Narodnistas Maria [Мария] and Elizaveta [Наталья], born. Whilst still in school, she particpated in the populist (Jacobin) circle around Pyotr Grigoryevich Zaichnevsky [Пётр Григорьевич Заичневский]. As with her sisters, she joined Zemlya i Volya (Land and Liberty) and, after the split of Zemlya i Volya into Black Partition (Чёрный_передел) and Narodnaya Volya, she entered the latter and actively participated in the assassination of the Russian Emperor Alexander II on March 13 [1], 1881. She was arrested twelve days later and the St. Petersburg District Court declared her insane due to her behaviour during her pre-trial detention and interrogation. She did not particiapte in the mass Trial of the 20 (процесс 20-ти) on February 21-27 [9-15], 1882 of Narodnaya Volya members. She was finally released from the psychiatric hospital in Kazan in 1891 and remained under police surveillance until the revolution of 1917.

1864 - Louis Lingg (d. 1887), German-American carpenter, trades unionist, anarchist and Haymarkeret martyr, born. [expand]

1876 - The first Congress of the Ligue Internationale de la Paix et de la Liberté (Spe. 9-12) is held in Geneva. Many of those who attended the second General Congress of the International Workingmen's Association in Lausanne (Sep. 2-7) also attend this congress.

[B] 1878 - Charles d'Avray (Charles Henri Jean; d. 1960), French anarchist poet and prolific propagandist songwriter, born. His concerts (conférences chantées) were advertised with the slogan "Avec le passé détruisont le présent pour devancer l'avenir" (With the past destroy the present and anticipate the future).

1880 - Marie Guillot (d. 1934), French teacher, anarcho-syndicalist, pacifist and feminist activist, born.

1983 - The first issue of the newspaper 'El Rebelde', "Periódico comunista anáchico", is published in Zaragoza. Six issues of the paper appear up til November 25, 1893, when it is forced to close. The newspaper 'El Eco del Rebelde' replaces it in May 1895.

1894 - The first issue of 'El Oprimido' (The Oppressed), an Argentinian bimonthly published by the anarchist John Creaghe, appears.

1898 - Stéphane Mallarmé (real name Étienne Mallarmé; b. 1842), French Symbolist poet, critic and an anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Mar. 18]

[E] 1900 - In the atmosphere of intense anti-anarchist hysteria generated following Leon Czolgosz's assassination of President William McKinley on the 6th at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, NY, and with police claim that Czolgosz was inspired by one of her lectures, Emma Goldman goes into temporary hiding at the home of American-born anarchist sympathisers.

1901 - Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (b. 1864), French painter, printmaker, draughtsman and illustrator, dies. [see: Nov. 24]

1905 - [O.S. Aug. 27] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Dmitri Trepov (Дми́трий Тре́пов), Assistant Minister of Interior, allows students the right to assemble on university campuses, and removes the police. A mistake!

1906 - [O.S. Aug. 27] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: State lands are transferred to the land bank for purchase by individual peasants.

1909 - The anarchist weekly 'La Questione Sociale', first published by Errico Malatesta in December 1883 in Florence, begins printing again under the auspices of Giuseppe Monanni and Leda Rafanelli, and continues until October 23, 1909.

1911 - Paul Goodman (d. 1972), American anarchist cultural critic, poet, playwright, novelist and psychotherapist, born. [expand]

[AA] 1917 - Anarchist Antonio Fornasier is killed by Milwaukee police whilst he and others are heckling a priest at an open-air meeting, precipitating a riot. His comrade Augusta Marinelli is wounded and dies five days later. Ten men and a woman are arrested for inciting the riot. Whilst still in prison a bomb explodes in the police station on November 24 and the eleven are charged for the explosion. They are all found guilty and sentenced to between 11-25 years imprisonment.

1918 - Guillaume Apollinaire (born Wilhelm Albert Włodzimierz Apolinary Kostrowicki ; b. 1880), French poet, playwright, short story writer, novelist, art critic, youthful anarchist and proto-Surrealist, dies. [see: Aug. 26]

1919 - Boston Police Strike: With a long list of grievances about the long hours they had to work for ever-eroding levels of pay, the extra unpaid 'duties' forced upon them and the state of the city's station houses, the local policemen's organisation, known as the Boston Social Club, decided to affiliate with the American Federation of Labor in order to gain support from other unions in their negotiations and any strike that might ensue.
On August 9, 1919, the Boston Social Club requested a charter from the AFL. On August 11, the Commissioner of the Boston Police Department, Edwin Upton Curtis, issued a General Order forbidding police officers to join any "organisation, club or body outside the department", making an exception only for patriotic organisations such as the American Legion. On August 15, the police received their AFL charter. On August 17, the Central Labor Union of Boston welcomed the police union and denounced Curtis for his assertions that the police had no right to unionise. Curtis refused to meet with the eight members of the police union's committee. He suspended them and 11 others who held various union offices and scheduled trials to determine if they had violated his General Order.
Department trials of the 19 were held and on September 8 they were found guilty of union activity. Rather than dismiss them from the police force, he extended their suspensions. He later explained that he was giving them an opportunity to reconsider their actions and avoid discharges, which would have been irrevocable. The police union members responded that same day by voting 1134 to 2 in favor of a strike and scheduled it to start at evening roll call the next day.
On September 9, Boston Police Department officers went on strike at 17:45 Of the force's 1,544 officers and men, 1,117 (72%) failed to report for work. The Massachusetts Governor Calvin Coolidge assigned 100 members of the state's Metropolitan Park Police Department to replace the striking officers, but 58 of them refused to participate and were suspended from their jobs. Despite assurances from Commissioner Curtis to Mayor Andrew Peters and Governor Coolidge, Boston had little police protection for the night of September 9. Volunteer replacements were still being organised and due to report the next morning. Many of those who provided scab labor were students at Harvard University. However, they did not stop looting, rioting and sporadic violence breaking out in downtown Boston and South Boston, which peaked on the night of September 10–11.
On the second day Governor Coolidge called out the entire state militia and 5,000 State Guards occupied the city, patrolling the streets for the next three months, thereby effetively putting an end to the strike. The decision on the evening of September 11 by the Central Labor Union not to call a general strike in support of the striking police was the final nail in the strike's coffin The entire police force was subsequently fired and a new one gradually recruited.

1924 - Hanapēpē Massacre: Filipino sugar cane workers – on strike for higher wages and better working conditions – and police clash at a strike camp in Hanapēpē, Hawaii. Outarmed by police, strikers fought with cane knives, sticks, and a few guns. Sixteen workers and four policemen died. Striking workers and their leaders were arrested, tried, and imprisoned; many were later deported to the Philippines.

1934 - Forced to move their planned rally from White City and lacking an alternative 'safe' indoor venue, Mosley and BUF announced a rally in Hyde Park on September 9. The Co-ordinating Committee for Anti-Fascist Activities sent out a call for a 'United Front Againist Fascism on September 9th' that would "drown" the fascist in a "sea of organised working class activity". Moderates in the labour movement opposed the call but numerous leaflet drops across London, graffiti on a Kings Cross train ["March Against Fascism on Fascism on September 9"] and Nelson's column, pavement chalkings, the interruption of 3 live BBC broadcasts by 'microphone bandits', etc. were carried out in support of the call. On the day, 2,500 Blackshirts were peaceful opposed by enormous crowds (estimates range from 70,000 to 150,000), with The fascists marching in at 6.00 pm and out again at 7.00 pm protected by a massive force of police. The speakers were never heard and the fascists were effectively kept apart from the crowd which surrounded them while in the park. Many had marched the 12 miles from the East End to the Park to oppose the fascists, attacked at various points along the route by random groups of heavily outnumbered Blackshirts. A total of 18 arrests were made. The day was another humiliation for Mosley and the Blackshirts. [PR]

1939 - The Gómez Talón grupo de acción are brought before a court martial chargd with armed robbery and freeing prisoners. Salvador Gómez Talón, his brother Rafael, Fulgencio Rosaledo Martinez, José Tarín Marchuet, Juan Baeza Delgado and Juan Pallarés Mena are sentenced to death. Pascual López Laguarta, Rafael Giménez Otal and Rafael Valverde Cerdán are sentenced to 20 years in prison, and Alfonso González Martí to 30 years.

[CC] 1941 - Melkestreiken [Milk Strike]: The number of workers on strike is estimated to be 20-25,000, at around fifty industry sites and is especially strong in the steel industries. Reprisals by the Nazi authorities have already begun, with about fifty workers at Akers mekaniske verksted being arrested. Throughout the day, workers at other enterprises are also arrested, leaving about 200 in German hands.

[EE] 1945 - Elena Quinteros (d. 1976), Uruguayan teacher, and member of the Federação Anarquista Uruguaia (FAU) and the Resistência Operária Estudantil (Workers' Student Resistance), who was disappeared and presumably murdered by the junta, born. On June 26, 1976 Elena was arrested and taken to the '300 Carlos' torture centre run by the División de Ejército I. On the morning of June 28 she was taken away under escort but managed to escape near the Venezuelan Embassy, climbing over its wall and begin demanding asylum. However, the escort invaded the embassy gardens, from where they kidnapped Elena after a struggle with embassy staff (during which her leg was broken) and took her to the Batalhão nº 13 de Infantaria (No. 13 Infantry Battalion) barracks. A few days later she was tortured and killed, despite a diplomatic protest by the Venezuelan government, who broke off diplomatic relations on July 5 after the Consejo de Seguridad Nacional (National Security Council) had refused to hand her over two days earlier.

1946 - Mynona aka Salomo Friedlaender (b. 1871), German philosopher, author and anarchist individualist, associated with Expressionism and Dada, dies. [see: May 4]

1947 - Annamaria Ludmann aka 'Cecilia' (d. 1980), Italian secretary, tobacco shop manager and 'irregular' in the Brigate Rosse, born. She was not a member of the underground cells and her participation in the BR was not discovered until it was killed during the raid on her apartment in the Via Fracchia in Genoa, after Patrizio Peci had decided to 'co-operate with the police and give up the BR 'safe houses' and arms stores. In Ludmann's apartment the police found guns, ammunition and a hand grenade, and claimed that 'Cecilia' had bee armed with a machinegun.

1968 - The Committee of 100 dissolves itself.

[D] 1971 - 1,000 prisoners seize control of Attica Correctional Facility in New York State in ongoing protests about brutal racist guards, overcrowding and the death of George Jackson.

1971 - Tupamaro rebels free the British ambassador after eight months.

[CC] 1985 - Handsworth Riots: The arrest of a black man at 4.45pm near the Acapulco Cafe, Lozells Road for a traffic offence sparks two days of rioting. Over 1500 police officers were drafted into the area and 50 shops were either burnt or looted. Damage to property was estimated at hundreds of thousands of pounds, 35 people were injured or hospitalised, 2 people unaccounted for and tragically 2 people lost their lives.

1991 - Disenchanted youth riot in Newcastle, Cardiff, Birmingham, Oxford and Bristol.

1999 - Henri Bouyé aka André Deval (b. 1912), French florist and anarchist, who was instrumental in rebuilding and restoring the French anarchist movement after the Nazi occupation, dies. [see: Oct. 12]

[A] 2009 - A six-day strike is announced in 48 prisons across Italy, with up to 50,000 prisoners refusing food and work.

[F] 2016 - U.S. Prisoners' Work Strike: More than 24,000 prisoners in at least 12 states refuse to go to their assigned jobs, demanding an "end to prison slavery" in a coordinated strike on the 45th anniversary of the bloody uprising at Attica prison in New York. Eventually prisoners in 40 to 50 prisons in more than 20 states became involved in the protests
40 to 50 prisons in more than 20 states went on a coordinated strike Friday, refusing to go to their assigned jobs and demanding an "end to prison slavery."
In April 2014, one of the main national groups organising the campaign, the Incarcerated Workers Organizing Committee, under the banner of the Industrial Workers of the World union, announced its call to action. On July 31, the organisation's Statement of Purpose was created in order to organise and unite prisoners. There are five components to the Incarcerated Workers Organizing Committee's Statement of Purpose. The five components lay out the goals of the organisation, convey the importance of supporting fellow prisoners, and vocalise the needs of inmates. Cellular devices were used as a communication force and helped to organise the strikes in the groups. [expand]
1676 - Gerrard Winstanley (b. 1609), English Protestant religious reformer and political activist, dies. One of the founders of the Christian anarchist communist group the True Levellers, also known as the Diggers.
[ texts/PDF-versions/Winstanley, Gerrard and the Diggers - Various texts.pdf]

1796 - Eugénie Niboyet (Eugenie Mouchon; d. 1883), French author, journalist and early feminist, who is best known for founding 'La Voix des Femmes' (The Women's Voice), the first feminist daily newspaper in France, born.énie_Niboyeténie_Niboyet]

1797 - Mary Wollstonecraft (b. 1759), English moral and political philosopher, novelist, travel writer, educational theorist and feminist author of 'A Vindication of the Rights of Women', dies. [see: Apr. 27]

1809 - Jenny d'Héricourt (Jeanne-Marie-Fabienne Poinsard; d. 1875), French novelist, feminist activist, revolutionary, and physician-midwife, who founded the Société pour l'Émancipation des Femmes in 1848, born. Apart from her novel 'Le Fils du Réprouvé' (1844), under the pen name of Félix Lamb, her most famous work is the landmark study, 'La Femme Affranchie: réponse à MM. Michelet, Proudhon, E. de Girardin, A. Comte et aux autres novateurs modernes' (The Liberated Woman: response to MM. Michelet, Proudhon, E. Girardin, Comte and other modern innovators; 1860), her rebuttal to the sexist essays of the anarchist Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, the historian Jules Michelet and others.

[D] 1823 - Simón Bolívar, hero of the wars of independence against Spain, is given supreme military authority in Perú prior to Congress naming his as dictator on February 10, 1824.

1843 - Rebecca Riots: During the night an attack was launched on three homesteads belonging to William Chamber, where hay ricks, three corn stacks and even an outbuilding were destroyed by fire. This was the fourth or fifth arson attack made upon Chamber’s property since, as George Rice Trevor claimed, he had ‘acted zealously as a magistrate’.

1862 - Jean-Marie Giraudon (d. unknown), French locksmith, anarchist and revolutionary syndicalist, born.

1887 - The first issue of the weekly 'L'Idée Ouvrière' is publsihed in Le Harve. This Saturday newspaper includes editorials by Émile Pouget and is published until June 9, 1888.

1878 - Karl Eduard Nobiling (b. 1848) German anarchist and doctor of philosophy, having mortally wounded himself (a shot to the head) following his failed assassination attempt on Kaiser Wilhelm I on June 2, 1878, succumbs to his injuries. [see: Apr. 10]

[B] 1890 - Franz Viktor Werfel (d. 1945), Czech-born, Austrian-Jewish novelist, playwright and poet, born. Werfel had identified himself as being an atheist and anarchist by the time of his bar mitzvah (i.e. 13-years-old), although his anarchism, like many of his fellow Expressionists, had a distinctly messianic or mystical edge to it and ended up veering towards a Tolstoyian pacifist anarchism. He was also another of the Expressionists to fall under the influence of Otto Gross. Werfel began writing at an early age and published his first book of poems, 'Der Weltfreund', (The Friend to the World) in 1911, and had befriended other German Jewish writers who frequented Prague’s Café Arco, chief among them Max Brod and Franz Kafka.
At the outbreak of WWI, Werfel served in the Austro-Hungarian Army on the Russian front in relative safety as a telephone operator, and he continue writing Expressionist poems, plays and kept up a voluminous correspondence. In 1917 he left the front-line for the Military Press Bureau in Vienna, where he joined other notable Austrian writers serving as propagandists, among them Robert Musil, Rainer Maria Rilke and Stefan Zweig. After the war he continued writing, publishing amongst others: a poetry collection; 'Der Gerichtstag' (Judgment Day; 1919); the short story collections 'Nicht der Mörder, der Ermordete ist Schuldig' (Not the Murderer, it is the Victim who is Guilty; 1920) and
'Der Tod des Kleinbürgers' (The Death of the Petty Bourgeois aka 'The Man Who Conquered Death'; 1928); novels such as 'Der Abituriententag: Geschichte einer Jugendschuld' (Class Reunion: History of a Boy's Guilt; 1928) and 'Der Veruntreute Himmel' (Embezzled Heaven; 1939); and a large number of plays, which included 'Paulus unter den Juden' (Paul among the Jews; 1926) and 'Das Reich Gottes in Böhmen' (The Kingdom of Bohemia; 1930).
He married Alma Mahler (widow of composer Gustav Mahler) in 1929, with whom he journeyed to the Middle East in 1930, encountering starving refugees which inspired his 2 volume novel 'Die Vierzig Tage des Musa Dagh' (The Forty Days of Musa Dagh) which drew world attention to the Armenian Genocide at the hands of the Turks.
After the Anschluss, Franz and Alma fled Vienna for France, only to have to flee in 1940 on foot across the Pyrenees to Spain, accompanied by Heinrich Mann, and from there to the United States. While living in Southern California, Werfel completed his most famous novel 'The Song of Bernadette' (Das Lied von Bernadette; 1941), fulfilling a vow made in 1940 in Lourdes for a safe escape. The novel was made later into the film 'The Song of Bernadette' (1943).

1891 - One of two possible birth dates (along with November 10, the more widely accepted) of Simón Radowitzky (Szymon Radowicki; d. 1956), aka 'The Martyr of Ushuaia', Ukrainian-born anarchist freedom fighter, born. One of the best-known prisoners of the penal colony in Ushuaia, where he was held for the assassination of Ramón Lorenzo Falcón, a head of police responsible for the brutal repression of Red Week in 1909 in Buenos Aires. Radowitzky was pardoned after 21 years, he left Argentina and fought with the Republicans during the Spanish Civil War.

1891 - The first issue of 'El Revolucionario', "Quincenario anarquista-comunista acérimo partidario de la transformación social" (Anarchist-communist biweekly staunch supporter of social transformation), is publsihed in Gracia, Barcelona. Only one other issue (October 1,1891) is ever published.

[F] 1892 - Broken Hill Miners' Strike: The arrival of the first train load of blackleg contract workers is met by a massive crowd of hostile local men and women and scenes of major disorder as the train is attacked and police with fixed bayonets attempt to guard the scabs.

1897 - Lattimer Massacre: At least 19 unarmed striking Polish, Slovak, Lithuanian and German immigrant anthracite coal miners at the Lattimer mine near Hazleton, Pennsylvania, are shot and killed by a Luzerne County sheriff's posse of 150 armed deputies. Another 17 to 49 miners were wounded [figures vary according to different sources]. All had been shot in the back whilst running away, and several had multiple gunshot wounds indicating that they had been targeted by the deputies. The sheriff and 73 deputies were arrested, tried, and acquitted.

[C] 1897 - Georges Albert Maurice Victor Bataille (d. 1962), French philosopher, novelist, poet and critic, whose writings cover a wide range of subjects including literature, anthropology, sociology and the history of art, born. Eroticism, sovereignty and transgression are at the core of his writings, many of which propound what has been labelled a 'post-anarchist' ethics. In 1935 he co-founded an anti-Fascist group, Contre-Attaque, with André Breton.

1897 - 19 unarmed striking coal miners and mine workers killed and 36 wounded near Lattimer, Pennsylvania, for refusing to disperse, by a posse organised by the Luzerne County sheriff. The strikers, most of whom were shot in the back, were originally brought in as strike-breakers, but later organised themselves.

1898 - Anarchist Luigi Luccheni stabs Empress Elizabeth of Austria, in Geneva, using a frayed file, to strike against "the persecutors of the workers". The Swiss courts condemned him to forced labour. Found hung in prison in 1910.
[Costantini pic]

1899 - Gabriella 'Ella' Antolini (d. 1984), Italian-American agricultural worker and Galleanist anarchist, who earned the nickname the Dynamite Girl when she was arrested on a train from Steubenville to Chicago in January 1918 carrying a black leather case containing thirty-six sticks of dynamite and a .32 caliber Colt automatic, which were to be used to carry out revenge attacks for the arrests and persecution of the Milwaukee anarchists and the death in custody of Augusto Marinell on September 15, 1917, born. On October 21, 1918 Gabriella Antolini was sentenced to 18 months to be served at the Missouri State Penitentiary in Jefferson City and a $2000 fine. In prison she befriended Emma Goldman and socialist Kate O'Hare , the three becoming known as 'The Trinity'.

1900 - Having gone into hiding the previous day, Emma Goldman is arrested by Chicago police and subjected to intensive interrogation. Though initially denied, bail is set at $20,000.

1905 - The first edition of Chile's first feminist workers newspaper, the bimonthly 'La Alborada' (The Dawn), "Pulicación quincenal - defensora de las clases proletarias" (fortnightly champion of the proletarian classes) (1905-1907), is published in Valparaíso by the anarchist and feminist Carmela Jería, who worked as a typographer in the Gillbert lithograph works until she made a speech during a May Day demostration. The declared purpose of the anarchist-leaning newspaper is to be a "defender muy en particular a las vejadas trabajadoras..." (in particular to champion the cause of harried working women). It would survive until 1907 having put out 42 issues.

1917 - Alexander Berkman is released from prison on $25,000 bail, having been falsely accused and arrested for murder in connection with the Preparedness Day bombing in San Francisco.

1931 - Industrial Unrest in Second Republic: Publication of the Madrid newspaper 'El Siglo Futuro' (The Future Century) is suspended, as is the Bilbao daily 'Libertad Vasca' (Basque Freedom).

1933 - Battle of Stockton-on-Tees: A supposedly secret British Union of Fascists meeting due to be held in Stockton-on-Tees Market Square on a quiet Sunday afternoon in support of the small local BUF group, who had come under regular attack by members of the National Unemployed Workers Movement and the Labour and Communist Parties, ends in a riot when just over 100 BUF members who had been bussed-in from Tyneside and the Manchester area are ambushed by 2,000 anti-fascists. Wooden staves and pickaxe handles are used to attack the fascists, and stones - and more lethally - potatoes studded with razor blades are thrown into the Blackshirted ranks. The BUF march broke ranks and were pursued across the High Street by the opposing crowds nearly, overturning a passing bus in their wake. They were later caught in a bottleneck in Silver Street and received another battering before being run out of town. The local police are caught totally unprepared but eventually managed to round-up straggling BUF members who had not already fled and escorted them back to their coaches to leave town with their tails between their legs. The local press reported around 20 casualties but many never stopped to get their injuries treated before hot-tailing it back to Newcastle and Machester. One fascist follower, the freelance photographer John Warburton, lost an eye to one of the missiles. [PR]

[E] 1939 - Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz, US historian, writer, feminist and revolutionary, who founded the militant feminist organisation Cell 16 and was active in the American Indian Movement, born.

[CC] 1941 - Melkestreiken [Milk Strike]: The German Reichskommissar Josef Terboven declares martial law in Oslo and the neighbouring municipality Aker. Two union leaders, Viggo Hansteen and Rolf Wickstrøm, are summilarily sentenced to death by a court-martial, and immediately executed by a SS Sonderkommando. Later three other union leaders - Ludvik Buland, Harry Vestli and Josef Larsson - would also be sentenced to death, but their convictions were changed to imprisonment for life in German jails. Both Buland and Vestli later died in German prisons. The leadership of the Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions also underwent a period of "Nazification", with members of the Fascist party Nasjonal Samling installed as leaders.

1941 - Harald Viggo Hansteen (b. 1900), Norwegian lawyer and Communist, is executed by the Nazis during their retaliation against the Oslo Melkestreiken (Milk strike). [see: Sep. 8 & 13]

1941 - Rolf Wickstrøm (b 1912) was a Norwegian labour activist and shop stewart at the Skabo Rail Coach Factory, , is executed by the Nazis during their retaliation against the Oslo Melkestreiken (Milk strike). [see: Sep. 8 & Dec. 9]

1943 - Battaglia di Piombino: In Piombino, an Italian steel town with a great libertarian tradition and, in particular, a tradition of revolutionary syndicalism, a popular uprising against the Nazis takes place. Earlier that year popular protests had taken place following the announcement of the fall of Mussolini when, on the morning of July 26, Piombino workers from the ILVA and Magona steel plants, hotbeds of anarchist and communist agitation, mounted a mass celebratory demonstration. The army and police meanwhile had been ordered by General Pietro Badoglio, head of the new government, to stop any such event: "proceed in combat formation, open fire at distance, even using mortars and artillery, without warning of any kind, as if action was being taken against enemy troops ..." However, the 200 police and marines were overwhelmed by the 15,000 workers taking part and decided that caution was the best part of valour, and left the workers to it. The latter attacked the City Hall and local Fascist headquarters (Casa del Fascio), seizing guns and hand grenades. They also decided that they should mount patrols of their own in the port and at Campiglia train station. The following day Badoglio ordered dusk to dawn curfews across Italy and in Piombino a group of fascisti including the mayor and the captain of the guard, Murzi Francesco, one of the murders of the anarchist Amaddio Lucarelli on July 9, 1922, had barricaded themselves in the City Hall and had to be rescued by the military authorities, who had to fire upon those trying to revenge themselves upon the fascists.
With the announcement on September 8, 1943 of the Armistice of Cassibile between the Allies and the Kingdom of Italy [signed in secret on Sept. 3 and broadcast over the radio at 19.42 on the 8th], German forces moved rapidly to put in place Operation Achse [the codename of the German plans to forcibly disarm the Italian armed forces following the expected armistice with the Allied forces], taking over the Italian zones of occupation in the Balkans and southern France, and disarming all Italian forces in Italy. At the same time, the announcement of the armistice and news of the flight of the Italian King and Marshal Badoglio from Rome for the south of the country brought about the disintegration of the Italian army, as troops quit their units and returned to their homes towns.
Meanwhile, in Piombino the Germans attempted to seize the town during night of 8-9, occupying parts of the port, disarming some Italian seamen and seizing their weapons. Other Italian units fought back and shore batteries fired on the large force of German ships in the harbour, sinking two landing craft (Marinefährprahme), disabling another along with the barge (péniche) Karin. The Italian response forced the Germans to hand back the seized weapons and retreat. Around noon on September 9, all the German troops began leaving Piombino for Livorno on board their naval flotilla. The Karin, too damaged to be of any use, was scuttled in the harbour entrance in an attempt to block it.
In addition to the general concerns of Operation Achse, the Germans had a more pressing need, to secure the port of Piombino, together with that of Bastia, in order to be able to prepare for the evacuation of their forces from Sardinia and Corsica. To that end, the following day [10th] at 04:30 two German torpedo boats/destroyers, the TA 9 and TA 11 under the command of Captain Karl-Wolf Albrand, attempted to pass themselves off as an Italian convoy, asking to dock to stock up on water and coal. The commander of the Navy in Piombino, Captain Amedeo Capuano, denied them access. However, the commander of the Italian coastal forces, General Cesare Maria De Vecchi, a former Fascist Gerarca ("Member of a hierarchy"), at 09:30 gave the order to grant access to the German convoy to refuel. The German ships (accompanied by four anti-submarine patrol boats) immediately took up positions at the north and south parts of the harbour, covering the entire port with their guns. These units were followed at 12:00 by four anti-submarine patrol boats, four Marinefährprahme (naval ferry barges), two Flugbetriebsboote (Flight operations boats), two more torpedo boats and two péniches (the Mainz and Meise), plus various speedboats. A second flotilla of five anti-submarine patrol boats were intercepted by Italian ships en route to Piombino at 13:00 and forced to turn back, but a third much larger convoy entered the port that evening.
Sometime prior to the later arrivals, General Fortunato Perni, commander of the Piombino Presidio, had given the Germans permission to station two unarmed Wehrmacht signallers at the maritime signal station, who actually turned up fully armed at the nearby anti-aircraft battery, and the Germans had also begun to land armed patrols, clearly aiming to seize the port. Alerted to this, the town's population and the ILVA and Magona workers reacted by mounting protests in front of the Presidio, located in the stadio Magona, demanding immediate and decisive action by the Italian military to halt the Nazi invasion or they would take matters into their own hands and mount an insurrection. In response, Perni agreed to call in tanks from the XIX Battaglione to defend the town. However, inspired by General De Vecchi, his true intention was to use them to restore order in the city.
In Piombino, the civilian and military had set to organising the city's defences, with the two German signallers seized and disarmed. At the same time the Germans were preparing for assaults on three main objectives: seizing the maritime signal station, the occupation of the port, and the occupation of key points within the city itself.
As the protests grew louder in Piombino, a crowd tried to raid the Casa del Fascio looking for weapons but were driven of by troops firing into the air. With the arrival of 20 M15/42 tanks, the order was given by Perni to fire on the protesters, the General having warned Captain Albrand not to be alarmed by any shooting that he might hear from the port, as it was only his tanks firing on civilians. Failing to be intimidated, the population continued their protests, joining with the port commander, Captain Amedeo Capuano, and his officers, who wished to fight off the German attack. De Vecchi and Perni responded to this insubordination by turning up in Piombino to dismiss Capuano personally.
In the power vacuum that ensued some of the workers, either independently or at the prompting of the Comitato di Concentrazione Antifascista, which had been formed in the preceding weeks to defend the city, entrusted the command of the resistance to the German attack to Captain Giorgio Bacherini, head of the DICAT [Territorial Anti-aircraft Defence Militia] anti-aircraft battery and an anti-fascist sympathiser, whilst seizing control of the various batteries and gun emplacements and preventing their personnel from leaving, whilst trying to persuade their junior officers to turn the tanks against the German invaders, who had in the meantime disembarked and begun to enter the town and move towards the industrial zone.
As darkness fell around 21:15, someone on the Italian side launched a flare in order to illuminate the harbour and Captain Albrand, believing it to be a signal to attack, ordered his ships to open fire. The battle would last several hours with the Germans suffering the majority of the casualties as the armed citizens and workers, together with the naval batteries and tanks fired on the flotilla of German ships at anchor in the harbour. At midnight, the heavily damaged TA 9 fled the harbour as ships all around it sank, spilling burning diesel fuel into the waters. At dawn on Saturday September 11, the remaining German forces surrendered. 120 Germans had been killed and around 200-300 captured, 120 of them wounded. On the Italian side there were four dead with a dozen wounded. The Italian tanks and artillery had sunk the TA 11, seven Marinefährprahme, the péniches Mainz and Meise, six Luftwaffe service boats and the former Italian steamers Carbet and Capitano Sauro (who were both scuttled because of the damage they had suffered). Four Italian anti-submarine patrol boats had also been sunk during the battle. The German minesweeper R 185 (one of the last ships to arrive the previous day) also managed to escape unscathed.
Unfortunately, the struggle of the town's people and anti-fascists amongst the military had been in vain as Gen. De Vecchi ordered [communicated to Captain Bacherini via Gen. Perni] the release of all the German prisoners and the returning of their weapons. Later that afternoon the freed German soldiers left Piombino en rote to Livorno on board the remaining seaworthy craft. To add further insult to injury, the divisional headquarters in Massa Marittima agreed a truce with the Germans allowing them to take possession of Piombino on September 12.
Many of the soldiers and sailors who had fought to repel the German attack only found out at the last minute, fleeing their post with just enough time to sabotage what equipment that they could not carry away with them. With little chance of finding transport home, many fled into the surrounding woods with anti-fascist workers and towns people in order to continue the fight against the Germans and the inevitable return of fascists to the city, giving birth to the first partisan groups such as the banda di Poggio alla Marruca, which would go on to form part of the third Brigata Garibaldi.
Among the anarchists who took part in the uprising was Adriano Vanni, a partisan who operated in the Maremma and who was called upon to join the local Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale (National Liberation Committee, a body made up of a spectrum of anti-fascist organisations).

1950 - Belén de Sárraga Hernández (b. 1872), Spanish teacher, doctor, journalist, Freemason, freethinker, Spiritist, anticlerical feminist and anarchist propagandist, who toured and agitated extensively across Latin America, was involved in the Mexican Revolution and the establsihment of the Second Republic in Spain, dies in exile in Mexico. [see: Jul. 10]

1969 - Jorge Majfud, Uraguayan novelist, essayist and anarchist, born. Professor at Georgia, Lincoln and Jacksonville Universities. [expand]

1977 - Hamida Djandoubi, a Tunisian immigrant convicted of murder, becomes the last person executed with the guillotine in France.

[A] 2003 - WTO in Cancun: Korean Lee Kyung-Hae farmer commits ritual suicide, leaving the message "WTO kills farmers".
1837 - Tolpuddle Martyrs: Having been pardoned on March 10, 1836, on condition of good conduct, and given free passage home following a mass campaign back in England, only for the authorities in New South Wales to delay notifying the five of the government's instructions and offer, James Loveless, Thomas and John Stanfield, and James Brine depart Sydney on board the John Barry, reaching Plymouth on March 17, 1838, one of the departure points for convict transport ships.

1893 - In court on charges following her Aug. 21 speech, Emma Goldman pleads not guilty. She is released on bail on Sept. 14.

1895 - Vinoba Bhave (Vinayak Narahari Bhave; d. 1982), Indian leading figure in Sarvodaya, the post-Ghandi his social philosophy, his social philosophy was fundamentally anarchist and communitarian. He argued for absolute nonviolence, social organisation based on universal love, decision making by consensus, the replacement of coercion by the recognition of moral authority, and the minimisation and eventual abolition of state power.
"If you want to cut down a tree, it is no use to climb into its branches."
"If there is a disease from which the entire world suffers, it is this disease called government."

1901 - Katri Vala (Karin Alice Wadenström; d. 1944), Finnish teacher, modernist poet, translator, radical, pacifist and anti-Fascist, who was a central member of the literary group Tulenkantajat (Torchbearers), born. An elementary school teacher, in 1928 she fell ill with tuberculosis, from which he never fully recovered, and which eventually led to his premature death aged only 42. In 1930, she married Armas Heikel, a trainee chemist and left-wing radical. She herself helped radicalise Finnish poetry as the prime instigator of Tulenkantajat's expressionistic free verse, with its mix of exoticism and primitivism. In the 1903s, she also co-founded the leftist cultural group Kiilaa (Wedge), which attempted to fuse avant-garde and proletarian culture and also included her fellow anti-fascist poet Elvi Sinervo. Vala's last collection of poems, 'Pesäpuu palaa' (The nesting tree is burning; 1942), mostly written in 1935-39 was filled with visions of war and displayed her strong anti-fascist views. She died in Eksjö sanatorium in Sweden on April 28, 1944.

1902 - Norbert Bartošek (d. ), Austrian doctor and libertarian promoter of volunatry sterilisation by vasectomy in France and Spain, born.

1903 - Theodor W. Adorno (Theodor Ludwig Wiesengrund; d. 1969), German philosopher and sociologist of the Frankfurt School, born.

1905 - [O.S. Aug. 29] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: A bloody Cossack attack on socialist demonstration occurs in Tiflis.

1906 - [O.S. Aug. 29] Zinaida Vasilevna Konoplyannikova (Зинаида Васильевна Конопля́нникова; b., 1878), rural school teacher, member of the revolutionary movement in Russia, is hung in Schlisselburg fortress during the night of September 10-11 [Aug. 28-29], 1906, becoming the first woman to be hanged in Russia in the 20th century. [see: Nov. 26]

1913 - Maruja Lara (Angustias Lara Sanchez; d. 2012), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist, miliciana, nurse and activist in the clandestine prisoners support group, Unión de Mujeres Demócratas, born. When she was three, her family to Brazil and then Argentina, where her father was a militant in the syndicalist Federación Obrera Regional Argentina. In January 1932 she returned to Granada, where she joined the Sindicato de Minyones (domestic workers union) of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT), of which she became secretary, and the Juventudes Libertarias (FIJL), at the age of fourteen.
With the fascist coup, she fled Granada for Tocón, Baza and Guadix, fighting nominally as a miliciana in the Columna Maroto. In mid-1937, she moved to València, joining the Sindicat d'Infermeres (Nurses Union) and working in Hospital Número 1 near Torres de Quart, València. In Valencia she became branch treasurer of the Mujeres Libres and got to know militants like Amelia Torres, Lucia Sánchez Saornil, Suceso Portales, Carmen Pons, Natacha Cabezas, Paquita Domínguez, America Barroso, Pura Pérez, etc. and especially became a good friend of Isabel Mesa. When the war ended in March 1939, she and Mesa got on to a truck for Almeria to catch a ship for Algeria, but she ended up in the port of Alicante and then was imprisoned in the infamous Francoist concentration camp of Albatera. Here 25,000 were murdered by the Francoists and thrown into mass graves.
She finally managed to escape from Albatera to Almeria and then Granada. She worked for a while in a caramel factory there. In late 1939 she returned to Valencia. With Isabel Mesa she set up a newspaper kiosk in Valencia, which secretly distributed the anarchist press. In 1942 with Isabel and others, she set up the underground group the Unión de Mujeres Demócratas (Union of Democratic Women) to help prisoners and their families. In 1955 she was arrested because of her anarchist activities. Except for a few months in Palma, Mallorca, in 1940 and a year in France in 1960 to escape repression, she always lived in Valencia. After the death of Franco, she was actively involved in the reconstruction of the CNT and supported the creation of the free radio station Radio Klara. In 1997 she contributed to the anarchist journal 'El Chico'.
She died on February 29, 2012.

1919 - Teiko Kiuchi (木内錠子; b. 1887), Japanese Taisho era novelist, femnist and one of the co-founders, along with Raichō Hiratsuka (平塚らいてう) and others, of the monthly feminist magazine 'Seitō' (青鞜 / Bluestocking), dies. [see: Jul. 31]

1920 - Sacco & Vanzetti Case: Sacco and Vanzetti indicted for the events in South Braintree.

1925 - Manuel Millán Calvo (d. 2003), Aragonese libertarian anti-Francoist guerrillero, born. Already a CNT militant when called up for national service in the Utrillas mines, he deserted with fellow CNTista Modesto Llueve Vera and the socialist Emilio Azuara Navarro aka 'Doroteo'. In 1947, all three joined the Agrupación Guerrillera de Levante (AGL), operating in the mountains of Utrillas, but were captured later that year. In May 6, 1947, he ended up in the prison of Zaragoza and was court-martialed on November 7 bythe Consejo de Guerra. He was sentenced to death for "rebellion, banditry and terrorism", but the sentence was later commuted to 30 years in prison. On November 16, 1949, he was transferred to the prison of San Miguel de los Reyes, learning both the trade of carpenter and to play the trombone in the orchestra assembled by prisoners. In 1959, he married in prison. Desperate at seeing his companions being released whilst he remained in prison, he attempted suicide, cutting the veins in his wrists, ending up interned for a year in a Madrid asylum. He was then sent to Laayoune (Sahara Spanish) for military service. In the mid sixties he was released under an amnesty.

1926 - In Rome, the individualist anarchist Gino Lucetti makes a failed attempt on the life of Mussolini. One of the founding members of the Arditi del Popolo, he became a militant anti-fascist and was active in the violent clashes during the Biennio Rosso (1919-20). Involved in numerous armed clashes with local fascisti, on September 26, 1925, during one armed confrontation in Carrara he shot and wounded a fascist, Alessandro Perfetti, but was in turn wounded in the neck and ear by a second. Unable to find a doctor to treat his wounds, he went into hiding until he could be smuggled on board a ship bound for Marseille, where he finally received treatment from a doctor. In France he plotted his ill-fated attentat on the prime minister with exiled Italian anti-fascists from various groups [Lucetti would later claim under interrogation that he hatched the plot on his own and carried it out unaided], returning to Italy on a number of occasions during the planning.
Finally, with all the components in place, he returned to Italy where, on September 11, 1923, he waited near the Porta Pia in Rome for the Duce's car to pass. However, the bomb that he threw failed to explode then it his Mussolini's car. Instead it bounced off the windscreen onto the running board and landed on the pavement nearby, where it belatedly detonated a few seconds later, wounding eight passers-by. Hiding in a doorway nearby, Lucetti was grabbed by a pedestrian, Ettore Perondi, and handed over to Mussolini's bodyguards. Having handed out a stiff beating, they found a second bomb, a handgun with six dumdum bullets poisoned with muriatic acid, and a dagger on him. Commenting to the police on all the weapons, Lucetti is claimed to have said: "I did not come with a bunch of flowers for Mussolini. I was willing to use my pistol if I had not achieved my aim with the bomb."
Under interrogation, he gave his name as Ermete Giovannini from Castelnuovo Garfagnana and the authorities set out on a wild goose chase, trying to track down his fellow conspirators. Eventually, Lucetti revealed his true identity and the police were forced to resort to rounding up two of Lucetti's friends, Leandro Sorio and Stefano Vatteroni, and charging them as supposed accomplices. Tried in June 1927, Gino Lucetti was sentenced to life in prison (30 years), the death penalty not then being on the statutes. and Sorio and Vatteroni were sentenced to 20 years and 19 years 9 months respectively.
Gino Lucetti spent nearly 17 years in Santo Stefano prison before he was freed by the Allies, who had just liberated Naples. He then set up home on the island of Ischia, but on September 17, 1943, during a raid by German bombers, the houseboat he was on was hit and Lucetti was killed.

1931 - Industrial Unrest in Second Republic: In Bilbao, fighting between Basque nationalists and Republicans leaves two dead.

[D] 1931 - The widespread repression carried out by General Rodolfo Graziani in Libya results the capture of Omar al-Mukhtar, head of the Arab resistance against italian oppression. After a summary trial, he will be brutally hanged on September 16 by the Italian occupiers.

1941 - Generoso Gran Pérez a member of the CNT's Sindicato de la alimentación (Foodworker's Union) is captured. He had returned from France to act as a go-between exile groups and those in Spain.

1941 - Alexandra Adolfovna Izmailovich (Александре Адольфовна Измайлович; 1878), Russian member S-R Combat Organisation's (Боева́я организа́ция) 'Northern combat flying squad' (Северный боевой летучий отряд / ЛБО СО ПСР) and sister of Catherine Izmailovich (Екатерина Измайлович), she is shot in Medvedev forest [Медведевском лесу] (Orel prison). On January 24 [14], 1906, she participated with fellow SR Ivan Pulihovym (Иваном Пулиховым) in the assassination of the Governor of Minsk, Paul Kurlov (Павел Курлов), and police chief D. Norov (Д. Норова).
At the founding congress of the Left Socialist-Revolutionaries [The Party of the Left, Internationalist -Revolutionary-Socialists](Партия левых социалистов-революционеров-интернационалистов) on November 19-27 [Dec. 2-10], 1907, she was elected to the Central Committee members.
In 1937, the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR was sentenced to 10 years in prison on charges of belonging to a terrorist organisation, and September 8, 1941, sentenced to death. Together with the other political prisoners, she was shot in Medvedev forest [Медведевском лесу] (Orel prison)

1941 - Maria Alexandrovna Spiridonova (Мария Александровна Спиридонова; b. 1884), prominent Russian member of the Left Socialist-Revolutionaries (Партия левых социалистов-революционеров) party and onetime honourary chair of the party as well as editor of its paper 'Land and Freedom' (Земля и воля), is executed by order of the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR (Военная коллегия Верховного суда СССР). [see: Oct. 28]

1942 - Underground Norwegian trade union newspapers arrange thousands of letters to the government rejecting Nazification.

1953 - Paul 'Ovide' Ducauroy (b. 1887), French weaver, anarchist individualist activist and propagandist, commits suicide. [see: Aug. 3]

[B] 1956 - The London première of the Bill Haley film 'Rock Around the Clock' results in a riot at the Trocadero Cinema, leading to national outrage and a ban on the film in major UK cities.

[C] 1973 - CIA overthrows Chile's democratically elected government, ending nearly 150 years of democratic rule. Over 5,000 die and many others 'disappear'.

[F] 1973 - Mine workers at Western Deep Levels mine, Carltonville, out on strike against poverty wages are shot by the police while protesting - 12 miners are killed and 38 are wounded.

1976 - On the anniversary of the Chilean military coup against Allende, activists bomb the Chilean Embassy, the American Library and the offices of the Brazilian national airline in Rome.

1976 - In Blackburn, where the National Party has 2 councillors - John Kingsley Read and John Frankham (who was later disqualified for election irregularities) - elected in the local elections of April 1976, a protest march organised by Action Against racism, with Blackburn Trades Council, the IS and Communist Party support, takes place with 4,500 activists from across the country. The leaflet released calling for the demonstration states that it "is of NATIONAL significance. It is taking the fight into one of the strongholds of the enemy."
"When 11 September 1976 came around, two very different mobilisations took place. Several hundred supporters of the National Party and National Front congregated outside the city centre. Carrying placards including 'Free Robert Relf', 'Scrap the Race Act', and 'No more mosques in Blackburn', the fascists were led off by Kingsley Read wearing a full uniform-style jacket, and in front of him, four police on horseback. All police leave was cancelled for the day. Four thousand anti-fascists occupied the town centre. There were trades council banners from Manchester, Stockport, Glasgow, Liverpool, Crawley, Preston and Skelmersdale. Mobilised by left groups and the mosque, it was a very Asian protest. In contrast to the racist march which was stopped outside central Blackburn, the anti-racists were good-humoured, confident that the NF would not pass. At the end of the day's protests, the police waded in to attack the anti-racists, but only three arrests were made." [DK Renton - 'Anti-fascism in the Northwest 1976-1981']

1978 - Joan Ferrer i Farriol (b. 1896), anarchist and prominent Catalan anarcho-syndicalist leader, who was a regular contributor to the libertarian press and author of several books, dies. [see: Jun. 21]

1990 - Cai Chang (蔡畅; b. 1900), prominent Chinese communist and women's right's activist, dies. [see: May 15]

[E] 1998 - Claudia López Benaiges (b. 1972), Chilean anarchist militant and dance student at the Universidad Academia de Humanismo Cristiano in Santiago, is shot in the back and killed by Carabineros in the village of La Pincoya, Santiago, whilst taking part in a protest on the 25th anniversary of coup of September 11, 1973. Two of the comrades on the barricade with her were also wounded by the burst of machinegun fire. No one was ever charged in connection with her death.
Claudia would become a symbol for the young of the Chilean anarchist movement,for the student and youth movements and social organisations in Chile, and proof that the Chilean regime remained very much under the control of those who ran the dictatorship. [see: Nov. 28]

2001 - President Bush has his meeting with primary school kids interrupted by news that leaves him looking even more dumbfounded than usual.

2003 - WTO in Cancun [expand].

2010 - 44-year-old 'boisterous' 6ft 4in-tall Leonard McCourt, who had earlier been arrested for being drunk and disorderly at his home in Seaham, County Durham, dies of a heart attack in the back of a police van after being 'subdued' with pepper spray. In his October 2012 inquest the police officers involved are granted anonymity.
1837 - Hundreds of black Canadians confront British troops attempting to deport Solomon Moseby, an escaped slave from Kentucky, back to the United States. Slavery is illegal in the British Empire, so slaves who reach Upper Canada are supposed to be safe, but U.S. authorities have demanded that Moseby be deported back to the U.S. because he stole a horse from the slaveowner in order to escape. When news of the planned deportation becomes known in late August, blacks encircle the jail in Niagara-on-the-Lake in Upper Canada in order to prevent his removal. When the authorities make their move on September 12, the crowd attacks the troops guarding Moseby and enable him to escape. Two people are killed by the soldiers in the melee, and 40 are arrested.

1843 - Rebecca Riots: An arson attack is made on two large hayricks ablaze in the farmyard of Middleton Hall, the property of Edward Abadam, who returns home to find his family cowering in fear within the house, and the woods surrounding his mansion full of men watching the fire. It appeared the attackers had removed the plugs from the fish ponds in order to hinder any attempts at extinguishing the fires. These haystacks, containing about sixty tons of hay, worth upwards of £200, a substantial loss to the landlord. Four days later they were still smouldering. It seems the attack on Abadam’s property stood as retaliation for his actions as a magistrate, dealing with Rebeccaites in court harshly, and for his continual refusal to lower his rents.

1859 - Florence Kelley (d. 1932), pioneering US social and political reformer, Hull House activist, lawyer, socialist, pacifist and labour activist, who refused to be associated with any political party, born. She campaigned against sweatshops and for the minimum wage, eight-hour workdays, children's rights and compulsory education laws, was appointed the first woman factory inspector in the United States (Chief Factory Inspector for the state of Illinois),founded the strongly anti-sweatshop National Consumers League and helped organise the Working People’s Social Science Club, developing connections with radical labour.

1880 - The first issue of 'La Révolution Sociale' is published in Paris. Supposedly an "Organe anarchiste", it was in fact created and financed by the Préfet de police of Paris, Louis Andrieux, in order to infiltrate the anarchist movement via an undercover agent (Aegis Spilleux), who claimed that the money came from a wealthy English supporter. Fifty six issue were published (up til September 18, 1881), many including the names and addresses of active anarchists and attempts at provocations.

1891 - Genara Pagán (d. 1963), Puerto Rican tobacco worker, seamstress, feminist, libertarian labour activist and one of the leaders of the 1914 unión de tabaqueras strike, born. In 1919, she and Emilia Hernández organised, under the auspices of the Federación Libre de Trabajadores (Free Workers’ Federation), the Primer Congreso de Trabajadoras de Puerto Rico (First Congress of Puerto Rican Working Women). One resolution passed called for equal rights for men and women, including the right to vote.

1892 - Adriano Inácio Botelho (d. 1983), Portuguese anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist militant, born. A member of the O Semeador (The Sower) anarchist group, he worked as a translator and on the newspaper 'A Batalha' in Lisbon. As a member of the Portuguese anarcho-syndicalist CGT, he and his comrades were subject to fierce repression during the Salazar dictatorship and he was critical of the anarchist participation in the government during the Spanish civil war. Post-Salazar, he participated in the reconstruction of the anarchist movement and founded the Almada newspaper 'Voz Anarquista'.

[E] 1896 - Elsa Triolet (Ella Yurievna Kagan [Элла Юрьевна Каган]; b. 1970), Russian-born French writer, one-time Futurist, Surrealist muse, communist and French Résistance fighter, born. Wife of French Surrealist Louis Aragon and sister of Lili Brik, who was the partner and muse of the Futurist poet Vladimir Mayakovsky. Triolet would be the first to translate Mayakovsky's poetry into French.

1897 - Herminia Catalina Brumana (d. 1954), Argentinian teacher, writer, journalist, playwright, anarchist and feminist activist, born.

1909 - The elders of Anenecuilco, the village where he was born, vote Emiliano Zapata calpuleque (a Náhuatl word signifyling jefe, leader or president) de la junta de defensa de las tierras de Anenecuilco (defence committee of the lands), an age-old group charged with defending the community's interests. In this position, it was Zapata's duty to represent his village's rights before the president-dictator of México, Porfirio Díaz, and the governor of Morelos, Pablo Escandón.

1914 - Stefan Kozakiewicz aka 'Marcinek' (d. 1974), Polish professor, arts historian and syndicalist, born. Before WWII, worked in the National Museum in Warsaw. During occupation took part in so-called 'Pruszkow action' – saving cultural relics. Member of the radio monitoring section of syndicalist bulletin 'Iskra' (Spark). In 'Iskra' he edited a bulletin section instructing how to protect art relics during battles. After WWII vice-director of National Museum in Warsaw and lecturer in Warsaw University. Author of many publications on the history of art, incuding: 'Warszawskie wystawy sztuk pięknych w latach 1819-1845' (The Warsaw exhibition pieces beautiful in the years 1819-1845; 1952), 'Canaletto' (1955), 'Warszawska "cyganeria" malarska' (Warsaw "bohemian" painting; 1955), with Andrew Ryszkiewicz, and 'Renesans w Polsce' (The Renaissance in Poland; 1984), with his wife Helena Kozakiewicz.

1920 - Francesc Ballester Orovitg aka 'El Explorador' aka Sebastián Grado Ortega (d. 1957), Catalan carpernter, anarchist, anti-Franco guerrilla and Esperanto speaker, born. At the beginning of the Civil War, Ballester was an activist in the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (FIJL) in l'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona and fought in the 143rd Brigade Mixte in Vilanova de la Barca during the June 1938 offensive in Aragon. Taken prisoner at the end of the war and interned in Tortosa. After he managed to escape and cross over into France, he joined the action groups and recrossed the Pyrenees to fight the Franco regime in the Barcelona area. In 1945, he joined the FIJL in Catalonia and, in July 1947, was a delegate at the clandestine Catalan regional FIJL congress in a factory on the outskirts of Madrid, also joining the Movimiento Libertario de Resistencia (MLR), the anti-Franco guerilla group with which he participated in many actions of the revolutionary struggle, especially bank expropriations.
In late October 1947, he went to Toulouse with José Lluís Facérias and Manuel Fernández Fernández as FIJL delegates at the Second Congress of the MLR in exile, where they defended the activities of the action groups. They are back in Spain a month later, after a shot spell in a French prison followed by a greande accident, during which Ballester injured his knee and Mariano Puzo Cabero lost part of his arm. On December 18, 1947, he took part, alongside Facerias, Celedonio Garcia Casino and Pedro Adrover Font, in an expropriation of the Banco de Bilbao in the calle Mallorca in Barcelona, locking its employees and customers in the manager's office and seizing nearly 180,000 pesetas. However, with increasing repression, the MLR dissolved in February 1948 following numerous arrests. Ballester was arrested on May 24, 1948 in Barcelona, ​​and took advantage of his stay in the Modelo prison to identify imprisoned comrades and, following his release in January 12, 1949, he began organising, along with Francisco Sabaté Llopart (El Quico), assistance to prisoners and a lawyer to help in their defence. New groups sprang up to help finance this via more appropriations. Constantly the subject of police harrassment, he was arrested again and tortured to try and get information about Sabaté and his group. He eventually gave up erroneous information under that torture, sending police to the wrong location (the America cinema) of a proposed meeting, thereby allowing the Sabaté brothers to escape as only 3 police were at the Condal cinema (shooting an agent, Oswaldo Blanco, that they had recognised. At his trial on March 16, 1950, Francisco Ballester was sentenced to six years in prison for the use of forged documents. Receiving leniency, he was released August 10, 1953 and went to France. Ironically, after risking his life in the armed struggle, he died on September 7, 1957 in a derailment of the Paris-Nîmes train after giving up his seat to a woman who emerged unscathed from the accident.

1921 - Stanisław Lem (d. 2006), Polish science fiction writer, essayist and critic, born. His works explored both philosophical themes: examining the impact of technology, the nature of itelligence, man's place in the universe, etc.; as well a critical and often satirical Soviet-era dissidence. Following the fall of Lvov to the German army in 1939, the Lem family managed to obtain documents that hid their Jewish identity, saving them from being sent to their deaths. Lem was active in Poland's Jewish anti-Nazi resistance, smuggling arms into the Krakow ghetto from which he eventually saw most of his Jewish friends deported to their deaths.

1922 - At 21:00 at the premises of the Sociedad Cosmopolita de Cacahueros 'Tomás Briones' (Cosmopolitan Society Of Cacao Workers 'Tomás Briones'), the first meeting of the group drafting the founding principles of the Federación de Trabajadores Regional Ecuatoriana (Ecuadorian Regional Federation Of Workers) is held at 21:00 in the premises of the cacao workers' Sociedad Cosmopolita de Cacahueros 'Tomás Briones' (Cosmopolitan Society Of Cacao Workers 'Tomás Briones') in Guayaquil, the coastal city and the main port of Ecuador.

[B] 1922 - Jackson Mac Low (d. 2004), American anarchist, pacifist, poet, Fluxus performance artist, composer and playwright, born.

1923 - September Antifascist Uprising [Септемврийско антифашистко въстание]: Following criticism from the Comitern of their inactivity during the June Uprising (Юнско въстание) [see: Jun. 10, 1923 post et al], and under pressure from young and radical activists of the party, headed by Georgi Dimitrov (Георги Димитров) and Vassil Kolarov (Васил Коларов), the Central Committee of the Bulgarian Communist Party (Българската комунистическа партия) had taken the decision [see: Aug. 5, 1923] to attempt to overthrow the Alexander Tsankov's new government of Bulgaria, which had come to power with the coup d'état of June 9. This plan was supported by the anarchist and agrarian forces that the BCP singularly failed to support during the June Uprising. However, having received information about the preparations for that rebellion, the proto-fascist Tsankov government begins arresting about 2,000 BCP activists and liquidates the headquarters of the uprising in Sofia as aprt of a massive campaign to try and prevent the insurrection.
In reaction to mass arrest of BCP members, communist members in the village of Maglizh near Kazanlak begin insurrectionary activity the following day, which continues into the 14th as they seize Maglizh and Golyamo Dryanovo. However, having received no support from the neighbouring branches, who decide to wait until the official proclamation of the uprising, withdrew into the mountains Golyamo Dryanovo several hours after seizing the villages. Their actions are backed by the BCP branch in Golyamo Dryanovo.

1927 - Sergio di Modugno, a 25 year old Italian worker exiled in France because of political persecution in Italy, assassinates the Italian Fascist vice-consul in Paris, Count Carlo Nardini, because of his despair and having been refused on numerous occassions a passport for his wife and son who remained in Italy.

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: A bomb explodes in the central telephone exchange in Seville. Official strike statistics for between April and June are published. In just two months the total number exceeds three hundred.

1932 - The first issue of 'Cultura Obrera', "Una publicació de reflexió i de lluita", is published in Palma. This is the second series of the anarcho-syndicalist title (42 issues up til July 9, 1932), was first published between August 16, 1919 and June 28, 1924 (254 issues).

1934 - Yekaterína Bréshko-Breshkóvsky [Екатери́на Бре́шко-Брешко́вская] aka ' Babushka', 'grandmother of the Russian Revolution' (бабушка русской революции) (Yekaterína Konstantínovna Verigo [Екатери́на Константи́новна Вериго]; b. 1844), Russian activist in the revolutionary movement and teacher, who was one of the founders and leaders of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party (Партия социалистов-революционеров) and its Fighting Organisation (Боева́я организа́ция), dies in Czechoslovakia. [see: Jan. 25]

1939 - Gómez Talón group members Salvador Gómez Talón, his brother Rafael, Fulgencio Rosaledo Martinez, José Tarín Marchuet, Juan Baeza Delgado and Juan Pallarés Mena are executed at the Campo de la Bota in Barcelona.

1942 - The Lenin Garrison is destroyed during a partisan uprising against the Nazis.
Having liquidated the Lenin Ghetto on August 14, 1942, leaving about 30 Jews alive to work directly for the Germans as tailors, shoemakers, builders, and photographers, a German garrison of 100 people and 30 local policemen remained based in Lenin to protect the town. The Soviet 'Kalinin' partisan unit took part attack on the garrison, assisted by two neighboring units (in total about 150 people), inflicting heavy losses, apparently killing 3 German officers (including commandant Grossman), 14 soldiers and 13 policemen. The ghetto quarter was burned down and the remaining Jews fled to the woods with the partisans.

1943 - Mussolini is freed by German commandos from the ski resort hotel at Campo Imperatore on the Gran Sasso, Aquila, where he was being held.

1948 - Marial Quintane (b. 1892), French construction worker, anarchist and revolutionary syndicalist, dies. [see: Sep. 14]

1948 - Antonio Ortiz, Primitivo Gomez and José Perez using a small private plane attempt to bomb the official platform in San Sebastien where Franco is making a speech.

[BB] 1951 - 'Surréalisme et Anarchisme - Déclaration Préalable' (Surrealism and Anarchism - Preliminary Statement), signed by Jean-Louis Bédouin, Robert Benayoun, André Breton, Roland Brudieux, Adrien Dax, Guy Doumayrou, Jacqueline & Jean-Pierre Duprey, Jean Ferry, Geoges Goldfayn, Alain Lebreton, Gérard Legrand, Jehan Mayoux, Benjamin Péret, Bernard Roger, Anne Seghers, Jean Schuster, Clovis Trouille "et leurs camarades étrangers actuellement à Paris", appears in the pages of 'Le Libertaire'. It announces the future engagement of the once Communist Party supporting Surrealist Group with the Fédération Anarchiste.

1965 - Oswald Mosley gives his 'last great speeech' in Wood Close, Bethnal Green in the East End of London. Having announced that the speech would be in Cheshire Street, the Yellow Star Movement jumped the pitch only for the UM speaker van to turn up and set up in Wood Close - a minor victory for the fascists, except that the Tannoy speakers on the van shorted out before Mosley's arrival and was forced to use a loud hailer to address the crowd. The UM hailed it as a great speech but others begged to differ. However, it was to be the last time he would speak to the people of East London at an open air meeting before moving to Ireland.

1969 - Segundo Rosariazo [Second Rosariazo]: The Unión Ferroviaria (Railway Union) declare a nationwide indefinite strike. The government responds by sending in the security forces and mobilising all railway workers under the Código de Justicia Militar (Code of Military Justice), thereby criminalising the strike. Several factories are occupied in Córdoba, and there is a massive uprising in Cipolletti, Río Negro.

[A] 1970 - Timothy Leary escapes San Luis Obispo prison with help from the Weather Underground, and joins Eldridge Cleaver in Algiers.

[D] 1974 - A coup by the Derg, a committee of low-ranking military officers and enlisted men, removes Haile Selassie from power in Ethiopia, which he has ruled for 58 years.

1977 - Student anti-apartheid leader Steve Biko, 30, is murdered while in police custody in Port Elizabeth.

1986 - Slaget om Ryesgade [Battle of Ryesgade]: The Copenhagen housing association UNGBO demands the evacuation of Ryesgade 58 by Sunday 14th following the city council's refusal to recognise a compromise agreement between the occupants and UNGBO after nearly two years of negotiation [the squat had been in operation for 3½ years] that would have given the residents full control over the house as an officially recognised social experiment (rather than as the autonomous housing that the squatters wanted). The squat's collectives (each floor had its own independent collective which ran its floor) called for demonstration at City Hall and march to the house at 22:00 on Sunday 14th. The police, who planned to move in at midnight on September 14 and evict the house while the squatters (colloquially known as BZers from the Danish word besætter) were still in their beds, assumed the posters with its large image of a burning car and text saying that it was a good idea to show up with your face masked was not significant and ignored the warning.

[C] 1992 - Battle of Waterloo: In August 1992, posters proclaiming "Skrewdriver Back in London" began appearing advertising a Blood and Honour gig due to take place in London on September 12, the first time Skrewdriver had attempted to play in London since The Main Event, which had been targeted and seriously disrupted by AFA. The concert was once more touted to be a massive affair, with up to 2,000 neo-Nazis, many from across Europe, expected to attend and several bands playing, including Skrewdriver [ironically, Ian Stuart Donaldson was attacked in a Burton pub the night before the gig], Skullhead, No Remorse and a Swedish band called Dirlewanger. Once again the gig was at a secret location with a re-direction point, which this time was at Waterloo Station at 5.30pm. AFA tried to mobilised against the event, contacting other militant anti-fascist groups but got little positive response - the ANL even decided that they were going to hold a march in Thornton Heath, more than fifteen miles away, on the day.
AFA had called a counter-demonstration at the station for 4:30pm, at exactly the time Neil Parrish, one of B&H‘s main organisers, had boasted to the media that he would be available on the station concourse to give interviews, and had managed to mobilise around 200 activists from AFA groups around the country. At 3.20pm, AFA’s Stewards’ Group appeared on the station concourse at Waterloo, causing a number of bones to flee for their lives. Others were picked off as they arrived. The police tried to intervene but, as more Nazis were attacked as they entered the station, and the police were forced to cordon off the neo-Nazis in the middle of the station concourse. Eventually, the police decided to escort the neo-Nazis out of the station to safety, but once outside, and out of view of the CCTV cameras, they were attacked by AFA Stewards who had infiltrated the original cordon.
Over the next hour and a half, groups of anti-fascists continued ambushing nazi skinheads arriving at the fron to the station or coming up the escalators from the tube station. By 5pm, there were nearly 1,000 anti-fascists on the concourse and fights were still breaking out all over the place. Shortly afterwards, the station was shut down at the request of the manager, and the fighting spread to the streets surrounding the station. Nearby underground stations were shut down to try and limit the numbers of ordinary punters reaching Waterloo, many of whom were football supporters who got caught up in the fighting. Despite continuing to be protected by a cordon of police, the nazis came under continuous attack including missiles from a nearby footbridge. Skirmishes continued all around Waterloo as the [neo-Nazis] and their police escorts came under concerted attack by large numbers of anti-fascists. The police did not know what to do with their escorts and the fascists themselves did not know where the venue was because Neil Parrish and the rest of the organisers were sat in a pub at Victoria Station.
Eventually the police managed to get things under control and escorted the remaining fash to Temple tube station where they were put on a commandeered train out of the area. In the end, less than 400 got into the gig at the Yorkshire Grey pub in Eltham, south-east London. The anti-fascists, meanwhile, were broken up into small groups by the police, cordoned off and escorted on foot across the Thames towards central and north London. The incident received international media coverage and became known as the "Battle of Waterloo".

1992 - Police in Peru captured Shining Path founder Abimael Guzman.

1997 - The third nationwide general strike of the year shuts down virtually all public and private sector workplaces in Uruguay, demonstrating massive opposition to the government's plans to dismantle social welfare programs. The strike, called by the interunion plenary of workers, the national labour convention and the confederation of organisations of public officials, was the most widely observed of the three general strikes called since president Julio Maria Sanguinetti took office in march. While limited by the union leaders to only four hours, the walkout took on a life of its own, and many strikers, including the entire public school work force, extended their action into a second day.

1997 - Amèlia Jover Velasco (b. 1910), Spanish secretary, chef, home schooler and anarcho-syndicalist militant, dies in Paris. [see: Dec. 10]

2001 - Dolores Prat Coll aka pequeña Montseny (little Montseny)(b. 1905), Catalan textile worker and militant anarcho-syndicalist member of the CNT from the age of 15, dies. [see: Mar. 8]

2003 - WTO in Cancun [expand].

2011 - The second Welling anti-fascists trial begins. The nine on trial are charged with 'conspiracy to commit violent disorder' follows a series of dawn raids resulting from the March 28, 2009 incident at Welling station close to a Nazi Blood & Honour gig, in the wake of which twenty three Antifa activists were arrested. The cases of two people who would have been in the second trial were dropped one working day before that trial commenced. The first trial of 11 defendants [March 6-29, 2011] had seen 7 convicted, with six being sent to prison for between 21-15 months and a seventh given a suspended sentence. All nine people in the second trial were acquitted. The trial lasted more than two weeks, but the jury took less than one hour to come to their unanimous verdict. They delivered it with pleasure to a cheering courtroom.

2012 - Consuelo Rodriguez Lopez, aka 'Chelo' (d. 2012), Galician miliciana and anti-Francoist guerrilla, dies in Paris five days after the passing of her sister Antonia. [see: Nov. 6]
1843 - [O.S Sep. 1] Nadezhda Prokofievna Suslova (Надежда Прокофьевна Суслова; d. 1918), Ruaaia's first qualified female doctor, who was also a youthful revolutionary and one-time close friend of Fyodor Dostoyevsky (her sister Apollonia Suslova was Dostoyevsky's lover, born. She was a member of Zemlya i Volya (Земля и Воля / Land and Liberty) and of the First International (AIT). In 1864 she enrolled in the University of Zurich and in 1867 became the first Russian woman to receive a diploma as a doctor of medicine and surgery and obstetrics

1853 - [O.S. Sep. 1] Sophia Lvovna Perovskaya (Russian: Со́фья Льво́вна Перо́вская; d. 1881), Russian revolutionary and prominent member of Narodnaya Volya (People's Will), who helped to organise the successful assassination of Tsar Alexander II of Russia, for which she was executed by hanging, born.

[E] 1879 - Annie Kenney (d. 1953), English cotton mill worker, Independent Labour Party member and suffragette, who became a leading figure in the Women's Social and Political Union, and was the only working class woman to become part of the senior hierarchy of the WSPU, born. She attracted the attention of the press and the public in 1905 when she and Christabel Pankhurst (the pair were lovers at the time) were imprisoned for several days for assault and obstruction, after heckling Sir Edward Grey at a Liberal rally in Manchester on the issue of votes for women. Found guilty of assault and fined five shillings each, they refused to pay the fine they were sent to prison. The case shocked the country and the incident is credited with inaugurating a new phase in the struggle for women's suffrage in the UK, with the adoption of militant tactics.

[B] 1885 - Aquilino Gomes Ribeiro (d. 1963), Portuguese novelist, writer and anarchist, born. A militant anarchist in his youth, he remained very attached to his libertarian principles through out his lfe. In 1907 he was arrested when a cache of explosives in his room at the Carrião Street, in Lisbon, exploded, killing two comrades, Gonçalves Lopes and Belmonte de Lemos. On January 12 1908, he managed to escape from prison and went underground in Lisbon. He then went into exile in Paris, studying at the Sorbonne. During WWI, he returned to Portugal where he taught at the Camões College and published his first novel 'A Via Sinuosa' (The Winding Way; 1918). Took part in the failed Republican revolt of February 7, 1927, in Lisbon against the recently installed fascist Estado Novo government of Salazar and returned to exile in Paris. At the end of the year he returned to Portugal clandestinely, participating in 1928 Pinhel revolt. Incarcerated in Fontelo prison, he again managed to escape and returned to Paris. He was tried in absentia in a Lisbon military court and sentenced.
Nominated in 1960 for a Nobel Prize in literature.

1893 - Benoît Malon (b. 1841), French Bakuninist, member of the International, Communard and then a socialist, dies. [see: Jun. 23]

1895 - At an event in Finsbury, London, Emma Goldman appears on a platform along with several other speakers including James Tochatti of the British anarchist journal 'Liberty' and the French anarchist Louise Michel. Goldman lectures on 'Political Justice in England and America', highlighting Alexander Berkman's case.

1898 - Paul-Aloïse de Bock (d. 1986), Belgian novelist, poet and lawyer, born. He joined the Belgian Workers Party in 1919 and in 1923 began frequenting Italian anti-fascist circles in Brussels. In 1930, he defended the Italian anarchist Fernando De Rosa, who had attempted to attack Prince Umberto. The same year, he was the lawyer of another Italian anarchist Arturo Berneri, author of an assassination attempt on the Italian Minister of Justice. In 1940, he was in the army a few months until Belgium was occupied. He then resumed his activities and joined the Résistance.
Up until 1950, most of his writings appeared under the pseudonym Paul Bourgues. A life-long friend of the painter Paul Delvaux, he wrote 2 books about him: 'Paul Delvaux : der Mensch, der Maler' (1965) and 'Paul Delvaux. L'homme, le Peintre, Psychologie d'un Art' (1967).

1900 - Harald Viggo Hansteen (d. 1941), Norwegian lawyer and Communist, who was executed by the Nazis during the Oslo Melkestreiken, born. A member of the Norges Kommunistiske Parti (NKP) and judicial consultant for the Landsorganisasjonen i Norge (LO; Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions), he was prominent in the prevention of the attempt by Nasjonal Samling (National Gathering), Vidkun Quisling's Norwegian fascist party, to gain control of LO.

1914 - In Parma, the anarcho-syndicalist Unione Sindacale Italiana (USI) meet in council to decide their position on the war. Two trends clash, interventionist and anti-militarist, and it is ultimately the latter that prevail safter the passage of a motion by fellow Armando Borghi , Aiò, Niccolini, Pace and Nencini. Two trends clash, interventionist and anti-militarist. It is ultimately the latter will prevail after the passage of a motion by Armando Borghi , Aiò, Niccolini, Pace and Nencini.

1915 - Faith Petric (d. 2013), US folk singer, IWW member, peace, anti-fascist and community activist, born.

1917 - Jules Ardouin (Georges Eugène Ardouin; b. 1879), French florist, anarchist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Sep. 8]

[F] 1919 - The Confederação Geral do Trabalho (CGT), with its roots in the União Operária Nacional (National Workers Union), is founded, replacing the União Operária Nacional. The CGT's daily newspaper is 'A Batalha'. Greatly influenced by the anarcho-syndicalist movement, it was the only Portuguese trade union at the time. It went on to affiliate with the International Workers Association (IWA) in 1922. The coup d'état of May 28 1926 and continued repression, ultimately led to its decline, and in 1938, Emídio Santana, the secretary-general of the federation, took part in a failed assassination attempt on Salazar. The ensuing repression killed off the CGT completely.
[ção_Geral_do_Trabalho_(Portugal)ão Operária Nacional]

[C] 1923 - Today and tomorrow, the military in Spain, headed by Primo de Rivera, seizes power in a coup. King Alfonso XIII and the various deposed politicians stand down without any fight. The CNT calls for a general strike for tomorrow, which fails to materialise. In a published statement , the CNT states: "En esta hora cuando estalla la cobardía general y donde el poder civil renuncia sin lucha al poder de los militares, es a la clase obrera a la que incumbe hacer sentir su presencia y de no dejarse patalear por hombres que, transgrediendo todas las formas de derecho, quieren reducir a cero todas las conquistas obreras obtenidas después de luchas largas y difíciles." ("In this time when the general cowardice and where the civil power abandons struggle against the power of the military, it is the working class's responsibility to make its presence felt and not to be trampled by men who, transgressing all forms of law, want to reduce to zero all workers gains obtained after long and difficult struggles.")

1923 - September Antifascist Uprising [Септемврийско антифашистко въстание]: In reaction to mass arrest of BCP members, communist members in the village of Maglizh near Kazanlak begin insurrectionary late in the day, continuing into the following day. Their actions are backed by the BCP branch in Golyamo Dryanovo.

1927 - Gustave Jeanneret (b. 1847), Swiss painter, member of the International Council of the Jura Federation, brother of the libertarian engraver and writer Georges-Edouard Jeanneret and uncle of Le Corbusier, dies. [see: Apr. 6]

1934 - Jean Vigo's film 'L'Atalante', his last before his early death early next month, premières in Paris.

1934 - A strike in Woonsocket, Rhode Island – part of a nationwide textile strike for shorter hours, increased wages, and union recognition – results in the deaths of several workers after police tear gas the crowd gathered at the town’s still-open rayon mill. The nationwide strike involved nearly half a million workers and affected almost 3,000 mills.

1939 - Nicolò (Nicolantonio) Converti (b. 1858), Italian anarchist propagandist, surgeon, typographer, dies. [see: Mar. 16]

1945 - Noël Godin, Belgian writer, critic, actor and anarcho-humourist, whose alter ego is the entarteur Georges Le Gloupier (a name appropriated from Jean-Pierre Bouyxou, born.

1946 - The founding congress of the Fédération des Jeunesses Anarchistes (FJA) is held in Dijon.

1946 - The second congress of the Fédération Anarchiste (FA) is held in Dijon (September 13-15). George Fontenis is appointed General Secretary.

1951 - Iris Pavón (b. 1906), Argentine writer, poet, journalist, and militant anarchist, feminist, anti-fascist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Sep. 15]

[A] 1958 - Rudolf Rocker (b. 1873), German-American anarcho-syndicalist theorist, organiser and anti-fascist, dies. [see: Mar. 25]

1971 - The Attica prison riot ends as 450 National Guardsmen, prison guards and police assault the prison. They kill 29 inmates and 10 hostages in the process.

1971 - Leda Rafanelli (b. 1880), Italian anarchist, feminist, anti-militarist, writer, artist and member of the Futurists, who was known as the 'Gypsy anarchist', dies. [see: Jul. 4]

1975 - Golpe de 25 de Novembro: In what in hindsight is an important event during the run up to the November coup/counter-coup [what was in effect a 'military counter-revolutionary coup' aimed at the destruction of the Partido Comunista Português masquerading as a 'radical leftist military coup'], Brigadeiro Graduado Eurico de Deus Corvacho, who is aligned with the Esquerda Militar (Left Military) 'gonçalvistas', is replaced with the more moderate General António Pires Veloso as commander of the Região Militar Norte (RMN; Northern Military Region) following agitation from below (the troops of the RNM were generally held to be more closely aligned with the Centro Militar (Centre Military) 'melo-antunistas', and the Partido Socialista and Partido Popular Democrático.

[D] 1996 - In Brazil, a masked crowd takes advantage of a police strike in Alegoias Province to burn down the police HQ.

2003 - WTO in Cancun [expand].
1793 - John Oswald (b. ca. 1760 / or 1730), Scottish philosopher, writer, poet, social critic, vegetarian and revolutionary, dies. A precursor of anti-authoritarian ideas. In his 'Review of the Constitution of Great Britain' (1984), he denounced the parliamentary system and the corruption of MPs, advocating the establishment of direct democracy, and 'The Cry of Nature or an Appeal to Mercy and Justice on Behalf of the Persecuted Animals' (1791) argued that if each man had to personally experience the death of the animals he ate, a vegetarian diet would be far more common.

[D] 1812 - One week after winning a bloody victory over the Russian army at the Battle of Borodino, Napoleon Bonaparte’s Grande Armée enters the city of Moscow, only to find the population of approximately 270,000 evacuated and the Russian army retreated again. Moscow was the goal of the invasion, but the deserted city held no tsarist officials to sue for peace and no great stores of food or supplies to reward the French soldiers for their long march. Then, just after midnight, fires broke out across the city, apparently set by Russian patriots, leaving Napoleon’s massive army with no means to survive the coming Russian winter.
After waiting a month for a surrender that never came, Napoleon was forced to lead his starving army out of the ruined city. Suddenly, General Mikhail Kutuzov’s army appeared and gave battle on October 19 at Maloyaroslavets, the beginning of a disastrous retreat that saw Napoleon’s army decimated, having suffered hunger, subzero temperatures and continual harassment from the merciless Russian army.

1864 - [N.S. Aug. 26] Anna Ilyinichna Yelizarova-Ulyanova (Анна Ильинична Елизарова-Ульянова; d. 1935), Russian revolutionary and a Soviet stateswoman, who was the older sister of Lenin, born. [see: Aug. 26]

[EE] 1879 - Margaret Higgins Sanger (Margaret Louise Higgins; d. 1966), US birth control activist, sex educator, nurse and anarchist, born. Influenced by her friend Emma Goldman, she was a member of the Liberal Club and a supporter of the anarchist-run Ferrer Centre and Modern School. She was also a lover of the Greek anarchist and publisher John Rompapas. "My own personal feelings drew me toward the individualist, anarchist philosophy. . .but it seemed necessary to approach the idea by way of Socialism." [*NB: Some give the year of her d.o.b. as 1884.]

1887 - [O.S. Sep. 6] Anna or Anne Jaclard (Anna Vasilyevna Korvin-Krukovskaya [Анна Васильевна Корвин-Круковская]; b. 1843), Russian writer, journalist and translator, socialist and feminist revolutionary Pétroleuse, who participate in the Commune de Paris (1871) and the Association Internationale des Travailleurs, dies. [see: Oct. 18]

[F] 1889 - Great London Dock Strike: A settlement was finally agreed and the men returned to work. They had achieved 6d an hour and 8d for overtime, a minimum four-hour call-on guaranteeing at least 2 shillings a day, and other concessions. By now the Tea Operatives & General Labourers' Association had grown from a few hundred members at the start of the strike to an organisation 18,000 strong. Immediately after the strike it became the Dock, Wharf, Riverside and General Workers Union. Within three months it had 30,000 members.

1892 - Marial Quintane (b. 1892), French construction worker, anarchist and revolutionary syndicalist, born. Secretary of the Syndicat CGT du bâtiment (Building workers union) in Reims and the Comités Syndicalistes révolutionnaires locaux (local committee of revolutionary Unionists) in the early 1920s, he was also a member of the Terre et Liberté anarchist group and active in the local Sacco and Vanzetti support campaign and protests against repression in Spain in the '20s. Later he was a member of the anarcho-syndicalist and revolutionary syndicalist minority in the CGTU and was elected secretary of the UL-CGTU in July 1922. Following the communist takeover of the union in 1925, he took the rump of the building workers into an autonomous building union.

1903 - Jules-César Rozental (b. 1872), Bulgarian militant anarchist, guerilla and poet, dies. [see: Jun. 14]

1904 - In Castelluzzo , Italy, the state police shoot on farmers demonstrating against the dissolution of a meeting and the arrest of the leader of an agricultural cooperative, leaving 2 dead and 10 wounded.

1910 - [Aug. 20 by the lunar calendar] Yi Sang (Kim Hae-gyeong; d. 1937), Korean architect, draughtsman, writer, avant garde poet and novelist, essayist and social rebel, born. One of Korea's most innovative writers of modern literature, he was heavily influenced by Dadaism and Surrealism. His works are partly autobiographical and were almost unknown during his lifetime, but his poetry and short stories were rediscovered in the '50s and became very popular, in particular '날개'/'Nalgae' (Wings; 1936). Having moved to Tokyo in November 1936 and married a Japanese woman, he was arrested in early 1937 for "thought crime". In prison, the tuberculosis he had contracted in childhood worsened and he was released on bail and admitted to Tokyo University Hospital, where he died on April 17, 1937.

1914 - Revolución Méxicana: Emiliano Zapata breaks with Venustiano Carranza for not implementing stronger social reforms, begins to distribute land to peasants.

1918 - Eugene V. Debs is sentenced under the espionage act to 10 years for his June 16 'Canton, Ohio Speech' against the Great War.

1920 - Mario Benedetti (Mario Orlando Hardy Hamlet Brenno Benedetti; d. 2009), Uruguayan journalist, novelist, and radical poet of the Uraguayan peasant revolt, born. Considered one of Latin America's most important 20th-century writers.

¿Qué les queda por probar a los jóvenes
en este mundo de paciencia y asco?
¿sólo grafitti? ¿rock? ¿escepticismo?
también les queda no decir amén
no dejar que les maten el amor
recuperar el habla y la utopía
ser jóvenes sin prisa y con memoria
situarse en una historia que es la suya
no convertirse en viejos prematuros

¿qué les queda por probar a los jóvenes
en este mundo de rutina y ruina?
¿cocaína? ¿cerveza? ¿barras bravas?
les queda respirar / abrir los ojos
descubrir las raíces del horror
inventar paz así sea a ponchazos
entenderse con la naturaleza
y con la lluvia y los relámpagos
y con el sentimiento y con la muerte
esa loca de atar y desatar

¿qué les queda por probar a los jóvenes
en este mundo de consumo y humo?
¿vértigo? ¿asaltos? ¿discotecas?
también les queda discutir con dios
tanto si existe como si no existe
tender manos que ayudan / abrir puertas
entre el corazón propio y el ajeno /
sobre todo les queda hacer futuro
a pesar de los ruines de pasado
y los sabios granujas del presente.

(What is left to prove to young
in this world of patience and disgust?
Do you just graffiti? Rock?? Skepticism??
also is not to say amen
do not let them kill the love
restore speech and utopia
be young without haste and memory
placed in a story that is yours
not become prematurely old

What's left to prove to young
in this world of routine and ruin?
Cocaine?? Beer? Hooligans??
are left breathing / open your eyes
discover the roots of horror
Peace and either invent hard way
terms with the nature
and with the rain and lightning
and the feeling and death
that crazy of binding and loosing

What's left to prove to young
in this world of consumption and smoke?
Vertigo?? Assaults?? Nightclubs??
also is discussing with God
whether or not there exists
Helping hands build / open doors
between the heart itself and the alien /
above all they have left to future
despite the ruines of past
sages and scoundrels of this.)

'¿Qué les queda a los jóvenes?' (What can the young people do?)

Me jode confesarlo
pero la vida es también un bandoneón
hay quien sostiene que lo toca dios
pero yo estoy seguro de que es Troilo
ya que dios apenas toca el arpa
y mal

fuere quien fuere lo cierto es
que nos estira en un solo ademán purísimo
y luego nos reduce de a poco a casi nada
y claro nos arranca confesiones
quejas que son clamores
vértebras de alegría
esperanzas que vuelven
como los hijos pródigos
y sobre todo como los estribillos

me jode confesarlo
porque lo cierto es que hoy en día
quieren ser tango
la natural tendencia
es a ser rumba o mambo o chachachá
o merengue o bolero o tal vez casino
en último caso valsecito o milonga
pasodoble jamás
pero cuando dios o Pichuco o quien sea
toma entre sus manos la vida bandoneón
y le sugiere que llore o regocije
uno siente el tremendo decoro de ser tango
y se deja cantar y ni se acuerda
que allá espera
el estuche.

(I’m fucked, confessing it,
but life too is a bandoneón
there are some who hold that God plays it
but I’m sure that it’s Troilo
since God can hardly play the harp,
and that badly

whoever it is, the one sure thing is
that it stretches us out in a proper pure solo
and then brings us down to so little almost nothing
and for sure drags confessions from us
clamoring complaints
the vertebra of happiness
hopes that return like prodigal sons
and above all like refrains

I’m fucked confessing it
because for sure, right now, today
want to be tango
the natural tendency
is to be a rumba or mambo or chachachá
or merengue or bolero or maybe casino
and at the very last a little waltz or milonga,
and a pasadoble? never
but when God or Pichuco or whoever
takes in his hands the bandoneón life
and suggests to it that it weep or cheer
you feel the tremendous decorum of being tango
you just go ahead and sing and you would never agree
that there awaits
your casket.)

- 'Bandoneón'


[C] 1923 - The general strike called by the CNT in reaction to yesterday's military coup in Spain fails (the socialists and UGT refuse to participate) and the CNT is forced underground.

1923 - September Antifascist Uprising [Септемврийско антифашистко въстание]: Following the spontaneous uprising in Maglizh in reaction to mass arrest of BCP members, rebels seize Maglizh and Golyamo Dryanovo. However, receiving no support from the neighbouring branches, who had decided to wait until the official proclamation of the uprising, the insurrectionists withdrew into the mountains Golyamo Dryanovo several hours after seizing the villages.

1925 - Pedro Esteve (b. 1866), Spanish-born French typographer, anarchist propaganist and militant, dies. [see: Feb. 29]

1927 - Hugo Ball (b. 1886), German author, poet, philosopher, literary critic and one of the leading Dada artists, anarchist and Bakunist, dies. [see: Feb. 22]

1931 - Industrial Unrest in Second Republic: A new General Strike breaks out in Granada.

[B] 1931 - Alain Cavalier, French film director and anarchist, born. Amongst his films are 'Le Combat dans l'île' (The Fight on the Island; 1961), 'L'Insoumis' (Crossfire; 1964) and 'Les Braves' (The Braves; 2008), which deal with the Algerian War, and 'Libera Me' (1993), torture and oppression.

1934 - Yves Peyraut aka Yvo Pero (d. 2002), French anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, Esperantist and prominent figure on Radio Libertaire, born.

[E] 1936 - Lina Odena (Paulina Odena García; b. 1911), Catalan Communist militant, who was one of the first milicianas to die during the Civil War, commits suicide rather than becoming a prisoner, when the car that she is in takes a wrong turn and enters Falangist territory near the Pantano de Cubillas, Granada. [see: Jan. 22]

1939 - Nicolò (Nicolantonio) Converti (b. 1855), Italian surgeon, anarchist propagandist, militant internationalist and typographer, dies. [see: Mar. 18]

1941 - Juan Bautista Vairoleto (b. 1894), Argentine anarchist and bandit, dies. [see: Nov. 11]

1943 - Konstantinos Speras (Κωνσταντίνος Σπέρας; b. 1893), Greek tobacco woker, anarcho-syndicalist and one of the pioneers of the working class trade-union movement in Greece, is executed (beheaded) by ELAS Communist-led Greek partisans during the Axis occupation of Greece.

1958 - Michel Némitz, French anarchist, who participated in the founding in 1978 of the Fédération Libertaire des Montagnes, heir to the Jura Federation, born.

1973 - Dafydd Ladd and Michael Tristram arrested in Bristol, charged with three attacks on Portuguese vice-consulates in Bristol and Cardiff (Wales), and outside the British Army Officers Club at Aldershot, claimed by a group calling itself 'Freedom Fighters for All', but manifestly part of the same spontaneous wave of actions during this period. In February 1974 Ladd is sentenced to seven years, Tristram to six.

1985 - Julian Beck (b. 1925), actor, director, poet, and Abstract Expressionist painter, dies. [see: May 31]

[A/DD] 1986 - Slaget om Ryesgade [Battle of Ryesgade]: Caught unawares, the 2000 or more masked demonstrators that had turned up at City Hall marched to Ryesgade and managed to get through police lines. At the same time, the squatters in Ryesgade 58 had moved into the street and started to set up pre-prepared barbed-wire barricades, beginning nine days of street fighting between the barricaded squatters and the police.

1991 - In the Mexican province of Cuernavaca, the 'first international meeting of anarchists' takes place (September 14-16). Eighty delegates are present, mainly from the United States and Spain, including the editors of the magazines 'Guángara Libertaria' from Miami, 'Amor y Rabia' from New York, the San Francisco library Bound Together, the WSA-AIT union from Texas and from Spain, representatives of the CNT-AIT, CGT, and the Salvador Segui Foundation.

2003 - WTO in Cancun [expand].

2011 - Sue Richardson (Sarah Fenwick Owen; b. 1941), Irish feminist and anarchist, dies aged seventy, sitting at her kitchen table, waiting for the kettle to boil. Wanted in connection with 'Angry Brigade' activities, Sarah move to Dublin and became Sue and got involved in the burgeoning Irish feminist movement and joined the Dublin Anarchist Group. Her life changed once more, when on February the 22nd 1978, a man entered the Bank of Ireland on Drumcondra road and passed a note to the teller saying "I am armed, push out all the money to me. Hurry. No delay. Return note". He left with a bag of money and disappeared. Sue was found nearby, holding the bag, and was arrested. At her trial, at the Special Criminal Court she refused to identify the robber and so was sentenced to three years in jail on a charge of receiving money knowing it was stolen. In Mountjoy Women’s prison she took on the prison authorities over prison conditions, taking a case to the Irish High Court and winning. Released in 1980 after serving 16 months, she was told not to communicate with newspapers, radio or television or to engage in public controversy. If she did, she would be considered in breech of prison discipline and returned to jail. Sue went to the High Court and successfully contested the gagging order. On release she remained active in Prisoners Rights Organisation and supported other prisoners, when she could, organising friends to visit prisoners when she could not. Sue also became involved in the grassroots anti-drug campaign known as Concerned Parents Against Drugs, organising against the heroin dealers in Dublin and, with Noreen O’Donohue, Sue wrote 'Pure Murder: a book about drug use', which exposed the effect of addiction on the area she lived in. It was published by the Women’s Community Press, which she helped to set up, in 1983. Her other political activites included the Residents Against Racism group and CAFE, the local community arts organisation.
In later life Sue's health was bad - the damp and strain of prison having damaged her lungs - which, together with her smoking, added to her emphysema and led to a heart-lung transplant and later a kidney transplant (the anti-rejection drugs having damaged her kidneys).
[F] 1845 - Battle of Blackstock's Factory / Allegheny Cotton Mill Strikes: Earlier in the year, 5,000 women cotton mill workers in and around Pittsburgh go on strike for a 10-hour day and an end to child labour. Months into the strike, hundreds of factory girls and male supporters from Allegheny City and Pittsburgh marched on the Blackstock Mill, one of the largest in the area. The women broke down the factory’s gates and forcibly expelled the scabs, while the men who accompanied them kept the police at bay. The 'Battle of Blackstock's Factory' raised the striking workers' spirits but helped turn the middle-class citizens of Pittsburgh, who were shocked by such unladylike behavior, against them.

1846 - Warlaam Dzon Aslanovic Tcherkesoff (or Tcherkezov; or Varlam Cherkezov; d. 1925), Georgian Prince, anarchist militant and collaborator with Kropotkin, helped found the Anarchist Red Cross, born. Born Prince Varlam Cherkezishvili (ვარლამ ჩერქეზიშვილი) in a Georgian noble family before being sent to be educated in Russia, where he joined the socialist movement. [expand]

1856 - Possible date [see also: Sep. 9] for the birth of Francisco Saverio Merlino (d. 1930), Italian lawyer, theorist, propagandist of Italian anarchism, then a libertarian socialist - though he continued to defend anarchists.

1867 - Petr Bezruč (pseudonym of Vladimir Vasek; d. 1958), Czech writer, poet and anarchist, born. A representative of the turn of the century generation of Czech Anarchističtí Buřiči, "básníci života a vzdoru" (Anarchist Rebels, "the poets of life and defiance"), Petr Bezruč was one of the most famous of his many pseudonyms, all used because of his subject matter and his fear of death because of his political activities.
He cared for his poor family by working in a post office rather than pursuing a career in philology, and was said to speak eight languages. His poems, initially published in various newspapers and magazines, hold a unique place in Czech poetry, describing the tragic stories of the Silesian people, often in offensive and incendiary language to address the social and political interests of the people, as well as lyrical love poetry. Initially collected in 'Slezským Číslem' (Silesian Numbers), they went to form the 79 poems of 'Slezské Písně' (Silesian Songs; 1958), his only poetry collection. [NB: There is speculation, however, that he is not the author of most of the poems, which were supposedly by his friend Peter Ondřej Boleslav, who committed suicide in 1893.]
'Maryčka Magdonová' is one of the most famous poems from 'Silesian Songs', written about a girl from the mountains and her very tragic fate. Her father dies in a pub brawl and mother is killed by a coal lorry. Maryčka and her four siblings are orphaned. The children are hungry and are cold. Maryčka, the oldest, has to go to the forest for logs , but the gamekeeper catches her and wants to send her to the police station. But Maryčka is ashamed and jumps into the wild river and dies.
At the beginning of WWI, a French magazine published some anti-Hapsburg poems signed with the initials PB. Vladimir Vasek was arrested and imprisoned, threatened with the death penalty for treason, but he denied authorship, eventually managing to prove otherwise.

Tak málo mám krve a ještě mi teče
z úst.
Až bude růst
nade mnou tráva, až budu hnít,
kdo na moje místo,
kdo zdvihne můj štít?
V dým zahalen vítkovských pecí jsem stál,
Noc zřela mi z očí, plam z nozdry mi vál,
nech zářilo slunce, nech večer se šeřil,
já semknutou brvou jsem vrahy ty měřil:
ty bohaté židy, ty grófy ze šlachty,
já škaredy kovkop, jak vyskočil z šachty.

(So I have a little blood still flows through me
from the mouth.
When the growth
grass above me, until I rot,
who at my place
who pulled my shield?
Shrouded in smoke ovens Vítkov I stood,
Night saw my face, plam of my nostrils blowing,
Let the sun shine, let the evening twilight,
I'm a killer compact little muscle the measure:
those rich Jews, those of Grof Šlachta,
I kovkop unsightly, as he jumped out of the shaft.)

- 'Kdo na moje místo' (Who's at my place)


1870 - Commune de Lyon: Michel Bakunin arrives in Lyon. He is unhappy to see the International collaborating with Republicans, and, together with Lyonnais International members Albert Richard, Eugène Saignes and Gaspard Blanc, holds a series of meetings that bring together hundreds of people, during which an event is decided for September 28, in front of the Hôtel de Ville. [see: Sep. 4]

1872 - The International Congress of the Bakuninist section of the AIT takes place in St. Imier, Switzerland (September 15-16) following the anarchists' expulsion from the Conress in The Hague (Sep. 2-7). The Congress begins after the 16 delegates of the Jura Federation have met. Present are Charles Alarini, Rafael Farga Pellicer, Nicolas Alonso Marselau and Tomàs Gonzáles Morago representing the Spanish Federation; Giuseppe Fanelli, Ludovico Nabruzzi, Andrea Costa, Carlo Cafiero and Mikhail Bakunin from the Italian Federation; Jean-Louis Pindy and Camille Camet represnting the French sections; Gustave Lefrancais from America; and James Guillaume and Adémar Schwitzguebel from the Jura Federation.

1881 - Giuseppe Guidi (d. 1931), Italian painter, printmaker/etcher and anarchist, born.

[B] 1893 - Tintino Persio Rasi (d. 1963), Italian individualist anarchist activist and propagandist, journalist, writer and Futurist poet, born. Used the pseudonyms of Auro d'Arcola, Tatiano d'Arcola, Gold O' Bay and Carlo Carli. After elementary school, Tintino Rasi started working at the post office and had joined, still very young, the anarchist movement. In 1914 he was a postman in Genoa and was stuck as anarchist "properly supervised." Participating in the activities of the movement, speaking at various meetings and working with the press, including 'Il Libertario', he was transferred in 1917 to Iglesias in Sardinia, where he continued his activism.
Located in Cagliari, he worked under the pseudonym of Auro d'Arcola socialist newspaper 'Il Risveglio dell'isola' and became a member of the Executive Committee of the Cagliari Camera del Lavoro (Chamber of Local Labour). Called up during WWI, he refuses to fight and during the same period the police report (January 1918) that he and Alberto Silicani are trying to (unsuccessfully) form an anarchist group (Fascio Anarchico).
Involved throughout the period Biennio Rosso in workers' struggles and organised a large number of meetings and conferences. During one of his lectures, in June 1919 in Santo Stefano Magra, he and 3 other anarchist speakers incite a riot during which a rifleman was killed and another seriously injured. Denounced as responsible for the acts, Rasi and his companions go into hiding. However, in June 1920 he is acquitted of that charge.
In 1921, along with Renzo Renzo Ferrari Novatore and Giovanni Battista Governato, he helps form an anarcho-futurist group based in La Spezia and becomes editor of its magazine 'Vertice' (Summit). However, he is forced to temporarily flee to America following the issuing of an arrest warrant for subversive activities. In 1922 the warrant is revoked and he returns to live in Clivio at the rationalist anarchist Scuola Moderna, helping with the distribution of the school's newspaper. That year he also founds, with Renato Siglich Suvarin, the journal 'Anarchismo'.
With the rise of fascism, he left for France with his wife Ave Superna and their daughter Fossati in April 1923, firstly to Nice and then to the Paris region. Responsible as the director of many of the exiled Italian anarchist newspapers such as 'La Rivendicazione' (The Claim; Paris, 1923-25); 'La Nostra Polemicha' (Paris, 1925), where he denounces the adventurism of comrades engaged in Garibaldi Legion, particularly Ricciotti Garibaldi (who he later learned was an undercover political police agent); 'La Quale' (Paris, 1926); and 'Veglia' (Paris). He was also editor of the Italian section of the 'International Anarchist Review' (Paris, 1924-25) with Ugo Fedeli and Virgilio Gozzoli. The thre would later merge their individual papers to form 'La Tempra' (Paris, 1925-26). Under the pseudonym Gold O'Bay he also worked at 'Il Commento' (London, 1924) where he called for "the right to defend ourselves and to kill fascists."
In 1929 he was producing an anarchist paper 'Il Monito' (The Reminder) when he was arrested and expelled from France. under pressure from the Italian authorities. He subsequently disappeared - possibly living in hiding either in Belgium, France of the US or working in Switzerland under the pseudonym Tatiano at the 'L'Adunata dei Refrattari' - before reappearing in 1935 in Saint-Michel-sur-Orge. On June 20-21 1936 he participated in the Paris International Conference for the right to asylum which also involved Sébastien Faure, C. Berneri Gilioli, Marzocchi, Mastrodicasa, and others. From the beginning of the Civil War he was part of the Paris Committee for aid to Spain.
Constantly monitored by agents of the fascist police and often arrested, he eventually emigrated to the United States in 1938 where he settled in Philadelphia. Under the pseudonym of Carlo Carli, he collaborated during the war on the antifascist magazine 'Chanteclair' (New York, 1942-45), co-editing it with V. Gozzoli., and supporting what he saw as a necessary war by the Allies against fascism.

1894 - Alfred Levitt (d. 2000), Belarus-born American anarchist, humanist, renowned artist, storyteller, spelunker and adventurer, born. His friends and colleagues included the likes of Jack London, Marcel Duchamp and Emma Goldman. Influenced by American artist and teacher Robert Henri, he modelled nude at the Ferrer Modern School so he could hear Henri's lectures for free. He was attracted to Cubism after studying under modernist artist Hans Hofmann. A prolific painter, Levitt was part of a group of artists, including Milton Avery and Mark Rothko, who painted together and adapted Cubism to US themes.

1904 - Giuseppe Ciancabilla (b. 1872), Italian journalist, who was the leader of the PSI but, after extensive discussions with Malatesta, became an anarchist, dies.

1906 - In San Luis, Librado Rivera is arrested and the 'Regeneración' print works smashed up by the combined forces of the United States Department of Justice, immigration officials and Pinkerton detectives.

1906 - Iris Pavón (d. 1951), Argentine writer, poet, journalist, and militant anarchist, feminist, anti-fascist and anti-militarist, born. Known for her speeches at events requesting the release of the 'Presos de Bragado' (workers from the town of Bragado who were victims of the Década Infame (1930-1942), falsely accused of having planted of having planted a bomb on August 5, 1931) and in defence of the Republic during the Spanish Civil War. In the 1940s she joined the Agrupación Femenina Antiguerra and following the 1943 coup she was arrested several months in the women's prison in Cordoba.

[C] 1908 - Abdulla Aliş (Alişev Ğabdullacan Ğäbdelbari ulı; d. 1944), Soviet Tatar poet, playwright, writer and resistance fighter, who wrote mostly novels for children, born. [expand]

1923 - Neno Vasco (Gregório Nazianzeno Moreira de Queiroz e Vasconcelos; b. 1878), Portuguese lawyer, journalist, poet, playwright and militant anarcho-syndicalist writer, dies. [NB: Many sources give the year as 1920, but this is thought to be the correct date.][see: May 9]

1924 - Fernando O'Neill Cuesta aka 'Zapicán' and 'Finito' (d. 2005), Uraguayan revolutionary and historian of anarchism in Uruguay, who later became a member of the Tupamaros, born. Spent much of his early years in various prisons and was befriended in Miguelete Prison by the Catalan anarchist Pedro Boadas Rivas and later in Punta Carretas by militant anarchists Domingo Aquino and José González Mentrosse. Previously apolitical, upon leaving prison in 1952, he joined the Joventut Llibertària in Montevideo. [expand]

1927 - Hermann Gorter (b. 1864), Dutch poet and council communist, dies. [see: Nov. 26]

[D] 1931 - Invergordon Mutiny: Sailors at Invergordon, Scotland, mutinied over pay cuts, as part of the generalised resistance to the government's economic austerity measures which began with the riots on 10 June.

1933 - Max Hoelz or Hölz aka Der Roter Robin Hood (b. 1889), German communist, dies. [see: Oct. 14]

1933 - At the Plaza Monumental de Barcelona, over 100,000 people attend an important CNT meeting which is addressses by Valeriano Orobón Fernández and Buenaventura Durruti, the latter fresh from prison.

1939 - Louis Lecoin and Nicolas Faucier's anti-war tract, 'Paix Immédiate' (Immediate Peace), is published in 'Le Libertaire'.

1940 - Norman Spinrad, science fiction author of' 'The Iron Dream' (1972), Adolph Hitler's "unwritten science fiction novel", and 'A World Between' (1979) examination of direct democracy which includes a SCUM-based civilisation, born. In a 1999 interview Spinrad confirmed that he was "an anarchist, but I'm a syndicalist. You have to have organised anarchy, because otherwise it doesn't work."

1941 - German soldiers were attacked by Résistance fighters in Paris, France.

1943 - Gino Lucetti (b. 1900), Italian anarchist who attempted to assassinate Mussolini in September 1926, for which he got 30 years in prison, dies during a German bombing raid on Ischia. [NB: Some sources give the date as September 17.][see: Aug. 31]

[CC] 1944 - Mala Zimetbaum, a Belgian Jew who was the first woman to escape from Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp, and her boyfriend, Edek Galinski, who had escaped with her, are executed separately in the women's and men's sections of the camp. On Saturday, June 24, 1944, Mala and Edek fled from Birkenau - Edek dressed in an SS uniform obtained from Edward Lubusch, an extraordinary SS man who aided prisoners, and Mala, using a blank SS pass, dressed as a prisoner being led to work. On July 6, the two were captured by a border patrol in the Beskid Zywiecki mountains at the Slovakia border, returned to the camp, and placed in separated cells. Following a lengthy interrogation and severe torture, under which they did not break , they were publicly executed by the SS. Both were defiant to the end with Mala's defiance becoming legendary. As her sentence was being read out, Mala took a razor blade from her hair and quietly slit open her veins on the inside of her elbows. … One of the blockführers grabbed her by the hair. Mala slapped him across the face with her bleeding hand. The SS man broke her arm. Legend has it that she told him: "I shall die a heroine, but you shall die like a dog!" The camp staff jumped on her, knocking her to the ground, and taped her mouth shut. [NB. There are a number of different version of this story but they all detail her defiance.]

1945 - The founding congress of the new Federazione Italiana Anarchica (Italian Anarchist Federation) takes place (September 15-19) in Carrara.

[E] 1959 - Nadia Desdemona Lioce, Italian member of the Nuove Brigate Rosse - Nuclei Comunisti Combattenti, currently serving a life sentence under the 41bis regime, born.

1963 - Four children killed when the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama is bombed using 15 sticks of dynamite. Prime suspects are the KKK and Nacirema.

1972 - Suzy Chevet (Suzanne Chevet; b. 1905), French teacher, militant socialist, Résistance member, libertarian syndicalist and anarchist, dies. [see: Sep. 25]

1973 - Victor Jara (b. 1932), Chilean political song writer, musician, teacher and Communist, is murdered in the Estadio Chile, which had been turned into a concentration camp cum torture centre post-coup. Before he is shot and his body dumped on the outskirts of Santiago, his captors broke the bones in both hands and taunted him to try and play the guitar. [see: Sep. 28]

1973 - Spanish anarchist militant members of the Movimiento Ibérico de Liberación-Grupos Autónomos de Combate (MIL), Oriol Solé Sugranyes and José Luis Pons Llobet, are captured near the French border after clashing with the Guardia Civil.

1974 - Bulldozer Exhibition [Бульдо́зерная вы́ставка]: so called because the unofficial art exhibition on a vacant lot in the Belyayevo urban forest put on by Moscow avant-garde artists is forcefully broken-up by a large police force that included bulldozers and water cannons.

1986 - Slaget om Ryesgade [Battle of Ryesgade]: Ungbo request that the police clear the house. The bourgeois press lashes out at the BZerns, and fighting on the streets re-erupts.

1988 - Celso Persici (d. 1896), Italian anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist, dies. [see: Oct. 9]

1992 - Release date of Hal Hartley's film 'Simple Men' (1992), a fictional tale about the children of an anarchist on the run from the law.

2001 - The Pinelli Centre in the Genoa district of Molassana is devastated in a petrol bomb attack, which completely destroys the Centre's electrical system and equipment. The Centre had been used as a logistics base for anarchists during the protests against the G8 summit in Genoa. Another Molotov cocktail was used to destroy tributes left to Carlo Giuliano in the Piazza Gaetano Alimonda.

[A] 2003 - 67 inmates dead in worst prison fire in Saudi Arabian history, at maximum security al-Hair Prison near Riyadh.
1400 - Owain Glyndwr rebels against the English oppressors in Wales.

1793 - Claire Lacombe, president of the Société des Citoyennes Républicaines Révolutionnaires, is publicly denounced by the Jacobins to the Comité de sûreté générale (Committee of General Security), accused of "making counterrevolutionary statements" and having associated and aided a "notorious counterrevolutionary, the énrage [Théopile] Leclerc" [she had in fact lived with him for a while, until he left her to marry Pauline Léon]. She is arrested but released the same evening. The Society has been undermined and from then on would be largely ignored by the Convention.

1810 - Guerra de Independencia de México [Mexican War of Independence]: In the small town of Dolores, near Guanajuato in Mexico, Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, a Roman Catholic priest issues the Grito de Dolores [Cry of Dolores], a pronunciamiento on the Mexican War of Independence marking its beginning.

1837 - Filippo Giuseppe Maria Ludovico Buonarroti (b. 1761), Italian revolutionary and political theorist, who became a French citizen, dies. [see: Nov. 11]

1870 - Several Mexican workers groups come together to form the Grand Obreros Círculo de México (GCO) due to the efforts of the libertarian activist Santiago Villanuev and members of the Proletarian Circle, which he had founded a year earlier.

1874 - Cipriano Ricardo Flores Magón (d. 1922), noted Mexican anarchist, revolutionary, co-founder of the Partido Liberal Mexicano, IWW organiser, author and journalist, brother of Enrique and Jesús, born. [expand]

1879 - Herwarth Walden (pseudonym of Georg Lewin; d. 1941), German Expressionist artist and gallery owner, art expert, who was the founder of the radical German Expressionist magazine 'Der Sturm', born. He was married to the German Expressionist poet Else Lasker-Schüler, who invented his pseudonym, inspired by Thoreau’s 'Walden' (1854). He was also an early collaborator on Pfemfert's anarchist magazine 'Der Kampf'. In 1919 he joined the German Communist Party (KPD) and, in 1924, he was divorced from Lasker-Schüler. With the economic depression of the 1930s and the subsequent rise of National Socialism, his activities were compromised. In 1932, he married again and left Germany shortly later because of the threat of the Gestapo. He went to Moscow, where he worked as a teacher and publisher. His sympathies for the avant-garde soon aroused the suspicion of the Stalinist Soviet government, and he had to repeatedly defend against the equation of avant-garde and fascism. Walden died in October 1941 in a Soviet prison in Saratov.

1886 - Hans or Jean Arp (d. 1966), German-French Dadaist, Surrealist and Abstraction-Création sculptor, painter, poet and multi-media artist, born. [expand]

1887 - Charles-Ferdinand Gambon (b. 1820), French lawyer, magistrate, initially a moderate republican, Gambon became a socialist, anarchist and pacifist revolutionary, dies. [see: Mar. 19]

1888 - Silvia Pisacane (b. 1852), Italian daughter of the famous revolutionary Carlo Pisacane, who was involved with the Matese anarchist insurrection in 1877, dies. Through her contacts with Giovanni Nicotera, who had survived the Sapri expedition and become a leftist parliamentarian, the lawyer Carlo Gambuzzi managed to get the 26 arrested anarchists accused of the death of a policeman during the failed 1874 insurrection in Bologna found not guilty and applied an amnesty on the other charges they faced (conspiracy with the object of removing and destroying the form of government, encouraging the people to arm themselves against the powers of the State, provoking civil war, etc.).
[NB. Some sources give the date as September 17. Many sources also give her d.o.b. as 1853 based upon a letter her father wrote to Carlo Cattaneo in Jan. 1853 with news of Silvia's birth. However, she was most likely born the previous year on September 28, 1852.]

1889 - Great London Dock Strike: Striking dock workers return to work following the agreement of a settlement on September 14.

1893 - The first issue of 'El Derecho a la Vida', "Periódico anarquista", is pulished in Montevideo. It is published irregularly up til April 1897 (number 35). A second series of 17 numbers was published between October 1898 and August 1900.

1893 - Hagar Olsson (d. 1978), Swedish-speaking Finnish modernist writer, literary critic, playwright, translator and feminist, born. She was among the first playwrights, who introduced the Expressionistic drama to Finnish public.

1897 - Following a lecture tour of France and Belgium in the company of Charlotte Vauvelle and Sébastien Faure, Louise Michel is detained in Brussels and expelled from the country.

1899 - The first issue of the Italian language bimonthly 'L'Aurora' (The Dawn), "Periodico anarchico", is published in Paterson, New Jersey by the Circolo di Propaganda Libertaria, an anti-organisational Italian-American anarchist group headed by Giuseppe Ciancabilla.

1902 - Mildred Fish-Harnack (Mildred Elizabeth Fish; d. 1943), American-German literary historian, journalist, lecturer, translator, and German Resistance fighter, born. With her husband Arvid Harnack, she was sympathetic to Communism and the Soviet Union, visiting the country in 1932 and later helped constitute a discussion group of anti-Nazi sympathisers that, in 1939, came into contact with a similar group around Luftwaffe staff officer Harro Schulze-Boysen. The resulting Schulze-Boysen/Harnack group, together with other Soviet networks in Germany, would later be identified by the Gestapo as the Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra), was involved in passing intelligence to the NKVD. Fish-Harnack even passed information about the forthcoming Operation Barbarossa to the Soviets.
Having been tracked down by their radio traffic, Arvid Harnack and Mildred Fish-Harnack were arrested on September 7 while on a weekend outing. After a four-day trial before the Reichskriegsgericht (Reich Military Tribunal), they were found guilty on December 19 of "the preparation of high treason and espionage". Arvid was sentenced to death and executed 3 days later. Mildred however received a sentence of six years hard labour but, days after the German defeat at Stalingrad, Hitler refused to confirm the sentence and, after a retrial, she sentenced to death on January 16, 1943. Mildred Fish-Harnack was beheaded on February 16, 1943 in Berlin's Plötzensee Prison.

1904 - Arvo Albin Turtiainen (d. 1980), Finnish left-wing poet, translator and anti-fascist fighter, born. [expand]

1906 - The date (on which the Independence of México is traditionally celebrated) is chosen by the Partido Liberal Méxicano to launch the start of the Revolution, seizing customs posts on the US-Mexican border so as to maintain the supply of weapons into México, supplementing those the 44 groups of guerrilleros, some involving with up to 300 (although the average was 50) had managed to seize in-country. However, between September 2nd and 5th US police raids seized weapons and documents, and discovered plans of insurrection, which had to be postponed til September 26th.

1906 - Jacques Brunius (d. 1967), French actor, director, writer, poet, anarchist and Surrealist, born. His film work and writings are credited under various pseudonyms: Borel, Jacques Borel, Brunius, JB Brunius, Jacques B. Brunius, Jacques-Bernard Brunius, John La Montagne, Olaf Apollonius, Jacques Berne. He appeared in more than 30 films, including many of the early, more political, movies by his friend Jean Renoir e.g. 'Une Partie de Campagne' and 'Le Crime de Monsieur Lange' (both 1936), and 'L'affaire est Dans le Sac' (1932) by Jacques and Pierre Prévert.
He also directed 13 films including 'Autour d'une Évasion' (Around an Escape; 1934), based on a screenplay by Jean Vigo about the anarchist Dieudonné and his escape from prison in Guyana, and 'Violin d'Ingres' (1939), about l'art brut and 'Le Palais Idéal' of postman turned sculptor, Ferdinand Cheval, and the Surrealists.
Friend of André Breton and member of both the French and the English Surrealist groups, becoming a well-known defender of the movement on the radio in both countries, in addition to having been a radio announce of the famous coded messages to the French Résistance during WWII.

1916 - Revolución Méxicana: Pancho Villa infiltrates Chihuahua City at 3 AM. Takes much booty and gives speech, gaining more recruits.

[EEE] 1919 - Date of the trail (field court-martial) of the Ukrainian anarchist partisan Maria Grigorevna Nikiforova [Марія Григорівна Никифорова (uk) / Мария Григорьевна Никифорова (ru)] or Nykyforovna [Никифоровна / Никифорова] aka Marusya, then known as Maria Bzhosteka [Марія Бжостек / Мария Бжостек] before General Subbotin, commandant of the Sevastopol Fortress, at which she is found guilty on the following charges: that during the period 1918-1919, while commanding a detachment of anarcho-communists, she carried out shootings of officers and peaceful inhabitants, and she called for bloody, merciless reprisals against the bourgeoisie and counter-revolutionaries. For example:
  • in 1918 between the stations of Pereyezdna and Leshchiska by her order several officers were shot, in particular, the officer Grigorenko;
in November 1918 she entered the city of Rostov-on-Don with detachments of anarchists and incited a mob with an appeal to carry out bloody reprisals against the bourgeoisie and counter-revolutionaries;
  • in December 1918, while commanding an armed detachment, she participated together with the troops of Petliura in the capture of Odessa, after which she took part in burning down the Odessa prison, where the chief warden Pereleshin was killed in the fire;
  • in June 1919 in the city of Melitopol' 26 persons were shot on her order, including a certain Timofei Rozhkov.

These charges involve crimes specified in Articles 108 and 109 of the criminal code of the Volunteer Army.
She was found guilty and sentenced to hang, whilst her husband, Witold Stanislav Bzhostek (or Brzostek), who was arrested along side her, was found guilty of of shielding Marusya, and ordered to be shot. [see: Sep 23 + 24]

1920 - Galleanists (Italian anarchists) set off a bomb on Wall Street in front of J.P. Morgan’s bank. The explosion kills 38 and seriously injures 143. Most of the dead and injured are young workers working at poorly paid jobs in the area; the presumed target, banker J.P. Morgan, is not in his office: he is several thousand miles away, in Scotland.

[E] 1923 - Noe Itō (伊藤野枝; b. 1895), Japanese anarchist, social critic, author, novelist, translator and feminist, is murdered, along with her partner Sakae Ōsugi and his six-year-old nephew, by military police. Their battered bodies are discovered four days later where they had been dumped in a well. This provoked outrage throughout Japan and became known as 'The Amakasu Incident'. [see: Jan. 21]

1923 - Anarchist Sakae Ōsugi (b. 1855), together his companion the anarcho-feminist Noe Itō and a six-year-old nephew, are murdered by military police. Their battered bodies are discovered four days later where they had been dumped in a well. This provoked outrage throughout Japan and became known as 'The Amakasu Incident'. [see: Jan. 17]

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: Communists in the Zaragoza municipality of El Molón, attack the Guardia Civil headquarters resulting in one death. Communist in the Sevillian town of Olivares assault their local Guardia Civil barracks resulting in several injuries.

[C] 1931 - Omar Mukhtar (Omar Al-Mukhtār; b. 1858), leader of the native guerilla resistance to the Italian colonisation of Libya, is hung in front of his followers in the concentration camp of Suluq following his arrest on September 11 and a summary trial.

1933 - The first issue of the newspaper 'Acracia', "semanario anarquista", is published in Lleida, Catalonia. At least 35 issues are published, the last dated June 23, 1934, and a second run begins in July 1936.

1936 - Based in Barcelona, Emma Goldmann begins to help write the English-language edition of the CNT-FAI's information bulletin. She will also go on to visit collectivised farms and factories, and to travel to the Aragon front, Valencia, and Madrid. She also works closely with Martin Gudell of the CNT-FAI's Foreign Propaganda Department and broadcasts two English-language radio addresses.

[B] 1943 - Steef Davidson (aka Steve Davidson; d. 2010), Dutch Provo activist, anarchist propagandist, documentary filmmaker, historian of social movements, collector of posters and comics and poster designer and printer, born.

1945 - Gabriel Giroud (b. 1870), French anarchist militant and néo-Malthusian propagandist, who also wrote under the pseudonyms Georges Hardy and C. Lyon, dies. [see: Aug. 29]

[D] 1955 - Revolución Libertadora: The beginning of a popular military and civilian uprising that brings about the end of the second presidential term of Juan Perón in Argentina.

[F] 1963 - Folsom State Prison Work Strike: The beginning of a five-day work strike at Folsom state prison, California.
[Prisoners struck their jobs at Folsom State Prison today in what Warden Robert A. Heinze described as an "orderly demonstration." Heinze said a few refused to report for work after lunch Monday Oct. 21, 1963, but today the work stoppage spread to "100 per cent of the inmates within the main security area." Folsom has 2,441 inmates. Heinze said 650 are employed in such operations as a cannery, furniture factory, and license plate factory. Another 270 are employed in "support" jobs, such as kitchen help and janitor work. Heinze said only the kitchen force is working, and feeding is "proceeding without incident." "A small gang of disgruntled inmates is responsible..." 'Reno Gazette-Journal', Oct. 22, 1963]

1969 - Segundo Rosariazo [Second Rosariazo]: In the wake of the September 7th student commemoration of those who died during the First Rosariazo, further protest actions followed. On the 8th delegates from the Rosario section of the Unión Ferroviaria (Railway Union) had gone on strike to protest the suspension of the administrative delegate Mario J. Horat , who had been penalised for advocating anti-government strikes. More than 4,000 workers joined the action and that night decide to prolong it for for 72 hours. Other sectional groups also joined the action.
On September 12 the UF widened the protests, declaring a nationwide indefinite strike. The government responded by sending in the security forces and mobilising all railway workers under the Código de Justicia Militar (Code of Military Justice), thereby criminalising the strike. Several factories were occupied in Córdoba, and a massive uprising in Cipolletti, Río Negro also took place the same day.
In response to the UF strike, the CGT (Confederación General del Trabajo de la República Argentina) of Rosario come out on strike in solidarity with the railway workers and during the morning of Sept. 16 workers from the surrounding districts marched on the city. Street fighting and repression became widespread throughout the city. Between 100,000 and 250,000 people are estimated to have taken part in the protests, which later came to be known as the Second Rosariazo (or the Proletarian Rosariazo). The workers converged on the CGT headquarters and were joined by students, who had previously gathered at their faculties.
The police were eventually overwhelmed by the protesters, who set up barricades and re-grouped at numerous points throughout the city. Public transport vehicles were set on fire and police control was limited to a few important buildings such as the Command Seat of the Second Army Corps, the Police Headquarters, the courts and the major radio stations. The conflict then spread out into the barrios on the outskirts of Rosario.

[A] 1971 - Bomb discovered in officers' mess inside Dartmoor prison. (News not released for two weeks). [Angry Brigade/First of May Group chronology]

1971 - Tōhō Jūjiro Incident [東峰十字路事件]: On the first day of the second round of forced land acquisitions around the Narita International Airport site, unknown protesters ambush a contingent of Japanese riot police, killing three and seriously injuring 20 more during the ensuing riot. In retaliation, police launch a campaign of violent repression and 55 people were arrested in connection with the 3 deaths.

1973 - Víctor Lidio Jara Martínez (b. 1932), Chilean teacher, theatre director, poet, singer-songwriter, political activist and member of the Communist Party of Chile, is murdered by the fascist military junta. [see: Sep. 28]

1979 - Eight East Germans escape over the Berlin Wall in a home-made hot-air balloon.

1986 - Slaget om Ryesgade [Battle of Ryesgade]: The young BZers and activists are accused in the bourgeois press of terrorism. Police try using access through the Red Cross office in Ryesgade 53 to get behind the barricades. That evening the Danish rock group Savage Rose performed on the barricades.

2005 - Terence Wheelock, a 20 year old Dublin man arrested with three others on suspicion of stealing a car, is found 4 hours later unconscious in his cell at Store St Garda station, apparently hanged with the cord from his tracksuit bottoms. He is to die in hospital 3 months later.
1887 - 'La Révolte' first appears. Jean Grave, director of 'Le Révolte' in Switzerland since 1883, moved the paper to Paris and changed the name slightly to avoid possible legal prosecution. 326 issues were published until it was forced to shut down under state repression (lois scélérates) in 1894. [GIF]

1893 - Camille Laberche (d. 1962), French ceramics worker, clerk, anarchist and trade union activist, born.

1895 - Kléber Nadaud (d. 1942), French anarchist militant, born.

1897 - José Santos González Vera (d. 1970), Chilean writer, novelist, journalist and anarchist, born.

1899 - Carterville Mine Riots: [On September 17, some white miners and black strikebreakers exchanged words. Later and unrelated, several black miners and famUy members walked to the Ulinois Central RaUroad station for personal business, and an armed group of blacks accompanied them. Believing that the armed black escort was responding to the exchange of words, an armed group of thirty white miners met them at the train station. Rather than face gunfire, the black famUies and their escorts left the station escaping along the tracks, but the white miners pursued them. One of the black men fired at their pursuers, and the miners responded by returning fire. Five of the blacks died instantly, and several others were injured. The remaining group made it back to the mine, and nearly 200 blacks stormed the mine’s storehouse, where there were guns, but Brush’s son prevented them from arming themselves. The troops returned shortly and restored peace. Three white men faced trial for the murder of the blacks, but a jury acquitted all three.]

1917 - Cesare Fuochi (d. 2003), Italian anarchist, syndicalist railway worker and anti-fascist partisan, born.

1918 - Maria Rosa Alorda Gràcia (d. 2006), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, born. From the age of 11 she began working in a clothing factory as a seamstress, learning to read and write in the rationalist school of the Calle Verdi de Gràcia and at the Ateneu Popular Vila, where she later worked as a teacher. A member of the Juventudes Libertarias, with the fascist coup of 1936 she enlisted in the Ferrer Carod, going to the Aragon front, where she taught militiamen who had not gone to school to read and write. Pregnant with her daughter Blanca, Blesa leaves and returns to Barcelona, ​​where postpartum she worked at the ammunition and weapons factory located in the former 'La Voz de su Amo' (Voice of his Master) record factory. During the Franco era she was the liaison between the committees of the underground CNT and sheltered many on-the-run comrades. Federica Montseny stayed in her home during her visit she made to Barcelona afterFranco's death. Maria Rosa Alorda Gràcia died January 11, 2006 in Barcelona. Her partner, Alfonso Sanchez Cruzado – who was interned in the Albatera concentration camp and after his release worked as a driver, using his vehicle to transport clandestine propaganda – and her daughter, Blanca Cruzado Alorda, were also anarchist militants.

[BBB] 1919 - Mystag (Robert François; d. 1988), French illusionist, anarchist propagandist, neo-Malthusian, pacifist and freethinker, born. In 1975 he appeared (as himself) in Agnes Varda's TV film 'Daguerréotypes' and was the basis for one of the characters in Patrick Pécherot's tribute to Léo Malet's policiers 'Belleville-Barcelone' (2003).

1922 - Marianne Cohn aka 'Colin' (d. 1944), German accountant and French Résistance fighter, who was active in the smuggling of Jewish children from France into Switzerland, born. The eldest child of a family of left-wing intellectuals of (non-practicing) Jewish descent, her family went to exile in Spain in 1934 and settled in France in 1938 with the republic facing defeat. When WWII broke out, her parents were detained in Gurs concentration camp, while Marianne and her sister were taken in by the Jewish Scouts organisation, Éclaireurs israélites de France, and sent to a farm. In 1941, she participated in the setting up of the Mouvement de la Jeunesse Sioniste (Zionist Youth Movement), producing forged passports for the underground organisation. The following year she also became involved in the care of Jewish children in France threatened with deportation and, from September 1942 until her capture and death, she guided groups of Jewish children to the border and into safety in Switzerland. For this task she took the pseudonym 'Colin'. Arrested on October 21, 1943 in Nice and threatened with deportation, she was eventually released three months later and resumed her underground activities, supervising children before their departure for Switzerland. It was during this stay in prison that she wrote her famous poem 'Je trahirai demain' (I shall betray tomorrow, not today).
In January 1944, Marianne Cohn joined the team of conveyors, replacing Mila Racine who had been arrested on October 21, 1943, who moved two or three groups a week, each numbering up to twenty children gathered from across the whole southern zone, clandestinely through Lyon and Annecy and across the border. On May 31 that year, Marianne and a group of twenty-eight children were arrested near Annemasse, only 200 meters from the Swiss border. Despite being tortured by the Gestapo, she refused to speak. When her network offered to help her to escape, she refuses, fearing retaliation against the children. On the night of July 7-8, 1944, the Gestapo de Lyon sent a team to Annemasse to remove six prisoners from their jail for execution. Marianne Cohn was one of the six, and she was murdered, beaten with shovels and kicked to death in Ville-la-Grand, near Annemasse. Her body was discovered under a pile of corpses during the liberation of the town on August 23, 1944. The twenty-eight children detained along side Marianne however were safely rescued by the mayor of Annemasse, Jean Deffaugt.

1923 - Jack van der Geest (Jacobus Petrus Cornelis van der Geest; d. 2009), Dutch member of the anti-Nazi resistance in both Holland and France, who was one of only eight people ever to escape from Buchenwald concentration camp, born. Betrayed by a neighbour, the Gestapo raided the van der Geest apartment in the Hague, arresting him and his mother Anna. Van der Geest was sent to Buchenwald on September 15, 1942, and was subjected to brutal medical experiments at the hands of Dr. Erwin Ding-Schuler. He managed to escape from the camp on March 3, 1943, by pretending to be dead. He was thrown onto a pile of bodies where he lay for 11 hours til he was able to kill an SS Guard, put on his uniform and rode a lorry out of the camp. With the assistance of the Maquis he managed to make it to France, where he became a member of the French Résistance. He became a U.S. citizen in 1953, and later wrote a book, 'Was God on Vacation?' (1995).

[E] 1925 - The bus Frida Kahlo is traveling on collides with a streetcar, Kahlo is impaled by a steel handrail, which goes into her hip and comes out the other side. She suffers several serious injuries as a result, including fractures to her spine and pelvis.

1925 - Mosko Atanasov Rashev (or Rachev)(b. 1903), Bulgarian anarchist guerilla, is ambushed and killed by police and army units near Béderliy after a fierce firefight. [see: Aug. 27]

1931 - Industrial Unrest in Second Republic: In Las Palmas, the newspaper 'El Defensor' is seized. In Cuenca, the 'El Centro' newspaper is fined.

[C] 1936 - Battle of Holbeck Moor: "[F]ollowing a week of tension during which the BUF was forbidden by the city's Watch Committee to march through the Jewish quarter, Oswald Mosley paraded over 1,000 uniformed Blackshirts in Calverley Street, and marched them to Holbeck. Press reports suggest very few of them were Leeds natives.
Opposition to the event had been organised and publicised some days previously, with the Communist Party taking the lead; relations between the parties being what they were, the Labour Party refused to take part in the protests. The newspapers reported a crowd of 30,000 on the moor with a very significant hostile element. As Mosley spoke, the 'Red Flag' was sung repeatedly in efforts to drown him out, and a large number of stones were thrown at the fascists. Many of these found their targets, with Mosley himself being struck. The city magistrates moralised endlessly in the week that followed, but punishments for most of those apprehended were light."
"Fourteen persons received injuries which required treatment at the General Infirmary and at the Dispensary. One of the injured was detained in the Infirmary with serious abdominal injuries. Scores of persons, mainly Fascists, received minor injuries, chiefly caused by stones with which the Fascists were freely pelted ... during the meeting, and at the beginning of their return march to the city... Mosley was struck on the body several times with stones thrown while he was addressing the meeting from the top of a van. He was also struck by a stone near the right temple as he was marching back with the Fascists from the Moor, receiving a wound which bled freely. A woman Fascist was felled by a stone which struck her on the head, causing a wound requiring nine stitches." ['Yorkshire Post', 28/09/36]
"As the meeting was breaking up about 100 policemen - who had been brought to the Moor by bus - formed a lane through the crowd for the Blackshirts to leave. Despite their efforts much hand-to-hand fighting took place and more stones were thrown. One man evaded two policemen, had a sparring bout with a Blackshirt bigger than himself, in which the Blackshirt got two severe blows on the jaw, and then slipped away into the crowd. Fireworks wore thrown over the heads of the police into the marching ranks and one exploded among the Blackshirt standard bearers, causing momentary consternation. A wild rush greeted Sir Oswald as he marched from the platform, surrounded by a strong body of police. The entire group was swept and hustled from side to side. Armed with a chairleg, one of the crowd struggled forward, but could not reach the Blackshirt leader, who was eventually able to join his men on the edge of the Moor. Among the missiles were bottles, sticks and stones. The most serious stone throwing of all occurred in Holbeck Lane, where a number of people had hidden behind some hoardings. When the procession passed this ambush, more large stones and half-bricks were hurled over." ['Yorkshire Evening News', 28/09/36]

1943 - Gino Lucetti (b. 1900), Italian anarchist who attempted to assassinate Mussolini in September 1926, for which he got 30 years in prison, dies during a German bombing raid on Ischia. [NB: Some sources give the date as September 15.][see: Aug. 31]

[B] 1945 - Patrice Énard, French radical filmmaker, cinematographer, director, actor, film theorist and critic, journalist and libertarian, born.

[F] 1950 - Empire Zinc Strike: Local 890 chapter of the International Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers begin a 15-month long strike, demanding that the Empire Zinc Company end its discriminatory pay and housing practices in New Mexico. The strike drew national attention, and after it was settled in 1952, a movie entitled Salt of the Earth (1954) was released that offered a fictionalized version of events.

1961 - 1,314 arrested in anti-bomb sit-down, Trafalgar Square, London, while Bertrand Russell sits in jail since his arrest on 13 September.

1969 - Segundo Rosariazo [Second Rosariazo]: In light of the deteriorating situation in Rosario, the Army takes charge. Future president Colonel Leopoldo Galtieri is among the Army personnel involved in the repression. That evening, the Commander of the II Army Corps, Brig Gen. Herbert Robinson releases the following statement: "The public is warned that in this mission, my troops are under orders to fire without warning on any outrage or attack." ('Antenore', 2004) From that point forward, the fight is effectively lost for the protesters. The Rozariazo ends with hundreds dead or wounded, and many arrested.

1970 - Jake Prescott paroled from Albany Prison, Isle of Wight. Political prisoner, member of the anarchist Angry Brigade. One of the crimes police tried to pin on him was the bombing of the Miss World contest.

1980 - On September 17, 1980, representatives of the Międzyzakładowych Komitetów Założycielskich (Inter-Company Founding Committees), which had been set up by the Międzyzakładowy Komitet Strajkowy (Interstate Strike Committee) in the wake of the Porozumienia Sierpniowe (August Agreements) reached following the August 1980 strike in support of the 21 demands of the MKS (21 postulatów MKS), meet in Gdansk and decided to form Niezależny Samorządny Związek Zawodowy „Solidarność” (Independent Self-Governing Trade Union "Solidarity"). The decision was made to create a countrywide union with a regional structure in the belief that it would be harder for the state to isolate local unions, the structure prefered by Lech Walesa (who believed that the union should be regional and that everyone would operate in their individual cities). The Solidarność name was the suggestion of Karol Modzelewski, a member of the Lower Silesian MKZ Presidium.
The union was dully registered with the state.

1980 - Nicaraguan dictator Anastasio Somoza Debayle is assassinated in Paraguay by a seven-person Sandinista commando team, in an attack known as 'Operation Reptile'. One of the Sandanista assassins: "We cannot tolerate the existence of millionaire playboys whilst thousands of Latin Americans are dying of hunger. We are perfectly willing to give up our lives for this cause." [NB: Incorrectly entered as Oct. 17 & used in 2016 Diary!]

1983 - 3,000 demonstrate against nuclear power, Hamm-Uentrop, West Germany.

1985 - Herman Spector (b. 1905), important radical American poet who influenced many C20th US poets, dies. [see: Sep. 18]

1986 - Slaget om Ryesgade [Battle of Ryesgade]: Popular Danish musician Kim Larsen's Cirkus Himmelblå-fond (Circus Sky Fund) make an offer to the mayor, Egon Weidekamp, and the Copenhagen city council to buy the house from UNGBO and transfer it to the municipality so that the BZerns can stay there on their own terms, the so-called 'Yellow solution' (Himmelblå-løsning).

1986 - Ahmed Iqbal Ullah, a young Bangladeshi school student, is brutally stabbed to death in the playground of Burnage High School, Manchester, by another 13 year old pupil, Darren Coulburn, in a racially motivated attack.

1995 - An armed stand-off between police and natives occupying a private ranch Gustafsen Lake, BC ends when a medicine man is allowed into the native camp; 17 people are charged by the RCMP.

1999 - Henri Storck (b. 1907), Belgian author, film-maker, documentarist, actor, Surrealist and anarchist, dies. [see: Sep. 5]

[A] 2007 - US-contract Blackwater mercenaries kill 17 unarmed civilians and wound 27 others in Baghdad. Blackwater quickly changed it's name to the forgettable 'XE' and many of the mercenaries switched to other security firms. In December 2009 an American judge dismissed all charges against the murderers on legal technicalities.

[D] 2008 - Enric Duran publicly announced that he had 'robbed' dozens of Spanish banks of nearly half a million euros as part of a political action to denounce "el depredador sistema capitalista" (the predatory capitalist system) and to finance various anti-capitalist social movements - among the projects financed was the free newspaper publication 'Crisi', 200,000 copies of which were distributed throughout Catalonia by volunteers. [see: Apr. 23]
1857 - François Juillet (d. unknown), French miner, trade union activist and anarchist member of La Bande Noire, born. Involved in the fight against Chagot through the creation of trade associations alongside Dumay. He was sentenced in the first trial of La Bande Noire in 1882. Upon his release from prison in December 1883, he moved closer to libertarian circles.

1885 - Paul Henri Roussenq aka 'L'Inco' (d. 1949), French vagabond and itinerant, known as the "anarchist convict" for the long prison sentences he endured (including on the notorious Devil's Island in Guyana) following various offences against authority, born. [expand]

1885 - [N.S. Sep. 30] Natalia Sergeyevna Klimova (Наталья Сергеевна Климова; d. 1918), Russian teacher, writer and revolutionist, born. [see: Sep. 30]

1896 - Lucien Georges Luther Charbonneau (d. 1984), French roofer and lead worker, militant anarcho-syndicalist and trade unionist, born. Board member of the Syndicat Général des Plombiers Couvreurs and, in 1923, secretary of the Syndicat Unique du Bâtiment (SUB) as well a joining, in July of that year, the executive committee of the Comité de Défense Syndicaliste, founded by Pierre Besnard. In 1924, he participated in the defence campaign for revolutionaries imprisoned in Russia, and was "officially" in charge of theFrench-based Spanish newspaper 'Liberion' (renamed 'Iberion' after a ministerial ban in March 1924), directed by Liberto Callejas and funded by the expropriations of the group Los Solidarios. During the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera in Spain, Lucien Charbonneau was a dead-letter drop for exiled activists of the Spanish CNT. He was alos involved in the founding of the CGT-SR and was treasurer of the Groupe des Amis de l'Encyclopédie Anarchiste of Sébastien Faure.

[B] 1905 - Herman Spector (d. 1985), important radical American poet who influenced many C20th US poets, born. He was a contributing editor of the Communist magazine 'The New Masses' and the poetry magazines 'Dynamo' and 'Blues'. He contributed to many other periodicals, including 'Exile', 'The American Caravan', 'Free Verse', 'Palo Verde', 'Transition' and 'Unrest'. His poetry was anthologised in the Marcus Graham edited 'An Anthology of Revolutionary Poetry' (1929).

"teardrop from my nose should show how cold the night.
6th Avenue L vertical prison-bars blackly compel me.
they move darkly into the past, intimate the future
with close ever-more-distant and precise conjunctions.
I drink the dark, press close to it with sexual ardor.
terror subtly underplays a vast and tragic symphony.
my sigh is gobbled whistlingly up by the wind.
the vague sharp outlines of grandeur point skyscrapers
against the inertia of black fog and nescience.
Union Square is now a dreary stark desert
where evil lurks, seeps from the ground . . .
shines a pavement grin.
stares fixedly in sadist mania from out the subway signs.
strike down, O Lord of desolation and bleak murder
strangle this sick asleep chorus-girl city, smash,
press your thumb down lightly, smudge into nothing
the gross abomination of men's possessions—
answer the circumscribed and lightheaded jest—
return the facile sneer of men with interest—
kill the lousy bastards in their beds as graves!
wreck the damned machines to which all men are slaves!
let me know no more new york!
smashing, rending havoc be your work—
O Lord!
O Lord of loveliness and ugly death;
let all nights cease upon your last, chill breath!"

'Anarchist Nightsong' (1928), from: 'Bastard in the Ragged Suit'.


[E] 1908 - Lise Børsum (Milly Elise Børsum; d. 1985), Norwegian resistance member during WWII and survivor of Ravensbrück concentration camp, best known for her books on her experiences as a prisoner and on the characteristics of concentration camps in 'Fange i Ravensbrück' (Prisoner in Ravensbrück; 1946), 'Speilbilder' (Reflections; 1947) and her book on Soviet concentration camps, 'Fjerndomstol Moskva. Fra Dagens Berlin og Sovjets Fangeleirer' (Moscow's Remote Justice. From Berlin to Today's Soviet Prison Camps; 1951), born.

1911 - Pierre-Valentin Berthier (d. 2012), French individualist anarchist, peace activist, poet, novelist and journalist, born. Author of novels which include: 'Sitting Bull' (1952); 'Chéri-Bonhomme' - Vol. 1: 'L'Enfant Derrière le Grillage' (with woodcuts by Germain Delatousche) and Vol. 2: 'Mademoiselle Dictateur' (both 1956); 'L'Enfant des Ombres' (1957); 'On a Tué M. Système' (1957); and poems: 'Le Spectre...' (1936) and 'La Chair et la Flamme' (1956).

1913 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: Kenton railway station near Newcastle is razed to the ground by a suffragette "arson squad". £1000 worth of luggage was destroyed and placards were left bearing the words: "Premier Asquith is responsible for militancy. Apply to him for damages."

1930 - Pietro Michele Stefano Ferrua, Italian author, essayist, translator/interpreter, mixed media artist, academic, scholar of the artistic and literary avant-gardes, anarchist propagandist and founder of CIRA (Centre International de Recherches sur l'Anarchisme), born. [expand]
He is the author of numerous works and studies such as 'Gli Anarchica nella Rivoluzione Messicana: Práxedes G. Guerrero' (Anarchism in the Mexican Revolution: Práxedes G. Guerrero; 1976), 'Surréalisme et Anarchisme' (1982), 'Anarchists in Film' (1983), 'John Kenneth Turner: a Portlander in Mexican Revolution' (1983), 'Ricardo Flores Magon e la Rivoluzione Messicana' (Ricardo Flores Magon and the Mexican Revolution; 1983), 'Avanguardia Cinematografica Lettrista' (Letterist Avantgarde Cinema; 1984) 'Entretiens sur le Lettrisme' (Conversations on Letterism; with Maurice Lemaitre, 1985), 'Appunti sul Nero American Cinema' (Notes on Black American Cinema; 1987), 'Anarchists seen by Painters' (1988), 'Italo Calvino in Sanremo' (1991), 'L'obiezione di Coscienza Anarchica in Italia' (Anarchist Conscientious Objectors in Italy; 1997), 'Iphigenia in Utopia. Four Acts' (2000), etc.. His articles are found in numerous libertarian publications and international academic journals.
See also: Ursula K. Le Guin - 'L'Anarchismo : un ideale necessario' (1994), co-interviewer, editor and translator Pietro Ferrua.

1934 - Ruth Hale (b. 1887), US freelance writer, women's rights activist, early female film critic and associate of the Algonquin Round Table, dies. Took a leading role on the Sacco and Vanzetti defence committee, working alongside the likes of Dorothy Parker and John Dos Passos.

1934 - In Italy, the militarist character of the state is emphasised with the creation of the 'citizen-soldier' with a law requiring military training beginning at 8 years old and obligatory military education in middle schools. Pre-military service is required of all men between the ages of 18 and 21 years with post-military service for 10 years afterwards.

1942 - Stefan Witkowski (b. 1903), Polish engineer and designer, inventor, and leader of the underground organisation the Muszkieterzy or Muszkieterowie (Musketeers), is assassinated by Armia Krajowa (AK; Home Army) officers after he had been sentenced to death by the Wojskowy Sąd Specjalny (Special Military Court) for insubordination and cooperation with the Abwehr and Gestapo. Witkowski, known by various nom-de-guerres including 'Kapitan', 'Doktor Zet', 'Dyrektor', 'Inżynier', 'Tęczyński', 'Kaniewski', 'Stewit', etc., was an anti-Communist who had fought in the Polish-Bolshevik War (1919-21) and the defence of Warsaw. The Musketeers were created in November 1939 [as part of the Centralnego Komitetu Organizacji Niepodległościowych (Central Committee of the Organisation for Independence)] in German-occupied Warsaw and began to cooperated with British Intelligence, mainly it would appear to maintain the organisation's independece fron the AK and the Związek Walki Zbrojnej (ZWZ; Union of Armed Struggle). At the same time the group were cooperating with the Nazis, especially in Soviet-occupied Poland with Witkowski even travelling to Berlin in late 1941 for talks with Nazi officials. It was this palying both sides off against each other that ultimately got him killed and caused serious problems for SOE agents like Krystyna Skarbek aka Christine Granville (1908 - 1952) whom worked with the Musketeers.

[C] 1943 - Mussolini announces via Radio Monaco (Baviera) the constitution of the Partito Fascista Repubblicano (Republican Fascist Party) and the Repubblica di Salò (Repubblica Sociale Italiana) in the regions of northern Italy under control of the German army.

1944 - Bernhard Bästlein (b. 1894), German Communist and resistance fighter against the Nazi régime, who helped form the Bästlein-Jacob-Abshagen Group, Saefkow-Jacob-Bästlein Organisation and the Bewegung Freies Deutschland (Free Germany Movement) resistance organisations, is executed in Brandenburg-Görden Prison. [see: Dec. 3]

1945 - Voline (Vsévolod Mikhailovich Eichenbaum) (b. 1882), Russian anarchist, Makhnovist revolutionary and historian, dies. Trotsky had ordered his execution in 1921, but a hunger strike by the anarchists in prison publicly embarrassed the Bolsheviks and embroiled them in scandal, and Voline was among those released on condition they leave the country. It was the first time political prisoners were deported from the vaunted Red Fatherland of the Proletariat. [see: Aug. 11]

1959 - Benjamin Péret (b. 1899), French poet, Parisian Dadaist, founder member of the French Surrealist movement, automatism and anarchist, dies. [see: Jul. 4]

1959 - Exhibition of collages, ceramics, drawings and graphic designs by Asger Jorn at the Van de Loo Gallery in Essen (Sept. 18 - Oct. 25).

1968 - Following demonstrations since midsummer, troops invade México City National University. Mexican federal troops occupy National University in Mexico City, taking 3,000 prisoners, including professors and parents.

[EE] 1974 - Flora Sanhueza Rebolledo (b. 1911), Chilean teacher, anarchist and social activist, who founded the Ateneo Libertario Luisa Michel in her home city of Iquique in 1947, dies as a result of the torture she had suffered at the hands of the Pinochet regime. A life-long anarchist activist, she travelled to Spain in 1935 and took part in the social revolution during the Civil War. Following the fascist victory, she fled to France, where she remained as a political prisoner until 1942. She returned to Chile and, inspired by libertarians ateneos of the earlier part of the century, she founded Ateneo Libertario Luisa Michel in Iquique to "address the needs of female weavers". Given the fact that this was during the dictatorship of Gabriel Gonzalez Videla and the fascist persecution of anarchists and communists, much of her work virtually took place in hiding. In 1953 it opened its door to children of working women too, changing its name to the Escuela Libertaria Luisa Michel. At its peak, it had more than 70 regular students, but it closed its doors in 1957.
Flora was arrested and tortured following the Pinochet coup. Placed under house arrest, she subsequently died as a result of the injuries she sustained under torture.

[D] 1975 - Eighteen months after her abduction, San Francisco police "rescue" kidnapped heiress-turned-revolutionary Patty Hearst. Police killed most of her Symbionese Liberation Army comrades in the process.

1978 - Trial stopped after jury member exposed as a former SAS officer. [ABC Trial]

1980 - Rose Antonia Maria Valland (b. 1898), French art historian, member of the French Résistance, captain in the French military, and one of the most decorated women in French history, dies. [see: Nov. 1]

[BB] 1983 - José Pérez Ocaña (b. 1947), Andalusian naive painter, performance artist, LGBT activist and anarchist, known simply as Ocaña, dies following medical complications arising from severe burns sustained a week earlier in an unfortunate accident occurred when his Sun King costume, made ​​from paper and fabrics, occidentally caught on fire at a children's party in his home town.

1986 - Slaget om Ryesgade [Battle of Ryesgade]: The mayor, Egon Weidekamp, and the Copenhagen Municipality rejects the offer on town council meeting on the evening, while demonstrating outside City Hall for a solution. BZerns declare that they will be on the barricades until their demands are met. A large banner is also hung from the squat carrying the slogan "Hellere dø stående end leve på knæ" ("Better to die standing than live on your knees")[c.f. Emiliano Zapata & "It is better to die on your feet than to live on your knees!"].
The following day the police declare an emergency in the neighbourhood, all who try and get in or out are arrested immediately. The initiative Støt den Himmelblå (Support the Sky) is founded.

[A] 1991 - Native American political prisoner Eddie Hatcher is stabbed four times in back by a prisoner paid by the prison administration at Southern Correction Prison, North Carolina.

1992 - Giant Mine Strike: At the height of an already violent four-month-old strike-lock-out of Canadian Association of Smelter and Allied Workers members at the Giant gold mine in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories (then under the ownership of Royal Oak Mines Inc.), nine strikebreakers and replacement workers are killed in an explosion in a drift of the mine, 750 ft (230 m) underground when their rail car hit a deliberately set bomb. Six of the victims were CASAW members who had crossed the picket lines. The other three victims were replacement workers.
After a lengthy police investigation, in October 1993 striking miner Roger Warren confessed to the crime, but at his trial for murder in September 1994 Warren recanted, but was convicted anyway in 1995 on nine counts of second-degree murder for planting the bomb that killed the victims. He was given a life sentence with no chance for parole for 20 years. He was paroled from prison in 2014, having re-admitted his guilt.
The lock-out of the Canadian Association of Smelter and Allied Workers' Local 4 ended in December 1993

[F] 2000 - Kaiser Aluminum Strike: A two-year strike by, and subsequent lock-out of, 2,900 workers represented by the United Steelworkers at five Kaiser Aluminum plants in three states ends following binding arbitration. At issue were wages and benefits, contracting out work, and job cuts, among others. It was the longest and largest lock-out in the history of the union.

2001 - The Italian authorities organise a series of raids across Italy against a hypothetical insurgent anarchist organisation. After a hundred premises had been searched and 60 people questioned, 17 people were charged with "subversive association". The 'crime' of most suspects? Supporting Greek and Spanish prisoners.

2011 - In Germany, the Pirate Party gains 8.9% of the vote in the Berlin state elections, winning 15 seats in the legislure.

2013 - Pavlos Fyssas aka Killah P (b. 1979), Greek anti-fascist rapper, is stabbed to death by Giorgos Roupakias, a supporter of the Greek fascist party Golden Dawn (Χρυσή Αυγή), in Athens. An active anti-Fascist and member of the left wing anti-capitalist Antarysa (Left Front) party, he had been a hip-hop MC since 1997. Shortly after midnight, a group of around 25 neo-Nazis attacked Pavlos and his 6 friends outside a café at 60 Panayi Tsaldari Avenue in Amfiali, in the Keratsini district of Piraeus. Pavlos was stabbed three times in the chest and heart and died a few hours later in hospital.The killing finally forces Greek politicians and police to take the threat of Golden Dawn seriously, something they singularly failed to do when they limited their murders to migrants - in the following weeks Party offices and police stations are raided and cops arrested for their links with Golden Dawn. [see: Apr. 10]
1862 - Jean-Pierre Buisson (d. unknown), French textile worker and anarchist, born.

[DD] 1868 - La Gloriosa [Glorious Revolution]: A military rebellion [Sep. 19-27] in Spain deposes Queen Isabella II. A coalition of liberals, moderates and republicans then set about trying to create the government under the control of General Francisco Serrano, 1st Duke of la Torre. The Cortes initially rejected the notion of a republic and Serrano was named regent while a search was launched for a suitable monarch to lead the country. With the search proving more difficult that initially thought, General Juan Prim, 1st Marquis of los Castillejos, was named regent in 1869. Amongst those suggested were Isabella's young son Alfonso (the future Alfonso XII of Spain), rejected as he might be dominated by his mother and inherit her flaws; Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg, the former regent of neighbouring Portugal; and Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, whose nomination raised the spectre of the triggering of a Franco-Prussian War. In August 1870, they selected an Italian prince, Amadeo of Savoy, the younger son of Victor Emmanuel II of Italy. He only lasted in power for two years, after which the first Spanish Republic was formed.

1885 - The first issue of the fortnightly 'Le Forçat du Travail' (Convict Labour), "Organe communiste-anarchiste", is published in Bordeaux.

1892 - Alexander Berkman found guilty on all counts in his attempt to assassinate Henry Frick and sentenced to 22 years in prison; Emma Goldman learns of this sentence while lecturing in Baltimore. The announcement prompts audience pandemonium, police action and Emma's consequent arrest.

[B] 1894 - Miguel Campuzano García (d. 1964), Spanish anarchist teacher, journalist and author of the 1927 novel 'Armonía' (Harmony), published in the 'La Novela Ideal' series, born. Wrote for numerous libertarian publications such as 'Acción y Cultura', 'Acción Social Obrera', 'Albada', 'Butlletí de la Societat Ateneu Popular de Mataró', 'CNT', 'Cultura Ferroviaria', 'Llibertat', 'El Luchador', 'El Pueblo', 'La Revista Blanca', 'Solidaridad', 'Solidaridad Obrera', 'La Tierra', 'Voluntad', etc. and under a number of different pseudonyms including Luz de Castilla, Araceli, Fernando Martorell, Fermín Pinardell, Modesto Educador, Amador de la Paz, etc..

1894 - In Lugano, the Italian anarchist Pietro Gori, a political refugee in Switzerland, is the victim of an attack by unidemtified individuals. Though suffering several bullet wounds, he manages to drive off his attackers.

1903 - Attilio Bortolotto aka 'Tilio' and Arthur Bartell (d. 1995), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist, born. An apprentice blacksmith and potter in 1915, he emigrated to Canada with his brother Umberto and two friends in September 1920, settling in Windsor where he lived his brother Guglielmo (William) and worked for a Ukrainian blacksmith. In 1922 he joined the anarchist movement in Windsor. In Detroit, where he worked in the Chrysler factory, he participated actively in the agitation in favor of Sacco and Vanzetti. In 1924, in a symbolic act to protest the death of Giacomo Matteotti, he burnt his passport in opposition to the fascist regime in his country. In 1926, as the militant member of Il Gruppo i Refrattari he attended a meeting involving the Italian consul and, to the surprise of all, smashed up the portrait of the King of Italy, causing a massive fight. Between 1927 and 1929 he worked at Ford Motor Company as an adjuster and took part in union agitation. On October 12, 1928 (Columbus Day), he was involved in a clash with a group of Blackshirts marching in Detroit and which resulted in the death of anarchist Antonio Barra. In 1929 he was arrested in Detroit for distributing leaflets announcing a rally in memory of Sacco and Vanzetti and the process of deportation to Italy was started against him. However, he broke bail ($3,000) and fled to Toronto, where he got a job as a car mechanic. Between 1933 and 1935, he directed and coordinated Il Libertarian theatre company of Il Gruppo Libertario, presenting works by Pietro Gori, Gigi Damiani and others. In 1934 he met Emma Goldman and became an activist in the Toronto Libertarian Group. In 1939, during a workers' picnic, he brought along some self-made dolls to be shot at with bow and arrow as a bit of fun: the figures represented Franco, Hitler, Mussolini and Stalin, which disturb some passing communist militants, resulting in a noisy altercation. On 4 October 1939 he was arrested by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police in Toronto with three other Italian comrades and accused of "spreading revolutionary propaganda" during the Canadian Anti-Deportation Campaign against anti-Fascist activists supporting the Spanish Revolution; two were released, but it was proposed that Bortolotto and Marco Joachim, who had both entered Canada illegally, were to be deported to Italy. Finally, after a long campaign led by Goldman, they were released. Joachim, instead of being deported to Italy, managed a get visa for Mexico, and Bortolotto, after paying a fine of $400, was placed on probation in Toronto on January 14, 1940 - just four months later on May 14, 1940, Goldman died. As a result of his imprisonment, he fell seriously ill and Goldman had to nurse him. In 1959 he founded Bartell Industries Inc. and the profits of the company went to fund propaganda libertarian ('Antistato', 'A Rivista Anarchica', Cienfuegos Press, Galzerano Editore, etc.). During the Vietnam War, he gave refuge to many American deserters who had illegally crossed the border into Canada. Between 1968 and 1969 he directed 'The Libertarian', paper of the Toronto Libertarian Group. In 1984 he participated in the Incontro Internazionale Anarchica in Venice. Bortolotto Attilio died on February 11, 1995, in Toronto.
[ Bortolotti&f=false]

1908 - In Parc Saint-Maur, the first issue of 'La Mère Peinard', "Réflections hebdomadaires d'une lavandière" (Weekly reflections of a washerwoman), is published by Fortuné Henry under the inspiration of Pouget's 'Père Peinard'.

1916 - Philip Sansom (b. 1999), English commercial artist, anarchist, pacifist and co-editor of 'War Commentary', which led to 9 months in prison accused of inciting agitation among soldiers alongside fellow editors Vernon Richards and John Hewetson, born.

1921 - Paulo Reglus Neves Freire (d. 1997), Brazilian educator, philosopher and leading advocate of critical pedagogy, who is best known for his influential work, 'Pedagogia do Oprimido' (Pedagogy of the Oppressed; 1968), born.

1923 - September Antifascist Uprising [Септемврийско антифашистко въстание]: During the night of September 19-20 uprisings break out as planned in and around Stara Zagora, Nova Zagora, and around Chirpan.

1923 - Ernst Toller's play 'Der Deutsche Hinkemann' (The Limping German) premières in Leipzig.

1935 - Friedrich 'Fritz' Oerter aka Bernhard Rothmann (b. 1869), German lithographic worker and anarchist, dies. Along with his younger brother Sepp, he was active in the youth wing of the Social-Democratic Party but were expelled, joining the anarchist movement and smuggling anarchist literature into the country. Both brothers were arrested for delivering “seditious speeches” at a meeting of the unemployed in Mainz. On Oct 25th 1893 Sepp was sentenced to 8 years in prison and Fritz to 1 year. Fritz was badly affected by prison and spent the next decade in poor health. Both the brothers participated in the Anarchistischen Föderation Deutschlands (German Anarchist Federation) and contributed to the paper 'Der Freie Arbeiter' (Free Worker).
In 1918/1919 Fritz participated in the activities of the Workers and Soldiers Councils in Fürth and he joined the FAUD, becoming influential within it as a leading proponent of the doctrine of passive resistance, and as editor of the FAUD paper 'Der Syndikalist'. He also had close friendships Gustav Landauer, the playwright Ernst Toller and Erich Muehsam.
In 1935 Fritz was arrested by the SA (Nazi stormtroopers) and detained. Following his interrogation he died a week later in hospital at the Sachsenhausen concentration camp, apparently of pneumonia. [see: Feb. 19]

1935 - Praskovya Ivanovo [Прасковья Ивановская] (Praskovya Semenovna Voloshenko [Прасковья Семеновна Волошенко]; b. 1852), Russian revolutionary, member of Zemlya i Volya (Land and liberty), Narodnaya Volya (People's Will) and later of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party (Партии социалистов-революционеров) and the S-R's Combat Organisation (Боева́я организа́ция), dies in Poltava, Ukraine. [see: Nov. 15]

1936 - Vicente Ballester Tinoco (b. 1903), Spanish carpenter, cabinetmaker, writer, journalist, and prominent Andalusian anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, dies. [see: Jun. 13]

[C] 1941 - SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich's order of September 1st that all Jews over the age of 6 in the German territories are ordered to wear the yellow star when in public comes into force.

1943 - Operation Concerto: Over 200,000 partisan combatants, from 193 different groups, begin an operation [September 19 - November 1] to disrupt German railroad logistics and communications in the enemy rear along a 900km front (over an area of approximately 350,000 sq. km.). Despite bad weather that only permitted the airlift of less than a half of the planned supplies, the operation lead to a 35-40% decrease in the railroad capacity in the area of operations The operation was co-ordinated with the forthcoming offensive of the Soviet troops in the Smolensk Offensive operation as part of the Summer-Autumn Campaign of 1943, it was one of the largest operations of World War II and was critical for the success of Soviet military operations that autumn. In Belarus alone the partisans claimed the destruction of more than 90,000 rails along with 1,061 trains, 72 railroad bridges and 58 Axis garrisons. Soviet historians claimed Axis losses totaled more than 53,000 soldiers.

1944 - The first issue of the Spanish language newspaper 'Ruta', "Órgano de la FIJL en Francia", is published in Marseille, continuing the anti-collaborationist and anti-reformist of the CNT-FAI in exile. From July 1945, it will be published in Toulouse and then Paris from November 1947, before returning to Toulouse. It supports actions against Franco, and is officially banned in France on February 17, 1953.

1944 - Kaare Krabbe Filseth (b. 1901), Norwegian newspaper editor, anti-Nazi resistance fighter and district commander of Milorg (Militær Organisasjon, the main Norwegian resistance organisation), is shot after having been taken by the Nazis as a hostage following the blowing up of the command central of the State Police in Ringerike and the declaration of martial law.

1944 - Josefa 'Pepita' Martín Luengo (Maria Josefa Martín Luengo; d. 2009), Spanish libertarian education activist and anarcha-feminist, born. [expand]

1946 - Jules Chazanoff aka 'Chazoff' (b. 1891), French electrical worker, proofreader, anarchist, syndicalist, anti-fascist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Jan. 25]

[E] 1947 - Nancy Ling Perry aka Nancy Devoto, Lynn Ledworth, and 'Fahizah' (d. 1974), US member of the Symbionese Liberation Army, who was shot dead during the 1974 shootout with the LA Police at 1466 East 54th Street, born. She died in the May 17, 1974, shootout with the police at 1466 East 54th Street, Los Angeles.

1952 - Charlie Chaplin is exiled from the USA for his supposed "un-American activities", when J Edgar Hoover sneakily gets Chaplin's re-entry permit revoked whilst he is on a trip to London for the London première of 'Limelight'.

[1955 - Revolución Libertadora: Juan Perón resigns the presidency of Argentina following the popular military and civilian uprising that began in September 16.

1956 - Helios Gómez Rodríguez (b. 1905), Spanish anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, painter, poster artist, poet and militant activist, known as the 'artista de corbata roja' (artist with the red tie), dies in Barcelona 2 years after being released from prison for the last time (despite the release order signed in 1950, he contined to be held in prison illegally for four further years until his release in 1954). [see: May 7]

1970 - The first Glastonbury Festival.

[1979 - Star Hotel Riot: 4,000 people fight with police on the streets of Newcastle, New South Wales

[F] 1981 - Solidarity Day: More than 260,000 people converge on Washington, DC, for Solidarity Day, a march and rally for "Jobs, Justice, Compassion" in response to President Ronald Reagan’s anti-worker, anti-union policies. 250 organisations – including unions, civil rights, religious, and social justice – participated.

1985 - Italo Calvino (b. 1923), Italian journalist and writer of short stories and novels, anti-fascist partisan and member of the PCI, dies of a cerebral hemorrhage in the early hours of the morning. [see: Oct. 15]

[D] 1986 - Slaget om Ryesgade [Battle of Ryesgade]: Police declare an emergency in the neighborhood, all who try and get in or out are arrested immediately. The initiative Støt den Himmelblå (Support the Sky) is founded.

[A] 1995 - The Unabomber manifesto published by 'Washington Post' and the 'New York Times'.
1763 - Gabriela Silang (Maria Josefa Gabriela Cariño; b. 1731), Filipina revolutionary leader best known as the first female leader of a Filipino independence movement in the struggle against Spain, is executed by hanging alongside her troops in Vigan's central plaza, having faced defeat ten days earlier during a failed attempt to besiege the city. [see: Mar. 19]

[D] 1870 - Commune de Lyon: Establishment of the Lyon Commune sparks the revolutionary upsurge throughout the Rhone valley, giving the impetus to the Marseilles and Paris Communes.

[C] 1878 - Upton Beall Sinclair, Jr. (d. 1968), American novelist, writer, journalist, socialist and later Democratic candidate for governor of California, born. Upton Sinclair was a supporter of Sacco and Vanzetti and his 'documentary novel', 'Boston' (1928), was an indictment of the American system of justice set against the background of the prosecution and execution of the two anarchists, who themselves feature as characters. He was also an active supporter of the IWW free speech campaigns and strikes and in his anthology, 'The Cry for Justice: An Anthology of the Literature of Social Protest' (1915) he collected selections from the likes of Alexander Berkman ('Prison Memoirs of an Anarchist'), Peter Kropotkin ('Memoirs of a Revolutionist'), Voltairine De Cleyre, Francisco Ferrer, Auguste Vaillant, Henry David Thoreau, Octave Mirbeau, Leo Tolstoy, etc.
Sinclair wrote extensively on fascism in the 1930s and 40s, both in essay and fiction form, including in 'The Flivver King' (1937), 'No Pasaran!: A Novel of the Battle of Madrid' (1937) and the eleven volume Lanny Budd anti-fascist spy series (1940-53).
"Fascism is capitalism plus murder."

1882 - Léon Bonneff (d. 1914), French proletarian writer, autodidact and anarchist fellow-traveller, born. He and his brother Maurice met the old Communard Gustave Lefrançais and the libertarian novelist Lucien Descaves shortly after their family moved to Paris in 1900. They quickly resolved to write, both together and individually, about the conditions in which the Parisian working class lived.
His works include: 'Le Soldat-phénomène: monologue militaire, dit par Polin' (The soldier phenomenon: miltary monologue, told by Polin; 1906); 'Fine carotte, comédie en 1 acte' (Thin carrot, comedy in 1 act; 1906); 'Le Cambrioleur malgré lui, comédie en un acte' (The burglar despite himself, comedy in one act; 1908); and his famous novel 'Aubervilliers' (1949); plus the works written with Maurice: 'Les Métiers qui tuent, enquête auprès des syndicats ouvriers sur les maladies professionnelles' (The trades that kill, survey for labour unions on occupational diseases; 1906); 'La Vie Tragique des Travailleurs: enquêtes sur la condition économique et morale des ouvriers et ouvrières d'industrie' (The tragic life of workers: investigations into the economic condition and morale of workers and industrial workers; 1908); 'La Classe Ouvrière: les Boulangers, les Employés de Magasin, les Terrassiers, les Travailleurs du Restaurant, les Cheminots, les Pêcheurs Bretons, les Postiers, les Compagnons du Bâtiment, les Blessés' (The working class: bakers, store employees, navvies, restaurant workers, railway workers, Breton fishermen, postal workers, building workers, the injured; 1910); 'Marchands de Folie: Cabaret des Halles et des Faubourgs - Cabaret-Tâcheron - Cabaret-Cantinier - Cabaret-Placeur - Cabaret de Luxe - L'Estaminet des Mineurs - Au pays du "Petit Sou" : sur les quais de Rouen - Au pays de l'Absinthe - De l'Infirmerie spéciale du Dépôt à la Maison de fous' ( Merchants of Madness; 1913). - which describes the employees in pubs, cabarets, on the banks of Rouen, the effects of absinthe (which will be banned in 1917) on the workers.

[E] 1886 - Lillian Harman (1869-1950) American anarchist feminist, and proponent of sex radicalism and free love, who wrote for and was the compositor on her father Moses’ anarchist/feminist/freethought journal 'Lucifer', enters into a 'free marriage', or "autonomistic sex-relation or union" as she put it, with fellow anarchist Edwin Cox Walker. The ceremony was held in front of friends and family without the benefit of a state license as Lillian refused to sign any legal documents and rejected the involvement of church and state in her private life. Moses, who conducted the ceremony, declared that he did not "give away" Lillian because she was her own person, whilst Lillian retained her surname (as it was her 'duty' to do so), her "free will and choice", and declined to take any vow that promised ‘obedience’ to a man. Instead, she pledged, "I make no promises that it may become impossible or immoral for me to fulfill, but retain the right to act always as my conscience and best judgment shall dictate."
The couple became a cause célèbre in anarchist and free love circles when they were arrested and a month later a jury found them guilty on October 20, 1886, of breaking Kansas state marriage law. Walker was sentenced to 75 days in jail and Harman to 45; they were also ordered to pay a fine and court costs. The two refused to admit guilt by paying any fines or fees and therefore remained in jail. The two were finally released from prison on April 3, 1887 after Moses Harman paid their fees.

1895 - A successful protest movement leads to the amnesty of Luigi Molinari. A military tribunal, on January 31, 1894, condemned Molinari to 23-years imprisonment for instigating an insurrection in Lunigiana, where anarchist bands armed themselves in support of the Sicilian victims of a State of Siege (a repressive attempt to put down revolts against increased flour prices).

[B] 1896 - Scarlat Callimachi or Calimachi (nicknamed Prinţul Roşu, the Red Prince; d. 1975), Romanian journalist, essayist, Futurist poet, trade unionist, youthful anarchist and later a communist activist, born.

1898 - In Sao Paulo, police open fire on a demonstration. Italian anarchist Polonice Mattei is wounded by the gun fire and dies of his injuries two days later. He is the first anarchist to be murdered by the police in Brazil, who mount guard over the body and, alongside a squadron of cavalry, over the funeral in the cemetery of Araçá to prevent any public demonstration.

1898 - [N.S. Oct. 2] Maria Nikolaevna Olovennikova [Мария Николаевна Оловенникова] aka Madam Jacobson [Мадам Якобсон] (May [15] 27 1852 - October 2 [September 20] 1898), prominent Russian revolutionary, who was the sister of fellow Narodnistas Natalia [Наталья] and Elizaveta [Наталья] and the mother of Elena Nikolayevna Oshanina [Елена Николаевна Ошанина], dies of acute pneumonia in Paris. [see: May 27]

1905 - [O.S. Sep. 7] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Latvian socialists attack the Riga central prison to free one of their leaders.

1916 - Paul Parin (d. 2009), Austrian-Swiss psychoanalyst, anthropologist, writer and "moral anarchist" whose personal motto was "Ni Dieu, ni Roi", born. He and his future wife, Goldy Parin-Matthey, were involved in the anarchist-socialist anti-fascist medical organisation Brüdergemeinde (Brethren).

[DD] 1923 - September Antifascist Uprising [Септемврийско антифашистко въстание]: During the night of September 19-20 uprisings break out in and around Stara Zagora, Nova Zagora, and Chirpan, in advance of the main uprising planned for two days later (22-23) following a decision taken by the local action committee. The lack of an organised uprising around Burgas allowed the government to mobilise strong forces and quickly crush the uprising around Stara Zagora, though there is particularly hard battles fought at Maglizh, Enina and Shipka. The city of Nova Zagora and the surrounding county are almost all controlled by the rebels, as are the villages in the vicinity of Chirpan. The city itself does not fall to the insurgents.
The same day the Bulgarian Communist Party Central Committee hold a meeting, during which a decision is reached to also proclaim an uprising on the night of September 22-23.

1923 - Harold B. Fiske, an IWW organiser for the Agricultural Workers Industrial Union No. 110, is sentenced to serve from one to 10 years in the Kansas state prison for breaching its 1920 Ciminal Syndicalism Act. The conviction was appealed and the Kansas supreme court affirmed Fiske's conviction on November 8, 1924. An appeal was taken to the Supreme Court of the United States and 'Fiske v. Kansas' was argued before the court on May 3, 1926. The state of Kansas could prove neither that Fiske had any actual or imminent intent to illegally change the economic structure of the United States nor that he intented to overthrow the US government. Fiske's words were thus protected by the First Amendment and so could not be barred. The court's decision was handed down on May 16, 1927. In it the Syndicalism Act was described as "an arbitrary and unreasonable exercise of the police power of the State" and its use to convicted Fiske was found to be a violation of the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. The judgement of the state court was reversed, and Fiske was found to be not in violation of any law. [see: Jul. 2]

1970 - Brandeis University students and National Student Strike Force members Katherine Ann Power and Stanley Ray Bond, an ex-convict and soldier attending classes at the university on a special program, plus two other former convicts, William Gilday and Robert Valeri, rob a National Guard armory in Newburyport, Massachusetts, taking 400 rounds of ammunition and weapons, as part of a plan to finance the arming of the Black Panthers as a response to United States involvement in the Vietnam War. The group also set fire to the facility, causing about $125,000 in damage. Three days later, in the company of NSSF member and Power's college roommate Susan Edith Saxe, they robbed a bank in Brighton, Massachusetts, carrying handguns, a shotgun and a submachine gun. The first cop on the scene, Boston police officer Walter Schroeder, was shot in the back by Gilday when he attempted to stop the robbery and subsequently died from his wounds. The group escaped with $26,000 in cash. [see: Jan 18 + Jan. 25]

1971 - A support of the Chelsea Bridge opposite the army barracks is bombed. (Blast heard three miles away.) [Angry Brigade/First of May Group chronology]

1972 - Ulrike Meinhof is transferred from Ossendorf Prison to Zweibrücken Prison to take part in an identification line-up. Meinhof is determined to ruin the process by screaming "I’M ULRIKE MEINHOF!" The police instruct the other women in the line-up to follow suit; the witnesses are treated the unforgettable spectacle of six women screaming and clawing at their guards; five impostors and one true criminal all screaming hysterically: "SWINE!" "THIS IS ALL JUST A SHOW!" and "I AM ULRIKE MEINHOF!"

1979 - Doris Maase (Doris Franck; b. 1911), German doctor, communist and resistance fighter, who survived nine years in various Nazi camps and was one of Ravensbrück’s earliest prisoners, dies. [see: Mar. 4]

1984 - Juan Manuel Molina Mateo aka 'Juanelo' (b. 1901), important Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Aug. 4]

1985 - Irmgard Enderle (Irmgard Rasch; b. 1895), German socialist politician, trade unionist and journalist, whose party codenames included Kleopatra and J. Reele, dies. [see: Apr. 28]

[F] 1993 - Nicaraguan General Strike: In the three years since the u.s.-backed Violeta Chamorro administration ousted the Sandinistas from power, Chamorro had tried to turn back the gains of the Sandinista revolution and the ensuing 10 years of progress. Her government had stopped agrarian reform, broken unions and brought down wages, raised prices and cut back on social programs. Poverty, unemployment and homelessness were at an all-time high. Water supplies were low and disease was claiming many lives.
The general strike started September 20, when transport workers blocked streets and bus depots with rocks and tires. They went out on strike to protest hikes in vehicle taxes and fuel prices imposed by the president. The strike paralyzed activity as businesses and offices closed in all of Nicaragua's major cities. Many workers, without transportation, stayed home. Two days into the strike, Managua radio station La Primerisima called on the Sandinistas to "take charge of the government" and oust president Violeta Chamorro.
The second day of the strike was a tragic milestone. The strike had spread throughout the country. Facing a possible uprising, president Chamorro flew to Guatemala. In order to clear a passage for her expected return to the country that evening, police were ordered to disperse protesters on the highway leading to the airport and to demolish the barricades. In a televised offensive, police fired on protesters who responded with rifles and home-made mortars, two people were killed and five others received bullet wounds. Saul Alvarez, 37, deputy head of the police security branch, and Rosmelda Martinez, 41, a bystander who had just arrived from the Caribbean coast, both died of bullet wounds.
Sandinista leader and former president Daniel Ortega called for police to disobey their superiors when ordered to repress strikers and made a plea to the public for solidarity with "our companeros in the police force, who, risking their lives for $80 a month, are also victims. The police force is not our enemy," he pointed out (the dead police officer was in fact a long-standing Sandinista militant). "The repressive attitude of the government is our enemy; the government's economic policy is our enemy."
On September 24, transport workers and their supporters celebrated a historic victory. After 38 hours of continuous negotiations, the government finally conceded to the bulk of the strikers' demands, including the annulment of the vehicle ownership tax.

[A] 2002 - 30 prisoners die at La Vega prison in Dominican Republic after mattresses are set ablaze during riot set off by surprise weapons inspection.

2010 - Jose Antonio Labordeta Subias (b. 1935), Aragonese singer-songwriter, poet, novelist, one-time libertarian who later became a resolutely non-sectarian liberal socialist politician, dies. [see: Mar. 35]
1792 - The French National Convention votes to abolish the monarchy.

[D] 1797 - HMS Hermione Mutiny: Sailors on the British warship HMS Hermione mutiny against their sadistic captain, Hugh Pigot, killing him and most of his officers.

1862 - Henri Cler (d. 1910), French cabinet maker and anarchist, born. [expand]

1868 - The Second Congress of the Ligue de la Paix et de la Liberté is held in Berne (September 21-25). The meeting was marked by a series of heated debates on the "rapports de la question économique et sociale avec celle de la paix et de la liberté" (reports of the economic and social issue with that of peace and of freedom). The socialist minority, including Bakunin and Reclus, decide to leave the League and form the Alliance Internationale de la Démocratie Socialiste .

1881 - Ernst Frick (d. 1956), Swiss anarchist, artist, archaeologist and scholar of primitive languages, born.

1881 - Andrea Salsedo (d. 1920), Sicilian typographer and Galleanist anarchist, born. A committed anarchist since his youth, he soon became involved in local politics, and was part of anarchist club Circolo Sociale founded by Luigi Galleani. On November 11, 1900, he was tried for the subversive views that he had expressed in a letter published in the Messina newspaper 'L'Avvenire Sociale', but the charges against him were dismissed. He emigrated to New York City in 1910 and renewed contacts with his friend Galleani, supporting him in the creation and distribution of his magazine, 'Cronaca Sovversiva'. He was later included on a Justice Department of New York list of anarchists, which included Nicola Sacco, Bartolomeo Vanzetti, Roberto Elia and Luigi Galleani, who had fled to Mexico in order to avoid military service. He and the other Galleanists, considered to be dangerous and possible terrorists, were put under surveillance, and on February 25, 1920 Salsedo, was arrested whilst typesetting in the Canzani Printshop aand taken to the Justice Department's Bureau of Investigation (BOI) offices on Park Row. Considered as one of the writers of radical pamphlet 'Plain Words', Salsedo was brutally interrogated and denied his right to phone his lawyer and his family. Held incommunicado for 8 weeks, he was defenestrated from the 14th floor of the BOI on May 3. The Boston Herald reported that before he died, Salsedo had given up the names of "all terrorist plotters" and that he committed suicide but, given the length of time that he was tortured for, it is more likely that he was either thrown from the window by his interrogators a la Pinelli or, as Roberto Elia suggested, Salsedo killed himself for fear of betraying his fellow anarchists.

1885 - Ángel Falco (d. 1971), Uruguayan career soldier, diplomat, journalist, writer, poet, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist propagandist, born into a Quaker family.

1887 - Paul Schreyer (d. 1918), German anarchist who opposed the First World War, born. A member of the Hamburg Anarchist Federation, he was editor of its weekly paper 'Kampf' (1912-1914). At the outbreak of WWI, he escapes conscription and flees to Switzerland. In December 1914 his leaflet 'Die Sozialdemokratie und der Krieg' (Social Democracy and War) attacking the complicity of the Social Democrats with the war, is published in Copenhagen and distributed in Germany. The German government pressures the Swiss government who hand him over and he is thrown into jail for desertion. The appalling prison conditions ruin his health and he dies in the Spandau prison fortress possibly on 26 April 1918.

1902 - Toyen (Marie Čermínová;d. 1980), Czech-bron Surrealist painter, printmaker, illustrator, feminist and anarchist, born. A leading member of the inter-war Czech avant-garde, an innovator in painting techniques and pioneering woman artist who broke many taboos including the artistic representation of female sexuality. An anarchist from an early age, Toyen constantly sought to undermine gender roles: cross-dressing, adopting a gender-neutral name and always referring to herself in the masculine case, as well as maintaining a vehemently anti-bourgeois attitude.
She met and fell in love with fellow painter, photographer and poet, Jindřich Štyrský in 1922 and they worked closely together until his death in 1942. They joined the Czech avant-garde Devětsil 'proletarian art' group in 1923, painting in a Cubist-influenced style and co-designing book covers for some of the most prominent Czech authors. In the autumn of 1925 Toyen and Štyrský left for Paris, spending three years there and inventing their own fusion of Abstraction and Surrealism, dubbed Artificialism. After returning to Prague, they established a fashion studio where they experimented with techniques including spray-painting textiles.
Her art had a strong erotic content and she contributed a number of sketches for Štyrský's 'Erotika Revue' (1930-33) and contributed to his 6 volume series of erotic literature and illustration 'Edice 69' (Edition 69), founded in 1931. A member of the Spolku Výtvarných Umělců Mánes (the Association of Fine Artists) and associate member of the Surrealist group around André Breton and Paul Eluard, she and Štyrský also became founding members of the Skupiny Surrealistů v ČSR (Czech Surrealist Group) in Prague in 1934. In 1935, Andre Breton and the poet Paul Eluard came to Prague and began a lifelong friendship with Toyen.
She and Štyrský were forced underground during the Nazi occupation and Second World War, during which Štyrský was to die of a long-term heart condition. Whilst in hiding, she continued her artistic endeavours and also hid fellow Surrealist poet and Jew Jindřich Heisler, who would become her second artistic partner and with whom she fled to Paris before the Communist takeover of Czechoslovakia in 1948. Back in Paris, she worked until the end of her life with Breton and the French poet Benjamin Peret.

1915 - Jacinto Pérez Merino aka 'Pinilla' (d. 2007), Basque metalworker, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, and anti-Francoist and Résistance fighter, born. [expand]

[F] 1919 - The 'New York Times' runs an article entitled 'A Nation Strike-Ridden', which lists 121 walkouts and 53 threatened strikes across the United States.

1920 - The Federación Estudiantes Universidad de Chile headquarters in Santiago is broken into and set on fire. The militant student organisation, which in that period had a strong anarchist and Marxist presence as well as strong links with the radical labour movement, is a victim of that year's widespread and brutal repression for the workers' movement.

[B] 1921 - Lev Chernyi (Лев Чёрный) psuedonym of Pavel Dmitrievich Turchaninov (Павел Дмитриевич Турчанинов; b. c. 1878), Russian anarchist theorist, activist and poet, is shot by the Cheka. As head of the Black Guard, an anarchist workers' militia, he served in the so-called Third Russian Revolution resistance against the Bolsheviks.

1923 - September Antifascist Uprising [Септемврийско антифашистко въстание]: The Military Revolutionary Committee of the BCP in Sofia, the headquarters of the uprising, is arrested en masse.

1923 - Mollie Steimer and Senya Fleshin join Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman in Berlin following their deportation from Russia, where they were imprisoned for anarchist activities.

1926 - Flavio Costantini (d. 2013), Italian anarchist and graphic artist who chronicled the movement's history in a series of striking images, born.

1936 - "One group of people really get on my nerves, it is the volunteers who have come as observers (French for the most part). They come here with the airs of priests and got up like cowboys to spend half the time in cafes." - Camillo Berneri quoted today.

1937 - In Barcelona, ​​the Republican government under orders from the Communist, having already disarmed the workers' militias, sends its police against the local CNT (La Casa de los Escolapios de San Antonio) which has been the seat of the Comité de Defensa del Centro of the CNT July 36 to May 37, and from the administrative headquarters of the Sindicato de Alimentación. In the building were arms stored to protect the union and to cope with a possible Communist putsch. FIJL youths guarding the building attempted to stop the search and a gunfight quickly broke out, bringing reinforcements from both sides including tanks and artillery. Juan José Domenech and Juan Garcia Oliver step in to mediate and try and avoid further bloodshed, fearing a repeat of the May Days fighting. However, the discovery and seizure of the hidden arms provided the ideal excuse for the intensification of Stalinist repression against anarchists.

[E] 1960 - Masoumeh Ebtekar [معصومه ابتکار‎‎] (Niloufar Ebtekar), the first female Vice President of Iran and head of that country's Environmental Protection Organisation, who first came to notice as 'Mary', the spokesperson of the students who took hostages and occupied the US Embassy in 1979, born.

1962 - Camille Laberche (b. 1893), French ceramics worker, clerk, anarchist and trade union activist, dies. [see: Sep. 17]

[A] 1970 - Wimbledon Conservative Association firebombed. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1970 - Yannis Youlountas, Franco-Greek anarchist philosopher, poet and writer, born.

1970 - Publication of the 'Formation of the 'The Tendency for the Truth of our Practice'' by Jon Horelick and Tony Verlaan, Situationist International American section. They are excluded from the SI in late November.

1972 - Jean Lébédeff (Ivan Konstantinovich Lebedev; b. 1884), Russian-born French anarchist artist, Illustrator and printmaker, dies. [see: Nov. 25]

1976 - Marcos Orlando Letelier del Solar (b. 1932), Chilean economist, Socialist politician and diplomat during the presidency of Salvador Allende, is killed in Washington D.C., alongside his US assistant Ronni Moffitt, by a car bomb planted by CIA-backed agents of Pincohet's Dirección de Inteligencia Nacional.

[C] 1980 - At Woolwich Arsenal railway station, 60 skinheads, all members or supporters of the British Movement, attack a lone West Indian. They then attack a police officer who intervened. Seven of them were later found guilty of offences at the Old Bailey.

1986 - Slaget om Ryesgade [Battle of Ryesgade]: Demonstration in support of Ryesgade 58 held across the country.

1991 - 550 workers at the Frontier Hotel and Casino in Las Vegas go on strike over wages and benefits. The longest hotel strike in U.S. history lasted 6 years, 4 months, and 10 days and when it was over, the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals awarded the workers $3.5 million in back pay and pension credits.
1692 - A group of seven mostly older women – Mary Easty (or Eastey), Alice Parker, Mary Parker, Ann Pudeator, Wilmot Redd, and Margaret Scott – and one man, Samuel Wardwell, who had married an older widow, are the last people to be executed for witchcraft in American colonies in what came to be called the Salem Witch Trials.

[D] 1792 - A new calendar is adopted in revolutionary France, with ten-day weeks, three-week months, and 12-month years, all starting at Year One.

1839 - Tolpuddle Martyrs: James Hammett, recently returned, joins the others on stage at the Victoria Theatre (now the Old Vic), London.

1843 - Rebecca Riots: The Pen-y-pistyll tollgate on the North Road from Rhayader is attacked.

1880 - Heinrich Bartling (d. 1940), German locksmith, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. Alongside Willi Paul, he left the Kassel Spartakusbund, he helped found a local group of the anarchosyndicalist Free Workers' Union of Germany (FAUD) in 1920, and in which he became a member of the executive committee. . In 1925, Bartling was also active in the Kassel group of the Föderation Kommunistischer Anarchisten Deutschlands (FKAD). After the Nazi seixure of power and the repression against the Kassel FAUD, Bartling continued his activities thanks to a clandestine printing press hidden on his allotment. On September 1, 1939, he organised an anti-war action and was arrested on September 16 and placed in "protective custody" as prisoner number 002 493 in house block 25 in Sachsenhausen concentration camp. He did not survive the brutal treatment and appalling conditions there for long and on January 30, 1940, he died there.

1892 - Kléber Hoche Bernard (d. unknown), French tailor, anarcho-naturist and member of the illegalist Bonnot gang, born. Arrested for his involved in the theft of weapons on the night of January 9-10 1912 in Paris, in prison, he unsuccessfully tried to commit suicide "Parce que j'abhorre la prison. Le régime du prisonnier m'est odieux. J'aimerais mieux être condamné à mort qu'à six mois de prison." (Because I loathe prison. The regime of the prisoner is odious to me. I would rather be sentenced to death than spend six months in prison.) On February 27, 1912 , along with other surviving members of the Bande de Bonnot, he is accused of concealing stolen weapons, complicity in weapons theft and conspiracy and the following day sentenced to six years in prison and five years of banishment.

1894 - The Italian government of Francesco Crispi, enacts the dissolution of all anarchist, socialist and workers' associations.

1912 - Jean Bonafous (b. 1887), French anarchist militant active in the Comité de Défense Sociale, dies. [expand]

1912 - The anarcho-syndicalist Casa del Obrero Mundial (COM; House of the World Worker) is established despite harassment from the Madero regime.

1912 - Today and tomorrow Franz Kafka writes his short story 'Das Urteil' (The Judgment).

1914 - Revolución Méxicana: Pancho Villa refuses to acknowledge Venustiano Carranza as president. Alvaro Obregon agrees to go to the field to destroy the army of Villa.

1916 - Miguel Jiménez Rodriguez, Spanish chemist, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-Francoist activist, born. In May 1935, he joined the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT) and the Juventudes Libertarias. At the outbreak of the civil war, he fought with the XIII Brigada Internacional until he was wounded in Pozoblanco (Córdoba, Andalusia, Spain). Hospitalised in Barcelona and Mollà, where he remained an active militant. He later lent his support to the CNT in Albacete until the end of the war. With Franco's victory, he hid out in a farmhouse in his hometown and remained safe because of his having saved the life of an apothecary in Motril in 1937. In the early 1940s, he earned a living teaching science and also worked on the clandestine manufacture of soap. In 1943, he moved to Barcelona and continued his clandestine soap manufacturing activities, as well as joining the Juventudes Libertarias and the Sindicato de Artes Gráficas of the CNT. In 1946, he and José Luis Facerías were jointly appointed secretary of Propaganda of the Comité Regional de Cataluña of the CNT and the proceeds of his soap project financed the printing of the periodical 'Ruta', which he directed and wrote for under the pseudonym Cherimoya. In December 1946 he was arrested and imprisoned in Barcelona's Modelo prison, where he was responsible for the underground newsletters 'Esfuerzo' and 'Acarus Sciaberi'. Later, with Liberto Sarrau, Raul Carballeira and Joaquina Dorado, he formed the 3 de Mayo anarchist group.

1916 - Cipriano Damiano Gonzalez (d. 1986), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist and member of the anti-Franco underground resistance, born. Member of the CNT and Iberian Federation of Libertarian Youth (FIJL). Following the defeat of the Republic, he was arrested and spent time in the concentration camps of Los Almendros and Albatera, the Porta Coeli prison in Valencia and the Gardeny Lleida castle. He eventually managed to assume a false identity and help the guerrillas, later joining the Comitè Nacional de Manuel Vallejo (as Deputy Secretary) and going underground himself. He was arrest on June 6, 1953 in Madrid. was sentenced to 15 years in martial held in Madrid on February 5 1954, who served in Carabanchel and Guadalajara prisons.

[C] 1918 - Hans Fritz Scholl (d. 1943), founding member of the Weiße Rose (White Rose) resistance movement in Nazi Germany, born. Co-author of six anti-Nazi Third Reich political resistance leaflets calling for passive resist against the Nazis. Hans and his sister Sophie were spotted throwing leaflets from the atrium at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität in Munich on February 18, 1943. They were arrested by the Gestapo and, with Christopher Probst, tried for treason. Found guilty and condemned to death on February 22, Hans and Sophie Scholl and Christopher Probst were beheaded in Munich's Stadelheim Prison within hours of the court decision.

[DD] 1923 - September Antifascist Uprising [Септемврийско антифашистко въстание]: The Revolutionary Committee, composed of Georgi Dimitrov, Vasil Kolarov and Gavril Genov, announces the uprising, despite opposition by the supporters of legal activity. The plan involves a mass uprising around Vratsa followed by the formation of an organised militia which would capture the capital Sofia.
In response, Aleksandar Tsankov's government, which does not enjoy wide popular support and has to rely on the army, declares martial law and mobilises sizeable forces to suppress the uprising. Groups of volunteers organised in Shpitskomandi (paramilitary formations) also fight against the rebels. Despite the government mobilisation, the uprising breaks out over night.

1931 - Industrial Unrest in Second Republic: In Corral de Almaguer, Toledo, and surrounding towns, the Communists seize power. The fighting leaves 6 dead and 40 wounded.
In Madrid the publication of the newspaper 'La Correspondencia Militar' is suspended indefinitly by government decreed.

[CC/E] 1943 - Operation Blow-up*: At 1:20am a time bomb placed in the Minsk apartment of Generalkommissar Wilhelm Kube, SS Gauleiter for Weissruthenien (Belarus), explodes, killing him. A senior official in the occupying government of the Soviet Union, he was also an important figure in the German Christian movement during the early years of Nazi rule. The bomb had been hidden in the mattress of Kube's bed by Soviet partisan
Yelena Grigórievna Mazanik (Елена Григорьевна Мазаник; 1914 - 1996), a Belarusian woman who had managed to find employment in his household as a maid in order to assassinate him. In retaliation for Kunbe's assassination, the SS killed more than 1,000 male citizens of Minsk. After the war, Yelena Mazanik and 2 other women involved in the operation, Maria Osipova and Nadezhda Troyan, were honoured with the title of Hero of the Soviet Union.
[*операции Возмездие in Russian - more accurately translated as Operation Retribution or Operation Nemesis]

1945 - A Vietminh-led anti-French General Strike shuts down Saigon.

[AA] 1967 - Charles Radcliffe of the Situationist International's English section is charged in London with counterfeiting; he has in fact been printing and distributing an anti-Vietnam War tract on a facsimile of a US Dollar. [Turns out not to be exact date!]

1973 - Salvador Puig Antich arrested in Spain. A young anarchist militant in the guerilla MIL (Iberian Liberation Movement) fighting the yoke of Francoism, he had slipped back into the country in 1972. Despite international protests, Antich is executed March 2, 1974. Extensive militant reaction to Spanish government targets follows throughout British, Irish and European cities.

[F] 1978 - Winter of Discontent: 15,000 Ford workers, mostly from the Transport and General Workers Union (TGWU), began an unofficial strike on 22 September, which subsequently became an official TGWU action on 5 October. The number of participants grew to 57,000.

[B] 1979 - Roberto Saviano, radical Italian journalist, writer and essayist, born. Saviano claims to be influenced by Errico Malatesta and Mikhail Bakunin, as well as the Italian anti-fascist politician Giustino Fortunato and Gaetano Salvemini, although he had regularly criticised those, like the 'Black Bloc', who use direct action politics and has publicly praised the State of Israel. Because of his anti-Maffia journalism he was placed under police protection in 2006, leaving Italy "for his own protection" 2 years later. Author of the non-fiction novel 'Gomorrah: Viaggio nell'Impero Economico e nel Sogno di Dominio della Camorra' (Gomorrah: Journey into the Economic Empire and the Dream of Domination of the Camorra; 2006) and co-creator of the TV programmes 'Vieni via con me' (Come away with me; 2010) and 'Quello che (non) ho' (What (not) I; 2012).

1985 - French state admits bombing the Rainbow Warrior, the Greenpeace ship which was moored in New Zealand waters.

1986 - Slaget om Ryesgade [Battle of Ryesgade] / Endagskrigen [One-Day War]: Against the backdrop of the demonstrations in support of Ryesgade 58 that had been held across the country the previous day, the squatters' representatives finally declare the negotiations with the municipality pointless after all the suggested compromises had been rejected by the city council, and not to mention the amassing of police drafted in from across the country ready to storm the squat and evict its residents (something that the police menacingly warned might result in serious injuries or deaths), the BZers decide to leave the building on their own terms. In the words of their press release: "There was only one solution, and they have rejected it. We will not be pawns in their game and be slowly suffocated. Our struggle continues. We decide when we will fight. Although we have lost a house, the support [we have been] given and the resistance [shown] have been a victory."
Having announced that a press conference would take place at 21:00, the residents took the opportunity to quietly evacuate the building in small groups with the aim of not alerting the besieging forces of their intentions. So, when the police eventually turned up to clear the squat they found, much to their surprise, that the building was empty.

1987 - Benito Milla Navarro (b. 1916), Spanish militant anarchist propaganist, editor and anti-fascist combatant, dies. [see: Sep. 6]

[A] 1999 - Harry Stanley, 46, a painter and decorator, is shot dead in the street by armed police because they claim that they believe that the table leg he was carrying was a sawn-off shotgun that he was about to fire.

2003 - Gilles Durou (b. 1954), French anarchist, anti-militarist, feminist and environmentalist, dies. [expand]

2008 - Teofilo Navarro Fadrique aka 'Negro', 'Le Vieux'and 'Zapatero' (b. 1915), Spanish shoemaker, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and member of the anti-Franco resistance, dies. [see: Feb. 6]
1843 - Rebecca Riots: An attack on Hendy Toll house results in information being laid against John Jones and David Davies. On December 27, 1843 they and 39 of their followers were tried at Carmarthen Assizes. John Jones was sentence to Transportation for life, David Davies to 20 years transportation. Both laughed as they left the dock but very shortly afterward they both confessed and informed on others.

1868 - Puerto Rican uprising against imposed Spanish rule.

[B] 1871 - František Kupka (d. 1957), Czech Abstract painter, anarchist, satirist, book and magazine illustrator, born. [expand]

1878 - Karl Eduard Nobiling (b. 1848), German Doctor of Philosophy, supporter of propaganda by deed, who on June 5 1878 tries unsuccessfully to kill the German Kaiser Wilhelm I, dies in his prison cell. [see: Apr. 10]

1887 - Alternative d.o.b. for Salvador Segui Rubinat, aka 'El Noi del Sucre' (The Sugar Boy)(d. 1923), anarcho-syndicalist in the Catalonian CNT. [see: Dec. 23]

1880 - Gaston Couté (d. 1911), French anarchist poet and songwriter, born. [expand]

1890 - "45 year old Florentine Lombard passed away today from heart disease. She was an anarchist, English by nationality. And had settled in Naples. During the cholera epidemic of 1884 she served as a volunteer nurse with the Red Cross. She spent her life close to the poor, going without in order to do so. On the 1st of May last she was arrested in the Canalone district… " [quote from unknown Italian neswpaper article]

[E] 1893* - Llibertat Ródenas Domínguez (d. 1970), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist and anarcha-feminist member of the Mujeres Libres, who fought with the Durruti Column, born. The youngest of three children – her brothers were named Volney^ and Progreso – she was a product of a 'free union' between Custodio Ródenas, a Voltarian free thinker, who had spent time in Paris and had abandoned Christianity to become an anti-clerical liberal republican, and Emeteria Domínguez. Llibertad spent five year in a lay school, but had to give up on a formal education, though she would later study photography, whilst continuing to self-educate by avidly devouring books. She was also employed as a carer for a sick girl and learnt dressmaking. That era was characterised by mass political-social agitation against the monarchist regime and against the prime minister Cánovas del Castillo. By this time, Libertad had already began to frequent political meetings and actions and quickly became involved with the Socialists, all the time honing her talent for exposition and oratory, taking part in various meetings and conferences, whilst progressively adopting anarchist ideas.
In 1918, she moved with her family to Barcelona, ​​where as a member of the Sindicat del Tèxtil she took part in the Congreso de la Confederación Regional de la Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT) of Sants. Later she participated in organised propaganda tours to publicise and explain the important agreements of that congress and also to help set up unions in new locales. During one of these tours, in Valls in 1920, she met the anarcho-syndicalist Josep Viadiu, who would later become her partner. Her Barcelona home became a meeting and centre of refuge for those persecuted by the authorities; it also served as a cache for weapons that would be used in defence against the attacks of the pistoleros of the Sindicat Lliure (Free Trade Union), the paid thugs employed by the bosses who operated in conjunction with the repressive apparatus of the State against the CNT. Volney and a cousin, Armando, were detained and one night they were subjected to the ley de fugas, the so-called 'law of escape' where detainees were shot whilst supposedly trying to escape: Armando died from his would days later whilst Volney managed to escape to safety and went into hiding. In a separate shooting, her brother Progreso (like Volney and Libertad, also a member of the grupos de defensa) was also wounded. On December 13, 1920, following the killing of a police inspector named Espejo, she was arrested and taken to the police station where, in the presence of the head of police in Barcelona Miguel Arlegui y Bayonés, she rejected an attempt to bribe her to reject her militancy, which cost her three months in prison. Once released, she and fellow anarchist Rosario Dulcet traveled to Madrid, where they spoke at the Ateneo Cientifico and other public meetings, denouncing the terror being carried out in Catalonia by the bosses and their pistoleros against the workers. On November 11, 1921, she held another noted talk at the Ateneo de Madrid entitled 'La situació actual de la dona' (The current situation of women). She continued to make propaganda tours around the peninsula, often involved arrest, and she was detained along with Joan Peiró following a talk in Guadalajara. She took part in the Brises Llibertàries group in Sants along with Rosario Segarra, and later with Rosario Dulcet, Miralles, García and others. She also participated in the Barcelona prisoner support committees and a number of escapees from Tarrasa prison took refuge in her home during the presidency of Eduardo Dato e Iradier. She also took part in the November 1922 meeting held at the Palau d'Arts Modernes in Montjuïc at which the CNT affirmed its adherence to revolutionary syndicalism.
Having begun her relationship with Viadiu, she dropped out of revolutionary activities to bring up and educate her three children until 1930, when she resumed her speaking engagements at numerous meetings, becoming involved in the Federación Anarquista Ibérica and playing a significant role in promoting the membership of women within the CNT – the liberal republican lawyer and journalist Ángel Samblancat y Salanova called her the "palida vestal del sindicalismo rojo" (the pale vestal of red trade unionism).
In July 1936, she left with the Columna Durruti for the Aragon front, where as a miliciana she took part in the conquest of Pina de Ebro. Under the instigation of Durruti, she helped organise the evacuation of Aragonese children evacuated from the war fronts to Barcelona. At the beginning of 1937 and following the militarisation of the militias and the accompanying banning of women from the columns, she became an active member of Mujeres Libres when it applied for membership of the FAI, contributing to its paper and participating in the literacy campaigns of the Casa de la Mujer Trabajadora in Barcelona. She also participated in the Solidaridad Internacional Antifascista evacuation of children from besieged Madrid.
With the collapse of the republican government and the Retirada, she was able to cross the French border, ending up in Bordeaux. There, together with Viadiu, Eusebio Carbo and his family, and José Peirats, she embarked for Santo Domingo, where the group set up an agricultural collective. Having survived a brush with death from either a spider's bite or a bout of malaria, she and Viadiu spent a short time in Havana before sailing for Mexico, disembarking at Veracruz on February 14, 1942. There they continued to be active in the CNT in exile.
One of the great tragedies of her life was her sending of her three children to the USSR for safety during the Civil War. Only the youngest, Ismael, managed to rejoin her in 1946 and she never heard from the other two children ever again. After her death it was discovered that the other two had died in 1941during the battle for Leningrad in 1941, after being inducted into the Soviet defence units.
Libertad Ródenas died on January 19, 1970 in Mexico.

[*some sources give her year of brith as 1891 or 1892.
^a contraction of Voltaire and Ferney (Voltaire's residence) after her father's philosophic 'teacher'. Volney is coincidentally also old German for "of the volk".]


[F] 1895 - The Confédération Générale du Travail (General Confederation of Labour) is formed in Limoges from the merger of the Fédération des Bourses du Travail (Federation of Labour Councils) and the Fédération Nationale des Syndicats (National Federation of Trade Unions). Up until 1919 the CGT was dominated by anarcho-syndicalist tendencies, with Émile Pouget being the vice-secretary and leader of the union from 1906 to 1909.

1897 - Paul Delvaux (d. 1994), Belgian painter, usually classed as a Surrealist though he was never a member of any Surrealist group, born. In fact, he had never heard of the Surrelaits until the Belgian Surrealist, and friend of Rene Magritte, E.L.T. Mesens was introduced to him in 1931.

[C] 1901 - Jaroslav Seifert (d. 1986), Czech poet, writer, journalist and translator, born. The only Czech "proletarian" poet of working class origins, he helped set up Umělecký Svaz Devětsil (Devětsil Artistic Federation), an initially anarchist avant-garde artists association, in 1920 and was a co-founder of Poetism. A youthful adherent to anarchism, he joined the initially non-Bolshevik Komunistické Strany Československa (KSČ) and went on the fight against Bolshevik tendencies within the party, signing the 'Proclamation of the Seven' in 1929. He was a regular contributor to left wing and communist journals and newspapers in the early 1920s including 'Červen' (June), 'Proletkult' (Proletarian Culture) and 'Rudé Právo' (Red Truth). Seifert's strong political inclinations, showing sympathy for the proletarian cause and for anarchism, were present in his first two, and arguably his best, poetry collections: 'Město v Slzách' (A City in Tears; 1921) and 'Samá Láska' (Nothing but Love; 1923).
His later collections 'Ruce Venušiny' (The Hands of Venus; 1936) and 'Jaro, s Bohem' (Spring, Goodbye; 1937) would address the problems of the rising tide of fascism in Europe. 'Zhasněte Světla' (Put Out the Lights; 1938), one of his most famous poems, also deals with fascism, expressly the Nazi threat hanging over Prague following the betrayal of Czechoslovakia at the Munich conference. Another poem, 'Vějíř Boženy Němcové' (1940), is a passionate protest against the Nazi occupation of Prague in the guise of a celebration of the 120th anniversary of Božena Němcová, considered the founder of modern Czech prose. These poems went some way to rehabilitating Seifert in the eyes of the Communist Party. His later collection 'Přilba z Hlíny' (Clay Helmet; 1945) celebrated the Prague uprising of 1945 against the Nazis and earned Seifert the stature as a Czech national poet.
Seifert was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1984.
"Mr. Seifert has never become a writer with a Party program. The state is there for the people and not vice versa. There is an element of anarchy in his philosophy of life - a protest against everything that cuts down life's possibilities and reduces human beings to cogs in some ideological machine or yokes them to the harness of some dogma." - Nobel Prize for Literature 1984 announcement.

1911 - In Los Angeles, the Junta Organizadora of the Liberal Party publishes a new manifesto aims in the pages of 'Regeneración'. Under the title 'Tierra y Libertad', its expressly anarchist principals, which would be echoed in Zapata's 'Plan de Ayala' on November 28th, were intended to differentiate the PLM from the Maderists: "All others are offering you political liberty when they have triumphed. We Liberals invite you to take immediate possession of the land, the machinery, the means of transportation and the buildings, without expecting anyone to give them to you and without waiting for any law to decree it."

[D] 1913 - Ohrid–Debar Uprising [Охридско-Дебърско въстание (Bul) / Охридско-Дебaрско вoстание (Mkd) / Kryengritja e Dibër-Ohrit (Alb)]: An Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation ( Вътрешната македоно-одринска революционна организация въстание) organised uprising of the Bulgarians, Macedonians and Albanians against the new Serbian government breaks out in the western part of Vardar Macedonia. After a fortnight (Sep. 23 - Oct. 7, 1913) of fierce fighting, a Serbian army of 100,000 regulars suppressed the uprising. Thousands were killed, and tens of thousands of local inhabitants fled for Bulgaria and Albania to save their lives.

1913 - Southern Colorado Coalfield Strike: A general strike breaks out amongst the United Mine Workers of America organised Southern Colorado coal field workers. [expand]

[FF] 1916 - Sydney Twelve: Twelve members of the Industrial Workers of the World are arrested in Sydney and charged with treason under the Treason Felony Act (1848) – the charge was later changed to conspiracies relating to arson, perverting the course of justice and sedition. The Twelve were: John Hamilton, Peter Larkin, Joseph Fagin, William Teen, Donald Grant, Benjamin King, Thomas Glynn, Donald McPherson, Thomas Moore, Charles Reeve, William Beattie and Bob Besant. The timing of the arrests, during the campaign over the conscription plebiscite scheduled for October 28, led many in the Australian labour movement to believe that the men were being framed for their strong anti-war views and their opposition to conscription during WWI. Later that year, the Labor Prime Minister (and later Nationalist) Billy Hughes forced the Unlawful Associations Act (1916) through Federal Parliament in five days during December 1916, then had the IWW declared an unlawful association.

[EEE] 1919 - The presumed date* of the execution by hanging of the Ukrainian anarchist partisan Maria Grigorevna Nikiforova [Марія Григорівна Никифорова (uk) / Мария Григорьевна Никифорова (ru)] or Nykyforovna [Никифоровна / Никифорова] aka Marusya, then known as Maria Bzhosteka [Марія Бжостек / Мария Бжостек], Ukrainian anarcho-communist, public speaker and revolutionary fighter, who led a Black Guard (Чорна гвардія [uk] / Чёрная Гвардия [ru]) detachments in the Ukraine during the Russian revolution. [see: Sep. 16 + 24]
[* The Kiev newspaper 'Kievskaya Life' (Киевская жизнь) of September 11 (24), 1919, under the headline 'In Liberated Russia' (У звільненій Росії) it announced the headline 'Execution M. Nikifirovoy' (Страта М. Нікіфіровой): "In Sevastopol, the sentence of a court-martial, the execution of Mary Nikoforova (Mary Brzhostska) the leader of a group "anarchists-communists" that carried out bloody shootings and killings. The indictment alleged that she participated in such massacres: in Rostov, Odessa, in the capture of the city Petlyura, Melitopol and other places. Nikiforov remained defiant in court and, after reading the sentence, started to berate the judges. She burst into tears only upon parting with her husband. Her husband, the Polish anarcho-communist Witold Brzhostek (Witold Bżestoka), who was accused of concealing her, was shot."]

1920 - Possible date of the death of Ludovico Giardino Nabruzzi (b. 1846), Italian anarchist lawyer, known as 'Rubicone Nabruzzi' or 'Rubicone'. [see: Oct. 12 & Jun. 27]

1923 - September Antifascist Uprising [Септемврийско антифашистко въстание]: The rebellion, which began overnight, see the seizure of Ferdinand (Фердинанд), now Montana (Монтана), where the Main Military Revolutionary Committee is located. The government response by dispatching military units from Shumen (Шумен) to the Vratsa (Враца) district.
The uprising is particularly strong in northwestern Bulgaria, where in several districts, power passed to worker-peasant committees, which along with communists included members of the Bulgarian Agrarian People’s Union (Bǎlgarski Zemedelski Naroden Sǎjuz). The uprising also spread to other regions, primarily southern Bulgaria. Detachments of insurgents fought stubbornly with government troops and captured district capitals and railway stations. The uprising lasted until September 29, except in Stara Zagora, where it had begun earlier on the night of September 20 and was quickly suppressed by government forces over the following two days.
The Tsankov government dealt brutally with the insurgents: more than 20,000 were killed or tortured. The uprising was a turning point in the bolshevisation of the Bulgarian Communist Party, and it had a considerable impact on the political and social development of the country as a whole, especially in clearing the way for the establishment of fascism as a powerful force there.
It should also be noted that part of the post-bolshevisation are the stories of units of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешна Македонска Революционна Организация) having taken part in the post-uprisng massacres against the civilian population, as well as insurgents from the BCP and BAPU. Much larger and better armed that the BCP, the IMRO had been in regular conflict with the BCP [it was a broad organisation and had some more right wing, ultra-nationalist elements in it ranks], but had agreed a truce and support of the September uprising, and there is little evidence of such atrocities being carried out by the IMRO. In fact, the following year the Comitern and Soviet Union was engaged in attempts to collaborate directly with the IMRO in order to destabilise the Bulkan monarchies, whilst of course piggy-backing an expansion of the BCP on the backs of the much larger revolutionary organisation, something that it would successfully repeat time again across the globe.

1935 - Hilja Pärssinen (Hilja Lindgren; b. 1876), Finnish teacher, journalist, militant feminist, Social Democrat (Suomen Sosialidemokraattinen Puolue) MP, writer and Suomen Sosialidemokraattisen Työläisnaisliiton (Finnish Social Democratic Workers' Union) Chairwoman, dies. [see: Jul. 13]

1936 - Emma Goldman gives a talk on the CNT-FAI radio station 'ECN 1' in Barcelona entitled 'My first impressions of the Spanish Revolution' (Les meves primeres impressions sobre la Revolució Espanyola).

1936 - Robert Capa’s seminal photograph 'The Falling Soldier', which captures the moment of death of 24-year-old anarchist Federico Borrell, appears in 'Vu' as part of a photo essay on the Alcoy local militia at Cerro Muriano during the Spanish Revolution.

1941* - Delfín Lévano (Delfín Amador Lévano Gómez; b. 1885), Peruvian anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, journalist and baker worker, as well as a poet, clarinetist and lecturer, dies in a poorhouse in the Barrios Altos in Lima. [see: Nov. 9]
[* some sources mention Nov. 4]

1942 - Margarete Hilferding (Margarete Hönigsberg; b. 1871), Austrian Jewish teacher, doctor, individual psychologist, socialist and feminist advocate of birth control and the liberalisation of abortion provision, dies on the transport between Theresienstadt concentration camp and Maly Trostenets extermination camp. [see: Jun. 20]

1944 - Janina Trojanowska-Zborowska, aka 'Jasia', 'Nina' (b. 1923), Polish fighter in the Armia Krajowa (Home Army), who took part in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, is executed by the Gestapo after she and her husband Jerzy were captured by the Germans. [see: Oct. 4]

1950 - Hanon Reznikov (born Howard Reznick; d. 2008), American anarchist, theatre and film actor, writer and co-director of The Living Theatre in New York City (with Judith Malina) following Julian Beck's death in 1985, born.

1963 - Margarethe Faas-Hardegger (d. 1882), Swiss anarchist, syndicalist, feminist, anti-fascist and peace militant, who preached and practised free love, and established an anarchist-communist agricultural community at Minusio, dies. [see: Feb. 20]

1970 - Brandeis University students and National Student Strike Force members Katherine Ann Power, Susan Edith Saxe and Stanley Ray Bond, an ex-convict and soldier attending classes at the university on a special program, plus two other former convicts, William Gilday and Robert Valeri, rob a bank in Brighton, Massachusetts, carrying handguns, a shotgun and a submachine gun. The first cop on the scene, Boston police officer Walter Schroeder, is shot in the back by Gilday as he attempts to stop the robbery and subsequently dies from his wounds. The group escape with $26,000 in cash. Bond, Gilday and Valeri are arrested shortly after but the two wome go on the run and in November 1970, they became the sixteenth and seventeenth persons on the FBI's Most Wanted Fugitives list. [see: Jan 18 + Jan. 25]

1973 - A.S. (Alexander Sutherland) Neill (b. 1883), Scottish anti-authoritarian educator, author and founder of Summerhill school, dies. [see: Oct. 17]

1973 - Pablo Neruda (Neftali Ricardo Reyes Basoalto; b. 1904), Chilean poet, youthful anarchist, then a communist and subsequently socialist diplomat and politician, dies. [see: Jul. 12]

[A] 1978 - In a protest against the development of maximum security prisons in Italy, inmates break down the walls dividing their cells at the Asinara prison in northern Sardinia.

1978 - Juan Ferrer Garcia (b. ca. 1914), Catalan anarcho-syndicalist, dies during the night (Sep. 22-23). Whilst doing his military service in Mahon, Minorca, his unit was transfered to Barcelona where he enlisted in the militia, fighting on the Aragon front. Exiled in France during the Retirada, during the German occupation in 1942, he participated in the illegal reconstruction of the MLE in the Puy-de-Dôme.

1997 - Shirley Clarke (b 1919), American independent filmmaker, who studied under Hans Richter, dies. [see: Oct. 2]

2004 - Antifa members are involved in a confrontation with David King, a former British National Party treasurer, and his security entourage in Basildon, Essex.

2005 - FBI murders Puerto Rican independence leader Filiberto Ojeda Rios, firing 120 bullets into his house and leaving him to bleed to death.

2006 - Brussels Riots: Seven days (Sep. 23-29) of rioting are sparked by the death in custody of a local man of Moroccan origin, Fayçal Chaaban.

2014 - Ferguson, Missouri: In the early hours a memorial to Michael Brown on Canfield Drive burns to the ground. Protesters gather at the site, and later in the day Ferguson police chief Thomas Jackson releases a video apology to the Brown family about the shooting of their son and the time it took to remove his body from the street.
That evening, several hundreds of protesters gathered in front of the police headquarters asking for Jackson's resignation Protected by 50 police officers Jackson joined the protest and started to explain that changes were underway after Brown's killing, creating some agitation in the crowd. Within minutes the cops had to intervene to protect their boss. Several protesters were arrested and later the protest was declared unlawful.

2014 - Antònia Fontanillas Borràs (b. 1917), Catalan militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-Francoist fighter, dies. [see: May 29]
1860 - Ana Aurora do Amaral Lisboa (d. 1952), Brazilian educator, poet, writer, playwright, and libertarian and feminist activist, born.

1866 - Thomas H. Keell (d. 1938), British anarchist and one-time editor of 'Freedom', born.

1870 - Josef 'Sepp' Oerter (d. 1928), German bookbinder and anarchist, born. [expand]

1876 - In one of series of monster trials (Bologna , Perguia, Leghorn, Massa Carrara, etc), the trial of 33 Umbrian anarchists and internationalists, held in Perguia, ends.

1881 - I Congreso de la FTRE: A Congreso Obrero (workers' congress) is held in the Teatro Circo de Barcelona [Sep. 24-25] at which the Federación de Trabajadores de la Región Española is established based on the 'Manifiesto a los trabajadores de la Región Española' approved by the congress, which reaffimed the movement's principles of 'anti-politicismo' and 'anarchocollectivismo'. [expand]

1882 - II Congreso de la FTRE [Second Congress of the FTRE]: At the Congreso de Sevilla [Sep. 24-26] the anarcocolectivistas and 'legalistas', headed by the Catalan Josep Llunas — who was elected to the Comisión Federal — and the Galician Ricardo Mella, faced the anarcocomunistas and insurreccionalistas, headed by the Andalusian Miguel Rubio for the first time. Much of the debate during the congress focused on maintaining the Federation in legality, with the Catalan trade unionists wanted it to be a public leagal work focused movement whilst others, especially many Andalusians wanted to maintain its secret and revolutionary character with a focus on propaganda by deed. The former won the day and shortly afterwards the illegalists left to form a new federation under the name Los Desheredados (The Disinherited).

1886 - Paul Lafargue, Jules Guesde and Dr. Paul Susini, who had also been convicted on August 12 in absentia for their part in the June 3 meeting at the Chateau d’Eau Theatre in Paris in support of the striking Decazeville miners, have their convictions overturned on appeal. Louise Michel refused to do so and remained in prison, much to the embarrassment of the Government is very embarrassed. Michel was eventually released with the benefit of remission in November 1886.

1893 - The Catalan anarchist Paulí Pallàs i Latorre [Paulino Pallás Latorre] throws two Orsini bombs at the notorious Commander General (military governor) of Catalonia, General Arsenio Martínez Campos, during the Corpus Christi parade in the Gran Via in Barcelona. A guardia civil is killed, hit by a bomb, but the general is only slightly injured with shrapnel wounds to one of his legs (the horse he was riding took the full weight of the blast and was killed outright). In the confusion, eight others also died, either trampled by horses or shot by the gardia civil. Having thrown his hat in the air and shouted "Long live anarchy", Pallás put up no resistance as he was arrest. He would later claim that he had targeted Campos because of his persecution of anarchists across Catalonia and in revenge for the executions and mass imprisonment of anarchists and workers during the repression and trials that followed the Sucesos de Jerez de la Frontera (Xérès) in January 1892.
His court martial was held five days after the attack, at which he claimed that he had acted alone though the bombs that he used had been supplied by an Italian anarchist, Francesco Momo, who had died earlier that year on March 13 when one of his bombs had occidentally detonated. Pallás was condemned to death and shot in the northwest ditch of Montjuïc on October 6, 1893 with cries of Long live the social revolution! Long live anarchy! ". When reading the death sentence before the investigating judge, he refused to kneel, refused any intervention by a representative of the church and told his children, who had been allowed to see him: "If one day you hear that I am dead criminal, saying that it is a lie and I died for my family and for the needy." He also promised that the "vengeance will be terrible" for the execution of his and his fellow anarchists' executions. A month later, on November 7, Santiago Salvador Franch threw two bombs into the crowd in the Teatre Liceu, to avenge Pallas' death. Twenty people were killed and many more injured.
Amongst the hundreds arrested in the repression that followed the attempt on Campos were a number of Pallás' fellow workers Manuel Ars i Solanellas, Mariano Cerezuela i Subia, Josep Bernat i Sirerol and Martí Borràs i Jover, who were tried and condemned to death as his supposed accomplices in the Campos attentat. Borràs i Jover committed suicide in his Modelo prison cell on May 9, 1894, but the other three were executed on May 21, 1894 at Montjuïc prison. Executed along side them were three fellow anarchists, Josep Codina i Juncà, Josep Sàbat i Ollé and Jaume Sogas i Martí, who had been sentenced to death in connection with the Teatre Liceu attentat. The author of the Liceu attack, Santiago Salvador Franch, was executed by garrote vil in the plaza de los Cordeleros in Barcelona on November 21, 1894.

1897 - Fosca Corsinovi, aka Marie Thérèse Noblino & Fosca Barbieri (d. 1972), Italian anarchist, who volunteered in the Spanish Civil War as a nurse with the CNT-FAI, born. In late 1923, she and her daughter joined her partner and father of her child, Dario Castellani (1894-1969), a Unione Anarchica Florentina member who had participated in the struggles of the red biennium and the insurrection of Florence of 1921 and had since been exiled in France, in Marseille. Following Castellani's expulsion from France, Fosca, who had now separated from him, moved to Toulon and later settled in Grenoble, where she worked in the library of Ettore Carrozza. Attempts to expel her were abandoned following the efforts of a support campaign conducted by Italian anarchists in the area. In 1934, she met the Italian anarchist Francesco Barbieri (1895-1937), who had been exiled in Argentina where he had been part of the group around Severino Di Giovanni. Arrested for a number of bank robberies, he had been deported back to Italy but had managed to escape to France on a false passport. After serving eight months in Toulon for the false passport, he moved to Geneva where Fosco was working with Italian refugees and earning a living as a cook in the refugee dining room in the Bureau du Travail.
At the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, like many other Italian anarchists, Fosca did not hesitate to join the revolution, travelling in late July 1936 to Barcelona with Barbieri where she volunteered as a nurse in the Federación Anarquista Ibérica (FAI) in the Italian Columna Rosselli on the Aragon front. In October 1936, at the initiative of Professor Oltremare and Dr. Fischer and at the request of the Swiss trade unions, she and five Swiss doctors from Bern surgical ambulance transferred to the Comitè Regional de Catalunya (Regional Committee of Catalonia) of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo and the Comité Peninsular of the FAI to help injured anti-fascists.
On May 4, 1937, she and Tosca Tantini visited Camillo Berneri and Francesco Barbieri in detention. Two days later, on May 6, 1937, she was part of the group (Emilio Canzi, Vincenzo Mazzone Umberto Marzocchi) that identified Barbieri's body at the Hospital Clinic in Barcelona, killed by Stalinist police. Fosca remained in Barcelona after the death of her partner, becoming one of the main cheerleaders, along with Armand Schoffer (Armando Rodríguez), Eusebi Carbó Carbó and Enrico Zambonini, of the Colònia Infantil at Pins del Vallès (Sant Cugat del Vallès) in Catalonia, open in November 7, 1938 and financed by an internation subscription set up by the Italian-Amercian publication 'L'Adunata dei Refrattari'.
At the end of January, just a few hours before the entry of Franco's troops in Barcelona, she managed to cross into France under the name of Marie Thérèse Noblino, ​​but in October 1941 she was arrested, charged, tried and sentenced to three years in prison. her daughter Luce and Luce's partner Memo were given one years sentences. All three were taken to the prison in Aix-en-Provence and later interned in the Récébédou and Brens concentration camps. Luce remianed in France but Fosca was handed over by the Vichy regime to the Italian fascist authorities on October 15, 1942 and sentenced to five years confinement in the Isole Tremiti archipelago. In September 1943, she was released and managed to get to Florence, where she was reunited with Dario Castellani and later with her daughter. After the liberation of Florence, she actively participated in the reestablishmentn of the libertarian movement in the area. Fosca Corsinovi died on January 4, 1972.

[E] 1901 - Emma Goldman released from after the case linking her to the assassination of President McKinley is dropped due to the lack of evidence.

1905 - An unknown anarchist carries out a bomb attack on a train in Beijing carrying a ministerial delegation from the Chinese government. The bomber and three others are killed, and twenty wounded including Prince Tsai Ting-Fang Or, the Minister of Ways and Communications.

1907 - With Emma Goldman having travelled to Amsterdam in mid-August to attend the International Anarchist Congress on August 25-30, followed by an anti-militarist congress organised by Dutch pacifist anarchists and a talking tour of major European cities, in anticipation of her return the US Bureau of Immigration and Naturalisation directs the East Coast commissioners of immigration to fully verify Goldman's US citizenship before allowing her to cross the border.

1908 - Clara Thalmann (Clara Ensner; d. 1987), Swiss revolutionary and anarchist, who fought in the Spanish Revolution with the Columna Durruti and founded the Serena Commune in Nice in 1953 with her partner Pavel (Paul) Thalmann, born. [expand]

1910 - André Prevotel (d. 1958), French postal/telegraph service worker, anarchist and néo-Malthusian, born. Member in the early thirties of the Bordeaux anarchist group 'Sébastien Faure' and worked on the fortnightly 'La Révolte' of Aristide Lapeyre. At the end of March 1935, he was arrested along with his wife Andrée, Aristide Lapeyre and Louis Harel in the case of the stérilisés de Bordeaux aka the 'affaire Bartosek' and imprisoned at Fort du Hâ, all accused of having performed vasectomies on 15 men as assistants of Dr. Norbert Bartosek at the Prevotel's house (Bartosek took refuge in Belgium). After an intense campaign, he was released on bail July 6, 1935. At their trial on May 2, 1936, for "castration and violence" Bartosek was sentenced to 3 years in prison and the other defendants were sentenced to 6 months (Andrée spent 12 days in the Fort du Ha before being released after the charges against her were dismissed). Prevotel's sentence was reduced on appeal to four months (and Bartosek to one year).
In 1939, Andrée was arrested and held incommunicado for 50 days for "defeatist and incitement to military disobedience" (André had managed to avoidbeing called up) and spent the Occupation semi-clandestinitely. After the Liberation, based in Langon (Gironde), he helped reconstruct a section of Solidarité internationale antifasciste (SIA) and assumed the presidency of the local Libre Pensée group, which took the name 'André-Prevotel' at his death.

1914 - Maurice Bonneff (d. 1884), French proletarian writer, autodidact and anarchist fellow-traveller, dies in the trenches of WWI. [see: Dec. 28]

1918 - The Industrial Workers of the World are declared illegal in Canada.

[EEE] 1919 - The Kiev newspaper 'Kievskaya Life' (Киевская жизнь) carries the news of the execution of Ukrainian anarchist Maria Grigorevna Nikiforova [Марія Григорівна Никифорова (uk) / Мария Григорьевна Никифорова (ru)] aka Marusya, then known as Maria Bzhosteka [Марія Бжостек (uk) / Мария Бжостек (ru)]. Under the headline 'In Liberated Russia' (У звільненій Росії) it announced the headline 'Execution M. Nikifirovoy' (Страта М. Нікіфіровой): "In Sevastopol, the sentence of a court-martial, the execution of Mary Nikoforova (Mary Brzhostska) the leader of a group "anarchists-communists" that carried out bloody shootings and killings. The indictment alleged that she participated in such massacres: in Rostov, Odessa, in the capture of the city Petlyura, Melitopol and other places. Nikiforov remained defiant in court and, after reading the sentence, started to berate the judges. She burst into tears only upon parting with her husband. Her husband, Witold Brzhostek, who was accused of concealing her, was shot."
The same day, another Ukrainian newspaper, the 'Aleksandrovsk Telegraph' (the city was then under White control) crowed about her death: "One more pillar of anarchism has been broken, one more idol of blackness has crashed down from its pedestal... . Legends formed around this ‘tsaritsa of anarchism'. Several times she was wounded, several times her head was cut off but, like the legendary Hydra, she always grew a new one. She survived and turned up again, ready to spill more blood... . And if now in our uyezd (administrative district) the offspring of the Makhnovshchina, the remnants of this poisonous evil, are still trying to prevent the rebirth of normal society and are straining themselves to rebuild once more the bloody rule of Makhno, this latest blow means we are witnessing the funeral feast at the grave of the Makhnovshchina." [see: Sep. 16 + 23]

1920 - Inessa Fyodorovna Armand [Инесса Фёдоровна Арманд] (Elisabeth-Inès Stéphane d'Herbenville; b. 1874), French-Russian communist politician, member of the Bolsheviks and feminist who spent most of her life in Russia, dies of cholera. [see: May 8]

1923 - September Antifascist Uprising [Септемврийско антифашистко въстание]: Government troops arrive in the Vratsa (Враца) district by rail from Shumen (Шумен). With additional reinforcements, they begin the attack on Ferdinand (Фердинанд), now Montana (Монтана), and the surrounding villages seized by the rebels. On September 27 government troops are able to enter Ferdinand and the uprising is effectively over 2 days later.

[FF] 1928 - Ruhreisenstreit [Ruhr Iron Dispute]: The metalworkers' unions in the Rhineland-Westphalian iron industry, the socialist Deutsche Metallarbeiter-Verband (DMV), the Christian Metallarbeiterverband and the liberal Gewerkverein Deutscher Metallarbeiter, announce a collective demand of a wage increase of 15 Pfennig per hour for all workers aged over 21 years old to be agreed by the employers' association, the Nordwestgruppe of the Vereins deutscher Eisen- und Stahlindustrieller (Association of German Iron and Steel Industries) aka the Arbeit-Nordwest, by the end of September. In response, the Arbeit-Nordwest offered to extend the previous collective agreement for a year and to slightly improve 1% of their workers' incomes. Both sides then took part in the Reichsarbeitsgericht official conciliation procedure but to no avail, and on October 13 the employers' side announced that they would terminate all employment contracts and lock-out their employees on November 1.
On October 26, the state conciliator Wilhelm Joetten announced a 6 Pfennig increase in the hourly rate and 2 Pfennigs on the piecework rate. Five days later, the trade unions accepted the arbitration, despite their "serious doubts". The Arbeit-Nordwest refused to endorse it and locked out around 230,000 workers on November 1. On November 12, the Arbeit-Nordwest managed to pursuade the Duisburg Arbeitsgerichtes (Labour Court) to throw out the Joetten arbitration award and, as a result, the union side made a series of concessions. However, the employers' decision and ensuing behaviour had caused indignation in the Reichstag and the SPD and KPD now demanded state support for the locked-out workers. On November 17 the Reichstag decided by a large majority to support the sacked workers with public funds. With the locked-out workers now receiving state aid and the Duisburg court decision being overturned by the Landesarbeitsgerichtes (National Labour Court) in Düsseldorf on November 28 and, with the state now on their side, the unions withdrew their previous concessions. However, the employers, who had the support of the Verband Deutscher Arbeitgeberverbände (Federation of German Employers' Associations) and the Reichsverband der Deutschen Industrie (National Federation of German Industry) remained steadfast.
After separate discussion wth both sides, representatives of the Reichsregierung (government) announced on November 30 a new conciliation procedure to be conducted by the Social Democratic Minister of the Interior, Carl Severing. The employers quickly accepted the process, believing that it would fovour their side and come up with a lower offer than that of Joetten, a possibility that the socialist DMV very much feared. However, they could not risk rejecting the government's offer and reluctantly agreed on December 2, despite considerable resistance from within its own ranks.
The morning of the following day, the iron and iron-processing industries on the Ruhr re-opened their doors and the workers returned to work. On December 21, 1928, Severing delivered his decision: wages were increased by between one to six Phennigs and working time reduced from 60 to 57 or 52 hours, much worse than the orginal arbitration and a major blow to the unions. The Reichsarbeitsgericht ratified Severing's decision on January 22, 1929.

1929 - Russian writer Evgeny Zamiatin, author of the allegorical science fiction novel 'We: A Novel' (1924), 'The Islanders' (1918), 'A Soviet Heretic: Essays' (1955), and 'The Dragon: Fifteen Stories' (1966) "resigns" under threat of expulsion from the Soviet All Russian Writers Union, having had the audacity to send the manuscript of 'We' to the United States.

1931 - Industrial Unrest in Second Republic: On the docks at Santander clashes between socialists and the police leave one dead and six wounded. The UGT prevents, by force, Sindicato Católico (Catholic Union) members going out on strike.

1931 - Luciano Farinelli (d. 1995), Italian journalist and anarchist militant, born into a libertarian family. Farinelli joined the anarchist movement around 1943 and, after the Liberation, he was a member of Ancona's Germinal group of the Federazione Anarchica Italiana (FAI) and participated in major national conferences, working for the newspapers 'Umanità Nova' and 'Seme Anarchico'. In 1964, with Bruno Fattori he founded the Casa Malatesta libertarian cultural centre, which also took an active role in the struggle for secularism. Fascinated by the history of the libertarian movement, he worked for the recovery and conservation of our historical memory and, with his wife Fernanda Bonivento, he was behind several commemorations in Ancona, marking the anniversary of the Settimana Rossa in 1964 and 1994 and, in 1982, the fiftieth anniversary of the death of Errico Malatesta. He also had at that time a small shop plaza del papa Ancona.
In 1965, at the 8th Congress of the FAI in Carrara (October 31 to November 5), along with Armando Borghi , Primo Bassi, Aurelio Chessa, Michele Damiano, Pio Turroni and others, he was opposed to the FAI's associative and organisational pact, and was one of the promoters of a split that led to the formation of Gruppi di Intiziativa Anarchica (GIA) and its newspaper 'L'Internazionale', which he directed for 25 years, signing many of its editorials under the pseudonym 'L'Orso' (The Bear).
After the murder of Giuseppe Pinelli (with whom he was a friend), he helped launch a counter-information campaign against the State for its denial of responsibility in the death of the anarchist railway worker. He continued his libertarian activism and committed the last years of his life to the Comitato Nazionale pro Vittime Politiche (National Committee to Support Political Victims) as a member of the Commissione di Corrispondenza (CdC) and the GIA. Luciano Farinelli died at Ancona 22 in June 1995, having donated his archives to the Centro Studi Pinelli in Milan.

[B] 1934 - John Kilian Houston Brunner (d. 1995), prolific British libertarian socialist-orientated science fiction author, who was active in CND and wrote the CND marching song 'H-Bomb's Thunder', born. Of his novels, the dystopian 'The Shockwave Rider' (1975) features a clearly anarchist-based city, Precipice, which is run on a form of direct democracy, and where the main characters take refuge from the corporate State. Other similar novels include 'Stand on Zanzibar' (1968) and 'The Sheep Look Up' (1972).
"If you had to classify me, you'd have to put me in some vague area like 'fellow-travelling idealistic anarchist.'"

[C] 1944 - Ignacy Głuchowski aka ‘Morus’ (b. 1892), Polish anarcho-syndicalist and member of the anti-Nazi resistance, dies in the fighting in Central Warsaw. A worker in the Państwowy Monopol Tytoniowy (State Tobacco Monopoly) factory and a syndicalist activist in Związek Związków Zawodowych (ZZZ: Union of Workers Unions) and the Robotniczy Instytut Oświaty i Kultury (Workers Institute of Education and Culture). In October 1939, he became vice-chairman of workers section in the Związek Syndykalistów Polskich (ZSP: Union of Polish Syndicalists). Sergeant, chief of 104 ZSP Company, he took part in the fighting in Warsaw's Stare Misato (Old Town) and Śródmieście and died on September 24, 1944, during the fighting there.

[D] 1957 - Bataille d'Alger [Battle of Algiers]: Following the arrest the previous day of a courier for Yacef Saâdi, head of the FLN in Algiers and of the réseau bombes (bombs network), at 05:00 members of (General Massu's chief of staff) Colonel Yves Godard's 1e Régiment Étranger de Parachutistes (1st Foreign Parachute Regiment), commanded by Colonel Pierre Jeanpierre, seal off Rue Caton and raided Yacef's hideout at No. 3. Yacef and Zohra Drif had hid in a wall cavity, but this was soon located by the French troops. Yacef threw a grenade at the French troops but they were eager to take him alive and he and Zohra Drif eventually surrendered. Across the street at No 4, Ali La Pointe escaped the French cordon and went to another safe-house in the Casbah.
[–57)'Alger algerie/alger-deuxieme-saadi.html]

1963 - Eugène Léon Tricheux (b. 1901) French building worker, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-Francoist activist, dies. [see: Apr. 1]

1963 - Yves Pagès, French novelist, essayist, journalist, scriptwriter, editor and anarchist, born.

1964 - Miguel Campuzano García (b. 1894), Spanish anarchist teacher, journalist and author of the 1927 novel 'Armonía' (Harmony), published in the 'La Novela Ideal' series, dies. [see: Sep. 19]

1970 - During the council workers strike, a bomb explodes in the cleansing department head office in Greenford, England. [Angry Brigade chronolgy]

[A] 1971 - Despite the fact that the police claim to have arrested all the Angry Brigade, the Albany Street Army Barracks (near the Bomb Squad HQ) is bombed by the Angry Brigade in protest against the actions of the British Army in Northern Ireland.

1978 - Over 100,000 marched (some sources give the figure as 150,000) from Trafalgar Square through South London to the second RAR/ANL Carnival being held in Brockwell Park, with Sham 69 headlining, along with Aswad, Misty In Roots and Elvis Costello and The Attractions on the bill. Other bands, including Crisis, Charge, Eclipse, Inganda, RAS, the Derelicts, the Enchanters, the Members, the Ruts and the Straights, played from floats along the course of the march. In an opportunist move, the NF announced that it would hold a march in the East End that afternoon, simply intending to embarrass, and hopefully split, the organisers of the anti-fascist event. And there was indeed a split over what to do: the organisers, the SWP and ANL, wanted to put all their efforts into the Carnival, and therefore put no effort into organising any opposition. Others wanted it called off, with the Spartacist League telling carnival-goers that they were "SCABBING on the struggle". In the end, 250 National Fronters marched through the East End and held a rally in Curtain Road, off Great Eastern Street, practically unopposed by all but what amounted to a small, almost token anti-racist presence (with the notable exception of the RCP and various anarchist groupings), except towards the end of the march when reinforcements arrived from Brockwell Park via the Tube. Too few, too late to do anything effective. An embarrasing event all round.

1978 - The NF move their HQ from Twickenham to Shoreditch, alongside the Bengali community.

1982 - The Newham 8 are arrested following fighting between a group of Asian youths and three police officers in plain clothes.

1987 - Michael Taylor, a 16-year-old auto theft suspect, was shot in the head as he sat in an Indianapolis police cruiser with his hands cuffed behind his back. He died a day later. The coroner and an FBI investigation claim he shot himself with a concealed gun. In 1996 a civil jury rejected those findings and concluded police were responsible for Taylor’s death, awarding Taylor’s family $3.5m, later reduced to $2.6m.

1995 - As part of International Buy Nothing Day, activists dressed as rats urge shoppers at a Dutch shopping mall to "leave the rat race".

[F] 2002 - Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, King of Bahrain, passes the Workers Trade Union Law, which recognises the right of workers to organise collectively but restricts activities in a number of essential services.
1838 - François Perroncel (or poss. Péroncel; d. unknown), Lyons silk weaver, anarchist member of the Croix-Rousse of the International and trade unionist, born.

1839 - Mina Kruseman (Wilhelmina Jacoba Paulina Rudolphina Kruseman; d. 1922), Dutch actress, singer, writer, novelist and feminist, born. She started her career as a singer under the pseudonyms Karcilla Réna and Stella Oristorio di Frama, but became best known for her feminist writings as well as the scandal that she caused when she moved in with FJ Hoffman, a writer, photographer and musician twenty years her junior. They never married - Kruseman finding the convention of marriage obscene and equated it with prostitution - and, to escape the scandal, left India for Rome, where they had two children, who both dies young.

1843 - Rebecca Riots: A more concerted attack than on the Pen-y-pistyll tollgate 3 days prior succeeds in destroying the Llangurig gates and terrifying the gatekeeper. Sir John Benn Walsh, who was in Rhayader the following day recorded: "There was considerable excitement in the town from the news that a gate at Llangerig about 9 miles from Rhayader on the Aberystwyth road had been levelled last night by a party of Rebbecaites"

[F] 1848 - The Assoziation der Zigarren-Arbeiter Deutschlands (Association of the Cigar Workers of Germany), the second-oldest trade union in Germany after the Nationalen Buchdrucker-Verein (National Book Printer Association; June 1848), is founded.

1865 - Henri Lebasque (d. 1937), French Post-Impressionist painter and anarchist sympathiser, born. He met Maximilien Luce and Paul Signac, whilst studying in Paris at the Académie Colarossi, and through them Camille Pissarro, who would go on to become a great influence upon him. Between 1900 and 1906, he donated a number of lithographs including 'Provocation' and 'Ceux qui mangent du pain noir' (Those who eat black bread) to Jean Grave's 'Les Temps Nouveaux' as well as supporting it financially with other donations. He also illustrated the cover of the 1903 'Almanach du Libertaire' and collaborated on 'Patriotisme-Colonisation', a book published that year by 'Les Temps Nouveaux'. That year also saw him found, together with his friend Matisse and other artists, the Salon d'Automne, which would be a centre for the exhibition of works by Les Fauves.

1868 - Mikhail Bakunin founds the anarchist International Alliance of Socialist Democracy. At the Congress of the League of Peace and of Freedom held in Bern today, the Alliance is formed by dissidents who break with the League when decides against "the economic and social equalisation of the classes and individuals". The Alliance goes on to form a section of the First International.

[D] 1870 - The armed workers of the Commune de Marseille declare the abolition of the state and all debt. [expand]

1886 - Louise Michel, Jules Guesde, Paul Lafargue and Dr. Susini appear before the Assize Court of the Seine charged with "incitement to murder and pillage" for their part in a meeting which took place on June 3, 1886, in Paris at the hall of Théâtre du Château d'Eau in support of the Decazeville miners' strike. They will eventually all be acquitted by the jury, to the loud applause of the audience.

1887 - The first issue of the Flemish weekly 'De Opstand' (Revolt), "Socialistisch - Communistisch en Revolutionair orgaan", is published in Ghent.

1895 - Erik Hjalmar Eriksson (d. 1973), Swedish miner, writer, novelist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. Member and organiser in the Sveriges Arbetares Centralorganisation (SAC), Hjalmar Eriksson's novels depict working class mining communities: 'Järn och Bröd : en bergslagshistoria' (Iron and Bread: a mining history; 1946), 'Arbetets Melodi' (Work Melody: a miner's novel; 1946), 'Folket i Loälvsdalen' (The People of Loälvsdalen; 1960), 'Du Trygga Folk' (You Safeguard People; 1968), 'Gruvans Sång' (The Mine's Song; 1969) and 'Lille Hugo : berättelser från gruvorna och skogarna' (Lille Hugo: stories from the mines and forests; 1972).

1896 - Paolo Lega (b. 1868), Italian anarchist illegalist who attempted to assassinate Prime Minister Francesco Crispi in Rome in 1894, for which he sentenced 20 years in prison, dies in Cagliari at the agricultural penal colony of St. Bartholomew. [see: Dec. 9]

1903 - Mark Rothko (Marcus Yakovlevich Rothkowitz; d. 1970), American abstract expressionist / colour field painter, poet and anarchist, born to Jewish parents in Czarist Russia (now part of Latvia). His father, taking Marcus' elder brothers, emigrated to America so his sons could escape being drafted into the Imperial Russian Army. Marcus, together with his mother and sister, joined them in 1913. In Portland, Oregan, he learned English (his fourth language after Russian, Yiddish and Hebrew) and joined in the political debates in the local Jewish community centre, becoming passionate about the worker's movement and women's right to contraception. It was in this atmosphere of radical workers' and IWW meetings, with speeches by the likes of Bill Haywood and Emma Goldman (attending her lectures in Portland in August 1915), that his anarchism was founded. I was also where he also developed his strong oratorical skills, something he would later deploy in defence of Surrealism.
In the early 1930s, he joined the anti-fascist, anti-capitalist Artists Union.
Shortly before his death from suicide (cutting his arms with a razor), and as he grappled with health problems, tormented by depression and physically debilitated, he declared: "I am still an anarchist!"

1905 - [O.S. Sep. 12-15] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: A Zemstvo Congress in Moscow (Sep. 25-28 ) rejects the proposed Bulygin Duma, and demands civil liberties and a responsible Duma elected by universal suffrage.

[C/E] 1905 - Suzy Chevet (Suzanne Chevet; d. 1972), French teacher, militant socialist, Résistance member, libertarian syndicalist and anarchist, born. Trained as a teacher, she was a member of Marceau Pivert's Parti Socialiste but, in 1938, she joined the Parti Socialiste Ouvrier et Paysan (Socialist Workers and Peasants Party) and was active in the Saint Malo and Trélazé committees supporting the Spanish Revolution, helping many refugees find work and housing during the Retirada. In 1941, she was put under house arrest in Saint Malo and banned from teaching by the Vichy regime. After find a safe refuge for her daughter, she went to Jersey in the Channel islands, where she helped organise escape routes for Dutch sailors. Arrested by the Gestapo in 1942, she was transferred to Rennes for questioning and then taken to Angers, but managed to escape and went to Lorient. Under a new identity, she entered the offices of the Service du Travail Obligatoire (STO) and until the liberation passed information to the local Résistance. In 1945, she joined the Fédération Anarchiste through which she met the anarchist theoritican Maurice Joyeux and they became partners. She also joined the Groupe libertaire Louise-Michel and edited its paper, 'La Rue', "revue culturelle et littéraire d'expression anarchiste".

1911 - The first issue of the monthly '... hors du troupeau...', previously 'L'Ère Nouvelle', "recueil d'idées, de faits, de commentaires" (a collection of ideas, facts, comments), is published in Orléans by Émile Armand.

1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike: In advance of the trial of Joseph Ettor, Arturo Giovannitti, and Joseph Caruso, various mass meetings had been held by the Lawrence workers, IWW members and their supporters to discuss the situation and prepare for action. "The authorities tried to suppress all large meetings – in fact, everything productive of mass action. But such was the pressure of events that finally they gave a permit for a mass meeting to be held on Amesbury Street, south of Essex, on Wednesday, Sept. 25. Long before the hour appointed, these thoroughfares were jammed with thousands of interested workmen and women. But no meeting was held. Instead all present adjourned to Lexington Hall, I. W. W. headquarters, on Lawrence Street. Here, from the windows, an immense gathering was addressed in various tongues by Miss Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Carlo Tresca and others. They read letters from Ettor and Giovannitti, urging that the general strike be abandoned for the present. Ettor argued that the general strike "would tend to prejudice public opinion"; Giovannitti thought the price in misery to the workers too great to pay and counseled delay until the trial would demonstrate its necessity. The general committee of Local 20, I. W. W., endorsed the advice thus given "in order that the Massachusetts courts might have an opportunity to demonstrate the fairness that the master class boasts they have."
The following morning the Lawrence newspapers could not hide their elation. They came out in big headlines, "No Strike; General Committee, I. W. W., Votes Against It." And the business element of Lawrence could almost be heard to heave a sigh of relief. "No general strike" meant continued mill exploitation and profits in sales to the mill workers for them. But all concerned reckoned without their hosts. Though the workers had apparently acquiesced in the advice given by Ettor and Giovannitti, whom they revered, they were plainly disappointed, deeply so. They were so set on action in behalf of their imprisoned leaders and fellow-workers that to be denied the opportunity were worse than defeat by the enemy. They did not believe in the letters read; so a committee visited Lawrence Jail to find out if they were genuine. They got others, of the same kind. The workers thereupon proceeded to act on their own account; they ignored the advice, they set aside the action of the Central Committee and their affection and proceeded with determination—the industrial democracy reasserted itself once more, the general strike took place..." [Justus Ebert - 'The Trial of a New Society' (1913)]

[A] 1919 - Left Socialist-Revolutionaries and members of the anarchist underground bomb the headquarters of the Moscow Committee of the Communist Party in Leontief Lane (Леонтьевском Переулке) in protest at the growing repression being carried out by the Bolsheviks, including Cheka raids on anarchist groups and the banning of the Anarchist Congress. Twelve communists are killed and 55 others wounded, including the Bolshevik theorist and 'Pravda' editor Nikolai Bukharin. One of the attack's main targets had been Lenin but he had failed to attend the meeting.
The September 29 edition of 'Anarkhiia' (Анархия) newspaper later carried a statement announcing the beginning of a campaign of attacks by the underground and explaining that they had attacked the Moscow RCP(b) meeting because it had "examined ways to wage a war against the people [currently] in revolt. The Bolsheviks masters had voted unanimously in favour of using the most extreme measures against workers, peasants and Red Army rebels, anarchists and Socialist-Revolutionaries, of wanting to introduce a state of emergency in Moscow mass shootings (...) Our task is to clear the land of the rule of the commissariocratis and Cheka, and introduce a free all-Russian federation of unions of workers and the oppressed masses. We call for an immediate insurrection for bread and freedom, and we will defend freedom with the weapons of liberty and not with those of slavery."

1919 - Battle of Peregonovka: This evening, greatly outnumbered and completely surrounded by Denikin's troops, the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine, which had been marching westwards, suddenly turns east and outflanks the White Army at the small Ukranian town of Peregonovka and, aided by the townsfolk, tomorrow scores a decisive victory against the massed might of General Denikin's army. The first encounter took place late in the evening near the village of Kruten'koe, where the Makhnovist first brigade attacked a Denikinist unit. Denikin's troops retreated to take up better positions and to draw the Makhnovists after them. But the Makhnovists did not pursue them. This misled the vigilance of the enemy, who concluded that the insurgents were still moving westward. However, in the middle of the night, all the Makhnovist forces, stationed in several villages, began marching eastward. The enemy's principal forces were concentrated near the village of Peregonovka; the village itself being occupied by the Makhnovists.

1919 - Olga Nikolaevna Figner (Ольга Николаевна Фигнер; November 17 [5] 1862), Russian revolutionary, narodnitsa and one of the organisers of the Socialist-Federalist (Cоциалистов-федералистов) group (1887-89) in St. Petersburg following the crushing of Narodnaya Volya (Наро́дная во́ля / People's Will), dies in Lugan (Лугань). [see: Nov. 17]

1923 - September Antifascist Uprising [Септемврийско антифашистко въстание] / Battle of Boychinovski [Бойчиновски бой]: Government troops from the Shumen (Шуменския) garrison armed with artillery pieces, who had occupied the Boychinovtsi railway station in Krivodol (Криводол) the previous day, are attacked at 04:00 by poorly armed rebels; so poorly armed that less than half had rifles and tore sunflower stems from the surrounding fields so they looked in the morning twilight as they were carrying guns. Yet despite their disadvantage, they eventually forced the government troops to retreat and eventually surrender.

1936 - Emma Goldman speaks before a crowd of 10,000 in Barcelona.

1940 - Eva Švankmajerová (d. 2005), Czech Surrealist artist, painter, ceramicist, poet, filmmaker and writer, born. Made a series of short and full-length films between 1964 and 2005 with her husband Jan Švankmajer, including 'The Pit, the Pendulum and 'Hope' (Kyvadlo, Jáma a Naděje; 1983) 'Alice' (Něco z Alenky; 1987) and 'Little Otik' (Otesánek; 2000). Her books include 'Baradla Cave' (Jeskyně Baradla; 1995) and 'Surrealist Women: an International Anthology' (1998).

1944 - Josef 'Beppo' Römer (b. 1892), German former member of the Freikorps Oberland and KPD activists, is executed in Brandenburg-Görden Prison for planning to assassinate Adolf Hitler. [see: Nov. 15]

1960 - The 4th conference [Sept. 25th-28th] of the International Situationists begins in London.

1962 - A lecture by Oswald Mosley at the New York State University in Buffalo NJ was broken up by an angry audience shouting "Nazi" and "Jew-hater". He ducked through the back door and escaped while some of the students in the hall held the angry crowd back. Under the protection of a heavy police guard, he managed to successfully address students and faculty the following day.

1963 - In the Dominican Republic a coup d'etat overthrows democratically elected President Juan Bosch.

1970 - Yefim or Jefim Golyshev (Ефи́м Го́лышев; b. 1897), Ukrainian-born painter and composer, who was active mainly in Europe and was a member of the Dadaist Revolutionary Central Council alongside Huelsenbeck and Hausmann, dies. [see: Sep. 8]

1971 - Two police officers are shot and wounded as they approach an improperly parked car containing RAF members Margrit Schiller and Holger Meins on the Freiburg-Basel autobahn. Meins and Schiller escape.

1973 - Anarchist militants and members of Movimiento Ibérico de Liberación (MIL) Salvador Puig Antich and Xavier Garriga Paituví are caught in a carefully arranged police ambush. A shootout occurs, during which a Guardia Civil officer, Francisco Anguas Barragán, is killed and Puig is wounded. Both anarchist are arrested and Puig charged with Anguas Barragan's death. Tried at a court martial (using a false witness statement from Garriga that he signed after torture, Puig is condemned to death and garrotted on March 2 1974.

1976 - NF holds a march in Walsall opposed by an International Socialist-organised anti-fascist counter-demonstration. 960 cops on duty arrest 20 anti-fascists but no NF.

[B] 1977 - Sole (Tim Holland), American hip-hop artist, producer, co-founder of the record label Anticon and anarchist, who's "too Bakunin for your backpack rap", born.

1977 - Steve Biko, civil rights activist, is buried in South Africa having been murdered by police.

1987 - Abba Kovner (אבא קובנר; b. 1918), Lithuanian Jewish Hebrew poet, writer, and commander of the Fareynikte Partizaner Organizatsye (FPO; United Partisan Organisation) in the Vilna Ghetto, dies in israel. [see: Mar. 14]

2011 - Wangari Muta Maathai (b. 1940), Kenyan environmental and political activist, who founded the Green Belt Movement, an environmental non-governmental organisation focused on the planting of trees, environmental conservation, and women's rights in 1977, dies of complications arising from ovarian cancer. [see: Apr. 1]
[F] 1840 - The Asociación de Tejedores de Barcelona, which had been founded clandetinely the previous summer by the cotton weavers of Barcelona and adjoining populations in support of 'resistance' activities and then had approx. 3000 members, takes advantage of a February 1839 Royal Order and the May 23, 1840 order of Barcelona's 'jefe político' to form a legal mutual aid society titled the Sociedad Mutua de Tejedores de Barcelona (Mutual Society of Weavers of Barcelona).

1856 - Jean-Marie Bourdon (d. unknown), French French locksmith and anarchist, born. Member of the Fédération Révolutionnaire de la Région de l'Est, which included anarchist groups including St-Étienne, Villefranche, Roanne and Lyon. With Claude Crestin and Antoine Cyvoct, he managed the journal 'L'Etendard Révolutionnaire', which replaced the 'Droit Social' (Employment Law), Lyon's first anarchist newspaper, following its closure by the forces of law and order. Bourdon was later sentenced in absentia on December 6, 1882, by the Rhone Assize Court as manager of the newspaper for its publishing of an anti-militarist manifesto 'Les Ouvriers de la septième compagnie d'artillerie de Lyon à leurs frères de l'armée' (The workers of the Seventh Artillery Lyon company of their brothers the army) - Bourdon was in Switzerland, having taken refuge there following the mass arrests of anarchists in the wake of the La Bande Noire events at Montceau-les-Mines [see: Aug. 5 & 13] and the attack on the Théâtre Bellecour in Lyon on October 22, 1882. He was also tried in absentia during the Procès des 66 in January 1883, and sentenced to 5 years in prison with a 2000 francs fine a the removal of civic rights for 5 years.

1864 - [O.S. Aug. 14] Anna Ilyinichna Yelizarova-Ulyanova (Анна Ильинична Елизарова-Ульянова; d. 1935), Russian revolutionary and a Soviet stateswoman, who was the older sister of Lenin, born. She began her political activities 1886 and was arrested due to the involvement of her brother Alexander (Алекса́ндр Ильи́ч Улья́нов), a member of Narodnaya Volya (People's Will), was involved in planning an assassination attempt on Alexander III, slated for March 13 [1], 1887. She was sentenced to 5 years in exile. In 1893, she became involved in the pre-RSDLP Social-Democratic movement in Moscow. [expand]

1869 - Carl Nold (d. 1934), German-American anarchist propagandist, born. [expand]

1870 - Commune de Lyon: At the Rotonde Hall in the Brotteaux neighbourhood a meeting involving 6000 people discusses the urgent need to enact a mandatory loan (emprunt forcé), to impose the death penalty on wealthy fugitives and the removal all the officers, but first and most importantly, the removal of the préfet Challemel-Lacour and the Conseil Municipal (Municipal Council) from City Hall. A Call to Arms declaring the formation of a Fédération Révolutionnaire des Communes and signed by 26 persons including Albert Richard, Michel Bakunin, Gustave Blanc and Eugène-Bertrand Saignes, is turned into a red poster, which is pasted up all over the city the following day.

The disastrous situation in which the Country finds itself; the impotence of the official powers and the indifference of the privileged classes have put the French nation on the edge of the abyss.
If the People organised in a revolutionary manner do not make haste to act, their future is lost, the Revolution is lost, all is lost. Inspired by the immensity of the danger, and considering that the People’s desperate action can not be delayed for a single moment, the delegates of the Federated Committees for the Salvation of France, gathered in the Central Committee, propose the immediate adoption of the following resolutions:
Article 1. – The administrative and governmental machine of the State, having become powerless, is abolished.
The people of France return to full possession of themselves.
Article 2. – All the criminal and civil courts are suspended and replaced by the justice of the people.
Art. 3. – The payment of taxes and mortgages is suspended. Taxation is replaced by the contributions of the federated communes, levied on the wealthy classes, proportional to the needs of the salvation of France.
Art. 4. – The State, being deposed, can no longer intervene in the payment of private debts.
Art. 5. – All the existing municipal organizations are quashed and replaced in all the federated communes by some Committees for the Salvation of France, which will exercise all the powers under the direct control of the People.
Art. 6. – Each committee from each Departmental center will send two delegates to form the Revolutionary Convention for the Salvation of France.
Art. 7. – This Convention will immediately gather at the Town Hall of Lyon, as the second city of France and the closest to contribute energetically to the defence of the country.
This Convention, supported by the entire People, will save France.
To arms!!!

1872 - Émile Henry (d. 1894), French anarchist and advocate of 'propaganda by deed', born in Spain to a Communard father exiled in Spain. Upon the family's return to Paris, he was cccepted into the prestigious École Polytechnique but was expelled and found work in a draper’s shop. Possibly under the influence of his older brother Fortune, he became an active anarchist which led to him loosing his job, but he will find a job making drawings for an architectural sculptor. He also began contributing to various anarchist journals including 'Le Père Peinard' and was active in the management of 'L'Endehors'. Suspected by the police, he was arrested on May 30, 1892 after a meeting in honour of Ravachol but the search of his home revealled nothing, and he was released shortly afterwards. Having travelled to support the strike of mine workers in Carmaux, he was appalled by the conditions he found there and further enraged following the defeat of the strike. Henry, whose father had also been a miner, decided to bomb the mining company’s offices. The bomb was discovered before it detonated, and inept police officers brought the bomb back to the police station on the Rue des Bons-enfants without defusing it first. It exploded, killing several officers.
After the bombing, he took refuge in London, returning to Paris at the end of December 1893 and, under a false identity, he rented a room and began to manufacture explosives. Determined to strike at the insolent bourgeoisie in a random attack and avenge the execution of Auguste Vaillant, he threw his bomb into the Café Terminus at the Gare Saint-Lazare on the evening of February 12, 1894. Twenty people were injured in the explosion, one later dying from his injuries. Émile Henry fled but was immediately pursued by constomers and the police who he fired his gun at, but he was finally arrested. On February 14, 1894, a police agent dicovered the location of his room and it bomb factory. During his trial at the Seine Assizes on April 27-28, 1894, he boasted of his exploits, claiming the attack which ended in the deaths in the Rue des Bons-enfants, asking in a statement to the court: "But why, you ask, attack those peaceful café guests, who sat listening to music and who, no doubt, were neither judges nor deputies nor bureaucrats? Why? It is very simple. The bourgeoisie did not distinguish among the anarchists….Those good bourgeois who hold no office but who reap their dividends and live idly on the profits of the workers’ toil, they also must take their share in the reprisals."
He happily welcomed his death sentence and May 21, at dawn, he was guillotined in the Place de la Roquette surrounded by soldiers. His final words: "Courage camarades, vive l'anarchie" (Courage comrades, long live anarchy).

1892 - Julien Claude Marcel Content (d. 1927), French miltant anarchist, anti-militarist and revolutionary syndicalist, born. [expand]

1892 - [N.S. Oct. 8] Marina Ivanovna Tsvetaeva (Мари́на Ива́новна Цвета́ева; d. 1941) Russian and Soviet symbolist poet, who lived through and wrote of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the Moscow famine that followed it, born. [see: Oct. 8]

1892 - Maria Giaconi aka Maria Ligia (d. unknown), Italian anarchist, born.

1905 - [O.S. Sep. 13] October All-Russian Political Strike: Ivan Sytin (Иван Сытин) and his fellow directors respond to the workers' August 24th [O.S. Aug. 11] demands, offering only a nine-hour day and sick pay for two weeks a year. For compositors and binders, who are paid by piecework rates, such a reduction in the workday without any increase in wages would mean a serious loss in earnings. They refuse to accept management's answer, waiting until after they have collected their next paychecks on October 2nd [O.S. Sep. 19], and go out on strike. They were immediately joined by most other workers in the plant. [see: Aug. 24]

1905 - The publication of Einstein's scientific paper that became known as the Special Theory of Relativity.

1906 - The new start date for the Partido Liberal Mexicano's Revolution (postponed following police raids at the beginning of the month), Juan Jose Arredondo and León Ibarra, with 30 other rebel guerrilleros took the main square in Jiménez Coahuila, cut the main telephone lines and seized the village Treasury. However, after a few hours federal forces arrived and, outnumbered, they retreated. Other attacks produced similar results in Monclova, Zaragoza, Ciudad Porfirio Diaz (Piedras Negras) and other small towns in Coahuila.

1907 - Trial of Ricardo Flores Magón, Librado Rivera, and Antonio I. Villarreal. [expand]

1908 - In Paris, a jury condemns the designer Aristide Delannoy, and Victor Meric to one year in prison and a fine of 3,000 francs for a caricatured in 'Les Hommes du Jour' of General Albert d'Amade depicted as a butcher following his brutal suppression of an uprising in Morocco. Both will be incarcerated in La Santé prison. Delannoy, who was suffering from tuberculosis, gained early release on June 21, 1909 following the intervention of his cell mates with the prison director and a support campaign meeting held on June 9, 1909. This stay in prison considerably worsened the health of Aristide, who died on May 5, 1911.

1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike: Following the previous day's general committee of IWW Local 20, which endorsed Ettor and Giovannitti's call for a general strike "in order that the Massachusetts courts might have an opportunity to demonstrate the fairness that the master class boasts they have", the Lawrence newspapers display their elation with headlines such as, "No Strike; General Committee, I.W.W., Votes Against It."

1914 - David Stetner (d. 2002), Romanian-Jewish anarchist and French resident David Stetner, who founded Yiddish anarchist journal 'Der Freie Gedank' and fully experienced a life of vagrancy, prison, hunger, humiliation and punishment, born. He became interested in anarchist ideas at the age of 17 and started attending secret meetings held in the woods outside the town of Czernovitz. He read and discussed the works of Mikhail Bakunin and Rudolf Rocker, among others. He deserted from the Romanian army on two occasions: the first time having decided to leave for Republican Spain in 1934 but was refused a passport and decided to leave clandestinely for Poland, only to becaught and court martialled. Released from jail in January 1937, he was enlisted in the navy, only to desert in June of that year, crossing through Europe and arriving illegally in France. Forced to live the desperate life of a sans-papiers in Paris, he wanted to volunteer to join the anarchist militias in the civil war in Spain, but was dissuaded by the secretary of the Federacion Anarquista Iberica in France, who explained that the Francoist victories and the Stalinist betrayals had already drastically undermined the Spanish social revolution. Shortly before the outbreak of WWII met Golda Konstantin, who became his companion for the rest of his life. When France was attacked by the Germans, he joined the first foreign volunteer unit and was demobbed the following year. During the German occupation, both being political activists, Jewish and without papers, both were under serious threat but managed to hide and escape from deportation. His family, however, had remained in Romania, all died except one sister, in the Nazi extermination camp. However, Golda was arrested following a round up all the Jews in the 11th arrondissement, being arrested at a checkpoint because of her identity card’s being so obviously a forgery. She was sentenced to 18 months in prison in Caen and Stetner went to ground in Paris. [expand]

1916 - In Tottenham, Western New South Wales, police constable George Duncan is shot and killed whilst sitting at the typewriter in the town's police station. Within 48 hours three members of the Tottenham branch of the IWW, two brothers Roland and Herbert Kennedy and Frank Franz are arrested for the murder.
Roland Kennedy and Frank Franz were tried for the murder just 22 days later by the Chief Justice of NSW Sir William Cullen of Bathurst's Circuit Court. Frank Franz had turned King's evidence and claimed that although the three were involved in the shooting, he did not shoot at the constable. He stated that the brothers Roland and Herbert Kennedy were guilty of the murder. After a short one day trial the jury took one hour to find them both guilty of the murder.
Herbert Kennedy stood trial on October 20th. Roland claimed that his brother was not at the murder scene and that he and Frank Franz murdered the constable. As Frank Franz had turned King's evidence and Roland Kennedy did not corroborate his story his evidence was inadmissible and the judge directed the jury to acquit Herbert Kennedy of the murder.
The trials were conducted in the anti-IWW hysteria that marked the times. The Sydney Twelve, all IWW members, had been arrested a few days before the murder and the first conscription referendum was held on the December 16, 1916 just weeks after the murder of Constable Duncan.
Roland Kennedy and Frank Franz were hanged together December 20, 1916.

[DD] 1919 - Battle of Peregonovka [Битва під Перегонівкою (uk) / Битва под Перегоновкой (ru)]: After months of retreat, and having turned on its pursuers the previous evening, the anarchist Ukrainian Insurrectionary Army, headed by Nestor Makhno, between 3 and 4 a.m. join battle with the White Army. The battle rages for most of the morning and by 9 o'clock the Makhnovists began to lose ground. However, the combined forces of the Ukrainian Insurrectionary Army and the armed peasants of Peregonovka (Перегонівка [uk] / Перегоновка [ru]) begin to turn the tide and, as the First Officers' Regiment of Simferopol begin to retreat, the whole White Army breaks ranks and goes into full retreat. Makhno sends his cavalry and artillery at full speed in pursuit of the retreating enemy, and he himself takes his best mounted to outflank Denikin’s troops at the Sinyukha River crossing. He manages to surprise Denikinist staff and the reserve regiment on the far bank, taking them prisoner and, against all conceivable odds, Makhno's army of Ukrainian peasants rout General Denikin’s elite imperialist forces, killing many and scattering the rest.
The Insurrectionary Army later destroyed the White Army’s key ammunition base, artillery depot and severed railway lines – thus terminating Denekin’s seemingly unstoppable advance toward Moscow, where the seizure of power from the Bolshevik government had for some time appeared inevitable.

1931 - Industrial Unrest in Second Republic: Clashes in Salamanca result in two dead and four wounded. In Manresa, no less than 16 bombs during a strike. In Seville, clashes between different communist groups results in one dead and 16 injured.

1935 - On the eve of the Ethiopian war and Italy's anti-British propaganda braodcasts via Radio Bari and Radio Roma, the Ministero per la Stampa e la Propaganda (Ministry of Press and Propaganda) assumes control of the radio.

1936 - Fernando Demetrio Mata Povedano (b. 1901), Aragonese rationalist teacher, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, and mayor of Montemayor, is assassinated in Córdoba prison and buried in a mass grave in the city's San Rafael cemetery. [see: Dec. 22]

[C] 1940 - Walter Bendix Schönflies Benjamin (b. 1892), German philosopher and 'Romantic anarchist, who made influential contributions to aesthetic theory, Western Marxism and anti-fascist thought, and is associated with the Frankfurt School, and was also a respected literary and cultural critic, essayist and translator during the Weimar Republic, is found dead after having killed himself with an overdose of morphine tablets taken the previous night. Whilst fleeing France and the approaching Nazis, he safely crossed the French-Spanish border and arrived at the coastal town of Portbou, in Catalonia. However, the Franco government had cancelled all transit visas and ordered the Spanish police to return people to France, including the Jewish refugee group Benjamin had joined, thwarting his chances of travelling to the United States. [see: Jul. 15]
[ Paper - Benjamin and Anarchism.pdf]

1941 - José Sampériz Janina (b. 1910), Spanish journalist, writer and anarchist sympathiser, dies in the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp. [see: Apr. 23]

1950 - Gustave Franssen (b. 1874), French copyreader, revolutionary syndicalist and libertarian, dies. [see: Mar. 21]

1951 - Susanna Ronconi, Italian former member of the Brigate Rosse and of Prima Linea, born. She took part in the June 17, 1974 BR assault on the MSI HQ in Padua, for which she was sentecned to 12 years in prison. She was later involved in the Prima Linea killing of Professor Alfredo Paolella in Naples on October 11, 1978. She was arrested in Florence in 1980 after six years on the run. She later escaped from Rovigo prison (with Marina Premoli, Loredana Biancamano and Federica Meroni) through a hole blasted in the wall, that killed a passerby. Rearrested in 1983, she was sentenced to 22 years in prison. Having dissociated herself from terrorism, she was finally released in 1998.

1969 - 8th Situationist International Conference, Venice.

1970 - Simultaneous bomb attacks against Iberia in Geneva, Frankfurt, Paris and London airports. [Angry Brigade/First of May Group chronology]

[D] 1970 - Hampstead Conservative Association firebombed. [Angry Brigade chronology]

[D] 1970 - Bomb exploded outside Barclays Bank, Heathrow. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1971 - Freetown Christiania declares itself open in Copenhagen (and it's still there today).

[B] 1973 - Alessio Lega, Italian singer-songwriter, writer and anarchist militant, born.

1977 - Birmingham Trades Council organises an anti-racialist counter-demonstration to a National Front march in the city.

[A] 1983 - 38 members of the IRA hijack a prison meals lorry and escape from the Maze prison, Britain's largest ever prison breakout. Within a few days 19 are recapture but 21 are never seen again.

2006 - Frank Ogboru, a Nigerian national visiting the UK, dies under police restraint. Metropolitan police officers responded to a 999 call and spoke to Mr Ogboru about an allegation which later turned out to be false. Mr Ogboru was forced to the ground and restrained by four officers with his neck over the kerb. He died within minutes.

[E] 2008 - Kirsten Brydum, a 25-year-old American anarchist community activist, is murdered as she cycles through New Orleans in the early hours of the morning, just 36 hours into the latest stage of her “collective autonomy” tour that she had begun in July that year to exchange ideas with others around the country about alternative economic and social models.

2011 - A second round of hunger strike protests begins in Secure Housing Units (SHUs) across California following the CDCR's failure to adhere to promises in the wake of the July hunger strike. Up to 12,000 prisoners having refused food at some point by the end of the first week of the 'rolling hunger strike'.

[AA] 2011 - Black Liberation Army member George Edward Wright arrested in Portugal after 39 years on the run. Portugal refuses to extradite him to the USA and sets him free.
George Edward Wright had been arrested and convicted for murder in 1962. In 1970, he escaped dressed as a priest and with a gun hidden in a hollowed out bible. Two years later, he managed to hijack a plane and fly it to Algeria, where he and his accomplices claimed asylum. Wright then lived in Guinea-Bissau, then Portugal, where he became a Portuguese citizen and married.

2011 - White supremacist David Joseph 'Joey' Pedersen shoots his father, David 'Red' Pedersen, in the back of a head whilst he is driving. Red Pedersen takes at least 30 minutes to die. Joey Pedersen and his partner Holly Grigsby then returned to the Pedersen house, where Red Pedersen's wife, Dee Dee, was bound with duct tape, cut in the neck and left to bleed to death. The couple then drove Red Pedersen's vehicle south into Oregon. Joey Pedersen was later to claim that Red Pedersen had sexually abused his children and others.
Both are White supremacists, 31-year-old Pedersen having a swastika tattoo on his chest above his heart and one of Adolph Hitler on his stomach, as well as initials SWP, standing for Supreme White Power, in large gothic scripts on his neck. He had spent 2 spells in prison, 6 years for robbery and 7 on a single count that included assaulting a police officer.
24-year-old Grigsby has been a supremacist since the age of 13. She had spent time in prison for a variety of minor charges, including identity theft and unauthorised use of a vehicle. After completing probation, she was again sentenced in 2008 on identity theft charges and served two years.
1884 - La Bande Noire: A dynamite cartridge explodes in the house of Bornet, the special guard of Jules Chagot, the owner of the Chagot frères et Cie mines. The attacks continue into September, with the chapel at Magny being the victim of multiple blasts.

[E] 1844 - Jessie Bross Lloyd (Jessie Louisa Bross; d. 1904), US reformer, who was disinherited by her wealthy father, William Bross, owner of the 'Chicago Tribune', for her work on behalf of the Haymarket anarchists, born. She was married to radical 'muckracking' journalist Henry Demarest Lloyd, and a close friend of Florence Kelley (1859-1939), the Hull House activist, lawyer, and labour activist. Her son was William Bross Lloyd (1875-1946), a US attorney who helped found and finance the Communist Labor Party of America, the forerunner of the Communist Party USA.

1864 - Jozef Alexander Cohen aka 'Sandro' (d. 1961), Dutch anarchist publicist, anti-militarist, anti-colonialist and, in the 1930s, a monarchist, born.

1903 - [O.S. Sep. 14] Krastovdensko Uprising [Кръстовденско въстание]: Another series of insurgent actions linked to the Ilinden–Preobrazhenie uprisings (Илинденско-Преображенско въстания) begin on the day of the Feast of the Cross, Krastovden (Кръстовден) in Bulgarian, across almost the whole territory of the Serres Revolutionary District (Серски революционен окръг), south western Bulgaria around the Pirin Mountains area. Militias active in the Serres region, led by Yane Sandanski (Яне Сандански), and an insurgent detachment of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation's (Вътрешна Македонска Революционна Организация) Supreme Committee, hold down a large Turkish force. These do not involve the local population as much as in other regions, and are well to the east of Monastir and to the west of Thrace.

1904 - Monny de Boully (Solomon or Salmon Moni de Buli; d. 1968) Serbian-French Surrealist writer, poet and anarchist, born. Purged from the Paris Surrealist group in 1928 following his prolonged opposition to the group's communist line. The same year, he started the magazine 'Discontinuité' with Arthur Adamov and Claude Sernet, and participated in group around the anarchist-influenced literary magazine 'Le Grand Jeu' which was established in opposition to the Surrealists.

[D] 1906 - [O.S. Sep. 13] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The St. Petersburg SR combat committee endorses the random assassination of street policemen.

[B] 1906 - James Myers (Jim) Thompson (d. 1977), American author and screenwriter, known for his pulp crime fiction and who was nicknamed the 'Dimestore Dostoevsky', born. Initially an oil field labourer, he joined the Industrial Workers of the World in the mid-1920s and joined the Communist Party in 1935, but had left the group by 1938.

1907 - Fermín Salvochea y Álvarez (b. 1842), Andalusian teacher, writer, insurrectionist, early and important anarchist, dies. 50,000 people attended his burial and his tomb has never lacked a daily renewal of fresh flowers. [see: Mar. 1]

[F] 1908 - On the fourth day of the Fourth Annual Convention of the Industrial Workers of the World in Chicago results in a split between political actionists who sought to gain control of the organisation, led by Daniel DeLeon of the SLP, and direct actionists, led by Vincent St. John (elected General Secretary-Treasurer ) and J.H. Walsh (National Organiser). DeLeonists set up rival IWW in Detroit (Workers' International Industrial Union), accusing the Chicago IWW as being "anarchist usurpers".

1910 - Revolución Mexicana: Porfirio Diaz is proclaimed president for his eighth term, prolonging his disastrous 35-year long regime. A general who became a hero fighting the French Intervention of 1864-7, Diaz was the top military commander under reformist President Juarez and became president after his death in 1876. To stop the cycle of military revolts he offered pan o palo (bread or the stick). Ambitious political and military leaders were put on the government payroll with high salaries or faced imprisonment or execution. "A dog with a bone neither bites or barks."
Diaz had also quickly modernized Mexico at great cost. He had followed the advice of his cientifico (scientist) advisers who believed the Indian and mestizos (who made up 90% of the population) were only good for manual labour and their belief in social Darwinism, and left this huge class of people uneducated. Believing the Hacienda (large estates) were more efficient than traditional methods, many Indians and campesinos (farmers) lost their farms and became virtual slaves on the large haciendas. Poverty increased and workers wages remained low . Most large companies were foreign owned,paid little or no taxes and paid low wages. Foreign companies exploited Mexico vast oil and mineral wealth that benefited only the Mexican wealthy elite. Decades of injustice only needed a spark to explode.
Francisco Madero, a reformer from a wealthy hacienda family ran against Porfirio Diaz and was thrown in jail after becoming too popular. Madero was unusual for his period. He didn't drink or smoke, was a vegetarian and practised a spiritual form of religion.

1911 - In protest against the possibility of war, a 24 hour general strike called for by the Italian Confederazione Generale del Lavoro takes place.

1915 - Remy de Gourmont (b. 1858), French Symbolist poet, novelist, journalist, art critic, anti-nationalist and anarchist, dies. [see: Apr. 4]

1923 - September Antifascist Uprising [Септемврийско антифашистко въстание]: Government troops are able to enter Ferdinand (Фердинанд), now Montana (Монтана), and after 2 days of sporadic fighting between retreating rebels and the army, the uprising is effectively over September 29th.

1923 - Mollie Steimer and Senya Fleshin, members of The Society to Aid Anarchist Prisoners in Russia, are officially deported, and placed aboard a ship bound for Germany. Their henious crime? Protesting the Bolsheviks' persecution of anarchists in Russia. [see: Jul. 9]

1930 - The Confederación General del Trabajo de la República Argentina (General Confederation of Labour of the Argentine Republic) is founded as the result of an initial agreement between the socialist Confederación Obrera Argentina and the revolutionary syndicalist Unión Sindical Argentina (USA), a continuation of the FORA del IX Congreso, to generate a united and plural union. Smaller communist and independent unions join up later. In 1935, conflicts between the two main socialist and revolutionary syndicalist sectors led to the CGT spliting in two: CGT-Independencia (socialists and communists) and CGT-Catamarca (revolutionary trade unionists).

1936 - Armand Guerra and his film crew set off for the front to begin recording what became the two-part lost film 'Estampas Guerreras' (1937).

1943 - Quattro Giornate di Napoli [Four Days of Naples]: The beginning of a popular uprising in the Italian city of Naples (Sept. 27-30) against the occupying forces in the city during WWII results in the Germans being driven out of the city by the people and the Italian Resistance before the arrival of the first Allied forces in Naples on October 1.
Large numbers of German troops capture about 8,000 Neapolitans, while 400-500 armed rioters begin armed attacks against them. The Germans begin evacuation operations, spurred by news (later proved to be false) of an imminent Allied landing at Bagnoli. A group of 200 insurgents assault and capture a weapons depot in Castel Sant'Elmo during the evening. Insurgents also attack and plunder the weapons stores in the barracks at Via Foria and Via San Giovanni a Carbonara.

[C] 1943 - Boško Buha (Бошко Буха; b. 1926), young Serbian partisan, who was nicknamed the 'Partisan Artillery' for his prowess in blowing up German bunkers and became one of the great icons of WWII in Yugoslavia, is killed in a Chetnik ambush. Targeted by the Ustasha in Slavonia (Croatia), his family fled to Serbia where Buha attempted to join the Partisans. Rejected because he was only 15, he was eventually accepted into the 2nd Proletarian Brigade of Narodnooslobodilačka vojska (NOV; National Liberation Army), where he gained fame for his ability to find bunkers and destroy them with grenades. He died near the village of Jabukovo near Prijepolje when the truck he was travelling in was caught in a Chetnik ambushed. On December 20, 1952 he was named a national hero of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

1950 - President Truman ordered the U.S. Army to seize the country's railroads to prevent a General Strike. The railroads were held by the military for two years.

1954 - The communist witch hunts are brought to an end as U.S. Senate Committee censured Joe McCarthy.

1960 - The 'Resolution of the Fourth Conference of the Situationist International Concerning the Imprisonment of Alexander Trocchi' denounces the arrest and detention in the United States of the situationist and novelist Alexander Trocchi for alleged drug use and trafficking.

[A] 1960 - Sylvia Pankhurst (b. 1882), English suffragist, prominent left communist and anti-fascist, who was the leader of East London Federation, which sought to unite British labour and woman's suffrage movement, dies. [see: May 5]

1974 - Augustus Marcel Le Lann (b. 1904), Breton boilermaker, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Feb. 16]

1979 - Pascal Pia (born Pierre Durand; b. 1903), French writer, poet, journalist, illustrator, scholar and anarchist, dies. [see: Aug. 15]

1987 - Prisoners on HMP Peterhead's D-wing riot, taking a prison officer hostage. Most of the prisoners later gave themselves up but 5 men continued to resist until an SAS raid in the early hours of October 3.

1992 - Leon Patterson, a 31-year-old black male, is found dead in a Stockport police cell. He was naked and foaming at the mouth, his blood covering the walls and his skull fractured. In the 20 hours before his death he was seen by 2 police doctors, neither of whom prescribed any medication or treatment.

1993 - The inaugural 'Anarquisme: Exposició Internacional' (Anarchism: International Exhibition) is held in Barcelona (Ser. 27 - Oct. 10) at the iniative of the Fundación Anselmo Lorenzo (CNT); Ateneu enciclopèdic popular; Ateneu llibertari 'Poble Sec'; Fundació d’estudis llibertaris i anarcosindicalistes (CNT Catalunya); Centre international de recherches sur l’anarchisme (Marseille); Centre international de recherches sur l’anarchisme (Lausanne); Centro studi libertari 'Giuseppe Pinelli' (Milan); and Ajuntament de Barcelona.

1998 - Berlin Reclaim the Streets event: "Resistance has no vote! No cars. No cops."

2003 - Robin Goodenough, 26, is pulled over and wrongly arrested on suspicion of car theft by 3 cops in Oxford city centre. He stops breathing at the scene and is later pronounced dead in the city's John Radcliffe Hospital. Three police officers are later charged with his manslaughter but cleared of all charges.

2006 - Bradley Roland 'Brad' Will (b. 1970), US anarchist, documentary filmmaker and a journalist with Indymedia New York City, is shot and killed whilst filming during the teachers' strike in the Mexican city of Oaxaca. [see: Jun. 14]

2007 - Ilse Schwipper (Ilse Nikolaus; b. 1937), German anarcha-feminist, anti-fascist and anti-imperalist, who was a co-founder of Kommune 3 in Wolfsburg, dies. [see: Jun. 24]
1768 - Anne Pauline Léon (d. 1838), French militant feminist and revolutionary, who co-founded the Société des Républicaines Révolutionnaires (Society of Revolutionary Republican Women) with Claire Lacombe, born. The eldest of six children of an artisanal chocolate maker, she helped raise her siblings following the death of her father in 1784. It is claimed that she was radicalised after witnessing the execution of leaders of a bread riot and aged 21 she participated in the fall of the Bastille on July 14, 1789. Pauline Léon then became active in the popular societies of the day, incliding the club des Cordeliers and the Société fraternelle des patriotes de l'un et l'autre sexe (Fraternal Society of Patriots of both sexes).
On March 6, 1791, amid the French Revolution, she appeared at the head of a delegation of citizens before the Assemblée Législative, where she read a petition demanding the formation of a women's garde nationale, arguing that women must be allowed to bear arms not only to participate in the revolutionary struggle but also to protect themselves against assault as chaos continued to reign in Paris. In May 1793, she co-founded the Société des citoyennes républicaines révolutionnaires, a tool in the autonomous struggle of revolutionary women, later contributing to bringing them closer to the thinking of the Enragés. Later, at the age of 29, she married Théophile Leclerc, the leader of the Enragés. On March 17, 1794, they were arrested together under the orders of the Comité de sûreté générale as alleged members of the Exagérés, and held separately in the Luxembourg prison from April to August, 1794. She later became a school teacher and, in 1804, she petitioned for the release of her brother, imprisoned for the writing of pamphlets hostile to Bonaparte.
Pauline Léon died on October 5, 1838, aged 70.

1852 - probable date for the birth of Silvia Pisacane (d. 1888), Italian daughter of the famous revolutionary Carlo Pisacane, who was involved with the Matese anarchist insurrection in 1877. [see: Sep. 9]

1856 - Léon Prouvost (aka the 'Libertarian Philanthropist'; d. 1921), French individualist anarchist, anti-militarist and anti-clericalist, born. A propserous buisness man, he discovers libertarian ideas in 1904 and in 1906 became secretary of L'Emancipatrice, the local section of the Libre Pensée de Raphaël. He also edited and published the journals 'La Revue Sociale' and 'L'Idée Libre', and sponsored a mobile library. During and after WWI, he collaborated with Jules Vignes on the individualist 'La Feuille', on Émile Armand's 'Réveil de l'Esclave', with Pierre Chardon on 'La Mêlée' and with Pierre Chardon and Maurice Charron on 'La Plèbe'.
He was harrassed on several occasions for his anti-militarist propaganda and for inciting desertion or disobedience amongst soldiers - in 1915 he was sent to prison for a year. A member of the Comité de Défense des marins de la Mer Noire, Prouvost was raided on July 27, 1921, for his "communist and anti-militarist" beliefs. A few days later, he committed suicide by jumping into the well of his property, having bequeathed part of his fortune to André Lorulot.

[F] 1864 - The International Workingmen's Association is founded at a meeting held in Saint Martin's Hall, London. [expand]

1870 - Commune de Lyon: The same day as the AIT/IWA-planned protest in front to the Hôtel de Ville, chantiers nationaux (national projects) workers, engaged in building fortification works, also decide to demonstrate in the Place des Terreaux in protest against the decision by city council to reduce their daily wage by 50 centimes. The City Hall is occupied by protesters and from the balcony, Saignes reads a statement announcing the creation of a Fédération Révolutionnaire des Communes. The préfet Challemel-Lacour is taken prisoner. Cluseret, responsible for the call to arms for the Guardes Nationaux de la Croix-Rousse, asks them to go to the City Hall, but without their weapons. Later in the day, at the instigation of the mayor, troops and the National Guard from the bourgeois districts of the city intervene and the unarmed insurrectionists are forced to flee.
The popular uprising in Lyon has been suppressed. Michael Bakunin, freshly arrived on the September 15th, is now forced to flee in the face of an arrest warrant. [see: Sep. 4]

1883 - Failed attempt on the Kaiser's life by August Reinsdorf, Franz Reinhold Rupsch and Emil Kuchler at the unveiling ceremony of the Niederwald Monument to the glory of the German armies in Rüdesheim am Rhein [expand]

1893 - Emma Goldman goes on trial in NY City. Found guilty of incitement to riot, she is sent back to the Tombs (Manhattan's city prison) until October 18, when she is sentenced to a year in Blackwell's Island Penitentiary.

1898 - André Gaudérique Jean Respaut (d. 1973), French author, Résistance activist, anarchist, survivor of Buchenwald, born. Mobilised in 1918 following the death 2 of his elder brothers and the fleeing of a third to Spain to avoid conscription, he joined up, despite his anarchist principles, to avoid problems for his mother with the authorities. Following the was, he worked in various jobs including as a gardener, cafe manager and gym teacher. He also helped found the Narbonne anarchist group in 1920 and cooperated with the CNT in south Catalonia. Between 1924-25 he was a member of the Fédération Révolutionnaire du Languedoc, founded in Béziers on October 19, 1924 and worked on the trilingual journal 'La Revue Internationale Anarchiste'. In 1934, he moved to Paris to study philosophy at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes Sociales with Félicien Challaye, an anti-colonialist and pacifist for who he held a lifelong admiration. During the Spanish civil war, in which his brother Fortuné fought as a volunteer, he was an organiser in the Solidarité Internationale Antifasciste (SIA), helping secure the passage of many trucks of arms and supplies for the benefit of the CNT. After the war, he returned to Narbonne with his Spanish partner, Teri Sisquella, who was ordered interned in the Argelès camp by the ssub-prefect of Narbonne.
During the German occupation, he came into contact with the Combat movement and joined the Résistance, first distributing leaflets and from late 1942 as an intelligence officer. Meanwhile, with anarchist militants from Ales, Perpignan and the Spanish CNT, he participated in crossing into Spain. On October 18, 1943, he was arrested by the Gestapo. Knowing of his imminent arrest he had prepared an escape plan, but he abandoned this fearing that the Germans did arrest his aged mother. Extensively interrogated and tortured, André Respaut did not speak, and was later transferred to the camp at Compiegne, where on December 12, 1943, he was deported in sealed wagons to Buchenwald concentration camp. Due to its physical fitness, courage and generosity, he survived the horrors of the camp and managed to save several fellow deportees from certain death. After the camp was liberated April 11, 1945 by U.S. troops, André Respaut was repatriated to France at the end of the month.
Back in Narbonne, he helped found the Fédération Nationale des Déportés Internés Résistants (FNDIR), an association of former prisoners and deportees, and was its regional president for several years. He also helped reform the Narbonne anarchist group, as part of the Fédération anarchiste (FA), and the local section of the CNTF, contributed to the Franco-Spanish magazine 'Universo' and Louis Louvet's 'Défense de l'Homme', and was a member of the Narbonne Fédération Communiste Libertaire (FCL) group. He was also author of 'Buchenwald Terre Maudite' (Buchenwald Cursed Earth; 1946) and 'Sociologie Fédéraliste Libertaire' (1961).

1905 - The Junta Organizadora del Partido Liberal Mexicano is formed in St. Louis, Mo. with Ricardo Flores Magón as chairman; Juan Sarabia, vice president; Antonio I. Villarreal, Secretary; Enrique Flores Magón, treasurer; plus Librado Rivera, Manuel Sarbia, and Rosalío Bustamante.

1917 - 166 prominent IWW members, including union head Big Bill Haywood, are indicted by a Chicago grand jury after an investigation of papers seized from a nationwide raid of IWW offices on September 5, 1917. The indictment named every member of the union executive board, the officers of every individual union, editors of every IWW publication, and the union's most popular lecturers. They were charged with conspiracy to sabotage the war effort, seize control of industry, overthrow the U.S. government, hinder registration of the draft and the violation of postal laws (this charge was later thrown out). Their cases were assigned to Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis. Some 47 of the indicted men could not be found; a few others had charges dismissed against them. Ultimately, Landis presided over a trial against 113 defendants, the largest federal criminal trial to that point.

1921 - Leopold Hermann Oskar Panizza (b. 1853), German anarchist, psychiatrist, avant-garde author, playwright, novelist, poet, essayist, publisher and literary journal editor, dies. [see: Nov. 12]

[B] 1923 - Naphtali 'Tuli' Kupferberg (d. 2010), American counter-culture poet, author, cartoonist, pacifist anarchist, publisher and co-founder of the band The Fugs, born.

1928 - The discovery of penicillin.

1931 - Industrial Unrest in Second Republic: In Seville one person is killed during clashes between members of the Sindicato Único and the communists.

1932 - Víctor Lidio Jara Martínez (d. 1973), Chilean teacher, theatre director, poet, singer-songwriter, political activist and member of the Communist Party of Chile, born. Víctor Jara was one of the most popular figures of the Nueva Canción Chilena (New Chilean Song) movement under the Allende government, he was arrested the day after the Chilean coup of 11 September 1973. Tortured by his captors (with the bones in both his hands broken; it was said that his assailants offered him a guitar to play), he was shot dead with 44 machine-gun bullets and his body was dumped in beside the road in a shanty town in Santiago.

1934 - Piero Ciampi (d. 1980) Italian anarchist singer-songwriter and poet, born.

1938 - Rosario Ferré (Rosario Ferré Ramírez de Arellano), Puerto Rican radical novelist, poet, short story writer, essayist and literary critic, born. Issues of class and gender are a common thread in her writing.

1938 - Oster Conspiracy: As the anti-Nazi and anti-war sentiment among individual officers in the German army hardened, a hardcore group of ranking officers came together determined to depose Hitler, many of the generals who also feared for Germany's future given Hitler's plans for conquering Europe, favoured arresting and imprisonming him instead. Amongst the former, a plan was organised and developed by Lieutenant Colonel Hans Oster, Chief of Staff of the Abwer, the counterintelligence section of the military High Command, to assassinate Hitler if Germany went to war with Czechoslovakia over the Sudetenland. By September 15, an assault squad were wating and ready in a series of safe houses around Berlin maintained by the Abwehr. Throughout Berlin and the surrounding suburbs military officers, police officials, and civilians, all members of the conspiracy to overthrow the Nazi regime, waited tensely for the word to begin. Then the unthinkable happened. British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain decided to confer with Hitler personally and arrange a deal. By on September 28 (the date of the final meeting), a deal had been brokered and Hitler renounced his plans to destroy Czechoslovakia. In return, France and Britain allowed him to occupy the Sudetenland with German troops. The threat of war was averted. So, too, was the threat to Hitler's life that had been mounted by the coup's assault squad hidden in buildings all around the Chancellory. The assault squad was dispersed and their weapons returned to the Abwehr warehouse.

[BB] 1942 - Pierre Clémenti (d. 1999), French actor, director and libertarian, born. He played Catherine Deneuve's gangster lover in Luis Buñuel's 'Belle de Jour' (1967) and the Devil in his 'La Voie Lactée' (The Milky Way; 1969), as well as appearing in Luchino Visconti's 'The Leopard' (1962), Pier Paolo Pasolini's 'Pigsty' (1969), Liliana Cavani's reworking of 'Antigone', 'The Cannibals' (1970) and Fred Haines' 'Steppenwolf' (1974).

1943 - Quattro Giornate di Napoli [Four Days of Naples]: The fighting increases after more Neapolitan citizens join the uprising. In the Materdei district, a German patrol, which had taken shelter in a civil building, is surrounded and kept under siege for hours, until the arrival of reinforcements. By the end, three Neapolitans had lost their lives in the battle. At Porta Capuana, a group of 40 men—armed with rifles and machine guns—set up some kind of roadblock, killing six enemy soldiers and capturing four, while other fighting breaks out in other parts at the Maschio Angioino, at Vasto and at Monteoliveto. The Germans launch other raids, this time in the Vomero, amassing numerous prisoners inside the Campo Sportivo del Littorio, prompting an assault on the sports field by a party led by Enzo Stimolo, and the freeing of the prisoners the following day.

1943 - Underground anti-Nazi activists begin systematic smuggling Jews out of Denmark to Sweden.

[E] 1945 - Shigenobu Fusako (重信 房子), Japanese founder and former leader of the now disbanded Maoist armed group Nihon Sekigun (日本赤軍) or Japanese Red Army, born.

1950 - John Thomas Sayles, American independent film director, screenwriter, actor and author, born. His film production company is called Anarchist's Convention Films after athe lead short story (about a group of aged anarchists come together, squabbling about past internal conflicts, uniting only when someone calls the police) in his collection 'The Anarchists Convention and Other Stories' (1979). His film 'Matewan', which he wrote and directed, as well as playing the part of Hardshell Preacher, is based upon the 1920 coal miners' strike (known as the Battle of Matewan) in 1920 in West Virginia.

[CC] 1955 - During a visit by Franco to Barcelona, Francisco Sabaté hails a cab and blithely drives around the Catalan capital firing anti-regime leaflets through the sun-roof from a mortar he had assembled from inside his suitcase on the back seat. He reassures a worried driver: "Don't worry, I work for the government and I am distributing informational materials." He leaves the cab driver with a generous tip.
"Pueblo antifascista: Son ya demasiados los años que soportas Franco y sus sicarios. No basta con hacer la crítica de este corrompido régimen de miseria y de terror. Las palabras son palabras. La acción es necesaria. Fuera la tiranía! Viva la unión del pueblo! Movimiento Libertario. Comité de Relaciones"

1966 - A Congreso de Unificación Sindical is held [Sep. 28 - Oct. 1, 1966] during which the Central de Trabajadores del Uruguay is dissolved and the Convención Nacional de Trabajadores (National Workers Convention) becomes the unifying federation of Uruguayan trade unions, with the adoption of the CNT's 'Declaración de Principios', the 'Programa de Soluciones a la Crisis', and the organisation's statutes.

1966 - André Breton (b. 1896), French writer, poet, Dadaist, founder of Surrealism, member of the PCF and later an anarchist, dies. [see: Feb. 19]

1968 - Edgard Leuenroth (b. 1881), Brazilian journalist, publisher, writer and anarchist, dies. [see: Oct. 31]

1970 - John Roderigo Dos Passos (b. 1896), US novelist and artist, dies. [see: Jan. 14]

[D] 1973 - A bomb devastates part of the Latin American section of the ITT building in New York City, in retaliation for ITT's involvement (along with CIA) in the bloody overthrow of Chile's President Allende one week ago.

1974 - A right-wing coup attempt organised by General António de Spinola and his supporters under the guise of a march of the "silent majority", in Lisbon for Sunday September 29, 1974, in opposition to "extremist totalitarianism" is defeated. First called by Spinola on September 10, the granting of permission for the march by the Civil Government in Lisbon led to an immediate backlash by the left, who demanded the march — suspected to be a cover for a coup attempt — be banned, and mobilised against it. The left called people into the streets; Radio Renascenca invited workers to picnics on the main roads. Barricades were set up including on the roads leading to Lisbon; SP and CP organisers and members joined the movement. Army units were mobilised, although those on the streets were not sure what they were doing. It turned out some right-wingers were being rounded up by units loyal to the MFA (Movimento das Forças Armadas). On the evening of September 27th, MFA leaders had met at the Cova da Moura military headquarters and made plans for the arrest of 78 prominent reactionaries. However, speaking on radio Major Sanches Osario, Spinola’s right-hand man, declared the demonstration was going ahead and demanded the barricades be taken down. All morning the crowds protesting against the march increased in size. Eventually, at 1pm Spinola read a communique calling the march off. Two hours later 40,000 workers demonstrated in a massive victory parade. The right in the army, and in the country as a whole, had been defeated... for the time being.
On September 30th Spinola, together with two Ministers and three members of the Council of State and the military Junta, resigned. Two hundred people involved in the plot were arrested. The MFA were now in control.
[ [NB: Yigael gets the date wrong!]]

1978 - Ivo Zini, young member of the Italian Commuist Party, is shot dead by Fascists in Rome.

1981 - Roberto Barreto Pedroso das Neves aka Ernst Izgur (b. 1907), Portuguese-born Brazilian writer, journalist, poet, historian, Freemason, Esperantist, graphologist, anarchist individualist, vegetarian and naturist, dies. [see: Sep. 7]

1985 - André Kertész (born Kertész Andor; b. 1894), Hungarian-born photographer and ground-breaking photojournalist, dies. [see: Jul. 2]

1985 - Günter Sare (b. 1949), German mechanic, anti-Fascist and an employee of a left-wing youth centre in Frankfurt-Bockenheim, is run over by a police water cannon at a anti-Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands (NPD) protest in the city.

[A] 1985 - During a raid on her house, police shoot Cherry Groce as she lays in her bed. An angry demonstration outside Brixton police station erupts into a riot.

1996 - The anarchist Reclaim the Future alliance throws its weight alongside sacked Liverpool dockers, their trade union and socialist supporters. A massive anniversary demo triggered a 24 hour strike by tugboat men.

2007 - Kassa Osebu, a 30-year-old Ethiopian, on remand and charged with murdering his wife who had been the subject of abuse by other prisoners, is found hanged in his locked cell. A jury in June 2012 returns an open verdict due to evidence that the bed sheet ligature was not consistent with the wounds to his neck. The coroner had wanted the jury to consider the possibility of murder or manslaughter in the case but the Prison Service managed to get a court decision preventing this, only allowing suicide, accidental death and open verdicts to be able to be returned.

2014 - Ferguson, Missouri: During the evening a large protest takes place and bottles and rocks are thrown at the cops, who call in backup from other police forces. Eight protesters are arrested on failure to disperse and resisting arrest charges.
[A] 1829 -The first appearance of the London Metropolitan Police is met by jeering and abuse.

1829 - Ezra Heywood (d. 1893), 19th century North American individualist anarchist, slavery abolitionist, free love advocate and feminist, born. [expand]

1843 - Rebecca Riots: The local Rhayader Rebeccaites launched another attack [see: Sep. 25] on the bridge tollgates in Cwmdeuddwr parish near Rhayader bridge. According to John Davies the attackers came at about 1 o'clock in the morning, sawing off the gateposts, smashing the gates, and throwing the shattered fragments into the river. He reports that they were armed and fired off two shots and that the attack was made "by (according to some persons) about 40 to 50 persons in female attire; others state the number at 100 or 150, but those who wish to make the number larger were I fear themselves of the party". He also reported that the attackers were said to be men of Cwmdeuddwr and Llanwrthwl with most of the tenants Mr Evans of the Neuadd involved. Many in Rhayader claimed to know the identity of "Rebecca" but were not revealing anything.

1879 - Alexandre Marius Jacob (d. 1954), French anarchist illegalist burglar who was the inspiration for Maurice Leblanc's fictional gentleman thief and detective Arsène Lupin, born. [expand]

1883 - English language publication of anarchist Johann Most's song 'The Hymn of the Proletariat'.

1892 - Aurelio Fernández Sánchez aka 'El Jerez', 'El Cojo', 'Charles Abella', 'Colas', 'Marini', 'González', etc. (d. 1974), Spanish militant anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, member of Los Solidarios, born. [expand]

1898 - Berthe Faber-Guillot (Berthe Suzanne Fabert; d. 1983), French concierge and anarchist activist in Paris, Lyon, Brussels and Barcelona with her partners, Severin Férandel, Francisco Ascaso and Eugène Guillot, born. With her companion the anarchist Séveran Ferandel, she ran the Librarie Sociale Internationale radical bookstore in Basses-Alpes, France. She later had a long-term relationship with Francisco Ascaso, living with him when he went into exile in France and Belgium, moving to Spain after the proclamation of the Republic in April 1931. There she took part in the social struggle, enduring period of Ascaso's imprisonment and exile. After Ascaso's death on July 20, 1936, during the assault on the Atarazanas barracks in Barcelona, she remained living in city through out the Revolution, eventually forming a relationship with the French conscientious objector Eugène Guillot, then in exile under the name Jacques Sallès. In early 1939, she left Spain with her companion during the Retirada. Back in Paris, she fell foul of the police during a raid on the headquarters of the Solidarité Internationale Antifasciste and had to go into hiding. After the war, she and Guillot became members of the radical group Amis de Sebastien Faure.

1902 - Émile Zola (b. 1840), French writer, experimental novelist and author of 'Germinal', dies. [see: Apr. 2]

1905 - Heinz Siegfried Heydrich (d. 1944), German SS Obersturmführer in WWII and younger brother of SS General Reinhard Heydrich, who turned from being a fervent admirer of Hitler into an anti-Nazi who secretly helped numerous Jews escape occupied Europe, born. A journalist and publisher of the soldiers' newspaper, 'Die Panzerfaust', his views on Hitler and Nazism changed following his brother's assassination in June 1942 when he was given a large packet containing Reinhard’s personal papers and files, which had been released from his strongbox at Gestapo Headquarters. These included detailed plans about the 'Final Solution', in which Reinhard had been heavily involved. Horrified, he burnt most of the papers in disgust but soon came to realise that he was in a truly unique position; as brother of a prominent SS general and editor of a party newspaper, he could help potential victims of the 'Final Solution' escape from Germany. Using his paper's commercial printing-press, he printed fake travel-documents, which he signed and stamped and gave to Jewish families so that they could escape from occupied Europe to countries of safety. Heinz continued this work in secret for two years until an unfortunate event, the launching of an investigation into activities at the SS’s newspaper offices. Fearing discovery and that his family would suffer in the inevitable retaliation, he committed suicide, shooting himself in the head. Sadly, the investigation was only to find out why there was such a shortage of paper at the offices. Had he survived the war, he would certainly have been acquitted at the Nuremberg trials.

[F] 1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike: The beginning of the trial of Joseph Ettor, Arturo Giovannitti, and Joseph Caruso were held as "accessories before the fact" and charged with inciting and procuring the commission of the crime in pursuit of an unlawful conspiracy with murderer or murderers unknown, they were held as “accessories before the fact.”
"Joseph Caruso is held in the Lawrence jail as a principal in the murder of Anna Lopizzo [sic] who was killed during a clash between strikers and policemen. The state's claim, so far as it is known, is that Caruso aided Scuito who, it is alleged, did the actual shooting. ... The prisoners, who are charged with being accessories to the murder, were not present when Anna Lopizzo was shot. The commonwealth contended at their arraignment before Police Magistrate Mahoney, in Lawrence, February 9, that the defendants had spread ‘a propaganda of violence’. It was this propaganda, said the district attorney, which inspired the person actually guilty of the murder to fire at the police. According to the state's witnesses the shot missed its mark and killed the woman..." [James Heaton - 'Legal Aftermath of Lawrence Strike','The Survey', July 6, 1912]
A one-day strike is held in Lawrence with 15,000 to 20,000 textile workers demanding that Caruso, Ettor, and Giovannitti be released. The city's Woolen Trust and other big mills are closed down, and more than 20,000 demonstrators gathered at the city's rail station for a march to the graves of Anna LoPizzo and John Ramay. Clashes between protesters and police ensued as the latter tried to prevent the 'illegal' march. Carlo Tresca was arrested by de-arrested shortly afterwards through the action of the crowd. Protests also took place in other large cities, especially in Massachusetts.

[D] 1913 - Revolución Méxicana: Pancho Villa captures Torreon, all federal officers are executed - the shooting of prisoners is routine on all sides.

1917 - Huelga General Revolucionaria [Revolutionary General Strike] / Vaga General Espanyola [Spanish General Strike]: Facing a court-martial charged with the crime of sedition, the members of the Strike Committee of Francisco Largo Caballero, Julián Besteiro, Daniel Anguiano and Andrés Saborit are found guilty and sentenced to life imprisonment, ending up in Cartagena prison. [see: Aug. 15]

1918 - Ervin Szabó (Ármin Sámuel Schlesinger; b. 1877), Hungarian social scientist, librarian and Marxist anarcho-syndicalist revolutionary, dies. [see: Aug. 23]

1920 - José Domingo Gómez Rojas (b. 1896), Chilean poet and anarchist, dies in a lunatic asylum aged just 24, following an undiagnosed bout of meningitis. [see: Aug. 4]

1921 - The Cheka execute Fanya Baron and nine other anarchist prisoners. (Fanya's execution was on the personal order of Lenin.) These executions follow that of the anarchist and poet Lev Chernyi on the 21st. Leon Trotsky remarks at the time: "We do not imprison the real anarchists, but criminals and bandits who cover themselves by claiming to be anarchists".

[E] 1921 - Fanya Anisimovna Baron (Фа́ня Ани́симовна Ба́рон) aka Fanny Grefenson (Freida Nisanovna Greck; b. 1887*), Lithuanian-Russian anarchist revolutionary, is executed by the Cheka. Active in the Lithuanian anarchist movement, she went into exile in order to escape arrest for her activities. Initailly living in Paris, she later moved to the US, where she was active in the Industrial Workers of the World (1912-17). In Chicago she met a fellow exile, the Ukrainian anarchist and baker Aron Davidovich Baron (Аро́н Дави́дович Ба́рон), the brother of her sister Sarah's husband Nahum. Alongside Lucy Parsons and Aron, she was involved in the hunger demonstrations of 1915 in the city (Aron and Parsons worked as co-editors of the Chicago anarchist paper 'Alarm' during this period). During one of the demonstrations, at which she and Aron were at the forefront, they were attacked by the police and Fanya was knocked unconscious by the cops, and ended up amongst those arrested.
In 1917, she, Aron and Boris Yelensky, returned to her homeland to help build a post-revolutionary society, where she was active as a propagandist in Kiev in 1917 and was from late 1918 she wasa participant of the creation of the Confederation of Anarchists of Ukraine (Конфедерации анархистов Украины), also known as the Nabat Anarchist Confederation after its newspaper 'Nabat' (Набат / Alarm), which was closely allied to the Makhnovtchina.
She was arrested with many other anarchists by the Cheka at a conference held in Kharkhov on the November 25, 1920. On February 13, after Peter Kropotkin's death, seven anarchists, including Baron and his wife, were released from the notorious Butyrka prison for the day of the funeral. This event was to become the last public demonstration by anarchists in Russia until 1988. On July 10, 1921, Fanya escaped from Ryazan prison, along with 9 other anarchists, with the help of the clandestine Underground Anarchists network. Planning to help Aron escape from prison in Moscow, she sought refuge with Aron's brother Semion, a member of the Bolshevik Party but was arrested by the Cheka on August 17 at his home. It is unclear who betrayed her (the Cheka had agents planted among the Underground Anarchists, and had regularly arranged acts of provocation in order to expose anarchists to arrest and execution), but Semion was executed on the spot.
Held along side twelve other anarchist without charges at Taganka prison, they went on hunger strike that same month, attracting the attention of visiting French, Spanish and Russian syndicalists who argued for their release. Leon Trotsky remarked at the time "We do not imprison the real anarchists, but criminals and bandits who cover themselves by claiming to be anarchists". Ten of the 13 anarchists were released and deported on September 17, 1921: Voline, Vorobiov, Mratchny, Michailov, Maximoff, Ioudine, Iartchouk, Gorelik, Feldman and Fedorov. Fanya Baron and the poet Lev Chernyi were detained, to be executed later that month. Her execution was personally ordered by Lenin himself.
Fanya was shot by the Cheka on September 29, 1921 after having been found guilty of being an "accomplice of anti-Soviet criminal acts". She refused to go to her death meekly, fighting her executioners all the way. Aron remined alive in the gulag system and exile until his execution on August 12, 1937. [*NB: Some sources give the year as 1888.]

1926 - Belgium-born Russian militant anarcho-syndicalist Nicolas Lazarevitch is expelled from Russia after being held in prison for 2 years without trial (he refused to recognise the court after being arrested by the GPU in 1924. His release and expulsion followed an international campaign mounted by anarcho-syndicalists and the French newspaper 'La Revolution Proletarienne'.

1931 - Estevan or Black Tuesday Riot: On strike since September 7, 1931, over union recognition, hours of work, wages, and working and living conditions, 400 coal miners from nearby Bienfait, Saskatchewan march through the streets of Estevan with their wives and children in an attempt to draw attention to their strike. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police confronted them and attempted to block and break up the procession. When they refused to disperse, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police opened fire on the strikers, killing one of the workers. In the ensuing battle, three men were left dead and a number of others seriously injured. Many others were arrested. The three striking miners who were killed have the inscription "murdered by RCMP" on their headstone, and locals have alternately erased and restored these words up to the present day.
The miners, who had been organised by the Workers Unity League, the Communist Party of Canada's trade union umbrella, had been on strike since September 7, 1931. [expand]

1931 - RCMP murder three workers, firing into a coal miners' parade in Biendfait, Saskatchewan; 400 miners and their families clash with police during strike, Estevan, Saskatchewan.

1934 - Following the October 16, 1933, BUF meeting in King's Hall, Belle Vue, Manchester, Mosley had decide on a return. However, an anti-fascist co-ordinating committee was quickly and a dynamic campaign of leafleting, fly-posting and public meetings were organised to mobilise the opposition. Attempts to get the meeting banned failed but Manchester's Chief Constable did band all marches. However, that failed to prevent the anti-fascists from holding 3 large marches from Openshaw, Miles Platting, and Cheetham to meet the hundreds already waiting to meet them at Ardwick Green to form a united demonstration of over 3,000 who would march along Hyde Road to join the protest meeting outside Belle Vue Park. Most then paid the small entrance fee to get into Belle Vue and went in search of the fascists. However, they were hiding in a hall under The Gallery from which Mosley was due to speak to his supporters assemble an open air dance floor protected from the rest of the park by a lake and, in addition to the usual gang of Blackshirt thugs, there were wooden barriers and the police. In case this was not enough searchlights were available to be directed against the anti-fascists and fire engines with water cannon at the ready. The scene was set. 500 blackshirts marched from a hall under The Gallery and formed up military style. Mosley, aping Mussolini stepped forward to the microphone to speak. He was greeted by a wall of sound that completely drowned his speech. "Down with fascism", "Down with the blackshirt thugs!", "The rats the rats clear out the rats!", "One two three four five we want Mosley, dead or alive!". Anti-fascist songs, the 'Red Flag', and the 'Internationale' were also sung. The sound never stopped for over an hour. In spite of the powerful amplifiers turned up to maximum Mosley's rantings about "the sweepings of the continental ghetto financed by Jewish financiers... an alien gang brought from the ghettos to Britain by Jewish money", marking the beginning of a sea-change in his rhetoric to a more openly anti-Semitic one, could not be heard. To quote 'The Manchester Guardian': "Sitting in the midst of Sir Oswald’s personal bodyguard within three yards of where he was speaking one barely able to catch two consecutive sentences." The fascists slunk off to the waves of the crowd singing 'Bye Bye Blackshirt' (to the tune of 'Bye Bye Blackbird'). [PR]

1939 - Louis Lecoin is arrested for his part in the distribution on September 12 of 100,000 copies of the anti-war leaflet 'Paix Immédiate' (Immediate Peace) which he authored. In the days that follow, a number of signatories on the tract repudiate it leaving him disillusioned.

1941 - Babi Yar Massacre: The beginning of 2 days of mass killings when SS Einsatzgruppen troops and Ukraine police murdered 33,771 Jews in a ravine 2 miles north-west of Kiev city centre.

1943 - Quattro Giornate di Napoli [Four Days of Naples]: The streets of Naples witness fierce clashes. As no connection can be established with national anti-fascist organisations, the insurrection is still uncoordinated and is in the hands of local leaders. In Giuseppe Mazzini Square, a substantial German party reinforced by tanks attacks 50 rebels, killing 12 and injuring more than 15 of them. The workers' quarter of Ponticelli suffers a heavy artillery bombardment, after which German units commit several indiscriminate massacres among the population. Other fighting takes place near the Capodichino Airport and Piazza Ottocalli, in which three Italian airmen lose their lives.
At the same time, in the German headquarters at Corso Vittorio Emanuele (which has been repeatedly attacked by insurgents), negotiations are started between Schöll and Stimolo for the return of the Campo Sportivo prisoners in exchange for the unhindered retreat of the Germans from Naples.

[B] 1951 - Etta Federn (Marietta Federn; b. 1883), Austrian writer (essays, biographies, novels, poems, etc.), translator, journalist, educator, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and member of Mujeres Libres, dies. She also published under her married names Etta Federn-Kohlhaas and Etta Kirmsse, and the pseudonym Esperanza. [see: Apr. 28]

1959 - Nadia Desdemona Lioce, Italian leading member of the Nuove Brigate Rosse - Nuclei Comunisti Combattenti, she took part in the killing of Massimo D'Antona in 1999 and Marco Biagi in 2002, and is currently serving a life sentence of under articolo 41-bis (hard labour), born.

1962 - Mosley holds a meeting in Manchester, protected by 250 police following a call out by the Northern Council Against Fascism to oppose him. It also marks the begin of a phase where he would no longer hold large outdoor meetings and his events would no longer have advanced publicity to try and prevent any anti-fascists opposition. [PR]

1962 - Kidnap of Spanish Vice-Consul Isu Elias: A group of four anarchists – Amedeo Bertolo, Luigi Gerli, Gianfranco Pedron and Aimone Fornaciari – mostly members of Bandiera Nera/Croce Nera Anarchica, together with four extra-parliamentary left socialist revolutionaries – Alberto Tomiolo, Vittorio De Tassis, Giorgio Bertani and Giambattista Novello-Paglianti – kidnap the Spanish vice-consul Isu Elias in Milan. The action is taken to try and save the life of Jorge Conill Valls, a Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias member and chemistry student facing death in Franco's Spain, having been found guilty of planting three bombs during the night of June 29-30, 1962. The bombs had caused no casualties and no significant material damage.
The kidnapping dominated the front pages of the international press for days and triggered a campaign of anti-Francoist solidarity that brought considerable pressure to bear on the Franco regime at several levels – from street demonstrations to the 'humanitarian' intervention by Cardinal Giovanni Battista Montini, the future Pope Paul VI (1963-78). Conill’s death sentence was commuted after three days to one of thirty years imprisonment and Isu Elias was immediately released on October 2nd. The following day kidnappers Gianfranco Pedron, Alberto Tomiolo, Luigi Gerli and Vittorio De Tassis, along with three journalists, were arrested after a tip-off from a Communist journalist. Amedeo Bertolo escapes and took refuge in Paris. On November 13, the first day of the trial of the Elias kidnappers, Bertolo managed to get right inside the courtroom in Varese, despite the massive presence of Carabinieri. There he surrendered to the judges. On November 21 the jury delivered their verdicts after just two hours and sentences of between five and eight months were handed down, which were then suspended, as the accused had "acted for reasons of particular moral and social value".
Conill Valls himself ended up becoming a communist whilst in prison and, when he was released, he was appointed political secretary of the Partit Socialista Unificat of Catalonia (PSUC).

1991 - Maurice Laisant (b. 1909), French author, anarchist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Mar. 11]

1995 - Liverpool Dockers' Strike: On September 25, 1995, 328 men who worked at the Torside gate of the docks formed a picket line after five men were sacked following an overtime dispute. Next day, all the remaining dockers are sacked for protesting the dismissal of their five colleagues. On September 28, the 80 sacked Torside dockers mount a picket line at the port and Liverpool dockers coming in to work, some of them the fathers of the Torside workers, refused to cross it. There was no strike ballot - they simply turned around and went home. Without a ballot, the strike would be declared unofficial by the Transport and General Workers Union.
Seizing their opportunity to casualise the docks workforce, Mersey Docks and Harbour Company sacked all 329 dockers in their employ. When the Liverpool dockers tried to return to work a week later on October 9, they were locked out by MDHC. The dispute would last for 28 months (the vote to end the dispute took place on Jan. 29, 1998) but would produce a worldwide solidarity campaign.

1995 - Madalyn Murray O'Hair (Madalyn Mays; b. 1919), US psychiatric social worker, anarchist, feminist and atheist activist, who was founder of American Atheists and a woman of many pseudonyms, her favourite being M. Bible, who 'Life' magazine in 1964 called "the most hated woman in America", is murdered and dismembered along with her two children, her son Jon and daughter Robin. The three had been kidnapped by David Ronald Waters, an ex-employee of American Atheists, and two accomplices named Danny Fry and Gary Karr, and Jon forced to liquidate AA monies to buy $600,000 worth of gold coins. Waters had then went to the press claining that O'Hair and her children had fled the country with millions of Atheist dollars. It was not until 2001 that Waters was finally convicted for the murders and he revealed where the O'Hairs were buried. [see: Apr. 13]

2000 - HMP Maze closes.

2008 - Hayden Carruth (b. 1921), American poet, literary critic, "old-line anarchist" and "rural communist with a small c", dies. [see: Aug. 3]

[C] 2009 - Dave Hann (b. 1961), English socialist, anti-fascist activist member of the 'Squads' and Anti-Facist Action's Stewards Group, both defenders of the 'No Platform for Fascists' position, and co-author of 'No Retreat: The Secret War Between Britain's Anti-Fascists and the Far Right' (2003; with Steve Tilzey), dies. He left behind an unfinished manuscript, a study of 100 years of anti-fascism, which his partner Louise Purbrick edited and published as 'Physical Resistance: A Hundred Years of Anti-Fascism' (2012).

29 2014 - Ferguson, Missouri: Protesters gather in front of the police building, including a dozen clergy who prayed in the car park. They are told that they would be arrested if they did not clear the street and one clergyman is arrested. Protesters are also told that they would be arrested if the chants went on after 11:00 p.m. About that time, police moved slowly forward, but protesters refused to move backwards. As they were almost in contact, gunshots were heard, and both sides backed up. Later, Capt. Ron Johnson of the Missouri Highway Patrol told the crowd that the "five-second rule" would not be implemented and there would be no arrest as long as the protest remained peaceful.
[A/D] 1793 - The Bristol Bridge Riot surrounded protests over the tolls levied on the bridge. The toll gates were burnt on a number of occasions and a series of riots eventually ended with 11 people dead and 45 injured.

1857 - [O.S. Sep. 18] Ludmila Volkenshtein [Людмила Волкенштейн](Ludmila Alexandrovna Alexandrova [Людмила Александровна Алекса́ндрова]; d. 1906), Russian revolutionary, member of Narodnaya Volya (People's Will) / Radicalised in the summer of 1877 following the arrest and trial of her husband Alexander Alexandrovich Volkenshtein (Александра Александровича Волкенштейна) during the Process of 193. She refused a quiet family life and, in 1878, separated from her husband and once got involved in revolutionary activities. She took part in plotting the assassination of the governor of Kharkov, Prince Dmitri Kropotkin (Дмитрий Кропоткин)
involved in the famous 'Trial of the 14'. [expand]
On February 8, 1938, she was arrested on charges of belonging to a S-R terrorist organisation and on June 16 1938 sentenced to death by the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR. She was shot at the NKVD's Kommunarka (Коммунарке) execution grounds.
On September 28 1884, she was sentenced to death by hanging.

1869 - Henrik Ibsen's anarchist-influenced play 'De Unges Forbund' (The League of Youth) is published in Copenhagen.

[EE] 1875 - Olivia Rossetti Agresti (d. 1960), British author, editor and interpreter, born. Daughter of William Michael Rossetti, one of the founding members of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood and granddaughter of Gabriele Rossetti and Ford Madox Brown.
In June 1891, Olive (16 years old), her brother Arthur (14) and sister, the future Helen Rossetti Angeli (1879-1969), began publishing an anarchist journal, 'The Torch: A Journal of International Socialism', in the basement of their family home. Handmade, they acquired a printing press the following year and the subtitle of the paper was changed to "A Journal of Anarchist-Communism" in June 1893. Later name changes included to "A Revolutionary Journal of Anarchist-Communism" and finally to 'The Torch of Anarchy: A Monthly Revolutionary Journal'. All told, the paper was in circulation for 5 years and gather a circle of prominent anarchist around it, including Peter Kropotkin and Sergei Kravchinski, and contributors included Louise Michel and Errico Malatesta, with picture supplements from Lucien Pissaro. Their publishing coups included the pamphlet 'Why I Am an Anarchist' by George Bernard Shaw and their circle is believed to have inspired Joseph Conrad's stories 'The Informer' and 'An Anarchist' (1906), as well as parts of 'The Secret Agent'. Olivia and Helen would later publish, using the pseudonym "Isabel Meredith", 'A Girl Among the Anarchists' (1903), a somewhat fictionalised memoir of their days as precocious child revolutionaries.
Olivia would later move to Italy and become an enthusiastic supporter of corporatism, as well as Mussolini's corporatist reorganisation of the Italian economy. She was also associated with the Associazione fra le Società per Azioni, a group then closely allied with the Fascists, and in 1938 co-authored the theoretical work 'The Organisation of the Arts and Professions in the Fascist Guild State' with the Fascist journalist Mario Missiroli. She also developed a close friendship with fascist fellow-traveller Ezra Pound.

1880 - Bianca Sbriccoli Pichioni aka 'Rosa Salvadè', also known as Bianca Fabbri & Bianca Fabbri-Sbriccoli (d. 1972), Italian anarchist, who married her cousin, the prominent anarchist intellectual Luigi Fabbri, born.

[E] 1885 - [O.S. Sep. 18] Natalia Sergeyevna Klimova (Наталья Сергеевна Климова; d. 1918), Russian teacher, writer and revolutionist, born. In May 1906 she joined the Union of Revolutionary-Socialists-Maximalists (Союз социалистов-революционеров-максималистов) and its combat organisation (Боевая организация)), and on August 18 [5], 1906, took part in the assassination of Pyotr Stolypin (Пётр Столыпин) on Apothecary Island (Аптекарском острове).

1888 - Louis Lecoin (d. 1971), French militant anarcho-pacifist, born. [expand]

1892 - The chief justice of the Pennsylvania Supreme Court swears out a warrant for the arrest of the entire advisory board of the striking steel union at the Carnegie plant in Homestead for treason against the state. The 29 strike leaders are charged with plotting "to incite insurrection, rebellion and war against the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania".

[B] 1896 - Panagiotis Panas (Παναγιώτης Πανάς; b. 1832), Greek anarchist revolutionary, writer, journalist, poet, theorist and anarchist, dies.

1898 - Nikolaus Groß (d. 1945), German Christian trade unionists, leaders in the Katholischen Arbeiterbewegung (KAB; Catholic Worker Movement), resistance fighter against the Nazis and Nazi victims, who was later beatified by Pope John Paul II in 2001, born. Editor at the 'Westdeutsche Arbeiterzeitung' (West German Workers' Newspaper), later renamed the 'Kettelerwacht', he was a member of the Kölner Kreis (Cologne Circle) and was arrested on August 12, 1944, in connection with the failed July 20 Plot to assassinate Hitler. On January 15, 1945, he was sentenced to death at the Volksgerichtshof and on January 23, 1945, was hanged at Plötzensee Prison in Berlin.

[F] 1899 - Arnot Coal Miners' Strike: Mother Jones organises the wives of striking miners in Arnot, Pennsylvania, to descend on the mine with brooms and mops and clanging pots and pans. "I told the men to stay home with the children for a change and let the women attend to the scabs." The women frightened away the mules and their scab drivers and returned daily to keep watch. The miners eventually won their strike.

1904 - [O.S. Sep. 17] Liberal and revolutionary groups (including the Union of Liberation, the SR, Polish and Finnish nationalists - but not the RSDRP) secretly meet in Paris (Sep. 30-Oct. 9) to form a united front, encouraged by Japanese intelligence officer Motojirō Akashi (明石 元二郎).

1906 - Rebelión de Acayucan: Considered a precursor to the Mexican Revolution of 1910. Uprisings break out in Acayucan, Minatitlán and Puerto México led by Hilario C. Salas and Cándido Donato Padu, PLM delegates in Veracruz and Tabasco. Salas and 300 men attack Acayucan, Veracruz as part of an overall plan involving 1,000 Partido Liberal rebels to seize Veracruz as part of their plans to overthrow the dictatorship of Porfirio Diaz, as well as establishing other demands such as the eight-hour day, the prohibition of child labour, minimum wage, compensation for accidents at work, and compulsory free secular education. However, the plans are discovered and the forces attacking Minatitlan and Puerto México are ambushed and arrested by government troops. In Acayucan, the palacio municipal is seized but the rebels run out of ammunition after four days and, with many killed or wounded including Salas, are forced to retreat to the mountains of Soteapan, where they continued their guerrilla war until 1911. Others were arrested and taken to the political prison of San Juan de Ulua.

1909 - The 'Industrial Worker', newspaper Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), issues its first call for footloose hoboes and Wobblies to hop the freights for Missoula, to join in the free speech fight taking place there. From 1907-1917 the IWW carried out more than 30 Free Speech fights across the US, generally to demand the right to organise workers in public places and to agitate from street corners. As police arrested one Wobbly for public speaking, another would take his or her place, resulting in thousands of arrests, as well as mass beatings by vigilantes. However, their civil disobedience often succeeded in clogging the jails and court systems to the point that cities were forced to back down and allow public speaking and agitation.

1915 - Lidia Ezerskaya [Лидия Езерская] (Lidia Pavlovna Kazanovich [Лидия Павловна Казанович]; b. 1866), Russian dentist and Socialist-Revolutionary Party (Партия социалистов-революционеров) member, dies from bronchial asthma complicated by a severe form of tuberculosis. [see: Jun. 8]

1916 - Raids on the Australian IWW HQ are accompanied by the arrests of key members because of their opposition to the Great War. In December seven IWW members are sentenced to 15 years in prison for anti-war efforts. Others receive five and 10 years. In August 1917 IWW is made illegal and membership rolls made available to employers. Despite widespread repression, the IWW helps lead the General Strike of 1917.

1919 - Edward Wołonciej aka 'Czemier' (d. 1999), Polish solicitor, author, syndicalist and anti-fascist combatant, born. During WWII, he attended clandestine classes, fought as a syndicalist soldier and joined the Armia Krajowa (AK; Home Army) in 1941. Took part in Warsaw Uprising and between September 1-15, 1944, he was a member of the Gustaw-Harnas battalion. After the capitulation of Warsaw Old Town, he was the captain commanding the Syndicalist Brigade [formed under the under the Syndykalistycznym Porozumieniem Powstańczym (Syndicalist Uprising Agreement)] in Śródmieście. After the surrender of the Uprising, he was imprisoned in Pruszkow camp, from where he fled to Krakow. In 1947, he became a student in the law faculty in Jagiellonian University, becoming an Organizacja Młodzieży Towarzystwa Uniwersytetu Robotniczego (OM TUR; Youth Organisation of Workers University Association] and Polska Partia Socjalistyczna (PPS; Polish Socialist Party) activist. In 1950, he graduated from the diplomatic department of Academy of Political Science. Since 1953 he has been a solicitor. He also studied at the Ludwik Solski Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Teatralna (State Higher Theatre School) in the Director’s Faculty. He wrote diaries, stories and plays which he was unable to publish during the communist regime for their "incorrect content". He was victimized for taking part in the anti-communist struggle. Died February 3, 1999 in Warsaw.

1922 - Founding conference of the All-Japan General Federation of Labour Unions (Zenkoku Rôdô Kumiai Sôrengô) begins in Ôsaka. It is attended by 106 delegates, representing 59 organisations with a combined membership of over 27,000.

1941 - Babi Yar Massacre: The 33,771 Jews who had been forced to march from Kiev and its suburbs to the ravine at Babi Yar and then systematically murdered by machine-gun fire, this evening have sand bulldozed over their naked bodies and the sides of the ravine were dynamited to finish their burial.

1943 - Quattro Giornate di Napoli [Four Days of Naples]: The Germans continue their retreat, all the time shelling areas of the city such as around Port'Alba and Piazza Mazzini, setting fires and massacring civilians. Casualty numbers for the four days of the uprising vary: a number of authors claim 168 insurrectionists and 159 unarmed citizens were killed; according to the post-war Ministerial Commission for the recognition of partisan victims, casualties amounted to 155, while the registers of the Poggioreale cemetery listed 562 deaths.
At 09:30 on October 1, the first Allied tanks enter the city.

1944 - Jerzy Zbigniew Złotowski aka 'Poręba' (b. 1911), Polish architectural engineer, syndicalist and anti-Nazi fighter, is shot and killed in fighting during the Uprising. [see: May 27]

1950 - Mary Reynolds (Mary Louise Hubachekb; b. 1891), American Dadaist and Surrealist bookbinder and partner of Marcel Duchamp, dies. She remained in Paris when Duchamp left and the Nazis occupied the city, joining the Résistance but later had to flee France when she came under Gestapo surveillance.

1956 - Bataille d'Alger [Battle of Algiers]: The beginning of the campaign of urban guerrilla warfare carried out by the Jabhet Al-Taḥrīr Al-Waṭanī (جبهة التحرير الوطني) or‎ FLN (Front de Libération Nationale) in Algeria against the French Algerian authorities. That evening a trio of female FLN militants - Djamila Bouhired, Zohra Drif and Samia Lakhdari, who had been recruited by Yacef Saâdi aka 'Si Djaâfa' or 'Réda Lee', then head of the FLN in the Autonomous Zone of Algiers [Zone autonome d'Alger] and of the bombs network (réseau bombes) - carried out the first series of bomb attacks on three civilian targets in European Algiers. The bombs at the Milk Bar on Place Bugeaud and the Cafeteria on Rue Michelet killed 4 and injured 52, while the bomb at the Air France terminus failed to explode due to a faulty timer.

1970 - Inez Haynes Irwin aka Inez Haynes Gillmore (Inez Haynes; b. 1873), American feminist author (novels, short stories, chidrens books, etc.), journalist, member of the National Women's Party and the Heterodoxy Club, president of the Authors Guild, fiction editor for The Masses and a war correspondent during WWI, dies. [see: Mar. 2]

1977 - Walter Rossi (b. 1957), Italian militant communist activist with Lotta Continua, is murdered by fascists of the MSI. The political climate in Rome at the end of September 1977 was very tense, with frequent violent fascist actions against leftist militants of the left. On September 27, two students had been wounded by gunshots and on the evening of the 29th Elena Pacinelli, 19, was hit by three bullets on the streets of Hygeia, a meeting place for young people within the movement. On Friday 30th, the leafletting protest fliers in the neighborhood of Balduina had been arranged. In the Viale Medaglie d'Oro comrades of Elena, having been attacked with stones and bottles thrown from the nearby headquarters of the MSI, an armored police vehicle advanced slowly toward them, followed by a group of fascists using it as a shield. The fascists then started to shoot at the anti-fascists, one of these shots striking Walter in the neck. The police then charged at the anti-fascists, allegedly trying to help Walter who is found collapsed outside a nearby petrol station. Taken to hospital, he is dead on arrival.

[C] 1978 - Claudio Miccoli (b. 1958), twenty-year-old Neapolitan pacifist and militant environmentalist, who was a Regional Director of the WWF, is murdered by neo-fascists in Naples. Having witnessed a group of neo-fascists armed with sticks and knives attack a young communist militant in the Piazza Sannazaro in Naples, he appraoched the group to try and reason with them. One of the neo-fascists, Ernesto Nonno, immediately began to beat him about the head with a club, smashing his skull. He died in hospital after six days of agony, having first expressed a desire to donate his organs to others.

1986 - In Rome Mordechai Vanunu is kidnapped by Israeli secret police.

1989 - Virgil Thomson (b. 1896), American modernist composer and music critic, dies. He contributed music to Joris Ivens' pro-Republic propaganda film 'The Spanish Earth' (1937). [see: Nov. 25]
Daily pick: 2013 [A] 2014 [B] 2015 [C] 2016 [D] 2017 [E] 2018 [F]
Weekly highlight: 2013 [AA] 2014 [BB] 2015 [CC] 2016 [DD] 2017 [EE] 2018 [FF]
Monthly features: 2013 [AAA] 2014 [BBB] 2015 [CCC] 2016 [DDD] 2017 [EEE] 2018 [FFF]
PR: 'Physical Resistance. A Hundred Years of Anti-Fascism' - Dave Hann (2012)



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AfrikaansAlbanianArabicArmenianAzerbaijaniBasqueBelarusianBengaliBosnianBulgarianCatalanCebuanoChichewaChinese (Simplified)Chinese (Traditional)CroatianCzechDanishDutchEnglishEsperantoEstonianFilipinoFinnishFrenchGalicianGeorgianGermanGreekGujaratiHaitian CreoleHausaHebrewHindiHmongHungarianIcelandicIgboIndonesianIrishItalianJapaneseJavaneseKannadaKazakhKhmerKoreanLaoLatinLatvianLithuanianMacedonianMalagasyMalayMalayalamMalteseMaoriMarathiMongolianMyanmar (Burmese)NepaliNorwegianPersianPolishPortuguesePunjabiRomanianRussianSerbianSesothoSinhalaSlovakSlovenianSomaliSpanishSundaneseSwahiliSwedishTajikTamilTeluguThaiTurkishUkrainianUrduUzbekVietnameseWelshYiddishYorubaZulu

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